Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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31643 Publications
Maximizing magnetic field generation in high power laser–solid interactions
Huang, L. G.; Takabe, H.; Cowan, T. E.;
In order to understand the transport of fast electrons within solid density targets driven by an optical high power laser, wehave numerically investigated the dynamics and structure of strong self-generated magnetic fields in such experiments.Here we present a systematic study of the bulk magnetic field generation due to the ponderomotive current, Weibel-likeinstability and resistivity gradient between two solid layers. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we observe the effect ofvarying the laser and target parameters, including laser intensity, focal size, incident angle, preplasma scale length, targetthickness and material and experimental geometry. The simulation results suggest that the strongest magnetic field isgenerated with laser incident angles and preplasma scale lengths that maximize laser absorption efficiency. The recentcommissioning of experimental platforms equipped with both optical high power laser and X-ray free electron laser(XFEL), such as European XFEL-HED, LCLS-MEC and SACLA beamlines, provides unprecedented opportunities toprobe the self-generated bulk magnetic field by X-ray polarimetry via Faraday rotation with simultaneous high spatialand temporal resolution. We expect that this systematic numerical investigation will pave the way to design and optimizenear future experimental setups to probe the magnetic fields in such experimental platforms
Keywords: laser–plasmas interaction; high energy density physics; X-ray free electron laser probi

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Publ.-Id: 29146 - Permalink


T Cell Based Immunotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia is Abrogated by the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Midostaurin
Fasslrinner, F.; Arndt, C.; Koristka, S.; Feldmann, A.; Altmann, H.; von Bonin, M.; Schmitz, M.; Bornhäuser, M.; Bachmann, M.;
Background
Induction chemotherapy is currently the standard of care for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 5-year disease-free survival of 33%. Given the large proportion of non-responders and relapsed patients, novel adjuvant drugs are urgently needed. Especially, targeted therapies including small molecules and T cell based immunotherapies are under intensive preclinical and clinical investigation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor Midostaurin recently received approval for treatment of FLT3-positive AML. In addition to chemotherapy, it significantly deepens remission rates and improves overall survival of patients. In light of future combinatorial approaches, simultaneous application of different targeted therapies should theoretically augment anti-tumor effects.

Aims
Therefore, we questioned whether Midostaurin could strengthen cytotoxic effector mechanisms of redirected switchable UniCAR T cells or bispecific antibody-redirected T cells against primary AML cells.

Methods/Results
By performing in vitro co-cultivation assays with patient-derived AML cells, it was shown that Midostaurin concentrations ≥ 1 µM significantly impair the activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity of autologous and allogeneic T cells after engagement via bsAb or the UniCAR system. Data could be also verified in a solid tumor model.

Summary/Conclusion
At concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 10 M, it was shown that Midostaurin and its metabolites are indeed able to inhibit several components of the TCR signaling pathway including LcK, Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro. Therefore, we argue that the observed T cell inhibition by Midostaurin in our studies is caused by the inhibition of several of these kinases. This hypothesis is supported by the work of two individual research groups that were able to show synergistic effects by combining FLT3 selective TKIs with different T cell-based immunotherapies. Because Midostaurin through concentrations above ≥ 1 µM have been observed in earlier performed dose finding studies, we speculate that current standard Midostaurin therapy will inhibit T cell function in vivo.
In summary, our data underline that combination of Midostaurin and T cell-based immunotherapies in FLT3-positive AML patients is not recommended due to the suppressive effect of Midostaurin on T cells. Therefore, more selective TKI or other small molecules should be chosen to avoid impairment of T cell functions.
  • Poster
    1st European CAR T Cell Meeting, 14.-16.02.2019, Paris, France

Publ.-Id: 29139 - Permalink


Bestimmung der Gas-Flüssigkeits-Grenzfläche in Anstaupackungen mittels ultraschneller Röntgentomographie
Sohr, J.; Bieberle, M.; Schubert, M.; Flechsig, S.; Kenig, E. Y.; Hampel, U.;
Durch die alternierend angeordneten Packungslagen mit unterschiedlichen geometrischen Oberflächen bilden sich in Anstaupackungen abhängig von den Betriebsbedingungen Filmströmung und Sprudelschicht gleichzeitig aus. Der intensive Kontakt zwischen der Gas- und Flüssigkeitsphase in den sprudelnden Bereichen der Anstaupackung führt zu einer Trenneffizienzsteigerung von bis zu 30 % im Vergleich zu konventionell gepackten Kolonnen [1]. Zur Abschätzung der Beiträge der jeweiligen Bereiche mit unterschiedlichen Strömungsregimen zur Gesamttrennleistung ist die Kenntnis der Gas-Flüssigkeits-Grenzfläche erforderlich. Die Grenzfläche kann mittels ultraschneller Röntgentomographie bestimmt werden, welche die dynamischen Strömungsstrukturen mit einer Bildrate von 1000 Bildern pro Sekunde erfasst. Mithilfe eines modifizierten Level-set-Algorithmus wird die Phasengrenze zwischen Gas einerseits und Flüssigkeit sowie Metallpackung andererseits in den Querschnittsbildern detektiert (Abb.1).
In diesem Beitrag werden sowohl die Methodik zur Bestimmung der Phasengrenzfläche als auch Ergebnisse für unterschiedliche Gas- und Flüssigkeitsbelastungen bei verschiedenen Packungskombinationen präsentiert.
Wir danken der DFG für die finanzielle Unterstützung des Kooperationsprojekts "Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung der Fluiddynamik und des Stofftrennverhaltens von Anstaupackungen" (KE 837/26-1, HA 3088/10-1).
[1] M. Jödecke, T. Friese, G. Schuch, B. Kaibel, H. Jansen, Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series, Institution of Chemical Engineers, 2006, Vol.152, pp. 786–789.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik und Membrantechnik, 27.-29.03.2019, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29129 - Permalink


Partieller Einsatz von teilweise gefluteten Packungen
Flechsig, S.; Utchenko, Y.; Sohr, J.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Kenig, E. Y.;
Ein Weg zur Reduzierung des hohen Energiebedarfs thermischer Trennverfahren ist die Prozessintegration. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Integration verschiedener Strömungsformen in einem Trennapparat durch den Einsatz von Anstaupackungen, wodurch eine Erhöhung der Trennleistung im Vergleich zu Strukturpackungen erzielt wird. Anstaupackungen bestehen aus zwei alternierend angeordneten Lagen von industriell verfügbaren Standardpackungen mit unterschiedlichen spezifischen Oberflächen. Die untere Anstaulage weist eine geringere Lastgrenze als die darüber angeordnete Abscheidelage auf, wodurch im Betrieb zwischen den Flutpunkten
beider Lagen ein heterogenes Strömungsmuster entsteht. Dabei bildet sich in der gezielt gefluteten Anstaulage eine bis in die Abscheidelage hineinreichende Sprudelschicht, die durch eine intensive Phasenvermischung und große
Phasengrenzflächen geprägt ist.
Um die Leistungscharakteristik von Anstaupackungen mit der von anderen Einbauten vergleichen zu können, wurde in einer vorherigen Arbeit [1] ein rate-based-Modell entwickelt, welches die Auswirkungen der belastungsabhängig auftretenden Regime in Anstaupackungen berücksichtigt. Basierend auf experimentellen Daten zur CO2-Absorption mit wässrigen Aminlösungen im Technikumsmaßstab sowie tomographischen Untersuchungen wurden Abhängigkeiten der modellspezifischen Parameter identifiziert und anschließend regimespezifisch ins Modell implementiert. Mittels Prozesssimulationen der CO2-Absorption aus Abgasen gasbefeuerter Kraftwerke im industriellen Maßstab werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit Anstaupackungen und Strukturpackungen hinsichtlich der benötigten Kolonnenabmessungen und des zu überwindenden Druckverlustes verglichen. Um eine abschließende Bewertung durchzuführen, wurden mithilfe von Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerTM die Anlagen- und Betriebskosten für die CO2-Abscheidung bestimmt. Zusätzlich wurde zur Ermittlung eines optimalen Designs der Einfluss der wesentlichen Geometrieparameter von Anstaupackungen auf die Kosten untersucht.
[1] S. Flechsig, J. Sohr, M. Schubert, U. Hampel, E.Y. Kenig, Chem. Eng. Trans., 2018, 69, 169-174, DOI: 10.3303/CET1869029.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik und Membrantechnik, 27.-29.03.2019, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29128 - Permalink


Frontiers of applications of Petawatt lasers, Plasma accelerator development in Dresden
Schramm, U.ORC
Discussion on progress of PW laser applications and advanced accelerators of protons and electrons
Keywords: Petawatt laser, laser particle acceleration, LWFA, secondary sources
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, 02.-04.04.2019, Prag, Czech Republic
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    JuSPARC Kick-off Workshop, 27.-29.03.2019, Vaals, Niederlande

Publ.-Id: 29099 - Permalink


Laser plasma proton accelerators for therapy ?
Schramm, U.ORC
Workshop discussion on advanced accelerators for therapy.
Keywords: particle cancer therapy, laser acceleration
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2nd ARIES Annual Meeting, 10.-11.04.2019, Budapest, Ungarn

Publ.-Id: 29098 - Permalink


Phonon Magnetochiral Effect
Nomura, T.; Zhang, X.-X.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Tokura, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Seki, S.;
The magnetochiral effect (MCE) of phonons, a nonreciprocal acoustic propagation arising due to symmetry principles, is demonstrated in the chiral-lattice ferrimagnet Cu2OSeO3. Our high-resolution ultrasound experiments reveal that the sound velocity differs for parallel and antiparallel propagation with respect to the external magnetic field. The sign of the nonreciprocity depends on the chirality of the crystal in accordance with the selection rule of the MCE. The nonreciprocity is enhanced below the magnetic ordering temperature and at higher ultrasound frequencies, which is quantitatively explained by a proposed magnon-phonon hybridization mechanism.

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Publ.-Id: 29097 - Permalink


Quantification of the metabolic uptake rate in whole body F-18 FDG PET: a comparison between dynamic and static imaging
van den Hoff, J.; Hofheinz, F.; Weise, R.; Maus, J.; Preuß, R.; Burchert, W.;
Ziel/Aim:
Dynamic whole body (DWB) FDG PET has become available with the recent introduction of the "flow motion" package by Siemens which offers fully automated generation of parametric images of the metabolic uptake rate K[m]. While this approach is superior to SUV-based quantification, it requires substantially more scan time and reduces patient throughput. On the other hand, the tumor to blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) has outperformed SUV in several clinical studies, which is attributed to a very high correlation between SUR and K[m]. However, direct evidence for this correlation is scarce. Our study compares K[sur], the SUR-derived "static" estimate of K[m], with the Patlak-derived K[m].

Methodik/Methods:
Altogether, 12 oncological patients are enclosed and scheduled for DWB PET. Parametric images of K[m] and K[sur] are computed using the vendor provided Patlak procedure and in-house software, respectively. Evaluation of the voxel intensity correlation between both parametric images as well as ROI-based analysis is performed.

Ergebnisse/Results:
So far, 4 patients have been evaluated. K[m] and K[sur] are highly correlated (R^2=0.97) in areas with nonnegligible irreversible uptake (so far we investigated the range K[m]=[0.01,0.07]). K[m] and K[sur] images have very similar image contrast between such areas. Minor contrast differences exist in healthy soft tissue and regions where the Patlak approach is invalid (notably the liver). The relative scale factor between both parametric images is 0.86.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Our results suggest that SUR and K[sur] are proportional surrogates of true K[m]. The unquestionable potential of DWB PET might thus be more relevant for applications beyond oncological FDG PET. To test this conjecture, comprehensive studies in homogeneous patient groups are required in order to compare the prognostic value of K[m] and SUR/K[sur] in the context of survival analysis
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29096 - Permalink


Quantifizierung von pulmonalen 18F-FDG-PET/CT-Untersuchungen: Vergleich von Standard Uptake Ratio (SUR) und Patlak (Ki)
Braune, A.; Bluth, T.; Kiss, T.; Hofheinz, F.; Gama De Abreu, M.; Kotzerke, J.;
Ziel/Aim:
Dynamische PET/CT Scans gefolgt von Patlak Modellierung der 18F-FDG-Aufnahmerate (Ki) ist eine etablierte Methode zur Quantifizierung der Lungenentzündung im tierexp. Modell des akuten Lungenversagens (ARDS), erfordert aber zeitintensive Aufnahmen und erlaubt nur ein begrenztes cranio-caudales FoV. Dyn. PET/CT Scans von Patienten mit Lebermetastasen zeigten gute Korrelationen zwischen Ki und Standard Uptake Ratio (SUR = ROI-SUV / Blut-SUV) [1]. Wir analysierten in einem tierexp. ARDS-Modell, ob stat. PET/CT Messungen und SUR-Analysen alternativ zu dyn. PET/CT und Ki für die Quantifizierung der pulmonalen Inflammation genutzt werden können.

Methodik/Methods:
In 14 Schweinen erfolgten nach Induktion eines schweren ARDS sowie nach 24h Beatmung dyn. 18F-FDG-PET/CT Scans und Patlak Ki-Analysen. Anschließende stat. PET/CT Scans (77-81min p.i.) wurden für die Bestimmung von mittleren, zeitkorrigierten SUR-Werte genutzt. SUR- und Ki-Werte wurden für 5 ventro-dorsale ROIs mittels linearer Regression verglichen (Variationskoeffizient, r2). Anhand von Blutproben wurde die Variabilität der arteriellen Inputfunktion (AIF) zwischen Tieren und Messzeitpunkten verglichen.

Ergebnisse/Results:
SUR- und Ki-Werte korrelierten vor und nach 24h Beatmung (r2=0.84 bzw. 0.97). Der zeitliche Verlauf der AIF war zwischen Tieren und Aufnahmezeitpunkten vergleichbar und konnte mittels einer inversen Potenzfunktion beschrieben werden (r2 = 0.99). Die Patlak-Zeit war Zeit-, aber nicht AIF-abhängig, und wies eine geringe Variabilität auf (t=70min: 153.6 ± 13.3min).

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Für die Quantifizierung der pulmonalen Inflammation in exp. Studien der Anästhesie können stat. PET/CT Scans und SUR-Analysen alternativ zu dyn. 18F-FDG-PET/CT und Patlak genutzt werden. Dies ermöglicht eine schnellere Datenakquisition, die Erfassung der gesamten Lunge und eine Reduktion der erforderlichen Blutproben. Grundlage der guten Ki-SUR Korrelation bildete die geringe Variabilität des AIF.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29095 - Permalink


Validation of an independent prognostic value of the asphericity of FDG uptake in non-small cell cancer patients undergoing treatment in curative intent
Rogasch, J.; Chibolela, C.; Frost, N.; Wedel, F.; Hofheinz, F.; Rückert, J.; Neudecker, J.; Böhmer, D.; von Laffert, M.; Amthauer, H.; Furth, C.;
Ziel/Aim:
In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing treatment with curative intent, the asphericity (ASP) of the primary tumor’s metabolic tumor volume (MTV) has been demonstrated as a prognostic factor. This study aimed at validation in an independent cohort with sufficient sample size.

Methodik/Methods:
Retrospective study in 313 NSCLC patients (203 men; median age, 67 [41-87] a) undergoing FDG-PET/CT with the same scanner prior to treatment in curative intent (always including resection of the primary tumor). 137 patients had UICC stage I, 79 patients stage II and 97 patients stage III disease (adenocarcinoma [ADC], 153; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], 143, other, 17). Delineation of primary tumor MTV with semiautomated background-adapted threshold relative to its SUVmax. Univariable Cox regression for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for PET parameters (MTV, ASP, SUVmax, SUVmean), clinical (UICC stage I vs. II vs. III), histological (SCC vs. ADC) and treatment variables (Rx/1 vs. R0 resection, chemotherapy yes/no, radiotherapy yes/no). Multivariable Cox of parameters significant in univariate Cox.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Events (progression, relapse, death) occurred in 169/313 patients, 139 patients died (median follow-up in survivors, 37 months). In multivariable Cox for OS, ASP >33.3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53 [95%-confidence interval, 1.02-2.3]), Rx/1 vs. R0 resection (HR, 2.47 [1.5-4.2]) and SCC vs. ADC (HR, 1.53 [1.1-2.2]) were significant. Log-rank test for ASP was significant at any cut-off from 18% upwards. Among separate UICC stages, ASP was only prognostic for OS in stage II (optimal, >19.5%; median OS, 33 vs. 59 months; p<0.01). In multivariable Cox for PFS, ASP >21.2% (HR, 1.75 [1.2-2.5]) and Rx/1 vs. R0 (HR, 2.48 [1.5-4.1]) were significant. Log-rank test for ASP was significant at any cut-off from 10-60%.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
ASP was validated as an independent predictor of PFS and OS in NSCLC patients with curative treatment intent. Subdividing UICC stages, ASP remained prognostic in stage II.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29094 - Permalink


Interobserver variability of image–derived arterial blood SUV in FDG–PET
Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Zschaeck, S.; Rogasch, J.; Schramm, G.; Oehme, L.; Apostolova, I.; Kotzerke, J.; van den Hoff, J.;
Ziel/Aim:
The standardized uptake value (SUV) is essentially the only means for quantitative evaluation of static FDG PET. However, the SUV approach has well-known shortcomings which adversely affect the reliability of the SUV as a surrogate of the metabolic rate of glucose consumption. The standard uptake ratio (SUR), i.e. the uptake time corrected ratio of tumor SUV to image-derived arterial blood SUV, has been shown to overcome most of these shortcomings and to increase the prognostic value in comparison to SUV. However, it is unclear, to what extent the SUR approach is vulnerable to observer variability of the required blood SUV (BSUV) determination. The goal of the present work was the investigation of the interobserver variability of image-derived BSUV.

Methodik/Methods:
FDG PET/CT scans from 83 patients were included. BSUV was determined by 8 individuals, each applying a dedicated delineation tool for the BSUV determination in the aorta. Altogether 5 different delineation tools were used. With each used tool, delineation was performed for the whole patient group, resulting in 12 distinct observations per patient. Interobserver variability of BSUV determination was assessed using the fractional deviations of the individual observers from the observer-average for the considered patient.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Interobserver variability in the pooled data amounts to SD=2.8% and is much smaller than the intersubject variability of BSUV (SD=16%). Averaged over the whole patient group, deviations of individual observers from the observer average are very small and fall in the range [-0.96,1.05]%. However, interobserver variability partly differs distinctly for different patients (range: [0.7,7.4]%).

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
The present investigation proofs unambiguously that the image-based manual determination of BSUV in the aorta provides sufficient accuracy and reproducibility for the purposes of the SUR approach. This finding is in line with the already demonstrated superiority of SUR in comparison to SUV in first clinical studies.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29093 - Permalink


Die Asphärizität neuroendokriner Tumore in der prätherapeutischen Somatostatinrezeptor-Bildgebung: Ein innovativer Prädiktor für das progressionsfreie Überleben unter Everolimus?
Wetz, C.; Genseke, P.; Pape, U.; Jann, H.; Furth, C.; Kreißl, M.; Hofheinz, F.; Venrito, M.; Stüven, A.; Amthauer, H.;
Ziel/Aim:
Bei Patienten mit pulmonalen oder gastrointestinalen neuroendokrinen Tumoren (NET) kann der teils nebenwirkungsreiche mTOR-Inhibitor Everolimus das progressionsfreie Überleben (PFS) verlängern. Ziel dieser Studie war die Evaluation der läsionalen Asphärizität (ASP) in der prätherapeutischen Somatostatinrezeptor (SSR)-Bildgebung hinsichtlich einer weiteren Spezifizierung von Patientensubgruppen die von der Therapie im Besonderen profitieren.

Methodik/Methods:
Retrospektive, bizentrische Analyse von 30 Patienten (m=17; w=13; medianes Alter, 59 [38-75] Jahre) mit einer prätherapeutischen [111In-DTPA0]octreotid Szintigraphie. Die funktionellen Volumina von bis zu 3 führenden Läsionen je Patient (n=74) wurden mittels halbautomatischer, hintergrundadaptierter Segmentierung erhoben (ROVER, Version 2.1.20) und jeweils die sphärische Heterogenität des SSR-Besatzes - die ASP - berechnet. Für die maximal gemessene ASP je Patient erfolgten Kaplan-Meier-Analysen inklusive log-rank-Tests sowie eine univariate Cox Regression bzgl. des PFS.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Alle 30 Patienten waren unter Everolimus progredient oder entwickelten ein Rezidiv. In der univariaten Analyse erwies sich die ASP [Median, 12,7%; Spannweite, 1,1–43,5] als Prädiktor des PFS (p=0,033; Hazard Ratio [HR], 2,391 je eine Einheit). Patienten mit einer hohen ASP (>14%) zeigten ein medianes PFS von 6,7 Monaten (95%-Konfidenzintervall [CI], 2,1-11,4 Monate) gegenüber 14,4 Monaten (95%-CI, 12,5-16,3 Monate; p=0,028) für eine ASP ≤14%.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Mittels ASP kann im untersuchten Patientenkollektiv eine Prädiktion des PFS erreicht werden. In Bezug auf eine Nutzen-/Risiko-Abwägung zur Indikationsstellung der Everolimusgabe erscheint der Einsatz der prätherapeutischen ASP bzgl. einer optimalen Patientenauswahl bedeutsam; Patienten mit einer ASP >14% hatten ein signifikant kürzeres PFS.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29092 - Permalink


Nanomagnetism of Magnetoelectric Granular Thin-Film Antiferromagnets
Appel, P.; Shields, B. J.; Kosub, T.; Hedrich, N.; Hübner, R.; Fassbender, J.; Makarov, D.; Maletinsky, P.;
Antiferromagnets have recently emerged as attractive platforms for spintronics applications, offering fundamentally new functionalities compared with their ferromagnetic counterparts. Whereas nanoscale thin-film materials are key to the development of future antiferromagnetic spintronic technologies, existing experimental tools tend to suffer from low resolution or expensive and complex equipment requirements. We offer a simple, high-resolution alternative by addressing the ubiquitous surface magnetization of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets in a granular thin-film sample on the nanoscale using single-spin magnetometry in combination with spin-sensitive transport experiments. Specifically, we quantitatively image the evolution of individual nanoscale antiferromagnetic domains in 200 nm thin films of Cr2O3 in real space and across the paramagnet-to-antiferromagnet phase transition, finding an average domain size of 230 nm, several times larger than the average grain size in the film. These experiments allow us to discern key properties of the Cr2O3 thin film, including the boundary magnetic moment density, the variation of critical temperature throughout the film, the mechanism of domain formation, and the strength of exchange coupling between individual grains comprising the film. Our work offers novel insights into the magnetic ordering mechanism of Cr2O3 and firmly establishes single-spin magnetometry as a versatile and widely applicable tool for addressing antiferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale.

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Publ.-Id: 29090 - Permalink


Magnetic interactions and spin dynamics in the bond-disordered pyrochlore fluoride NaCaCo2F7
Zeisner, J.; Bräuninger, S. A.; Opherden, L.; Sarkar, R.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Krizan, J. W.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Cava, R. J.; Wosnitza, J.; Büchner, B.; Klauss, H. H.; Kataev, V.;
We report high-frequency/high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) and high-field magnetization studies on single crystals of the bond-disordered pyrochlore NaCaCo2F7. Frequency- and temperature-dependent ESR investigations above the freezing temperature Tf ∼ 2.4 K reveal the coexistence of two distinct magnetic phases. A cooperative paramagnetic phase, evidenced by a gapless excitation mode, is found along with a spin-glass phase developing below 20 K which is associated with a gapped low-energy excitation. Effective g factors close to 2 are obtained for both modes, in line with pulsed high-field magnetization measurements which show an unsaturated isotropic behavior up to 58 T at 2 K. In order to describe the field-dependent magnetization in high magnetic fields, we propose an empirical model accounting for highly anisotropic ionic g tensors expected for this material and taking into account the strongly competing interactions between the spins which lead to a frustrated ground state. As a detailed quantitative relation between effective g factors as determined from ESR and the local g tensors obtained by neutron scattering [Ross et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 014433 (2016)] is still sought after, our work motivates further theoretical investigations of the low-energy excitations in bond-disordered pyrochlores.

Publ.-Id: 29085 - Permalink


Microscopic Nature of the First-Order Field-Induced Phase Transition in the Strongly Anisotropic Ferrimagnet HoFe5Al7
Gorbunov, D. I.; Strohm, C.; Henriques, M. S.; van der Linden, P.; Pedersen, B.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Petricek, V.; Mathon, O.; Wosnitza, J.;
We report on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments in pulsed fields up to 30 T to follow the rotations of individual magnetic moments through the field-induced phase transition in the ferrimagnet HoFe5Al7. Near the ground state, we observe simultaneous stepwise rotations of the Ho and Fe moments and explain them using a two-sublattice model for an anisotropic ferrimagnet with weak intersublattice exchange interactions. Near the compensation point, we find two phase transitions. The additional magnetization jump reflects the fact that the Ho moment is no longer rigid as the applied field acts against the intersublattice exchange field.

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Publ.-Id: 29081 - Permalink


Inductive Heating Using a High-Magnetic-Field Pulse to Initiate Chemical Reactions to Generate Composite Materials
Zimmerer, C.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Utech, T.; Arnhold, K.; Janke, A.; Wosnitza, J.;
Induction heating is efficient, precise, cost-effective, and clean. The heating process is coupled to an electrically conducting material, usually a metal. As most polymers are dielectric and non-conducting, induction heating is not applicable. In order to transfer energy from an electromagnetic field into polymer induction structures, conducting materials or materials that absorb the radiation are required. This report gives a brief overview of induction heating processes used in polymer technology. In contrast to metals, most polymer materials are not affected by electromagnetic fields. However, an unwanted temperature rise of the polymer can occur when a radio frequency field is applied. The now available high-field magnetic sources provide a new platform for induction heating at very low frequencies, avoiding unwanted thermal effects within the material. Using polycarbonate and octadecylamine as an example, it is demonstrated that induction heating performed by a magnetic-field pulse with a maximum flux density of 59 T can be used to initiate chemical reactions. A 50 nm thick Ag loop, with a mean diameter of 7 mm, placed in the polymer-polymer interface acts as susceptor and a resistive heating element. The formation of urethane as a linker compound was examined by infrared spectroscopic imaging and differential scanning calorimetry.

Publ.-Id: 29080 - Permalink


Performance Analysis for Large Scale GPU Applications and DL Frameworks
Juckeland, G.ORC; Henschel, R.ORC
Get your hands on the latest versions of Score-P and Vampir to profile the execution behavior of your large-scale GPU-Accelerated applications. See how these HPC community tools pick up as other tools (such as NVVP) drop off when your application spans multiple compute nodes. Regardless of whether your application uses CUDA, OpenACC, OpenMP or OpenCL for acceleration, or whether it is written in C, C++, Fortran or Python, you will receive a high-resolution timeline view of all program activity alongside the standard profiles to identify hot spots and avenues for optimization. The novel Python support now also enables performance studies for optimizing the inner workings of deep learning frameworks.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    GPU Technology Conference 2019, 17.-21.03.2019, San Jose, CA, USA

Publ.-Id: 29070 - Permalink


A spectroscopic investigation of Eu3+ incorporation in LnPO4 (Ln = Tb, Gd1–xLux, x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1) ceramics
Huittinen, N.; Lösch, H.; Hirsch, A.; Holthausen, J.; Peters, L.; Xiao, B.; Neumeier, S.; Schmidt, M.;
Introduction
In recent years, rare-earth orthophosphates LnPO4 have attracted attention as potential hosts for the immobilization of specific radioactive waste streams.
Objectives
In the present work, the incorporation of Eu3+ in LnPO4 host materials predominantly having the xenotime structure has been investigated on the molecular level. As host cations we used Tb and Lu as well as a solid solution series of Gd1–xLuxPO4 (x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7). The site selective laser luminescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) technique was applied to study the distribution of Eu3+ in the synthetic xenotime phases, while PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were used for bulk structural investigations direct after synthesis and after one year of storage at ambient conditions.
Results
The PXRD patterns of the solid solution series show the formation of a single xenotime phase up to a substitution of x = 0.5 both before and after aging. The TRLFS emission spectra also show that Eu3+ is substituted for the host cation site in the xenotime hosts. After one year, the emission spectra show a broad dominant signal between the transitions regions of the 7F1‒ and 7F2‒bands, and the luminescence signal no longer corresponds to Eu3+‒incorporation in a xenotime environment, only. These changes indicate a time-dependent change in the local structure of the europium dopant. Based on these observations we suggest an exclusion of Eu3+ from the crystal structure and subsequent migration of the cation to the grain boundaries during aging. The migration of Eu3+ in void spaces through the crystal structure could be responsible for the additional signals in the emission spectra, while the narrow void space forces an overlap between Eu3+ and oxygen atomic orbitals, resulting in the broad signal between the 7F1‒ and 7F2‒bands.
Conclusions
The segregation of Eu3+ to grain boundaries after a relatively short aging in the xenotime materials, indicates that xenotime ceramics will not serve as a suitable waste form for trivalent actinides from high–level nuclear waste.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    27th Annual Meeting of the German Crystallographic Society (DGK), 25.-28.03.2019, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 29063 - Permalink


Implementation of HZDR baseline model for poly-dispersed bubbly flow in OpenFOAM
Liao, Y.;
The predictability of TFM-CFD is largely restricted by the reliability of closures that should reconstruct the information about the phenomena and processes occuring at the interface. The development of physically based models is severely obstructed by insufficient knowledge on the physics and numerous misleading work based on case-by-case tuning. A strategy towards general closures is necessary. A few years ago HZDR proposed a baseline model for TFM-CFD simulation of poly-dispersed bubbly flow with a fixed set of closures. It aims to identify the missing physics in the existing models and improve them step by step. In this work the baseline model is implemented and tested in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM for a large number of bubbly flow cases including vertical pipe flow and bubble column.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CFD-Verbund, 11.-12.03.2019, Garching bei München, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29047 - Permalink


Calixarene-based ligands for Radium and Barium
Bauer, D.; Reissig, F.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.; Mamat, C.ORC
Due to their high biological effectiveness and suitable half-lives, there is increased interest in using the radionuclides radium-223 and radium-224 for radiopharmaceutical applications. Xofigo ([223Ra]radium chloride) is a bone-seeking, alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical with EMA and FDA approval. It is used to treat bone metastasis of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To expand the possible applications for these promising radionuclides, it is necessary to stably bind the radionuclide within a chelator. Therefore, calixarene-based ligands have been synthesized, which show encouraging affinities to radium ions. In our recent studies, we have already presented the high potential of these ligands. Since radium and barium have similar chemistry, and therefore comparable affinities to our ligands, it is possible to create a matched pair for theragnostic approaches. The radionuclide barium-131 has a suitable physical half-life for therapeutic applications and the potential of being a SPECT nuclide.
Keywords: Radium-224, Barium-131, Calixarene

Publ.-Id: 29039 - Permalink


Fifteen Years of Radionuclide Research at the KIT Synchrotron Source in the Context of the Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case
Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Dagan, R.; Dardenne, K.; Fellhauer, D.; Gaona, X.; González-Robles Corrales, E.; Herm, M.; Kvashnina, K.; Metz, V.; Pidchenko, I.; Schild, D.; Vitova, T.; Geckeis, H.;
For more than 120 years, systematic studies of X-ray interaction with matter have been the basis for our understanding of materials—both of natural or man-made origin—and their structure-function relationships. Beginning with simple radiographic imaging at the end of the 19th century, X-ray based analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and photoemission or X-ray absorption techniques are indispensable in almost any field of chemical and material sciences—including basic and applied actinide and radionuclide studies. The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in the second half of the last century has revolutionized the analytical power of X-ray probes, while—with increasing number of SR facilities—beamline instrumentation followed a trend towards increasing specialization and adaption to a major research topic. The INE-Beamline and ACT station at the KIT synchrotron source belong to the exclusive club of a few synchrotron beamline facilities—mostly located in Europe—dedicated to the investigation of highly radioactive materials. Since commissioning of the INE-Beamline in 2005, capabilities for synchrotron-based radionuclide and actinide sciences at KIT have been continuously expanded, driven by in-house research programs and external user needs.

Publ.-Id: 29035 - Permalink


Metallgewinnung durch Mikrobiologie – Biologisch assistierte Prozesse in der Rohstofftechnologie
Lederer, F.;
Der Rohstoffsektor ist geprägt von enormem Materialbedarf für die Entwicklung und Produktion neuer High-Tech Produkte. Neben der Optimierung von Bergbauprozessen zur Gewinnung von primären Rohstoffen fokussiert das Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie die Vision der Kreislaufwirtschaft. Diese setzte neben dem Schwerpunkt Nachhaltigkeit im Hinblick auf Produktdesign, Produktion, Verteilung, Konsum, Verwendung, Reparatur und Sammlung vor allem auf das Recycling von Wertstoffen.
Mikrobiologisch assistierte Recyclingprozesse zur Rückgewinnung von Wertstoffen aus Elektronikschrott und Bergbauresthalden sowie innovative und umweltfreundliche Lösungen für die Ressourcensicherung standen im Fokus der 29. Jenaer Industriegespräche der DPG.
Themenschwerpunkte des Vortrages waren Interaktionen von Mikroorganismen mit Metallen, das biotechnologische Potential neuer Ressourcentechnologien, Grenzen überwindende Bioflotation, die Metallgewinnung mittels Siderophoren, Evolution im Reagenzglas sowie Biokollektoren für das Recycling von Wertstoffen aus Elektroschrott.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    29. Jenaer Industriegespräche der DPG, 20.03.2019, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29034 - Permalink


Consolidative thoracic radiotherapy in stage IV small cell lung cancer: Selection of patients amongst European IASLC and ESTRO experts
Putora, P. M.; Glatzer, M.; de Ruysscher, D.; Faivre-Finn, C.; Belderbos, J.; Besse, B.; Blackhall, F.; Califano, R.; Cappuzzo, F.; de Marinis, F.; Dziadiuszko, R.; Felip, E.; Früh, M.; Garrido, P.; Le Pechoux, C.; Mcdonald, F.; Nestle, U.; Novello, S.; Brien, M. O.; Paz Ares, L.; Peeters, S.; Pöttgen, S.; Ramella, S.; Reck, M.; Troost, E. G. C.; van Houtte, P.; Westeel, V.; Widder, J.; Mornex, F.; Slotman, B. J.;
Background: The role of consolidative thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in stage IV small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is not uniformly accepted. Methods: We obtained a list of 13 European medical oncologists from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and 13 European radiation oncologists from the European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO). The strategies in decision making for TRT in stage IV SCLC were collected. Decision trees were created representing these strategies. Frequencies of recommending TRT were analysed for various parameter combinations based on the objective consensus methodology. Results: The factors associated with the recommendation for TRT included fitness of the patient, limited extrathoracic tumour burden, initial bulky thoracic disease and response to chemotherapy. The highest consensus for TRT was in fit patients with limited extrathoracic tumour burden and initial bulky disease with either a complete extrathoracic response or partial thoracic response (92% recommend TRT). For these patients the recommendations were the same for medical and radiation oncologists. In the setting of partial response (intra- and extra-thoracically) without initial bulky thoracic disease radiation oncologists were more likely to recommend TRT than medical oncologists. For unfit patients or for patients with poor overall response to chemotherapy, the majority did not recommend TRT. Conclusion: European radiation and medical oncologists specializing in lung cancer recommend TRT in selected patients with stage IV SCLC and restrict its use primarily to fit patients who responded to chemotherapy with limited extrathoracic tumour burden.
Keywords: ESTRO, Expert opinion, IASLC, Small cell lung cancer, Stage IV, Thoracic radiotherapy

Publ.-Id: 29033 - Permalink


Repeat FMISO-PET imaging weakly correlates with hypoxia-associated gene expressions for locally advanced HNSCC treated by primary radiochemotherapy
Löck, S.; Linge, A.; Seidlitz, A.; Bandurska-Luque, A.; Nowak, A.; Gudziol, V.; Buchholz, F.; Aust, D. E.; Baretton, G. B.; Zöphel, K.; Steinbach, J.; Kotzerke, J.; Overgaard, J.; Zips, D.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.; Troost, E. G. C.;
Background: Hypoxia is an important factor of tumour resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and potentially immunotherapy. It can be measured e.g. by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging or hypoxia-associated gene expressions from tumour biopsies. Here we correlate [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO)-PET/CT imaging with hypoxia-associated gene expressions on a cohort of 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and compare their prognostic value for response to radiochemotherapy (RCTx). Methods: FMISO-PET/CT images of 50 HNSCC patients were acquired at four time-points before and during RCTx. For 42 of these patients, hypoxia-associated gene expressions were evaluated by nanoString technology based on a biopsy obtained before any treatment. The FMISO-PET parameters tumour-to-background ratio and hypoxic volume were correlated to the expressions of 58 hypoxia-associated genes using the Spearman correlation coefficient ρ. Three hypoxia-associated gene signatures were compared regarding their correlation with the FMISO-PET parameters using their median expression. In addition, the correlation with tumour volume was analysed. The impact of both hypoxia measurement methods on loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by Cox regression. Results: The median expression of hypoxia-associated genes was weakly correlated to hypoxia measured by FMISO-PET imaging (ρ ≤ 0.43), with higher correlations to imaging after weeks 1 and 2 of treatment (p < 0.001). Moderate correlations were obtained between FMISO-PET imaging and tumour volume (ρ ≤ 0.69). Prognostic models for LRC and OS based on the FMISO-PET parameters could not be improved by including hypoxia classifiers. Conclusion: We observed low correlations between hypoxia FMISO-PET parameters and expressions of hypoxia-associated genes. Since FMISO-PET showed a superior patient stratification, it may be the preferred biomarker over hypoxia-associated genes for stratifying patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated by primary RCTx.
Keywords: FMISO-PET, Gene signature, Hypoxia, Locally advanced HNSCC, Radiochemotherapy

Publ.-Id: 29032 - Permalink


Combining magnetic forces for contactless manipulation of fluids in microelectrode-microfluidic systems
Hähnel, V.; Khan, F. Z.; Mutschke, G.; Cierpka, C.; Uhlemann, M.; Fritsch, I.;
A novel method to drive and manipulate fluid in a contactless way in a microelectrode-microfluidic system is demonstrated by combining the Lorentz and magnetic field gradient forces. The method is based on the redox-reaction [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− performed in a magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the ionic current that crosses the gap between two arrays of oppositely polarized microelectrodes, generating a magnetohydrodynamic flow. Additionally, a movable magnetized CoFe micro-strip is placed at different positions beneath the gap. In this region, the magnetic flux density is changed locally and a strong magnetic field gradient is formed. The redox-reaction changes the magnetic susceptibility of the electrolyte near the electrodes, and the resulting magnetic field gradient exerts a force on the fluid, which leads to a deflection of the Lorentz force-driven main flow.
Particle Image Velocity measurements and numerical simulations demonstrate that by combining the two magnetic forces, the flow is not only redirected, but also a local change of concentration of paramagnetic species is realized.
Keywords: microfluidics, electrochemistry, redox-reaction, magnetic field, Lorentz force, magnetic gradient force, flow control

Publ.-Id: 29031 - Permalink


Avoided energy cost of producing minerals: The case of iron ore
Reuter, M. A.; Palacios, J.-L.; Fernandes, I.; Abadias, A.; Valero, A.; Valero, A.;
There is growing concern about the decline of the ore grade in mines and the increased energy usage for processing and refining metals. In the limit, where no concentrated deposits exist, minerals must be obtained from bare rock. A method for quantitatively assessing the “free bonus” granted by nature in providing concentrated minerals in mines and thus assessing the quality of the different resources is estimating how much energy is needed to concentrate the minerals, as they are already in mines, from bare rock. This bonus granted by nature reduces the costs of human mining and metallurgical processes, as well as the mining effort required of future generations. In this study, the concentration of high-iron-content minerals in common rocks was investigated via a computational model developed using the HSC software. As expected, the range of results for the specific energy for the concentration of iron from common rocks was considerably higher than the energy required by modern processes. This reveals the need to value current iron deposits and the challenge of developing sustainable methods of metal production to satisfy the needs of the present and future generations.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Exergy replacement cost, Iron, Metallurgy, Mining, Thanatia

Publ.-Id: 29030 - Permalink


Ultrasonic flow measurements in liquid metal flows with partial solidification
Franke, S.; Räbiger, D.; Eckert, S.;
The monitoring of the flow rate is an inherent part of process control in all technical large-scale plants to guarantee process stability and safety. It is particularly important for nuclear applications. In the case of a liquid metal coolant in addition, the control of the aggregate state is important.
The use of ultrasound techniques opens an attractive opportunity to measure both the fluid velocity by evaluating the Doppler phase shift and the phase boundary by the detection of the reflection signal from the interface. In addition, the measuring principle enables a noninvasive implementation of the measuring technique. A test facility is necessary to qualify the measuring technique for real applications.
In this study a new LBE experimental facility has been designed and constructed. The setup enables to control the temperature and the fluid flow in the liquid. Further a partial solidification can be induced. The liquid metal vessel is equipped with ten ports for ultrasonic probes. These ports allow for testing the ultrasound measuring principle for different conditions. It was demonstrated that the ultrasonic sensors can be operated up to 200°C at the piezo element. First measuring results demonstrate the potential of ultrasound measuring techniques for monitoring liquid metal applications.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SESAME International Workshop, 19.-21.03.2019, Petten, Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 29026 - Permalink


Probing charged lepton flavor violation with the Mu2e experiment
Mueller, S. E.ORC; Ferrari, A.ORC
The Mu2e experiment, currently under construction at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago, will search for the neutrinoless conversion of muons to electrons in the field of an aluminum nucleus. In the Standard Model, this process, which violates charged lepton flavor, is highly suppressed and therefore undetectable. However, scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model predict small but observable rates. The Mu2e experiment aims at a sensitivity four orders of magnitude better than existing experiments. This is achieved by a rigorous control of all backgrounds that could mimic the monoenergetic conversion electron.

At HZDR, we use the ELBE radiation facility to study radiation hardness and performance of components for the Mu2e calorimeter and contribute with Monte Carlo simulations to the understanding of the optimal configuration for the detector that will monitor the rate of stopped muons in the aluminum target. Additional simulations are performed for both the pion production target and the muon stopping target.

In the presentation, the design and status of the Mu2e experiment will be presented, and results from the ELBE beamtimes and the simulation studies will be given.
Keywords: Mu2e, CLFV, ELBE
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Spring Meeting DPG, 22.03.2019, Muenchen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29025 - Permalink


Critical heat flux as a mass flux dependent phenomenon: Theoretical analysis, experimental confirmation and further CFD application
Ding, W.; Geißler, T.; Krepper, E.; Hampel, U.;
In this work, we report on a theoretical analysis and experimental investigations on critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled flow boiling firstly. Commonly, CHF is considered as a local phenomenon. A validated CHF- concept recently developed in our group indicated that CHF may be initiated in two different ways, that is, locally and globally. We designed and conducted an experiment to verify this hypothesis. The experimental results agree well with the expectations from our CHF- modelling and confirm the two mechanisms. Following that, we continued to clarify the role of different parameters, such as channel orientation, channel length and hydraulic diameter. The new concept of CHF is useful to explain and predict CHF at conditions of low pressure and low fluid velocity. Further we applied this concept into an Euler-Euler computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) approach with wall boiling model which successfully predict the critical volume fraction under different conditions. The simulation results also had a good agreement with the corresponding experimental results.
Keywords: Critical heat flux, Boiling, CMFD
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    9th China-Korea Workshop on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (WORTH-9), 15.-18.05.2019, Chongqing, China

Publ.-Id: 29017 - Permalink


Pulse-front tilt in laser-plasma accelerators with short focal lengths
Steiniger, K.ORC; Albach, D.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC; Debus, A.ORC; Kluge, T.ORC; Loeser, M.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Siebold, M.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.ORC
Laser ion accelerators utilize high-power laser pulses in tight-focusing geometries to provide pulsed, high-intensity ion beams. Efficient capturing, transport and application of these beams is an ongoing effort which depends on precise knowledge of the accelerated ion distribution's properties and how to control these. For example, it is known that the propagation direction of the accelerated ions can be controlled by tilting the driving laser pulse-front. Since laser pulse-front tilts can be present accidentally, for example by a small misalignment of the compressor gratings in a chirped-pulse amplification system, knowledge of the scaling of the pulse-front tilt at a target position is desired. The talk gives relations for pulse-front orientation dependent on setup parameters and identifies regimes were pulse-front tilt has a sizable impact.
Keywords: Pulse-front tilt, high-power laser
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 17.-22.03.2019, München, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29015 - Permalink


Flüssigmetallbatterien als Großspeicher - Technologie, Scale-Up und Optionen zur Sektorkopplung
Nimtz, M.;
Es werden die grundsätzlichen Eigenschaften von Flüssigmetallbatterien beschrieben sowie Methoden und Ergebnisse zum Scale-Up vorgestellt. Des weiteren werden Funktionsweise und Anwendung der LMB-System-Calculator Software erläutert sowie Anwendungsoptionen für Flüssigmetallbbatterien, insbesondere bei der Sektorkoppelung vorgestellt.

Basic properties of Liquid Metal Batteries are described and methods and results for scale-up calculations are presented.
Also, functioning and usage of the LMB-System-Calculator software are discussed and options for the operation of Liquid Metal Batteries, especially for the sector-coupling are presented.
Keywords: LMB, Flüssigmetallbatterien, Scale-Up, Speicher, Sektorkoppelung LMB, liquid metal battery, scale-up, storage, sectro-coupling
  • Lecture (others)
    Energie System 2050 Forschungsthema 1, 1. Workshop 2019, 19.-20.03.2019, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29014 - Permalink


Chemistry and accelerator mass spectrometry – A life happily ever after?
Merchel, S.ORC
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive analytical method to measure long-lived radionuclides. The detection limits are generally several orders of magnitude better, i.e. as low as 10-16 (radionuclide/stable nuclide), than any other mass spectrometry or decay counting method. AMS needs smaller sample sizes and measurements are finished within a few minutes to hours.

However, it is often forgotten that research projects applying AMS start with taking appropriate samples, followed by labour- and cost-intensive sample preparation. The goal can easily be described as “making the big samples (up to several kg’s) to fit in an AMS target holder (< 10 mg)”. This includes getting rid of the matrix and the troublesome isobars. By technical improvements of AMS leading to lower detection limits or better mass-and-element discrimination, sample masses can be reduced to gram-quantities instead of kg’s allowing easier, faster, and cheaper chemistry. Recent AMS developments also address very efficiently isobar elimination.

Nevertheless, some samples can contain different sources of the radionuclide-of-interest such as ¹⁰Be produced in the Earth’s atmosphere polluting the ¹⁰Be of interest produced in-situ in quartz. Hence, in this case chemistry is inevitable for cleaning the samples from the contamination. Another “mission” of chemistry might be the reduction of corresponding stable nuclides, e.g. 35,37Cl, ²⁷Al, natFe by preceding cleaning or by gentle leaching to enhance the radionuclide/stable nuclide ratio or to minimize interfering nuclear reactions such as thermal-neutron capture on ³⁵Cl. When applying isotope-dilution AMS to simultaneously determine the natCl content of a sample, which is an absolute requirement for surface exposure dating of Ca- or K-rich minerals, chemical sample preparation is also mandatory.

As the majority of research projects involving AMS is of true interdisciplinary character, knowledge of sample preparation is usually passed-on to (young) non-chemists. These are trained learning-by-doing to perform the chemical preparation of their own samples. Therefore, the development of “routine” AMS sample preparation needs to have a strong focus on safety and easy-to-be-trained aspects with the least opportunity for failure.

In conclusion, although new AMS technical developments for isobar suppression like the laser-negative ion interaction system at VERA promise to reduce elaborate chemistry in some cases, we should keep in mind that chemical knowledge will always be needed for a lot of interdisciplinary research projects.
Keywords: AMS
  • Lecture (others)
    VERA-Seminar, Institut für Isotopenphysik, Universität Wien, 28.03.2019, Wien, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 29013 - Permalink


SiCxNy:Fe films as a tunable ferromagnetic material with tailored conductivity
Pushkarev, R.; Fainer, N.; Kirienko, V.; Matsynin, A.; Nadolinnyy, V.; Merenkov, I.; Trubina, S.; Ehrenburg, S.; Kvashnina, K.;
Amorphous ferromagnetic materials with the variable composition are promising candidates for application in rapidlygrowing technological fields, such as spintronics. However, the significant downside of current state-of-art materials is a conductivity mismatch between injector and semiconductor which often is associated with the unavailability to control and precisely tailor magnetic properties and conductivity. We report on the synthesis of soft-magnetic SiCxNy:Fe films with the saturation magnetization of 20 e.m.u./cm3 and conductivity similar to the one of Si, which is crucial for possible applications.
XRD with synchrotron radiation and EXAFS revealed the complex composite structure of the films: crystals of Fe3Si, Fe5Si3, SiC and graphite are embedded into the amorphous matrix of SiCxNy. The variation of deposition conditions allowed us to separately control the magnetic properties through the iron concentration and the conductivity of the material through the amorphous SiCxNy matrix composition. The reported results revealed a significant potential of SiCxNy:Fe films as a prospective object for analysis of spin-polarized transport in amorphous semiconductors and for application in field of spintronics.

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 13.03.2020

Publ.-Id: 29011 - Permalink


Bridging the green gap: MOF hetero-multilayers assembled from porphyrinic linkers identified using computational screening
Haldar, R.; Batra, K.; Marschner, S. M.; Kuc, A. B.; Zahn, S.; Fischer, R. A.; Bräse, S.; Heine, T.; Wöll, C.;
In organic photovoltaics, porphyrins (PPs) are among the most promising compounds owing to their large absorption cross section, wide spectral range, and stability. Nevertheless, a precise adjustment of absorption band positions to reach a full coverage of the so-called green gap has not been achieved yet. We demonstrate that a tuning of the PP Q- and the Soret bands can be done using a computational approach where substitution patterns are optimized in silico. The Most promising candidate structures were then synthesized. The experimental UV/Vis data for the solvated compounds were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. By attaching further functionalities, which allow using the PP chromophores as linkers for the assembly of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we were additionally able to exploit packing effects resulting in pronounced red shifts, which allowed to further optimizing the photophysical properties of PP assemblies. Finally, we use a layer-by-layer method to assemble the PP linkers into surface-mounted MOFs (SURMOFs), thus obtaining high optical quality, homogeneous and crystalline multilayer films. Experimental results are in full accord with the calculations, demonstrating a huge potential of computational screening methods in the tailoring of MOF and SURMOF photophysical properties.

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 10.04.2020

Publ.-Id: 29010 - Permalink


Synthesis and Functionalization of Radium-doped Barium Sulfate Nanoparticles
Reissig, F.; Bauer, D.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.; Mamat, C.ORC
The radionuclides radium-223 and radium-224 are two alpha-emitting radionuclides with suitable properties for the TAT. To this date, radium-223 in form of [223Ra]radium chloride (Xofigo) is the only EMA and FDA approved alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Due to its calcimimetic behavior, the radium ion is a bone-seeking therapeutic. To extend the radiopharmaceutical potential of both radionuclides, novel carrier systems have to be developed. Therefore, it is appropriate to investigate different kinds of nanoparticles for their ability to transport radium. Especially, a barium sulfate matrix seems to be sufficient since the principle of co-precipitating the sulfates of radium and barium allows an easy and fast synthesis of radium-doped nanoparticles. Beyond the incorporation of alpha-emitting radionuclides like radium-223 and radium-224, the homologue radionuclide barium-131 can be incorporated as well. Barium 131 decays by electron capture and provides suitable properties for diagnostic applications in nuclear medicine. Radium-223/-224 and barium-131 form a matched pair for new theragnostic approaches. In our research group, we are developing simple methods for the synthesis of small radiolabeled radium/barium sulfate nanoparticles. Furthermore, we are investigating suitable surface functionalizations to attach biological targeting moieties.
Keywords: Bariumsulfat, Radium-224, Nanopartikel
  • Open Access LogoAbstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 50(2019)1, S38-S38
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmir.2019.03.117

Publ.-Id: 29009 - Permalink


Synthesis and Biological Investigation of A Novel Fluorine-18 Labeled Benzoimidazotriazine: A Potential Radioligand for In Vivo Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) PET imaging
Ritawidya, R.; Teodoro, R.; Wenzel, B.; Kranz, M.; Toussaint, M.; Dukic-Stefanovic, S.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Scheunemann, M.; Brust, P.;
Objectives: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A), an enzyme which hydrolyzes the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, is highly enriched in distinct areas of the brain. Accordingly, PDE2A is involved in important signaling pathways related to normal brain function but also to
neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology [1]. To enable the visualization of this protein in the brainwith PET, we developed a novel fluorine-18 radioligand for PDE2A.
Methods: Based on the benzoimidazotriazine (BIT) tricyclic scaffold, several fluorine-containing derivatives were synthesized via a multi-step synthesis route, and their inhibitory profiles were assessed by PDE isoenzyme-specific activity assays. The most potent and selective PDE2A ligand
BIT1 was radiolabeled via nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the corresponding 2-nitro pyridine precursor by [18F]fluoride in DMSO with thermal heating (Figure 1). [18F]BIT1 was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC (Reprosil-Pur C18-AQ column, 250 x 10 mm, 46% ACN/aqu. 20 mM
NH4OAc, flow 5.5 mL/min) followed by final purification with solid-phase extraction and formulation in isotonic saline containing 10% ethanol. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo PET studies (60 min dynamic PET imaging, nanoScan® PET/MRI, MEDISO, Budapest, Hungary) of [18F]BIT1 were performed using pig brain slices and female CD-1 mice, respectively. The in vivo metabolism of [18F]BIT1 was investigated by radio-HPLC analysis of mouse plasma and brain samples at 30 min p.i.
Results: From the series of BIT derivatives, BIT1 was selected as candidate for PET imaging of PDE2A based on the most suitable inhibitory potential and profile (IC50 PDE2A3 = 3.3 nM;16-fold selectivity over PDE10A). [18F]BIT1 was successfully synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 54 ± 2% (n = 3, EOB), molar activities of 155 – 175 GBq/μmol (EOS) and radiochemical purities of ≥99%. [18F]BIT1 was stable in saline, pig plasma, and n-octanol up to 60 min at 37 °C. The distribution pattern of [ 18F]BIT1 in pig brain cryosections corresponds to the spatial distribution of PDE2A with accumulation in the striatal regions caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens. Additionally, the displacement of [18F]BIT1 with BIT1 as well as TA1 (a potent PDE2A ligand) indicated saturability and selectivity of these binding sites. Uptake of [18F]BIT1 in the brain was shown by subsequent imaging studies in mice (SUVwhole brain = 0.7 at 5 min p.i.); however, more detailed analyses revealed nonspecific distribution of the tracer in the brain (78% parent compound at 30 min p.i.).
Conclusions: The potent and selective PDE2A inhibitor [18F]BIT1 binds in vitro in brain regions known to express PDE2A. Further structural modifications will be performed to develop radiotracers with improved brain uptake and target-selective accumulation in vivo.
Acknowledgement
1. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, SCHE 1825/3-1).
2. Scholarship Program for Research and Innovation in Science and Technology Project
(RISET-PRO)-Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (World
Bank Loan No: 8245-ID)

References
[1] S. Schröder, B. Wenzel, W. Deuther-Conrad, M. Scheunemann, P. Brust, Novel Radioligands
for Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography: An Update
on Developments Since 2012, Molecules 21 (2016) 650–685.
Keywords: Phosphodiesterases, positron emission tomography, molecular imaging, benzoimidazotriazines
  • Poster
    International Symposium in Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, 26.-31.05.2019, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 29007 - Permalink


Solving the Kuramoto Oscillator Model on Random Graphs
Kelling, J.ORC; Ódor, G.ORC; Gemming, G.
The problem of synchronization is recently attracting much attention because it relates to current topics in science. The dynamics of electrical grids can be affected by de-synchronizations between supplier and consumer nodes. In brains, synchronization of neuronal activity plays an important role in most functions. The Kuramoto model describes systems of coupled oscillators which, which exhibit non-trivial behavior on complex graphs, making it a suitable tool to study the synchronization dynamics of brains an other systems.

Numerical solution of Kuramoto type ordinary differential equations for long times and large systems requires strong computation power, due to the inherent chaoticity of this nonlinear system.

This poster presents a GPU implementation of a solver achieving large speedups over CPU on sparse random graphs. The key to performance here, is the presented memory layout which supplements the SIMT usage of our design.

# extended abstract
The problem of synchronization is recently attracting much attention because it relates to current topics in science. The dynamics of electrical grids can be affected by de-synchronizations between supplier and consumer nodes. In brains, synchronization of neuronal activity plays an important role in most functions.

Using the Kuramoto model[1], we are studying a range of problems, from basinc questions about synnchronisation transitions on disordered lattices and random graphs to problems mentioned in the short abstract. The model shows komplex behavior on human connectome graph, which allow the study of synchronization in the human brain[2]. An extension of the model allows modeling power grid networks[3,4].

Very intensive Simulations are required to obtain precise result especiall near criticality, which these systems show at synchronization transitons. To enable the study of these systems at sufficent precision, we implemented a GPU code, which we are presenting in this poster. To this end we used boost::odeint to get the standart numerical integartion out of the way an focus on the most performance critical aspect: the evaluation of the model itself. The key to our implementation is the choice of SIMT vectorization and a suitable memory layout, which are presented in the poster. The aspects also remain the same, when we add the extension to the second-order Kuramoto Model[2], which is required to model powergrids.

[1] Kuramoto, Y. In Araki, H. (ed.) Mathematical Problems in Theoretical Physics, vol. 39 of Lecture Notes in Physics, Berlin, 420
[2] Villegas, P., Moretti, P. & Muñoz, M. A. Scientific Reports 4, 5990 (2014).
[3] Filatrella, G., Nielsen, A. H. & Pedersen, N. F. Eur. Phys. J. B 61, 485–491 (2008)
[4] Ódor, G. & Hartmann, B. Phys. Rev. E 98, 022305 (2018).
Keywords: GPGPU, random graph, Kuramoto model

Publ.-Id: 29004 - Permalink


Observations of Coherent Optical Transition Radiation Interference Fringes Generated by Laser Plasma Accelerator Electron Beamlets
Lumpkin, A.; Laberge, M.; Rule, D.; Zgadzaj, R.; Hannasch, A.; Downer, M.; Zarini, O.; Bowers, B.; Irman, A.; Couperus, J.ORC; Debus, A.; Kohler, A.; Schramm, U.
We report initial observations of coherent optical transition radiation interferometry (COTRI) patterns generated by microbunched electrons from laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs). These are revealed in the angular distribution patterns obtained by a CCD camera with the optics focused at infinity, or the far-field, viewing a Wartski two-foil interferometer. The beam divergences deduced by comparison to results from an analytical model are sub-mrad, and they are smaller than the ensemble vertical beam divergences measured at the downstream screen of the electron spectrometer. The transverse sizes of the beamlet images were obtained with focus at the object, or near field, and were in the few-micron regime as reported by LaBerge et al. [8]. The enhancements in intensity are significant relative to incoherent optical transition radiation (OTR) enabling multiple cameras to view each shot. We present two-foil interferometry effects coherently enhanced in both the 100-TW LPA at 215 MeV energy at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the PW LPA at 1.0-GeV energy at the University of Texas-Austin. A transverse emittance estimate is reported for a microbunched beamlet example generated within the plasma bubble.
Keywords: LPA, microbunching, COTR, beam size, divergence
  • Contribution to proceedings
    18th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC 2018), 12.-17.08.2018, Breckenridge, CO, USA
    2018 IEEE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC): IEEE, 978-1-5386-7721-6
    DOI: 10.1109/AAC.2018.8659381

Publ.-Id: 29001 - Permalink


Time efficient scatter correction for time-of-flight PET: the immediate scatter approximation
Nikulin, P.ORC; Maus, J.ORC; Hofheinz, F.ORC; Lougovski, A.; van den Hoff, J.ORC
Utilization of Time-Of-Flight (TOF) information allows to improve image quality and convergence rate in iterative PET image reconstruction. In order to obtain quantitatively correct images accurate scatter correction (SC) is required that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of scatter events over the TOF bins. However, existing simplified TOF-SC algorithms frequently exhibit limited accuracy while the currently accepted gold standard — the TOF extension of the single scatter simulation approach (TOF-SSS) — is computationally demanding and can substantially slow down the reconstruction. In this paper we propose and evaluate a new accelerated TOF-SC algorithm in order to improve this situation. The key idea of the algorithm is the use of an immediate scatter approximation (ISA) for scatter time distribution calculation which speeds up estimation of the required TOF scatter by a factor of up to five in comparison to TOF-SSS. The proposed approach was evaluated in dedicated phantom measurements providing challenging high activity contrast conditions as well as in representative clinical patient data sets. Our results show that ISA is a viable alternative to TOF-SSS. The reconstructed images are in excellent quantitative agreement with those obtained with TOF-SSS while overall reconstruction time can be reduced by a factor of two in whole-body studies, even when using a listmode reconstruction not optimized for speed.
Keywords: PET, Scatter Correction, Immediate Scatter Approximation, Image Reconstruction, TOF, SSS, TOF-SSS, TOF-SC, ISA

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Publ.-Id: 28997 - Permalink


Protecting Pulsed High-Power Lasers with Real-Time Object Detection
Kelling, J.; Gebhardt, R.; Helbig, U.; Bock, S.; Schramm, U.; Juckeland, G.;
In Petawatt laser systems, firing at 10Hz, suddenly appearing scatterers can damage components. Damage(-spreading) can be avoided by suspending operation immediately on occurrence of such an event. This poster presents our approach for the automatic detection of critical failure states in real-time, employing state-of-the-art object localization on intensity profiles of the laser beam.

Learn, how we fitted the You Look Only Once (YOLO) approach, which is suited to low-latency object detection, to our problem and how we adapted the required multi-step training protocol to the available experimental data.
In this application accuracy trumps high recall, as false positives would severely impede productivity or even render our system useless. This had us refrain from general anomaly detection and thus we also present different ways in which we tune the object-detection for minimal false-positive rates.

# extended abstract
High-power lasers are operated at our research center for investigations of exotic states of matter and medical applications, among others. This project to improve the automatic shutdown/interlock system of two lasers (one in operation, one currently under construction) has the goal of reducing the probability of, potentially expensive, damage-spreading scenarios, while at the same time avoiding false alarms. In order to achieve high precision, we train for high recall only for known indicators, instead of using anomaly detection.

After we presented a proof-of-concept for this type of failure-state-detection at GTC 2018, where the main challenge was in dealing with a far too small dataset, we are now working on a pure deep-learning approach driven by systematic experimental data. In the new design, intended for production use, the classification takes place on differences between a running average of non-signaling images and the current shot. This is required, because no images can be obtained which can be classified as "good" without context. In order to achieve fast object-detection, to highlight potential problems for the operator, the you look only once (YOLO) approach[1], which we modify by removing the final layers for bounding-box prediction and train the network to directly produce an expressive feature map (lazy YOLO).

From this talk, the audience can learn how we adapted the well-known YOLO approach to our real-world application, from the employed network to the multi-step training protocol. Another topic is the design for short response times, to which end we employ Caffe, OpenCV on GPU and use C++ as main programming language instead of python.

[1] Redmon, J., Farhadi, A.: YOLO9000: Better, Faster, Stronger, ArXiv e-prints, 2016
Keywords: Image Classification, Caffe, automatic Laser-safety shutdown, Object Detection

Publ.-Id: 28992 - Permalink


Simultaneous 8.2 keV phase-contrastimaging and 24.6 keV X-ray diffraction fromshock-compressed matter at the LCLS
Seiboth, F.; Fletcher, L. B.; Mcgonegle, D.; Anzellini, S.; Dresselhaus-Cooper, L. E.; Frost, M.; Galtier, E.; Goede, S.; Harmand, M.; Lee, H. J.; Levitan, A. L.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nam, I.; Ozaki, N.; Rödel, M.; Schropp, A.; Spindloe, C.; Sun, P.; Wark, J. S.; Hastings, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Mcbride, E. E.;
In this work, we demonstrate simultaneous phase-contrast imaging (PCI) and X-ray diffractionfrom shock compressed matter at the Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation, at the LinacCoherent Light Source (LCLS). We utilize the chromaticity from compound refractive X-ray lensesto focus the 24.6 keV 3rd order undulator harmonic of the LCLS to a spot size of 5lm on target toperform X-ray diffraction. Simultaneous PCI from the 8.2 keV fundamental X-ray beam is used tovisualize and measure the transient properties of the shock wave over a 500lm field of view.Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to extend the reciprocal space measurements by 5 Angstroem, rel-ative to the fundamental X-ray energy, by utilizing X-ray diffraction from the 3rd harmonic of theLCLS.
Keywords: Phase Contrast Imaging, PCI, Matter in Extreme Conditions, MEC, LCLS, shock compression, x-ray diffraction, XFEL, germanium, shock, release

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Publ.-Id: 28990 - Permalink


A Polka-Dot Pattern Emerges in Superfluid Helium
Wosnitza, J.;
A surprising two-dimensional pattern appears in superfluid helium-3 when the liquid is confined to a micrometer-thick cell and exposed to a magnetic field.

Publ.-Id: 28989 - Permalink


Low anisotropic upper critical fields in SmO1−xFxFeAs thin films with a layered hybrid structure
Haindl, S.; Kampert, E.; Sasase, M.; Hiramatsu, H.; Hosono, H.;
We report on the upper critical fields in SmO1−xFxFeAs thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. With an F-content gradient along their thickness, the films could be described approximately as layered two-phase hybrid structures comprised of one superconducting layer and one antiferromagnetic layer. An analytical characterization of different thin film samples by Auger electron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy is provided and structural defects, such as antiphase boundaries, were confirmed for films grown at lower deposition temperatures. Electrical transport measurements in pulsed magnetic fields yielded upper critical fields higher than 80 T with an anisotropy γHc2 ≤ 2.25.

Publ.-Id: 28988 - Permalink


Photogeneration of Manganese(III) from Luminescent Manganese(II) Complexes with Thiacalixarene Ligands: Synthesis, Structures and Photophysical Properties
O'Toole, N.; Lecourt, C.; Suffren, Y.; Hauser, A.; Khrouz, L.; Jeanneau, E.; Brioude, A.; Luneau, D.; Desroches, C.;
The photophysical properties of the compound [(ThiaSO₂)(MnII)₂(DMF)₄(H₂O)₂] (2), ThiaSO₂ = p-tert-butylsulfonylcalix[4]arene, are presented and compared to the ones of [(ThiaSO₂)₂(MnII)₄F]K (1). The orange luminescence of 2 is attributed, as for 1, to the MnII centred ⁴T₁→⁶A₁ transition and shows, for this type of complex, the weak influence of the Mn²⁺ coordination and ThiaSO₂ conformation on this luminescence, the temperature and pressure dependence and quenching bymolecular dioxygen of which are reported for 2. The latter is attributed to energy transfer from the ⁴T₁ state exciting dioxygen to its ⁱΣ⁺ᵍ state and is responsible for the photosynthesis of the [(ThiaSO₂)(MnIII)(DMF)₂]Na (3) complex in DMF solution from 1 or 2. This reaction was studied by UV/Visible and EPR spectroscopy. The molecular structure and EPR spectroscopy of 3 are also presented.
Keywords: Thiacalixarene, Luminescence, Photooxidation, Manganese

Publ.-Id: 28984 - Permalink


Strong and Selective Ni(II) Extractants Based on Synergistic Mixtures of Sulfonic Acids and Bidentate N-Heterocycles
Roebuck, J. W.; Bailey, P. J.; Doidge, E. D.; Fischmann, A. J.; Healy, M. R.; Nichol, G. S.; O'Toole, N.; Pelser, M.; Sassi, T.; Sole, K. C.; Tasker, P. A.;
Bidentate 5,5ʹ-alkyl-3,3ʹ-bi-1H-pyrazole and 2-(5-alkyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine ligands, L⁵ and L⁶ , have been shown to be stronger synergists for the solvent extraction of Ni(II) from sulfate solutions by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSAH) than the structurally related tridentate ligand 2,6-bis-[5-n-nonylpyrazol-3-yl]pyridine, L¹ , previously reported by Zhou and Pesic. The bidentate ligands are highly selective, providing the option of sequential recovery of Ni(II) and Co(II) and rejection of other metals commonly found in the liquors resulting from the acidic sulfate leaching of laterite ores. They were the strongest synergists identified in a screening carried out on 18 types of bidentate and tridentate N-heterocyclic ligands, including the recently reported 2-(2ʹ-pyridyl)imidazoles, L⁹⁻¹¹ . X-ray crystal structures of Ni(II) complexes of model ligands for L⁵ and L⁶ , having t-butyl rather than long-chain alkyl groups and with 2-naphthalene sulfonate rather than DNNSA⁻ as counteranions, show that the [Ni(L)₃ ]²⁺ complexes form strong H-bonds from the pyrazolyl NH groups to the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate groups, an arrangement that will stabilize [Ni(L)₃ ·(DNNSA)₂ ] assemblies and shield their polar functionalities from diluent molecules of the water-immiscible phase. UV–visible spectra and mass spectrometry provide evidence for the strong synergists displacing all water molecules from the inner coordination sphere of the Ni(II) ions.
Keywords: Ni recovery, laterite processing, synergistic solvent extraction, outer-sphere bonding, supramolecular chemistry

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  • Secondary publication expected from 02.11.2019

Publ.-Id: 28983 - Permalink


Performance enhancement and characterization of liquid displacement battery having faradaic membrane
Mushtaq, K.; Zhao, J.; Weber, N.; Sadoway, D.;
Übersicht über die Forschungsarbeiten zu "Liquid Displacement Batteries" am MIT, USA.
  • Poster
    14th Workshop on Reactive Metal Processing, 15.03.2019, Boston, USA

Publ.-Id: 28977 - Permalink


Compliance-current-modulated resistive switching with multi-level resistance states in single-crystalline LiNbO3 thin film
Pan, X.; Shuai, Y.; Wu, C.; Luo, W.; Sun, X.; Zeng, H.; Guo, H.; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, S.; Böttger, R.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, W.; Schmidt, H.;
Resistive switching behavior of a ca. 600 nm thick single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LNO) film has been investigated after vacuum-annealing. Oxygen vacancies (OVs) were generated in the LNO thin film during the annealing process. After electro-forming, filamentary resistive switching has been observed, and the performance of switching can be tuned by the compliance current level. Multi-level resistance states including four different low resistance states, were realized by setting different compliance currents, revealing that both concentration of OVs within the conductive filament and the geometry of the conductive filament influence the switching behavior. The conduction mechanisms of the charge transport during switching is discussed based on the current-voltage curves.

Publ.-Id: 28976 - Permalink


Proton irradiation induced defects in β-Ga2O3: A combined EPR and theory study
Bardeleben, H.; Zhou, S.; Gerstmann, U.; Skachkov, D.; Lambrecht, W.; Ho, Q.; Deák, P.;
Proton irradiation of both n-type and semi-insulating bulk samples of β-Ga2O3 leads to the formation of two paramagnetic defects with spin S = 1/2 and monoclinic point symmetry. Their high introduction rates indicate them to be primary irradiation induced defects. The first electron spin resonance (EPR1) has a g-tensor with principal values of gb = 2.0313, gc = 2.0079, and ga* = 2.0025 and quasi-isotropic superhyperfine interaction of 13G with two equivalent Ga neighbors. Under low temperature photoexcitation, this defect is quenched and replaced by a different metastable spin S = 1/2 center of comparable intensity. This second defect (EPR2) has similar principal g-values of gb = 2.0064, gc = 2.0464, and ga* = 2.0024 and shows equally superhyperfine interaction with two equivalent Ga atoms. This EPR2 defect is stable up to T = 100 K, whereas for T > 100 K the initial defect is recovered. Density functional theory calculations of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of various intrinsic defects are carried out using the gauge including projector augmented wave method in order to determine the microscopic structure of these defects. The intuitive models of undistorted gallium monovacancies or self-trapped hole centers are not compatible with neither of these two defects.

Publ.-Id: 28975 - Permalink


Double-peak specific heat and spin freezing in the spin-2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet FeAl2Se4
Li, K.; Jin, S.; Guo, J.; Xu, Y.; Su, Y.; Feng, E.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Ying, T.; Li, S.; Wang, Z.; Chen, G.; Chen, X.;
We report the properties of a triangular lattice iron-chalcogenide antiferromagnet FeAl2Se4.The spin susceptibility reveals a significant antiferromagnetic interaction with a Curie-Weiss temperature Θ_CW≃−200K and a spin-2 local moment. Despite a large spin and a large ∣Θ_CW∣, the low-temperature behaviors are incompatible with conventional classical magnets. No long-range order is detected down to 0.4 K. Similar to the well-known spin-1 magnet NiGa2S4, the specific heat of FeAl2Se4 exhibits a double-peak structure and a T2 power law at low temperatures, which are attributed to the underlying quadrupolar spin correlations and the Halperin-Saslow modes, respectively. The spin freezing occurs at ∼14 K, below which the relaxation dynamics is probed by the ac susceptibility. Our results are consistent with the early theory for the spin-1 system with Heisenberg and biquadratic spin interactions. We argue that the early proposal of the quadrupolar correlation and gauge glass dynamics may be well extended to FeAl2Se4. Our results provide useful insights about the magnetic properties of frustrated quantum magnets with high spins.

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Publ.-Id: 28974 - Permalink


Oxyhydride Nature of Rare-Earth-Based Photochromic Thin Films
Cornelius, S.; Colombi, G.; Nafezarefi, F.; Schreuders, H.; Heller, R.; Munnik, F.; Dam, B.;
Thin films of rare-earth (RE)−oxygen−hydrogen compounds prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering show a unique color-neutral photochromic effect at ambient conditions. While their optical properties have been studied extensively, the understanding of the relationship between photochromism, chemical composition, and structure is limited. Here we establish a ternary RE−O−H composition-phase diagram based on chemical composition analysis by a combination of Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection. The photochromic films are identified as oxyhydrides with a wide composition range described by the formula REOxH3−2x where 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.5. We propose an anion-disordered structure model based on the face-centered cubic unit cell where the O2− and H− anions occupy tetrahedral and octahedral interstices. The optical band gap varies continuously with the anion ratio, demonstrating the potential of band gap tuning for reversible optical switching applications.

Publ.-Id: 28973 - Permalink


Extension of the nodal code DYN3D to SFR applications
Nikitin, E.;
DYN3D is a well-established Light Water Reactor (LWR) simulation tool and is being extended for safety analyses of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. This thesis focuses on the first stage of the development process, that is, the extension and application of DYN3D for steady-state and transient SFR calculations on reactor core level. In contrast to LWRs, the SFR behavior is especially sensitive to thermal expansions of the reactor components. Therefore, a new thermal-mechanical module accounting for thermal expansions is implemented into DYN3D. At first step, this module is capable of treating two important thermal expansion effects occurring within the core, namely axial expansion of fuel rods and radial expansion of diagrid. In order to perform nodal calculations with DYN3D, pre-generated homogenized few-group cross sections (XS) are necessarily needed. Therefore, prior to the development of thermal expansion models, a general methodology for XS generation is established for SFR nodal calculations based on the use of the Monte Carlo code Serpent. The new methodological developments presented in this thesis are verified against the Monte Carlo solutions of Serpent. Two SFR cores are used for testing: the large oxide core of the OECD/NEA benchmark and a smaller core from the Phenix end-of-life tests. Finally, the extended DYN3D is validated against selected IAEA benchmark tests on the Phenix end-of-life experiments that contain both steady-state and transient calculations. The contribution to the SFR-related developments at the HZDR, as presented in this thesis, makes it possible of performing steady-state and transient calculations for SFRs on reactor core level by using DYN3D. With this study, the basis of the next stage of DYN3D developments is established, that is, the up-scale of SFR analysis to system level can continue by coupling with a sodium capable thermal-hydraulic system code.
Keywords: SFR ; thermal expansion ; group constant generation ; nodal methods ; spatial kinetics ; Monte Carlo ; Serpent ; DYN3D

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Publ.-Id: 28972 - Permalink


Fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE
Kögler, T.ORC

This dataset includes the processed data of the fast neutron-induced fission of Pu(242) experiement performed in November 2014 at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE which was published in T. Kögler et al., Phys. Rev. C 99, 024604

It contains the absolute (Pu242_nfis_Koegler_2019.csv) and relative (Pu242_U235_nfis_Koegler_2019.csv) cross section data ranging from 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. The cross section data is given in comma separated ASCII files, as well as in a MS Excel-Sheet.

The columns of the tables are defined as follows:

  1. EN...neutron kinetic energy from the measured time of flight (ToF)
  2. EN-ERR...uncertainty of neutron kinetic energy = 0.5*(ToF bin width) = 1 ns
  3. DATA...cross section data
  4. ERR-S...statistical uncertainty of the cross section data
  5. ERR-SY...systematic uncertainty of the cross section data
  6. ERR-T...combined standard uncertainty of the cross section data
  7. ERR-0...relative uncertainty counting
  8. ERR-1...relative uncertainty normalization
  9. ERR-2...relative uncertainty reference cross section
  10. ERR-3...relative uncertainty FF detection inefficiency
  11. ERR-4...relative stat. uncertainty scattering correction H19
  12. ERR-5...relative sys. uncertainty scattering correction H19
  13. ERR-6...relative stat. uncertainty scattering correction PuFC
  14. ERR-7...relative sys. uncertainty scattering correction PuFC

Additionally, a root (see https://root.cern.ch/) file is supplied, including the determined cross sections and all nessessary data to reconstruct the experiment. This includes the measured quantities, reference data, correction factors, evaluated cross sections etc.

To have the whole functionality of the root file, additional libary files (libGo4UserAnalysis.rootmaplibGo4UserAnalysis.so and libGo4UserAnalysis_rdict.pcm) are also given here.

Keywords: neutron-induced fission; plutonium-242; cross section measurements; nuclear reactions; nucleon induced nuclear reactions; nELBE
Related publications
Fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) … (Id 28878) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
Die Bestimmung des neutroneninduzierten Spaltquerschnitts … (Id 26338) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-03-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.117
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Publ.-Id: 28970 - Permalink


Supplementary Data: Spectral Control via Multi-Species Effects in PW-Class Laser-Ion Acceleration
Huebl, A.ORC; Rehwald, M.ORC; Obst-Huebl, L.ORC; Ziegler, T.ORC; Garten, M.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Zeil, K.; Cowan, T. E.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC; Schramm, U.ORC; Kluge, T.ORC

Supplementary materials for our paper "Spectral Control via Multi-Species Effects in PW-Class Laser-Ion Acceleration".

Additional high-resolution, raw HDF5 files using the openPMD standard (DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1167843) increase simulation output data to 4.7 TByte and are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. 

Keywords: LPA; laser-ion acceleration; TNSA; multi-species; cryogenic target; particle-in-cell
Related publications
Spectral Control via Multi-Species Effects in PW-Class … (Id 28962) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-03-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.115
    License: CC-BY-SA-4.0

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Publ.-Id: 28969 - Permalink


Ion irradiation driven changes of magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co films sandwiched between Au or Pt covers
Mazalski, P.; Kurant, Z.; Sveklo, I.; Dobrogowski, W.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Wawro, A.; Maziewski, A.
Modifications of magnetic anisotropy of 30 keV Ga + ion irradiated ultrathin Co films sandwiched between Au or Pt buffer and capping layers are investigated as a function of magnetic layer thickness, d Co , and the ion fluence, F. Maps (d Co , F) of saturation fields have been derived from local magnetooptical polar Kerr effect (PMOKE) measurements. The areas with increased remanent magnetization and/or saturation fields, which are directly related to the uniaxial anisotropy, adopt linear shapes for the two branches in the maps. They are very distinct, especially for the Pt/Co/Pt system irradiated at lower and higher fluence. Replacement of Pt with Au in the buffer layer results in minor influence on the magnetization properties of the irradiated trilayers. Au as a capping layer significantly decreases the anisotropy in the branch appearing at lower fluence. In the Au/Pt/Au sandwich, a severe reduction of induced anisotropy is observed in both branches. The proposed phenomenological model describing experimentally investigated magnetic anisotropies enables separation of surface and volume contributions to both branches of enhanced anisotropy.
Keywords: Chemical driving force demixing, Ion beam irradiation, Magnetooptics, Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

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Publ.-Id: 28967 - Permalink


SPECT-Untersuchungen mit dem 123 I-markierten Dopamintransporter-Liganden FP-CIT (DaTSCAN):DGN-Handlungsempfehlung (S1-Leitlinie)
Tatsch, K.; Buchert, R.; Bartenstein, P.; Barthel, H.; Boecker, H.; Brust, P.; Drzezga, A.; La Fougère, C.; Gründer, G.; Grünwald, F.; Krause, B.-J.; Kuwert, T.; Langen, K.-J.; Rominger, A.; Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Meyer, P. T.;
Die S1-Leitlinie soll bei der Indikationsstellung, Durchführung, Interpretation und Befundung von SPECT-Untersuchungen des Dopamintransporters (DAT) mit DaTSCANTM unterstützen.
Gegenüber der Vorgängerversion von 2007 berücksichtigt die vorliegende Aktualisierung und Überarbeitung die neuere wissenschaftliche Literatur, zwischenzeitlich veröffentlichte Guidelines der europäischen (EANM) und amerikanischen Fachgesellschaften (SNM), sowie die aktuelle Fassung der S3-Leitlinie „Idiopathisches Parkinson-Syndrom“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie. Zudem finden neue technische Möglichkeiten Berücksichtigung.
  • Nuklearmedizin 58(2019)1, 5-16

Publ.-Id: 28965 - Permalink


Source term calculation and validation for F-18 production with a cyclotron for medical applications at HZDR
Konheiser, J.; Mueller, S. E.ORC; Magin, A.; Naumann, B.; Ferrari, A.ORC

Data contained in Fig. 2 of the
publication

Keywords: Cyclotron; Source term; MCNP6; FLUKA
Related publications
Source term calculation and validation for F-18 production … (Id 28971) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-03-04
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.113
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Publ.-Id: 28964 - Permalink


Effect of four lanthanides onto the viability of two mammalian kidney cell lines
Heller, A.; Barkleit, A.ORC; Bok, F.; Wober, J.
Exposure to lanthanides (Ln) poses a serious health risk to animals and humans. Since Ln are mainly excreted with the urine, we investigated the effect of La, Ce, Eu, and Yb exposure on renal rat NRK-52E and human HEK-293 cells for 8, 24 and 48 h in vitro. Cell viability studies using the XTT assay and microscopic investigations were combined with solubility and speciation studies using ICP-MS and TRLFS. Thermodynamic modeling was applied to predict the speciation of Ln in the cell culture medium. All Ln show a concentration- and time-dependent effect on both cell lines with Ce being the most potent element. In cell culture medium, the Ln are completely soluble and most probably complexed with proteins from fetal bovine serum. The results of this study underline the importance of combining biological, chemical, and spectroscopic methods in studying the effect of Ln on cells in vitro and may contribute to the improvement of the current risk assessment for Ln in the human body. Furthermore, they demonstrate that Ln seem to have no effect on renal cells in vitro at environmental trace concentrations. Nevertheless, especially Ce has the potential for harmful effects at elevated concentrations observed in mining and industrial areas.
Keywords: f-elements; renal cells; cytotoxicity; XTT; time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy; thermodynamic modeling

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  • Secondary publication expected from 22.02.2020

Publ.-Id: 28960 - Permalink


Transparent Conductive Tantalum Doped Tin Oxide as Selectively Solar-Transmitting Coating for High Temperature Solar Thermal Applications
Lungwitz, F.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Janke, D.; Schumann, E.; Wenisch, R.; Gemming, S.; Krause, M.ORC
The transparent conductive oxide (TCO) SnO2:Ta is developed as a selectively solar-transmitting coating for concentrated solar power (CSP) absorbers. Upon covering with an antireflective layer, a calculated absorptivity of 95 % and an emissivity of 30 % are achieved for the model configuration of SnO2:Ta on top of a perfect black body (BB). High-temperature stability of the developed TCO up to 1073 K is shown in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The universality of the concept is demonstrated by transforming silicon and glassy carbon from non-selective into solar-selective absorbers by depositing the TCO on top of them. Finally, the energy conversion efficiencies of SnO2:Ta on top of a BB and an ideal non-selective BB absorber are extensively compared as a function of solar concentration factor C and absorber temperature TH. Equal CSP efficiencies can be achieved by the TCO on BB configuration with approximately 50 % lower solar concentration. This improvement could be used to reduce the number of mirrors in a solar plant, and thus, the levelized costs of electricity for CSP technology.
Keywords: concentrated solar power, solar thermal electricity, solar-selective transmitter, transparent conductive oxide, high-temperature in situ characterization

Publ.-Id: 28957 - Permalink


Critical dynamics of the Kuramoto model on sparse random networks
Juhász, R.; Kelling, J.; Ódor, G.;
We consider the Kuramoto model on sparse random networks such as the Erdős-Rényi graph or its combination with a regular two-dimensional lattice and study the dynamical scaling behavior of the model at the synchronization transition by large-scale, massively parallel numerical integration. By this method, we obtain an estimate of critical coupling strength more accurate than obtained earlier by finite-size scaling of the stationary order parameter. Our results confirm the compatibility of the correlation-size and the temporal correlation-length exponent with the mean-field universality class. However, the scaling of the order parameter exhibits corrections much stronger than those of the Kuramoto model with all-to-all coupling, making thereby an accurate estimate of the order-parameter exponent hard. We find furthermore that, as a qualitative difference to the model with all-to-all coupling, the effective critical exponents involving the order-parameter exponent, such as the effective decay exponent characterizing the critical desynchronization dynamics show a non-monotonic approach toward the asymptotic value. In the light of these results, the technique of finite-size scaling of limited size data for the Kuramoto model on sparse graphs has to be treated cautiously.
Keywords: Networks, Kuramoto Model, Synchronization

Publ.-Id: 28954 - Permalink


Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS): Overview on principles and best practices
Bergner, F.ORC; Ulbricht, A.
This talk provides an introduction into the method of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), elements of good practice for the application and analysis as well as selected applications in the field of nuclear materials.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee Preparatory meeting: Best practices for nuclear materials characterisation techniques, 11.-12.02.2019, Boulogne-Billancourt, France

Publ.-Id: 28953 - Permalink


Desynchronization dynamics of the Kuramoto model on connectome graphs
Ódor, G.; Kelling, J.;
The time dependent behavior of the Kuramoto model, describing synchronization, has been studied numerically on small-world graphs. We determined the desynchronziation behavior, by solving this model via the 4th order Runge-Kutta algorithm on a large, weighted human connectome network and compared the results with those of a two-dimensional lattice, with additional random, long-range links. In the latter case a mean-field critical transition is expected and here we provide numerical results for the synchonization/desynchonization duration distributions. We find power-law tails, characterized by a critical exponent τd≃1.6(1). In case of the connectome we assumed a homeostatic state, by the application of normalized incoming weights. Since this graph has a topological dimension d<4 a real synchronization phase transition is not possible in the thermodynamic limit, still we could locate a transition between partially synchronized and desynchronized states. At this crossover point we observe power-law--tailed desynchronization durations, with τt≃1.2(1), away from experimental values for the brain. Additionally, we changed the signs of outgoing weights of 20% of randomly selected nodes, to mimic a model with inhibitory interactions. In this case the at the crossover point we found τt≃1.9(2), which is in the range of human brain experiments.
Keywords: networks, brain, synchronization, kuramoto model
Related publications
Kuramoto Model on KKI18 connectome (Id 29065) HZDR-primary research data are used by this publication

Publ.-Id: 28952 - Permalink


Instability of precession driven Kelvin modes: Evidence of a detuning effect
Herault, J.; Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.;
We report an experimental study of the instability of a nearly resonant Kelvin mode forced by precession in a cylindrical vessel. The instability is detected above a critical precession ratio via the appearance of peaks in the temporal power spectrum of pressure fluctuations measured at the end walls of the cylinder. The corresponding frequencies can be grouped into frequency sets satisfying resonance conditions with the forced Kelvin mode. We show that one set forms a triad that is associated with a parametric resonance of Kelvin modes. We observe a significant frequency variation of the unstable modes with the precession ratio, which can be explained by a detuning mechanism due to the slowdown of the background flow. By introducing a semianalytical model, we show that the departure of the flow from the solid body rotation leads to a modification of the dispersion relation of Kelvin modes and to a detuning of the resonance condition. The second frequency set includes a very low frequency and does not exhibit the properties of a parametric resonance between Kelvin modes. Interestingly, this frequency set always emerges before the occurrence of the triadic resonances, i.e., at a lower precession ratio, which implies that it may correspond to a different type of instability. We discuss the relevance of an instability of a geostrophic mode described by Kerswell [Kerswell, J. Fluid Mech. 382, 283 (1999)], although other mechanisms cannot be completely ruled out.
Keywords: Precession Dynamo DRESDYN

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Publ.-Id: 28944 - Permalink


Mass separated Focused Ion Beams from Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources
Bischoff, L.ORC; Mazarov, P.; Pilz, W.; Klingner, N.; Bauerdick, S.; Gierak, J.
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing has been developed into a well-established and still promising technique in nearly all fields of nano-technology in particular for direct patterning and proto-typing on the µm scale and well below. Beside new ion source developments based on gas field emission (GFIS), on ionic liquids (ILIS), on magneto-optical traps (MOTIS) or on ICP or ECR sources for Xe-FIB as well as the nearly exclusively used gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS), the replacement of Ga by alloys therein with an adapted FIB optics design can open bright field of new employments. Local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL) in the µm- or nm range can benefit from ion species purposely selected in parallel to gallium or noble gases. Therefore, exploring the Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) potential represent a promising alternative to expand the global FIB application fields. Especially, IBL as direct, resistless and three-dimensional patterning enables a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Thanks to this nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are made available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources as an alternative technology feasible for nano patterning challenges e.g. to tune electrical, optical, magnetic or mechanic properties.
In this contribution the operation principle, the preparation and testing technology as well as prospective domains for modern FIB applications will be presented. As an example we will introduce a Ga35Bi60Li5 LMAIS in detail. It enables high resolution imaging with light Li ions and sample modification with Ga or heavy polyatomic Bi clusters, all coming from one ion source.
L. Bischoff, P. Mazarov, L. Bruchhaus, and J. Gierak, Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 021101 (2016).
Keywords: Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source, Focused Ion Beam, Mass spectra, Cluster ions
  • Lecture (Conference)
    PicoFIB - The International Network for gas Ion Patterning and Microscopy, 13.02.2019, London, Great Britain

Publ.-Id: 28939 - Permalink


Plasmonic field guided patterning of ordered colloidal nanostructures
Huang, X.-P.; Chen, K.; Qi, M.-X.; Zhang, P.-F.; Li, Y.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, S.;
Nano-patterned colloidal plasmonic metasurfaces are capable of manipulation of light at the subwavelength scale. However, achieving controllable lithography-free nano-patterning for colloidal metasurfaces still remains a major challenge, limiting their full potential in building advanced plasmonic devices. Here, we demonstrate plasmonic field guided patterning (PFGP) of ordered colloidal metallic nano-patterns using orthogonal laser standing evanescent wave (LSEW) fields. We achieved colloidal silver nano-patterns with a large area of 30 mm² in <10 min by using orthogonal LSEW fields with a non-focused ultralow fluence irradiation of 0.25 W cm⁻². The underlying mechanism of the formation of the nanopatterns is the light-induced polarization of the nanoparticles (NPs), which leads to a dipole-dipole interaction for stabilizing the nano-pattern formation, as confirmed by polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This optical field-directed self-assembly of NPs opens an avenue for designing and fabricating reconfigurable colloidal nano-patterned metasurfaces in large areas.
Keywords: ordered colloidal nanostructures, plasmonic field guided patterning, polarization stabilizing

Publ.-Id: 28934 - Permalink


Zero-field dynamics stabilized by in-plane shape anisotropy in MgO-based spin-torque oscillators
Kowalska, E.ORC; Kákay, A.ORC; Fowley, C.; Sluka, V.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Deac, A. M.
Here, we demonstrate numerically that shape anisotropy in MgO-based spin-torque nano-oscillators consisting of an out-of-plane magnetized free layer and an in-plane polarizer is necessary to stabilize out-of-plane magnetization precession without the need of external magnetic fields. As the in-plane anisotropy is increased, a gradual tilting of the magnetization towards the in-plane easy direction is introduced, favouring zero-field dynamics over static in-plane states. Above a critical value, zero-field dynamics are no longer observed. The optimum ratio of in-plane shape to out-of-plane uniaxial anisotropy, for which large angle out-of-plane zero-field dynamics occur within the widest current range, is reported.
Keywords: spin-torque nano-oscillator (STNO), MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions, tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), spin dynamics
Related publications
Tunnel magnetoresistance angular and bias dependence … (Id 27885) is supplemented by this publication

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Publ.-Id: 28927 - Permalink


Singlet ground state in the alternating spin-1/2 chain compound NaVOAsO4
Arjun, U.; Ranjith, K. M.; Koo, B.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Skourski, Y.; Baenitz, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Nath, R.;
We present the synthesis and a detailed investigation of structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline NaVOAsO4 by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetization, electron spin resonance (ESR), and 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements as well as density-functional band structure calculations. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, ESR intensity, and NMR line shift could be described well using an alternating spin-1/2 chain model with the exchange coupling J/kB ≃ 52 K and an alternation parameter α ≃ 0.65. From the high-field magnetization measured at T = 1.5 K, the critical field of the gap closing is found to be Hc ≃ 16 T, which corresponds to the zero-field spin gap of Δ0/kB ≃ 21.4 K. Both NMR shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate show an activated behavior at low temperatures, further confirming the singlet ground state. The spin chains do not coincide with the structural chains, whereas the couplings between the spin chains are frustrated. Because of a relatively small spin gap, NaVOAsO4 is a promising compound for further experimental studies under high magnetic fields.

Publ.-Id: 28924 - Permalink


Gaussian and critical scalings in the magnetoconductivity fluctuations of Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor
Dias, F. T.; Vieira, V. N.; Oliveira, C. P.; Silva, D. L.; Mesquita, F.; Lima, J. R.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E.; Pureur, P.;
We have studied the superconducting transition and the magnetoconductivity fluctuations in the polycrystalline Y3Ba5Cu8O18 (Y358) superconductor under magnetic fields upto 1 T. A two-step superconducting transition could be observed as a consequence of the granular structure of the sample, which is strongly affected by the applied magnetic field. Gaussian and genuine critical 3D-XY-E fluctuation regimes were identified. A critical scaling regime beyond 3D-XY was identified for magnetic fields upto 0.25 T, corresponding to the averaged exponent 0.19 and suggesting the occurrence of the weak first-order character of the superconducting transition. In the approximation to the zero resistance a power law regime could be observed, corresponding to the averaged exponent 2.37, which are smaller than previously reported for the Y358 system. Our results are discussed in terms of the Y358 and Yba2Cu3O7−δ (Y123) results in the literature.

Publ.-Id: 28923 - Permalink


Magnetization beyond the Ising limit of Ho2Ti2O7
Opherden, L.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Uhlarz, M.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Miyata, A.; Portugall, O.; Ishii, I.; Suzuki, T.; Kaneko, H.; Suzuki, H.; Wonsitza, J.;
We report that the local Ising anisotropy in pyrochlore oxides—the crucial requirement for realizing the spin-ice state—can be broken by means of high magnetic fields. For the case of the well-established classical spin-ice compound Ho2Ti2O7 the magnetization exceeds the angle-dependent saturation value of the Ising limit using ultrahigh fields up to 120 T. However, even under such extreme magnetic fields full saturation cannot be achieved. Crystal-electric-field calculations reveal that a level crossing for two of the four ion positions leads to magnetization steps at 55 and 100 T. In addition, we show that by using a field sweep rate in the range of the spin-relaxation time the dynamics of the spin system can be probed. Exclusively at 25 ns/T, a new peak of the susceptibility appears around 2 T. We argue, this signals the crossover between spin-ice and polarized correlations.

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Publ.-Id: 28922 - Permalink


Electronic band structure and proximity to magnetic ordering in the chiral cubic compound CrGe
Klotz, J.; Götze, K.; Förster, T.; Bruin, J. A. N.; Wosnitza, J.; Weber, K.; Schmidt, M.; Schnelle, W.; Geibel, C.; Rößler, U. K.; Rosner, H.;
CrGe belongs to the family of cubic B20 intermetallics. From experimental investigations by susceptibility and de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) measurements and from calculations of its electronic band structure by densityfunctional theory (DFT), CrGe is found to form a metallic paramagnetic ground state. Combining dHvA and DFT data, a detailed picture of the Fermi surface of CrGe is provided. The proximity to a magnetic longrange ordering in CrGe is suggested from a prominent thermal magnetic susceptibility. The possibility to induce magnetic long-range order in CrGe is discussed based on calculated properties for CrGe substituting Ge by As or Sn, and from a comparison with MnGe and the alloy series Cr1−xMnxGe. Owing to the noncentrosymmetric and nonsymmorphic crystal structure of CrGe, in absence of broken time reversal symmetry, its band structure is marked by forced nodal lines at the Fermi edge. Moreover, this material hosts degenerate unconventional electronic quasiparticles. In particular, CrGe exhibits a sixfold degeneracy of fermions crossing within about 5 meV of the Fermi energy at the R point of the Brillouin zone.

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Publ.-Id: 28921 - Permalink


Magnetic phase diagram and crystal-field effects in the kagome-lattice antiferromagnet U3Ru4Al12
Gorbunov, D. I.; Ishii, I.; Nomura, T.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Uhlarz, M.; Suzuki, T.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.;
We report on the magnetic phase diagram of the distorted kagome-lattice antiferromagnet U3Ru4Al12 determined through measurements of magnetic and elastic properties. For field applied along the [100] and [120] axes of the hexagonal crystal structure, we find pronounced anomalies in the magnetization and elastic moduli that signal the existence of unknown magnetic phases. Our crystal-electric-field (CEF) analysis evidences interlevel quadrupolar interactions between the ground-state singlet and the first excited doublet. These interactions lead to a large softening of the shear elastic modulus C44. The large number of phases and pronounced elastic
softening suggest that geometric frustrations and CEF effects play an important role in the physical properties of U3Ru4Al12.

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Publ.-Id: 28920 - Permalink


U2Ni2Sn and the origin of magnetic anisotropy in uranium compounds
Maskova, S.; Andreev, A. V.; Skourski, Y.; Yasin, S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Nakotte, H.; Kothapalli, K.; Nasreen, F.; Cupp, C.; Cao, H. B.; Kolomiets, A.; Havela, L.;
U2Ni2Sn is a member of a large family of intermetallic compounds with the tetragonal Mo2FeB2 crystal structure. It orders antiferromagnetically at 25 K with propagation vector q = (0, 0, 1/2 ). Magnetization, magnetoacoustic, and neutron-diffraction experiments on a single crystal provide evidence that the uranium moments align parallel to the c axis with the anisotropy energy of ≈170 K, indicating that U2Ni2Sn can be classified as an Ising system. The results are at variance with previous studies on polycrystals, which indicated different magnetic structure, and which were incompatible with the 5 f -5 f two-ion anisotropy model dominant in most U band systems. High-field magnetization studies exhibit a weak linear response for fields along the basal plane up to the highest field applied (60 T), while the c-axis magnetization curve exhibits three metamagnetic transitions at approximately 30, 39, and 50 T. The U magnetic moments of 0.87μB, the low magnetic entropy, and the enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ = 187 mJ/mol f.u.K2 suggest that U2Ni2Sn can be classified as an itinerant antiferromagnet with strong electron-electron correlations.

Publ.-Id: 28919 - Permalink


Depth and Dissolved Organic Carbon Shape Microbial Communities in Surface Influenced but Not Ancient Saline Terrestrial Aquifers
Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Åström, M.; Bertilsson, S.; Dopson, M.;
The continental deep biosphere is suggested to contain a substantial fraction of the earth’s total biomass and microorganisms inhabiting this environment likely have a substantial impact on biogeochemical cycles. However, the deep microbial community is still largely unknown and can be influenced by parameters such as temperature, pressure, water residence times, and chemistry of the waters. In this study, 21 boreholes representing a range of deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory were subjected to high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize how the different water types influence the microbial communities. Geochemical parameters showed the stability of the waters and allowed their classification into three groups. These were (i) waters influenced by infiltration from the Baltic Sea with a “modern marine (MM)” signature, (ii) a “thoroughly mixed (TM)” water containing groundwaters of several origins, and (iii) deep “old saline (OS)” waters. Decreasing microbial cell numbers positively correlated with depth. In addition, there was a stronger positive correlation between increased cell numbers and dissolved organic carbon for the MM compared to the OS waters. This supported that the MM waters depend on organic carbon infiltration from the Baltic Sea while the ancient saline waters were fed by “geogases” such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The 16S rRNA gene relative abundance of the studied groundwaters revealed different microbial community compositions. Interestingly, the TM water showed the highest dissimilarity compared to the other two water types, potentially due to the several contrasting water types contributing to this groundwater. The main identified microbial phyla in the groundwaters were Gammaproteobacteria, unclassified sequences, Campylobacterota (formerly Epsilonproteobacteria), Patescibacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria. Many of these taxa are suggested to mediate ferric iron and nitrate reduction, especially in the MM waters. This indicated that nitrate reduction may be a neglected but important process in the deep continental biosphere. In addition to the high number of unclassified sequences, almost 50% of the identified phyla were archaeal or bacterial candidate phyla. The percentage of unknown and candidate phyla increased with depth, pointing to the importance and necessity of further studies to characterize deep biosphere microbial populations.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene, amplicon sequencing, deep subsurface, groundwaters, chemistry, microbial diversity

Publ.-Id: 28915 - Permalink


Microbial Community and Metabolic Activity in Thiocyanate Degrading Low Temperature Microbial Fuel Cells
Ni, G.; Canizales, S.; Broman, E.; Simone, D.; Palwai, V. R.; Lundin, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Sleutels, T.; Dopson, M.;
Thiocyanate is a toxic compound produced by the mining and metallurgy industries that needs to be remediated prior to its release into the environment. If the industry is situated at high altitudes or near the poles, economic factors require a low temperature treatment process. Microbial fuel cells are a developing technology that have the benefits of both removing such toxic compounds while recovering electrical energy. In this study, simultaneous thiocyanate degradation and electrical current generation was demonstrated and it was suggested that extracellular electron transfer to the anode occurred. Investigation of the microbial community by 16S rRNA metatranscriptome reads supported that the anode attached and planktonic anolyte consortia were dominated by a Thiobacillus-like population. Metatranscriptomic sequencing also suggested thiocyanate degradation primarily occurred via the ‘cyanate’ degradation pathway. The generated sulfide was metabolized via sulfite and ultimately to sulfate mediated by reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase, APS reductase, and sulfate adenylyltransferase and the released electrons were potentially transferred to the anode via soluble electron shuttles. Finally, the ammonium from thiocyanate degradation was assimilated to glutamate as nitrogen source and carbon dioxide was fixed as carbon source. This study is one of the first to demonstrate a low temperature inorganic sulfur utilizing microbial fuel cell and the first to provide evidence for pathways of thiocyanate degradation coupled to electron transfer.
Keywords: MFC, thiocyanate degradation, extracellular electron transfer, low temperature, metatranscriptomics

Publ.-Id: 28914 - Permalink


Metatranscriptomes Reveal That All Three Domains of Life Are Active but Are Dominated by Bacteria in the Fennoscandian Crystalline Granitic Continental Deep Biosphere
Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Simone, D.; Wu, X.; Soler, L.; Nilsson, E.; Holmfeldt, K.; Lantz, H.; Bertilsson, S.; Dopson, M.;
ABSTRACT The continental subsurface is suggested to contain a significant part of the earth’s total biomass. However, due to the difficulty of sampling, the deep subsurface is still one of the least understood ecosystems. Therefore, microorganisms inhabiting this environment might profoundly influence the global nutrient and energy cycles. In this study, in situ fixed RNA transcripts from two deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (a Baltic Sea-influenced water with a residence time of < 20 years, defined as “modern marine,” and an “old saline” groundwater with a residence time of thousands of years) were subjected to metatranscriptome sequencing. Although small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and mRNA transcripts aligned to all three domains of life, supporting activity within these community subsets, the data also suggested that the groundwaters were dominated by bacteria. Many of the SSU rRNA transcripts grouped within newly described candidate phyla or could not be mapped to known branches on the tree of life, suggesting that a large portion of the active biota in the deep biosphere remains unexplored.
Despite the extremely oligotrophic conditions, mRNA transcripts revealed a diverse range of metabolic strategies that were carried out by multiple taxa in the modern marine water that is fed by organic carbon from the surface. In contrast, the carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline water with a residence time of thousands of years predominantly showed the potential to carry out translation. This suggested these cells were active, but waiting until an energy source episodically becomes available.
IMPORTANCE A newly designed sampling apparatus was used to fix RNA under in situ conditions in the deep continental biosphere and benchmarks a strategy for deep biosphere metatranscriptomic sequencing. This apparatus enabled the identification of active community members and the processes they carry out in this extremely oligotrophic environment. This work presents for the first time evidence of eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial activity in two deep subsurface crystalline rock groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory with different depths and geochemical characteristics. The findings highlight differences between organic carbon fed shallow communities and carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline waters. In addition, the data reveal a large portion of uncharacterized microorganisms, as well as the important role of candidate phyla in the deep biosphere, but also the disparity in microbial diversity when using standard microbial 16S rRNA gene amplification versus the large unknown portion of the community identified with unbiased metatranscriptomes.
Keywords: metatranscriptomes, mRNA, rRNA, deep biosphere, groundwaters

Publ.-Id: 28913 - Permalink


Investigation of viable taxa in the deep terrestrial biosphere suggests high rates of nutrient recycling
Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Broman, E.; Turner, S.; Wu, X.; Bertilsson, S.; Dopson, M.;
The deep biosphere is the largest ‘bioreactor’ on earth, and microbes inhabiting this biome profoundly influence global nutrient and energy cycles. An important question for deep biosphere microbiology is whether or not specific populations are viable. To address this, we used quantitative PCR and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of total and viable cells (i.e. with an intact cellular membrane) from three groundwaters with different ages and chemical constituents. There were no statistically significant differences in 16S rRNA gene abundances and microbial diversity between total and viable communities. This suggests that populations were adapted to prevailing oligotrophic conditions and that non-viable cells are rapidly degraded and recycled into new biomass. With higher concentrations of organic carbon, the modern marine and undefined mixed waters hosted a community with a larger range of predicted growth strategies than the ultra-oligotrophic old saline water. These strategies included fermentative and potentially symbiotic lifestyles by candidate phyla that typically have streamlined genomes. In contrast, the old saline waters had more 16S rRNA gene sequences in previously cultured lineages able to oxidize hydrogen and fix carbon dioxide. This matches the paradigm of a hydrogen and carbon dioxide-fed chemolithoautotrophic deep biosphere.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene; deep subsurface; fracture groundwaters; propidium monoazide; viable cells; candidate phyla radiation

Publ.-Id: 28912 - Permalink


Formation of heavy clusters in ion-irradiated compounds
Kavetskyy, T.; Liedke, M. O.; Butterling, M.; Wagner, A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Sausa, O.; Meshi, L.; Dahan, I.; Vacik, J.; Horak, P.; Fuks, D.; Mykytenko, N.; Kiv, A.;
Ion-irradiated U(Al,Si)3 intermetallide, as an example of compounds with significantly different atomic masses of constituting atoms, was studied by slow positron beam spectroscopy in order to clarify the nature of defects accompanying the process of the ion-induced disordering of this material. The studied compound was irradiated with different Ar+ ion fluences with energy 30 keV. The formation of so-called heavy clusters (Uranium in this case) has been revealed. Such clusters affect the reliability of materials in nuclear reactors. Ion-induced creation of heavy clusters can provide important properties of similar materials.
Keywords: Intermetallic alloys and compounds; ion beam technology; positron annihilation; heavy clusters

Publ.-Id: 28910 - Permalink


Pressure-tuning the quantum spin Hamiltonian of the triangular lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4
Zvyagin, S. A.; Graf, D.; Sakurai, T.; Kimura, S.; Nojiri, H.; Wosnitza, J.; Ohta, H.; Ono, T.; Tanaka, H.;
Quantum triangular-lattice antiferromagnets are important prototype systems to investigate phenomena of the geometrical frustration in condensed matter. Apart from highly unusual magnetic properties, they possess a rich phase diagram (ranging from an unfrustrated square lattice to a quantum spin liquid), yet to be confirmed experimentally. One major obstacle in this area of research is the lack of materials with appropriate (ideally tuned) magnetic parameters. Using Cs2CuCl4 as a model system, we demonstrate an alternative approach, where, instead of the chemical composition, the spin Hamiltonian is altered by hydrostatic pressure. The approach combines high pressure electron spin resonance and magnetization measurements, allowing us not only to quasi-continuously tune the exchange parameters, but also to accurately monitor them. Our experiments indicate a substantial increase of the exchange coupling ratio from 0.3 to 0.42 at a pressure of 1.8 GPa, revealing a number of emergent field-induced phases.

Publ.-Id: 28907 - Permalink


Effect of insertion layer on electrode properties in magnetic tunnel junctions with a zero-moment half-metal
Titova, A.; Fowley, C.; Clifford, E.; Lau, Y.-C.; Borisov, K.; Betto, D.; Atcheson, G.; Hübner, R.; Xu, C.; Stamenov, P.; Coey, M.; Rode, K.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.;
Due to its negligible spontaneous magnetization, high spin polarization and giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, Mn₂RuₓGa (MRG) is an ideal candidate as an oscillating layer in THz spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillators. Here, the effect of ultrathin Al and Ta diffusion barriers between MRG and MgO in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated and compared to devices with a bare MRG/MgO interface. Both the compensation temperature, Tcomp, of the electrode and the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of the device are highly sensitive to the choice and thickness of the insertion layer used. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, as well as analysis of the TMR, its bias dependence, and the resistance-area product allow us to compare the devices from a structural and electrical point of view. Al insertion leads to the formation of thicker effective barriers and gives the highest TMR, at the cost of a reduced Tcomp. Ta is the superior diffusion barrier which retains Tcomp, however, it also leads to a much lower TMR on account of the short spin diffusion length which reduces the tunneling spin polarization. The study shows that fine engineering of the Mn₂RuₓGa/barrier interface to improve the TMR amplitude is feasible.
Keywords: Tunneling Magnetoresistance, Half-Metal, Mn-based alloys, MRAM, Spin Polarisation, Heusler alloy, Ferrimagnetic, Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

Publ.-Id: 28906 - Permalink


Equiatomic quinary rare-earth rich amorphous ribbons with excellent magnetocaloric performance
Li, L.; Xu, C.ORC; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, S.
The glass forming ability, microstructure, magnetism and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in two quinary rare-earth rich amorphous ribbons of Tm20Ho20Gd20Co20Ni20 and Tm20Ho20Gd20Co20Cu20 are reported. Both amorphous ribbons exhibit excellent glass forming ability and a table-like MCE. In addition to large magnetic entropy change of ∼14.0 J/kg-K, an extremely high refrigerant capacity of ∼790 J/kg are achieved which can almost cover the temperature range from liquid hydrogen to liquid nitrogen for the magnetic field change of 0–7 T for both ribbons. Therefore, the quinary rare-earth rich amorphous ribbons can be proposed as a new class of promising magnetic refrigeration materials.

Publ.-Id: 28905 - Permalink


Annual Report 2018 - Institute of Resource Ecology
Stumpf, T.; Foerstendorf, H.ORC; Bok, F.; Richter, A.
Annual Report 2018 of the scientific activities of the Institute of Resource Ecology of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-096 2019
    ISSN: 2191-8708

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Publ.-Id: 28898 - Permalink


Coordination chemistry of f-block metal ions with ligands bearing bio-relevant functional groups
Götzke, L.; Schaper, G.; März, J.ORC; Kaden, P.ORC; Huittinen, N.ORC; Stumpf, T.; Kammerlander, K. K. K.; Brunner, E.; Hahn, P.; Mehnert, A.; Kersting, B.; Henle, T.; Lindoy, L. F.; Zanoni, G.; Weigand, J. J.
Over recent decades there has been a great deal of interest and associated research into aspects of the f-block (lanthanide and actinide) metal chemistry of naturally-occurring ligands, such as proteins, peptides, porphyrins and related tetraaza derivatives as well as synthetically modified natural ligands and solely synthetic ligand systems incorporating bio-relevant functional groups. In this review, we present a wide-ranging overview of published work spanning the above areas, with emphasis on selected biological, medical and environmental aspects. Systems capable of discriminating between metal ions from within, or between, the lanthanide and actinide groups are also discussed including the design and synthesis of biomimetic radionuclide chelators and radionuclide decorporation agents as well as solid adsorbent materials for the uptake of radionuclides from the environment and elsewhere. Thus, the interaction of the f-group elements with a range of biopolymers, including systems based on cellulose, chitin, chitosan, humic substances as well as a range of synthetic model systems is also presented. Other applications include the synthesis of new luminescent materials, including luminescent probes and luminescent metal coordination polymers exhibiting unusual photophysical properties as well as systems showing potential for use in the development of new MRI imaging agents.
Keywords: Lanthanides Actinides Maillard products Siderophores Calix[4]arenes Porphyrins Cellulose Chitin Chitosan Humic substances Peptides Proteins

Publ.-Id: 28895 - Permalink


Vacancy cluster in ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition
Wang, Z.; Luo, C.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Butterling, M.; Azizar Rahman, M.; Phillips, M. R.; Ton-That, C.; Younas, M.; Su, S.; Ling, F. C. C.;
Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the substrate temperature of 600 oC. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study (PAS) shows that the dominant VZn-related defect in the as-grown undoped ZnO grown with relative low oxygen pressure P(O2) is a vacancy cluster (most likely a VZn-nVO complex with n=2, 3) rather than the isolated VZn which has a lower formation energy. Annealing these samples at 900oC induces out-diffusion of Zn from the ZnO film into the sapphire creating the VZn, which favors the formation
of vacancy cluster containing relatively more VZn. Increasing the P(O2) during growth also lead to the formation of the vacancy cluster with relatively more VZn. For Ga-doped ZnO films, the oxygen pressure during growth has significant influence on the electron concentration and the microstructure of the VZn-related defect. Green luminescence (GL) and yellow luminescence (YL) were identified in the cathodoluminescence study (CL) study, and both emission bands were quenched after hydrogen plasma treatment.
Keywords: Vacancy cluster ZnO pulsed laser deposition positron annihilation spectroscopy photo luminescence

Publ.-Id: 28891 - Permalink


Two-Dimensional Kagome Lattices Made of Hetero Triangulenes Are Dirac Semimetals or Single-Band Semiconductors
Jing, Y.; Heine, T.ORC
Here we discuss, based on first-principles calculations, two-dimensional (2D) kagome lattices composed of polymerized heterotriangulene units, planar molecules with D3h point group containing a B, C, or N center atom and CH2, O, or CO bridges. We explore the design principles for a functional lattice made of 2D polymers, which involves control of π-conjugation and electronic structure of the knots. The former is achieved by the chemical potential of the bridge groups, while the latter is controlled by the heteroatom. The resulting 2D kagome polymers have a characteristic electronic structure with a Dirac band sandwiched by two flat bands and are either Dirac semimetals (C center), or single-band semiconductors—materials with either exclusively electrons (B center) or holes (N center) as charge carriers of very high mobility, reaching values of up to ∼8 × 103 cm2 V–1 s–1, which is comparable to crystalline silicon.
Keywords: DFT, kagome, 2D polymers, 2D COFs

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  • Secondary publication expected from 30.11.2020

Publ.-Id: 28890 - Permalink


Assessing robustness of radiomic features by image perturbation
Zwanenburg, A.; Leger, S.; Agolli, L.; Pilz, K.; Troost, E.; Richter, C.; Löck, S.;
Image features need to be robust against differences in positioning, acquisition and segmentation to ensure reproducibility. Radiomic models that only include robust features can be used to analyse new images, whereas models with non-robust features may fail to predict the outcome of interest accurately. Test-retest imaging is recommended to assess robustness, but may not be available for the phenotype of interest. We therefore investigated 18 combinations of image perturbations to determine feature robustness, based on noise addition (N), translation (T), rotation (R), volume growth/shrinkage (V) and supervoxel-based contour randomisation (C). Test-retest and perturbation robustness were compared for combined total of 4032 morphological, statistical and texture features that were computed from the gross tumour volume in two cohorts with computed tomography imaging: I) 31 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; II): 19 head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Robustness was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the intraclass correlation coefficient (1, 1). Features with CI >= 0:90 were considered robust. The NTCV, TCV, RNCV and RCV perturbation chain produced similar results and identified the fewest false positive robust features (NSCLC: 0.2-0.9%; HNSCC: 1.7-1.9%). Thus, these perturbation chains may be used as an alternative to test-retest imaging to assess feature robustness.

Publ.-Id: 28889 - Permalink


Testing halophilic bacteria for their potential as pyrite biodepressants in Cu-Mo bioflotation
Luque Consuegra, G.;
Presentation outlining work up to June 2018 in the screening of halophilic bacteria as pyrite biodepressants in Cu-Mo bioflotation processes delivered in the BHT conference in TUBAF, Freiberg.
Keywords: Bioflotation, Pyrite, Halophilic bacteria, Adhesion, M.A.T.H
  • Lecture (Conference)
    BHT – Freiberger Universitätsforum, 08.06.2018, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28884 - Permalink


Time-Like Baryon Transitions studies with HADES
Ramstein, B.; Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Arnoldi-Meadows, B.; Belounnas, A.; Belyaev, A.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chlad, L.; Chudoba, P.; Ciepał, I.; Deveaux, C.; Dittert, D.; Dreyer, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Golubeva, M.; Greifenhagen, R.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Himmelreich, M.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivanov, V.; Ivashkin, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, B.; Khomyakov, V.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Korcyll, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kornas, F.; Kotte, R.; Kozela, A.; Kuboś, J.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lebedev, A.; Linev, S.; Liu, M.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Lykasov, G.; Mahmoud, T.; Malakhov, A.; Markert, J.; Maurus, S.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D. M.; Mikhaylov, V.; Morozov, S.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Nowakowski, K.; Parpottas, Y.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pereira, A.; Petousis, V.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Pysz, K.; Ramos, S.; Reshetin, A.; Ritman, L.; Rodriguez-Ramos, P.; Rost, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Scozzi, F.; Seck, F.; Sellheim, P.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Silva, L.; Smyrski, J.; Sobiella, M.; Spataro, S.; Spies, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Svoboda, O.; Szala, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Troyan, A.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wiebusch, M. G.; Wintz, P.; Wirth, J.; Włoch, B.; Zhilin, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zumbruch, P.; Zuschke, M.;
The HADES collaboration uses the e+e− production as a probe of the resonance matter produced in collisions at incident energies of 1-3.5 GeV/nucleon at GSI. Elementary reactions provide useful references for these studies and give information on resonance Dalitz decays (R→Ne+e−). Such processes are sensitive to the structure of time-like electromagnetic baryon transitions in a kinematic range where (off-shell) vector mesons play a crucial role. Results obtained in proton-proton reactions and in a commissioning pion-beam experiment are reported and prospects for future pion beam experiments and for first hyperon Dalitz decay measurements are described. The connection with the investigations of medium effects to be continued with HADES in the next years at SIS18 and SIS100 is also discussed.

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Publ.-Id: 28881 - Permalink


Characterization of Continuous Wave Laser-Induced ThermalGradients in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Integrated IntoMicroresonators via COMSOL Simulations
Cansever, H.; Lindner, J.; Huebner, T.; Niesen, A.; Reiss, G.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.;
Spin caloritronics investigates static and dynamic effects on magnetic structures due to spin-currents generated by thermalgradients. Here, we present COMSOL simulation results using a 2-D heat transfer module applied to Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB magnetictunnel junctions (MTJs) integrated into microcavity resonators. Microresonators are used in order to study the effects of temperaturegradients on single micro-/nano-objects. We find that the thermal conductivity of the insulating barrier (MgO) plays a crucialrole, influencing the overall temperature, as well as the thermal gradient over the barrier. Taking into account the microresonatorstructure around the MTJ, which is mainly made from copper, strongly affects the uniform heating of the overall stack. Nevertheless,the gradient over the barrier is relatively unaffected by the surrounding conditions. The simulation results provide insight intothe temperature profile of the whole structure and show how modifying the structure of the surrounding materials may tune andoptimize the thermal gradient magnitude and ultimately provide a path for quantifying spin-transfer torques induced by thermalgradients.
Keywords: COMSOL simulation, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), microresonator

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  • Secondary publication expected from 05.02.2020

Publ.-Id: 28879 - Permalink


Fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE
Kögler, T.ORC; Junghans, A. R.ORC; Beyer, R.ORC; Dietz, M.; Düllmann, C. E.ORC; Eberhardt, K.; Lorenz, C.; Müller, S. E.ORC; Nolte, R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Schmidt, K.; Runke, J.; Schwengner, R.ORC; Takacs, M.; Vascon, A.; Wagner, A.ORC
The fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of ²⁴²Pu was measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber with novel, homogeneous, large-area ²⁴²Pu deposits on Si-wafer backings was used to determine this quantity relative to the IAEA neutron cross-section standard ²³²U(n, f ) in the energy range of 0.5 to 10 MeV. The number of target nuclei was determined from the measured spontaneous fission rate of ²⁴²Pu. This helps to reduce the influence of the fission fragment detection efficiency on the cross section. Neutron transport simulations performed with GEANT 4, MCNP 6, and FLUKA 2011 are used to correct the cross-section data for neutron scattering. In the reported energy range the systematic uncertainty is below 2.7% and on average the statistical uncertainty is 4.9%. The determined results show an agreement within 0.67(16)% to recently published data and a good accordance to current evaluated data sets.
Keywords: neutron-induced fission, plutonium, parallel plate fission ionization chambers, cross section measurements, neutron transport simulations, nuclear reactions, nucleon induced nuclear reactions, nELBE
Related publications
Fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) … (Id 28970) HZDR-primary research data are used by this publication

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Publ.-Id: 28878 - Permalink


Impact of radiation, systemic therapy and Treatment sequencing on survival of patients with melanoma brain metastases
Rauschenberga, R.; Bruns, J.; Brüttinga, J.; Daubner, D.; Lohaus, F.; Zimmer, L.; Forschner, A.; Zips, D.; Hassel, J. C.; Berking, C.; Kaehler, K. C.; Utikal, J.; Gutzmer, R.; Terheyden, P.; Meiss, F.; Rafei-Shamsabadi, D.; Kiecker, F.; Debus, D.; Dabrowski, E.; Arnold, A.; Garzarolli, M.; Kuske, M.; Beissert, S.; Löck, S.; Linn, J.; Troost, E. G. C.; Meier, F.;
Background
Combining stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and active systemic therapies (STs) achieved favourable survival outcomes in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) in retrospective analyses. However, several aspects of this Treatment strategy remain poorly understood. We Report on the Overall survival (OS) of patients with MBM treated with a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and ST as well as the Impact of the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)-V600 Mutation (BRAFmut) status, types of RT and ST and their sequence. Patients and methods Data of 208 patients treated with SRS or whole brain Radiation therapy (WBRT) and either immunotherapy (IT) or targeted therapy (TT) within a 6-week- interval to RT were analysed retrospectively. OS was calculated from RT to death or last follow-up. Univariate- and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to determine prognostic Features associated with OS.
Results
The median follow-up was 7.3 months. 139 patients received IT, 67 received TT and 2 received IT and TT within 6 weeks to RT (WBRT 45%; SRS 55%). One-year Kaplan-Meier OS rates were 69%, 65%, 33% and 18% (P < .001) for SRS with IT, SRS with TT, WBRT with IT and WBRT with TT, respectively. Patients with a BRAF mut receiving IT combined with RT experienced higher OS rates (88%, 65%, 50% and 18%). TT following RT or started before and continued thereafter was associated with improved median OS compared with to TT solely before RT (12.2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 9.3–15.1]; 9.8 [95% CI 6.9–12.6] versus 5.1 [95% CI 2.7–7.5]; P = .03).
Conclusion
SRS and IT achieved the highest OS rates. A BRAFmut appears to be a favourable prognostic factor for OS. For the combination of RT and TT, the sequence appears to be crucial. Combinations of WBRT and ST achieved unprecedentedly high OS rates and Warrant further studies.
Keywords: Melanoma; Brain metastases; Stereotactic radiosurgery; Whole brain Radiation therapy; Immunotherapies; Targeted therapy; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; BRAF inhibitors

Publ.-Id: 28875 - Permalink


Carboranyl Analogues of Celecoxib with Potent Cytostatic Activity against Human Melanoma and Colon Cancer Cell Lines
Buzharevski, A.; Paskas, S.; Sárosi, M. B.; Laube, M.; Lönnecke, P.; Neumann, W.; Mijatovic, S.; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D.; Pietzsch, J.ORC; Hey-Hawkins, E.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common way of treating inflammatory disorders. Their widespread use helped reveal their other modes of action as pharmaceuticals, such as a profound effect on various cancers. Celecoxib has proven to be a very prominent member of this group with cytostatic activities. On the other hand, the highly dynamic field of drug design is constantly searching for new ways of modifying known structures to obtain more powerful and less harmful drugs. A very interesting development is the implementation of carboranes in pharmacologically active structures, mostly as phenyl mimetics. Herein we report the synthesis of three carborane-containing derivatives of the COX-2-selective NSAID celecoxib. The new compounds proved to have promising cytostatic potential against various melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Inhibited proliferation accompanied by caspase-independent apoptotic cell death was found to be the main cause of decreased cell viability upon treatment with the most efficient celecoxib analogue, 3 b (4-[5-(1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboranyl)-3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-1-methylsulfonylbenzene).
Keywords: cancer; carboranes; celecoxib; cytotoxicity; drug discovery

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Publ.-Id: 28874 - Permalink


Simulation of the Radiation Field at the University Proton Therapy Dresden (UPTD)
Lutz, B.; Swanson, R.; Fiedler, F.; Enghardt, W.;
Radiation therapy is one of the most used treatment modalities of cancer. While most patients receive photon-therapy, a growing number of patients are treated with particles, mainly protons. Protons offers a more localised dose deposition compared to photon-therapy. This allows to reduce the dose that is applied by the primary beam to the healthy tissue outside the target volume. At the same time, the use of protons leads to a change in the composition of the radiation field, when compared to photons. For example, the out-of-field dose is dominated by secondary neutrons. Additionally, the radiation quality of protons is a function of energy. Therefore, the biological effect depends not only on the physical dose, but also on the linear energy transfer (LET). The neutron field and the LET, like other scientifically interesting quantities, are challenging to measure experimentally. Hence, a simulation that can reproduce the radiation field of a radiation treatment facility is of great value for the study of various aspects of proton therapy.
This work describes the simulation of the University Proton Therapy Dresden (UPTD) beam delivery system and treatment room.
Keywords: simulation, proton therapy, Geant4, TOPAS, double scattering
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EURADOS Annual Meeting 2019, 11.-14.02.2019, Lodz, Poland

Publ.-Id: 28873 - Permalink


Fluorine-18 labeling of S100 proteins for small animal positron emission tomography
Laube, M.; Kniess, T.; Neuber, C.; Haase-Kohn, C.; Pietzsch, J.ORC
The interaction of S100 proteins (S100s), a multigenic family of Ca2+-binding and Ca2+-modulated proteins, with pattern recognition receptors, e.g., Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), or scavenger receptors (SR), is hypothesized to be of high relevance in the pathogenesis of various diseases. This includes chronic inflammatory conditions, atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies, neurodegeneration, and progression of cancers. However, data concerning the role of circulating S100s in these pathologies are scarce. One reason for this is the shortage of suitable radiolabeling methods for direct assessment of the metabolic fate of circulating S100s in vivo. We report a radiotracer approach using radiolabeling of recombinant human S100s with the positron emitter fluorine-18 (18F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB). The methodological radiochemical part focuses on an optimized and automated synthesis of [18F]SFB comprising HPLC purification to achieve higher chemical purity. The respective radioligands, [18F]fluorobenzoylated S100s ([18F]FB-S100s), were obtained with appropriate radiochemical purities, yields, and effective molar activities. Biological applications comprise cell and tissue binding experiments in vitro, biodistribution and metabolite studies in rodents in vivo/ex vivo, and dynamic positron emission tomography studies using dedicated small animal PET systems. Radiolabeling of S100s with 18F and, particularly, the use of small animal PET provide novel probes to delineate both their metabolic fate and the functional expression of their specific receptors under normal and pathophysiological conditions in rodent models of disease.
Keywords: Bolton-Hunter-type reagent; in vivo imaging; radiopharmacological characterization; 18F building block; module-assisted radiosynthesis; S100 proteins; calcium; EF-hand

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  • Secondary publication expected from 02.02.2020

Publ.-Id: 28872 - Permalink


The Inverse Trans Effect in Uranium complexes containing N-heterocyclic Carbenes
Köhler, L.; März, J.; Patzschke, M.; Kloditz, R.; Stumpf, T.;
Aim of this work was to investigate the inverse trans influence (ITI) in uranium complexes containing soft-donor ligands. Uranium(IV) and (V) complexes were synthesized by using the N-heterocylic carbene ligand iPrIm (L¹ ) and lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (TMSA) as a base. The structural characterization by SC-XRD and geometry optimization of the resulting compounds [U(IV)(L¹ )₂(TMSA)Cl₃] (1) and (HL¹ )₂ [U(V)(TMSI)Cl₅] (2) (TMSI = trimethylsilylimide) confirmed the occurrence of an inverse trans influence (ITI) by means of the silylamido- or silylimido ligand.
Keywords: inverse trans influence, ITI, uranium complex, actinides
  • Lecture (others)
    Bilaterales Treffen mit AK Roesky (KIT), 10.-11.01.2019, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28869 - Permalink


Reversible adiabatic temperature change in the shape memory Heusler alloy NiMn0.8Ga: An effect of structural compatibility
Devi, P.; Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Hofmann, K.; Albert, B.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M.; Singh, S.;
The large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) observed in Ni-Mn based shape memory Heusler alloys put them forward to use in magnetic refrigeration technology. It is associated with a first-order magnetostructural (martensitic) phase transition.We conducted a comprehensive study of the MCE for the off-stoichiometric Heusler alloy Ni2.2Mn0.8Ga in the vicinity of its first-order magnetostructural phase transition. We found a reversible MCE under repeated magnetic field cycles. The reversible behavior can be attributed to the small thermal hysteresis of the martensitic phase transition. Based on the analysis of our detailed temperature dependent x-ray diffraction data, we demonstrate the geometric compatibility of the cubic austenite and tetragonal martensite phases. This finding directly relates the reversible MCE behavior to an improved geometric compatibility condition between cubic austenite and tetragonal martensite phases. The approach will help to design shape memory Heusler alloys with a large reversible MCE taking advantage of the first-order martensitic phase transition.

Publ.-Id: 28868 - Permalink


Effect of background electrolyte composition on the formation of Th(IV) nanoparticles on the muscovite (001) basal plane
Schmidt, M.ORC; Qiu, C.; Hellebrandt, S.; Eng, P. J.; Skanthakumar, S.; Steppert, M.; Soderholm, L.
Reliable long-term predictions regarding the safety of a nuclear waste disposal facility must be based on a sound understanding of the fundamental processes controlling radionuclide mobility in a subsurface environment. In particular, reactions at the water/mineral interface must be characterized on the molecular level.[1] Several actinides (An) show a tendency to form An-oxo-nanoparticles[2], which may be enhanced in the presence of mineral surfaces and even drive redox reactions.[3-6] As these reaction may, both, enhance and reduce the mobility of the actinides, it is of utmost importance to understand their mechanism and which parameters control the nanoparticle formation in environmental systems.
Recently, we have reported an unusual variability in the reactivity of ThIV on the basal plane of muscovite mica dependent on the composition of the background electrolyte.[7] In this study, based on surface X-ray diffraction [SXD; crystal truncation rod diffraction (CTR) and resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity (RAXR)] and alpha spectrometry, it was observed that ThIV sorption from NaClO4 solution was significantly lower [< d.l. (~0.04 ThIV per area of the muscovite unit cell AUC)] than from NaCl solution (θNaCl = 0.4 Th/AUC) under otherwise identical conditions.[8] The study also revealed that the adsorbed quantity of ThIV was significantly higher in LiClO4 medium (θLiClO4 = 4.9 Th/AUC), than in NaClO4 with KClO4 intermediate between Li and Na (θKClO4 ~ 0.1 Th/AUC). In the case of LiClO4 it could be shown by RAXR, that sorption occurs in the form of small particles a few nm in size.
Here, we present a study using SXD in combination with alpha spectrometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) aiming to identify the basis of the previously observed, unexpected effects. To probe whether anion and cation effect occur independently, ThIV sorption was studied in the presence of LiCl and KCl ([Th] = 0.1 mM, pH = 3.3, I = 0.1 M). ThIV uptake is strongest in the presence of LiCl (θLiCl = 8.8 Th/AUC), while sorption in the presence of KCl is weaker (θKCl = 3.6 Th/AUC) but still exceeds the surface occupancy previously found in NaCl media.[8] For all cations ThIV sorption is stronger when Cl- is the counterion compared to ClO4-, confirming that the cation effect is indeed independent of the background electrolyte’s anion. The influence of aqueous speciation on the sorption processes was determined using electro-spray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), which finds a speciation dominated by the ThIV aquo ion in all media, indicating that any electrolyte effects must occur at the water/mineral interface. We investigated the influence of the presence of oligomers on the sorption process, by repeating experiments at higher initial [Th] = 3.0 mM. As expected ThIV sorption is significantly increased. ThIV adsorbs at a preferential height of ~6.5 Å, which can be identified as the preferred size of Th-nanochains on the mica basal plane by AFM (Fig. 1). Uptake from LiCl media is still larger than from NaCl, but only by ~32% compared to 2100% at the lower ThIV concentration. This suggests that the electrolyte cation influences the formation or aggregation of ThIV oligomers at the interface, and its influence is diminished when these are initially present.

Fig. 1. Total electron density and ThIV electron density as a function of distance from the mineral surface determined by SXD upon sorption from NaCl, KCl, and LiCl, respectively. Upper curves (grey, light blue, dark red) are total electron densities determined by CTR, lower curves (black, dark blue, light red) are ThIV electron density distributions from RAXR.

References
[1] H. Geckeis, et al., Chem. Rev., 113, 1016 (2013).
[2] K. E. Knope, et al., Chem. Rev., 113, 944 (2012).
[3] S. Hellebrandt, et al., Langmuir, 32, 10473 (2016).
[4] A. E. Hixon, et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 20, 1306 (2018).
[5] M. Schmidt, et al., Env. Sci. Tech., 47, 14178 (2013).
[6] C. Walther, et al., Chem. Rev., 113, 995 (2013).
[7] M. Schmidt, et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 165, 280 (2015).
[8] M. Schmidt, et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 88, 66 (2012).
Keywords: Surface X-ray Diffraction, CTR, RAXR, AFM, Nucleation, Thorium, background electrolytes
  • Lecture (Conference)
    49èmes Journées des Actinides, 14.-17.04.2019, Erice, Italia

Publ.-Id: 28867 - Permalink


Focusing of multi-MeV, subnanosecond proton bunches from a laser-driven source
Jahn, D.; Schumacher, D.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Brack, F.-E.; Ding, J.; Leonhardt, R.; Semmler, I.; Blazevic, A.; Schramm, U.; Roth, M.;
We report on our latest transverse focusing results of subnanosecond proton bunches achieved with a laser-driven multi-MeV ion beamline. In the frame of the LIGHT collaboration, a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) source based 6 m long beamline was installed. In the past years, the laser-driven proton beam was transported and shaped by this beamline. The particle beam is collimated with a pulsed high-field solenoid and rotated in longitudinal phase space with a radio-frequency cavity which leads to an energy compression with an energy spread of (2.7 +/- 1.7)% (Delta E/E-0 at FWHM) or a time compression to the subnanosecond regime. Highest peak intensities in the subnanosecond regime open up an interesting field for several applications, e.g., proton imaging, as injectors in conventional accelerators or precise stopping power measurements in a plasma. We report on achieving highest peak intensities using an installed second solenoid as a final focusing system in our beamline to achieve small focal spot sizes. We measured a focal spot size of 1.1 x 1.2 mm leading to 5.8 x 10(19) protons per s cm(2) at a central energy bin of (9.55 +/- 0.25) MeV, which can be combined with a bunch duration below 500 ps at FWHM.

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Publ.-Id: 28866 - Permalink


4He irradiation of zircon, ZrSiO4, using a micro-patterned, Si-based energy filter
Nasdala, L.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Chanmuang N., C.; Zowalla, A.; Csato, C.; Rüb, M.;
The quantitative evaluation of alpha-particle damage in the mineral zircon, ZrSiO4, using 4He irradiation experiments is difficult because the vast majority of atomic knock-ons in the target are concentrated in a narrow depth range near the ends of the He-ion trajectories. Here we present a new concept to overcome this problem, namely, tailoring the depth profile of damage by means of a micromechanically fabricated “energy filter”. Lamellae of 1.5 μm thickness, prepared from ZrSiO4 using the focused-ion-beam technique, were subjected to irradiation with 8.8 MeV 4He ions. Five irradiations with ion fluences in the range 2.5 × 1015–1 × 1017 cm-2 have resulted in mild to severe damage, as monitored by the broadening and downshift of SiO4-stretching Raman bands. Our results may provide a means for quantifying the contribution of alpha particles to the total self-irradiation damage in zircon.
Keywords: Radiation damage, Helium irradiation, Energy filter, Focused ion beam, Raman spectroscopy

Publ.-Id: 28865 - Permalink


Software in the context of luminescence dating: status, concepts and suggestions exemplified by the R package Luminescence
Kreutzer, S.; Burow, C.; Dietze, D.; Fuchs, M. C.; Fischer, M.; Schmidt, C.;
The relevance of luminescence dating is re- flected by the steadily growing quantity of published data. At the same time, the amount of data available for analysis has increased due to technological and methodological advances. Routinely, luminescence data are analysed using a mixture of commercially available soft- ware, self-written tools and specific solutions. Based on a luminescence dating literature screening we show how rarely articles report on the software used for the data analysis and we discuss potential problems arising from this. We explore the growing importance of the statistical programming language R in general and especially its reflection in recent software developments in the context of lu- minescence dating. Specifically, for the R package ‘Luminescence’ we show how the transparency, flexibility and reliability of tools used for the data analysis have been improved. We finally advocate for more transparency if unvalidated software solutions are used and we emphasise that more attention should be paid to the tools used for analysing the data.
Keywords: R, Software, Luminescence dating, Data analysis
  • Open Access LogoAncient TL 35(2017)2, 1-11

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Publ.-Id: 28863 - Permalink


The Need for Multi-Source, Multi-Scale Hyperspectral Imaging to Boost Non-Invasive Mineral Exploration
Gloaguen, R.; Ghamisi, P.; Lorenz, S.; Kirsch, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Booysen, R.; Andreani, L.; Jackisch, R.; Hermann, E.; Tusa, L.; Unger, G.; Contreras, C.; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Fuchs, M.;
The high demand for raw materials in our post-industrial societies contrasts the increasing difficulties to find new mineral deposits. In Europe, accessible and high-grade deposits are mostly exhausted or currently mined. Hence, future exploration must focus on the remaining, more remote locations or penetrate much deeper into the Earth's crust. Sustaining mining activities in Europe would allow the development of key technologies but also sustainable and ethical production of technological metals. Thus, we suggest to focus research on advances in multi-scale and multi-sensor remote sensing-based Earth integration techniques. The scale should range from satellite to air- and drone-borne systems and include ground validation. Multi-sensor downscaling methods involving SAR and optical data are particularly promising. We demonstrate that the integration with other sensors and/or measures such as geophysical/geochemical data as well as non-conventional remote sensing features such as textures and geometries are of interest. Thus, ultimately, our objective is to boost the competitiveness, growth, sustainability and attractiveness of the raw material sector in Europe. While we focus on the raw material sector as it is currently of strategic importance, the required methods are transferable to most environmental studies.
Keywords: Hyperspectral Imaging, Mineral Exploration
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IGARSS 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 22.-27.09.2018, Valencia, Spain
    Proceedings of IGARSS 2018

Publ.-Id: 28859 - Permalink


Heavy Metal Binding Peptides – Design and Construction of new Biosorbents
Braun, R.ORC; Schönberger, N.; Bachmann, S.; Matys, S.ORC; Lederer, F.ORC; Pollmann, K.ORC
Heavy metal contaminations in both industrial and environmental waters are widely occurring. However, removal is both challenging and cost-intensive. In this study, we identified metal-binding peptide sequences using phage surface display (PSD). Fusion proteins with PSD-derived sequences were construced for further recombinant production, future scale-up and as alternative to chemical synthesis. The construction of the fusion proteins included usage of inteins and affinity tags for simplified expression and purification. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used for further characterization of the peptide-metal interaction. The system developed in this study provides metal-binding peptides with high specificity and sensitivity. Being biodegradable, the constructed peptides can be used in multiple applications. The identified motifs can furthermore provide a deeper understanding of peptide-metal interaction, leading to the discovery of novel metal-interacting biomolecules and better prediction of involved amino acids.
  • Poster
    8th Peptide Engineering Meeting, 08.-10.11.2018, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28858 - Permalink


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