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31281 Publications
Application of electromagnetic fields in material processing, metallurgy, casting and crystal growth
Eckert, S.;
Basic and applied research on Liquid Metal Technologies and Magnetohydrodynamics represents a surprising bandwidth ranging from high-temperature energy conversion, new kinds of liquid metal batteries, the production of solar-grade silicon, carbon dioxide free production of hydrogen, liquid metal targets in modern neutron sources and transmutation systems, casting of steel and light metals, welding and soldering processes, to basic laboratory experiments with relevance to liquid metal cooled systems, materials processing as well as to geo- and astrophysics.
Most of the metallurgical and crystal growth processes comprise phases with liquid metals (or liquid semiconductors with very similar properties). The application of diverse electromagnetic fields has proven to be a very effective tool of influencing and controlling such liquid metal flows and the corresponding heat and mass transport. For instance, most of the problems in casting of metal alloys affecting the product quality are associated with an improperly conditioned fluid flow during the process. Small improvements in the flow pattern can achieve therefore large effects in terms of quality assurance and energy savings.
This presentation gives an overview of the research activities at the HZDR with respect to the use of magnetic fields in metallurgy, casting and crystal growth. The experimental work is based on model experiments for the detailed investigation of flow processes under the influence of magnetic fields. This presentation presents a number of examples and discusses corresponding results in the light of the respective technologies considered.
Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, crystal growth, metallurgy, metal casting
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The Third Russian Conference on Magnetohydrodynamics, 18.-21.06.2018, Perm, Russia

Publ.-Id: 28699 - Permalink


Flow structures in liquid metal Rayleigh-Benard convection under the influence of DC magnetic fields
Vogt, T.; Schindler, F.; Zürner, T.; Schumacher, J.; Tasaka, Y.; Yanagisawa, T.; Eckert, S.;
One of the classical problems in fluid dynamics is the Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) where a fluid layer is exposed to a temperature difference ΔT between a colder lid and a warmer bottom. RBC under the influence of a steady magnetic field is of particular interest in geo- and astrophysics, but has also some relevance for technical applications such as the use of liquid metals for new type of batteries or heat removals in fusion blankets. In this paper we present flow measurements conducted in various geometries and magnetic field configurations. Systematic flow measurements were performed by means of the ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). Experiments were carried out in GaInSn using a cylindrical fluid vessel in a vertical magnetic field and a rectangular container exposed to a horizontal magnetic field. Various flow regimes have been identified by the velocity measurements, in particular, we studied the transition from a quasi-two-dimensional state towards a three-dimensional flow occurring with decreasing magnetic field strength.
Keywords: Rayleigh, Benard convection, liquid metals, magnetoconvection, flow measurements, ultrasound Doppler velocimetry
  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM2018), 14.-18.10.2018, Awaji Island, Japan

Publ.-Id: 28698 - Permalink


Nanocomposite thin film research using ion beams and in situ techniques
Krause, M.;
Lecture about research activities on "Nanocomposite thin film research using ion beams and in situ techniques"
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutsseminar in der Veranstaltungsreihe - Doctorado en Nanociencia y Tecnologías de Materiales Facultad de Ciencias, 19.10.2018, Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spanien

Publ.-Id: 28696 - Permalink


Zr and Mo thin films with reduced residual impurities’ uptake under high vacuum conditions at room temperature
Meško, M.; Bohovičová, J.; Munnik, F.; Grenzer, J.; Hübner, R.; Čaplovič, Ľ.; Čaplovičová, M.; Vančo, Ľ.; Vretenár, V.; Krause, M.;
In recent years, transition (refractory) metals such molybdenum (Mo) and zirconium (Zr) have been studied as infrared (IR) reflector in solar absorber applications. The sputter process parameters are very important for depositing a high quality thin film achieving the necessary low emittance. IR reflectance of the metal film is influenced by the film microstructure, presence of residual impurities and surface roughness. The main objective of the present study is to prepare Mo and Zr metallic thin films with improved optical properties by high power impulse magnetron sputtering at room temperature under high vacuum conditions. In comparison to the Mo and Zr thin films deposited by direct current magnetron at the same average power, thin films deposited by HiPIMS exhibits dense microstructure without voids, grown preferentially along c-axis, have smooth surface and are free of residual contaminants. Compared to the dcMS films we observed an element specific reduction of impurities measured by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) by a factor 4/8 for N, 3/4 for H and 9/14 for O for Mo/Zr thin films respectively. The compositional effects are correlated with differences in the film morphology microstructure revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis.
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 16.-21.09.2018, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28695 - Permalink


Vacuum and in-air thermal stability studies of SnO2-based TCO for concentrated solar power applications
Mendez, A.; Lungwitz, F.; Schumann, E.; Janke, D.; Guillén, E.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Gemming, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Krause, M.;
In concentrated solar power plants, the receiver tubes are one of the key components to increase the solar-thermal conversion efficiency. Absorber materials of those tubes have to exhibit high-temperature and air stability, high optical absorption in the solar region and low thermal emittance. In state of the art central tower plants black paints (i.e. Pyromark 2500) are used as absorber material. However, the high emissivity of those paints leads to high radiative energy losses. Moreover, these paints undergo a temporal degradation and performance loss during the lifetime of the plant.
Here, an alternative concept for high-temperature stable solar-selective coatings is presented. It consists of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) deposited as solar-selective transmitter on a black body absorber. For this purpose, SnO2:Ta thin films were reactively sputtered on fused quartz substrates. Their vacuum and in-air stability up to 800°C were studied by in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The correlation between structural, optical and electric transport properties was analyzed by RBS, SE, UV-Vis spectrometry, and Hall effect measurements. Solar selective properties are demonstrated as proof of concept for the TCO deposited on a silicon substrate.
Financial support by the EU, grant No. 645725, project FRIENDS2, and the HGF via the W3 program (S.G.) is gratefully acknowledged.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 16.-21.09.2018, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28694 - Permalink


Design and high-temperature durability tests of solar-selective coatings based on aluminium titanium oxynitrides AlyTi1-yOxN1-x
Escobar-Galindo, R.; Guillén, E.; Heras, I.; Lungwitz, F.; Munnik, F.; Rincon-Llorente, G.; Alcon-Camas, M.; Schumann, E.; Azcona, I.; Krause, M.;
Aluminium titanium oxynitrides were studied as candidate materials for high temperature absorbers in solar-selective coatings (SSC) due to their excellent stability and their tuneable optical behaviour. A set of individual AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x) layers with different oxygen content was prepared by cathodic vacuum arc (CVA) deposition. A comprehensive analysis of the sample microstructure and morphology allowed an accurate modelling of the optical constants in the whole wavelength range of solar interest (190 nm - 25 μm). The optical properties of these films can be controlled from metallic to dielectric character by adjusting the oxygen content. Complete multilayer SSC, including a TiN layer as IR reflector, were designed by applying optical simulations, obtaining excellent optical selective properties (α = 94.0% and εRT = 4.8%). The design concepts were validated by an excellent agreement between simulated and experimental stacking order, composition and optical properties. The durability of two multilayers was studied under conditions simulating realistic operation of central receiver power plants. Both SSC stacks were stable in single stage tests of 12 h at 650°C in air. During cyclic tests, the coarser microstructure of multilayer 1, was found to be more resistant against oxidation than multilayer 2 constituted of four oxynitride layers with a graded oxygen content. Multilayer 1 fulfilled the performance criterion of PC ≤ 5% for 300 symmetric, 3 h long cycles at 600°C in air confirming that the designed SSCs are exciting candidate material for concentrated solar power applications at high temperature. Financial support by the EU, grant No. 645725, project FRIENDS22, is gratefully acknowledged.
Keywords: Solar-selective coatings, CSP, Optical simulation, Thermal test
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 16.-21.09.2018, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28693 - Permalink


On the Effect of Thin Film Growth Mechanisms on the Specular Reflectance of Aluminium Thin Films Deposited via Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc
Rincón-Llorente, G.; Heras, I.; Guillén Rodríguez, E.; Schumann, E.; Krause, M.; Escobar-Galindo, R.;
The optimisation of the specular reflectance of solar collectors is a key parameter to increase the global yield of concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. In this work, the influence of filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition parameters, particularly working pressure and deposition time, on the specular and diffuse reflectance of aluminium thin films, was studied. Changes in specular reflectance, measured by ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometry, were directly correlated with thin film elemental concentration depth profiles, obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and surface and cross-sectional morphologies as measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. Finally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) provided information on the roughness and growth mechanism of the films. The two contributions to the total reflectance of the films, namely diffuse and specular reflectance, were found to be deeply influenced by deposition conditions. It was proven that working pressure and deposition time directly determine the predominant factor. Specular reflectance varied from 12 to 99.8% of the total reflectance for films grown at the same working pressure of 0.1 Pa and with different deposition times. This transformation could not be attributed to an oxidation of the films as stated by RBS, but was correlated with a progressive modification of the roughness, surface, and bulk morphology of the samples over the deposition time. Hence, the evolution in the final optical properties of the films is driven by different growth mechanisms and the resulting microstructures. In addition to the originally addressed CSP applications the potential of the developed aluminium films for other application rather than CSP, such as, for example, reference material for spectroscopic diffuse reflectance measurements, is also discussed.
Keywords: filtered cathodic vacuum arc; total and specular reflectance; thin film deposition conditions; structural characterisation

Publ.-Id: 28692 - Permalink


Statistical entropy analysis as tool for circular economy: Proof of concept by optimizing a lithium-ion battery waste sieving system
Reuter, M. A.; van den Boogaart, K. G.; Lundströma, M.; Santasalo-Aarnioa, A.; Velázquez Martíneza, O.; Serna-Guerreroa, R.;
With the concept of circular economy gaining strength as an alternative for the sustainable production of raw materials, there is an inherent need to develop methods capable of quantifying the efficiency of recycling systems, provide guidelines for optimization of existing technologies, and support the design of new products based on sound, scientific and engineering principles. The work hereby presented proposes the use of statistical entropy coupled with material flow analysis as a basis for the optimization of separation and purification processes. Unlike other efficiency parameters, this approach provides an analysis of component concentration or dilution from a systemic perspective, taking into consideration products, by-products and waste streams. As a proof-of-concept, a sieving process for waste lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was chosen. It is demonstrated that using this approach it is possible to determine the stages that do not contribute to the concentration of components thus offering guidelines for process optimization. In the present case, the total number of sieving stages can be decreased with a minimum impact on the concentration of the products. In comparison, it is also shown that the widely accepted exergy analysis is not able to identify the opportunities for optimization due to the particular characteristics of this exemplary system, i.e., negligible change in energy consumption as a function of sieving stages and absence of chemical changes. Finally, the experimental results suggest that Al and Cu can be concentrated using a simple sieving pre-processing step, perhaps in preparation for a subsequent refining stage.
Keywords: Circular economy, Material flow analysis, Relative statistical entropy, Lithium-ion batteries, Process simulation, Process optimization

Publ.-Id: 28691 - Permalink


Magnetically Induced Cavitation for the Dispersion of Particles in Liquid Metals
Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
A contactless excitation of cavitation is possible by superposition of induction heating with a static axial magnetic field. This creates an alternating electromagnetic body force in a liquid metal which in turn produces pressure oscillations. Using this method, the onset of cavitation has been clearly observed in various liquid metals (tin, zinc, aluminum, steel SAE 304) at pressure oscillations in the range of 28…50 kPa. The present study aims to extend the previous work by producing steel metal matrix composites (MMC) and assessing the feasibility of the proposed method for particle dispersion in steel. Stainless steel (SAE 316L) samples with different ceramic inclusions, e.g. TiN, Al2O3, TiB2 as well as others, have been created. It has been demonstrated that the cavitation onset in the liquid steel varies extensively and depends on the cavitation nuclei rather than the strength of acoustic pressure. The microstructure of the produced samples has been analyzed using SEM and EDS.
Keywords: MMC production; Steel composites; Cavitation treatment
  • Contribution to proceedings
    TMS 2018, 11.-15.03.2018, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America
    Magnetically Induced Cavitation for the Dispersion of Particles in Liquid Metals: Springer, Cham, 978-3-319-72852-0
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-72853-7_12

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Publ.-Id: 28687 - Permalink


Dendritic structure formation of magnesium alloys for the manipulation of corrosion properties: Part 1 – microstructure
Łakoma, P.; Ditze, A.; Scharf, C.;
Besides impurities in magnesium alloys containing aluminum, the microstructure also plays a role in the corrosion properties of the alloy. By targeted manipulation of grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacings and segregation in terms of amount and position, the corrosion properties are expected to be improved. For this, experiments were carried out by casting alloys with 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12%aluminum into a mold with different applied cooling rates. The samples were analyzed regarding microstructure and composition, and the grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacings, as a function of aluminum content and cooling rate, were modeled. The results show a decrease in grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacings with an increased cooling rate. The segregated b phase was predominantly situated at the grain boundaries as divorced eutectic and in lamellar form. The assumed influences on the corrosion properties will be examined in Part 2.
Keywords: Magnesium alloy; Microstructure; Corrosion behavior; SDAS
  • International Journal of Materials Research 109(2018)12, 1081-1091
    DOI: 10.3139/146.111708

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  • Secondary publication expected from 10.01.2020

Publ.-Id: 28686 - Permalink


Significance of the electrode widths in GaAs based Photoconductive Terahertz Emitters
Abhishek, S.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.;
Significance of the electrode widths in GaAs based Photoconductive Terahertz Emitters
Keywords: Terahertz emitter, stripline antenna, GaAs photoconductive THz emitter
  • Poster
    8th International Workshop on Terahertz Technology and Applications, 20.-21.03.2018, Kaiserslautern, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28682 - Permalink


Broadband THz emission from Ge photoconductive antenna
Singh, A.; Pashkin, A.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.;
We demonstrate THz emission from a Ge-based photoconductive antenna and compare its bandwidth with the GaAs-based analog. Due to its non-polar character, the Ge emitter demonstrates a broader THz spectrum reaching up to ~ 7.5 THz.
Keywords: Broadband terahertz emitter, Ge photoconductive emitter, Terahertz spectroscopy
  • Poster
    EOS Topical Meeting on Terahertz Science & Technology (TST 2018), 06.-09.05.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28681 - Permalink


Broadband Spectrum from a Photoconductive Emitter Spanning up to 13 THz
Singh, A.; Pashkin, A.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.;
We demonstrate here ultra-broadband THz emission from a Ge based photoconductive emitter with the gapless spectrum extending up to ~ 13 THz, twice as far as what has been previously achieved with other materials. THz emission properties of Ge based emitter are compared with that of GaAs based emitter.
Keywords: Terahertz emitter, Germanium (Ge) photoconductive switch, Broadband terahertz
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 09.-14.09.2018, Nagoya, Japan
    DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2018.8510016

Publ.-Id: 28680 - Permalink


Impact of flash-lamp-annealing on the structure of TiO2-based films
Gago, R.; Prucnal, S.; Hübner, R.; Jiménez, I.; Palomares, J.;
Many applications of titanium dioxide (TiO2) partially rely on its good performance as solvent for impurities [1]. For example, metal (cation) dopants can functionalize or enhance TiO2 as catalyst [2], diluted magnetic semiconductor [3] or transparent conductor [4]. Special attention has been devoted to TiO2 photoactivity where doping has been extensively studied towards band-gap narrowing to achieve visible-light (VISL) response [2]. Here, the most common approach has relied on anion (B,C,N,F,S,…) dopants triggered by the work of Asahi et al. [5]. However, cation (Cr,V,Fe,Ni,Mo,…) doping can also effectively increase VISL absorption but introducing severe structural distortions that additionally result in carrier recombination centers [4].
Our interest is focused on improving the structural quality of metal (co-)doped TiO2 films by post-deposition rapid and non-contact thermal treatments such as flash-lamp-annealing (FLA). An additional objective is to do so with (single and mixed) phase selectivity. For example, the promotion of anatase would be preferable due to the superior photoactivity of this phase or phase mixtures with high anatase content [6]. In particular, in this paper we address the impact of FLA on pure and (co-)doped (Cr,N) TiO2 films produced by magnetron sputtering as relevant systems for VISL photoactivity. The results on monolithic films [7] will be presented as well as promising alternatives to promote anatase by the use of modulated film architectures. The interest of FLA processing can also be extended to other dopants in TiO2 for improving the photoactivity or any other functionality. Therefore, the reported methodology can be attractive for many industrial applications dealing with the synthesis of band-gap engineered TiO2-based materials.
[1] Sacerdoti et al., J. Solid State Chem. 177, 1781 (2004); [2] Henderson, Surf. Sci. Rep. 66, 185 (2011); [3] Matsumoto et al. Science 291, 854 (2001); [4] Serpone et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 24287 (2006); [5] Asahi et al. Science 293, 269 (2001) [6] Scanlon et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 798 (2013); [7] R. Gago, S. Prucnal et al., J. Alloys & Compounds 729 (2017) 438.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XV Congreso Nacional de Materiales / 1st Iberian Meeting on Materials Science, 04.-06.07.2018, Salamanca, Spain

Publ.-Id: 28679 - Permalink


Coherent control of spin qubit modes associated with defects in silicon carbide
Astakhov, G. V.;
Quantum bit or qubit is a two-level system, which builds the foundation for quantum computation, simulation, communication and sensing. Quantum states of higher dimension, i.e., qutrits (D = 3) and especially qudits (D = 4 or higher), offer significant advantages. Particularly, they can provide noise-resistant quantum cryptography, simplify quantum logic and improve quantum metrology. Flying and solid-state qudits have been implemented on the basis of photonic chips and superconducting circuits, respectively. However, there is still a lack of room-temperature qudits with long coherence time and high spectral resolution. The silicon vacancy centers in silicon carbide (SiC) with spin S = 3/2 are quite promising in this respect. Here, Dr. Astakhov reports a two-frequency protocol to excite and image multiple qudit modes in a SiC spin ensemble under ambient conditions. Strikingly, their spectral width is about one order of magnitude narrower than the inhomogeneous broadening of the corresponding spin resonance. By applying Ramsey interferometry to these spin qudits, a spectral selectivity of 600 kHz and a spectral resolution of 30 kHz are achieved. As a practical consequence, we demonstrate absolute DC magnetometry insensitive to thermal noise and strain fluctuations.
Keywords: Spin defects, quantum applications, coherent control, silicon carbide
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Theo Murphy international scientific meeting. SiC quantum spintronics: towards quantum devices in a technological material, The Royal Society at Chicherley Hall, 05.-06.11.2018, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 28676 - Permalink


Millisecond Flash Lamp Annealing and Application for SiGe-HBT
Scheit, A.; Lenke, T.; Schumann, T.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Häberlein, S.;
A 200 mm millisecond flash lamp annealing (FLA) prototype was developed beside the EU project DOTSEVEN, named after the target for the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of 0.7 THz of a SiGe-HBT (Hetero Bipolar Transistor) [1]. The substitution of the final spike annealing (SPA) by FLA reduces the thermal budget despite higher peak temperatures. The development of the FLA process has to focus on the best dopant activation of the implants for high fmax and low deactivation of the intrinsic HBT base for high transit frequency (fT). For FLA the wafers are heated by halogen lamps to an intermediate temperature between 650°C and 850°C. The following Xenon flash lamp pulse increases the front surface temperature with an energy density between 10 J/cm² and 25 J/cm² within 1,0 ms (105 K/s). The pulse energy is limited by the occurrence of wafer breakage.
Among different experiments n-type Si (100) wafers (8-12 Ωcm) were pre amorphized with Germanium (5*1014/cm²; 15 keV) followed by Boron (B) (2*1015/cm²; 1 keV) [2]. FLA (780°C, 5s & 16 J/cm²) results in a suppressed B diffusion (Fig.1a) with concurrent higher activation (Rs = 202 Ω/sq) compared to spike annealing (SPA) at 1020°C with 250 K/s (Rs = 348 Ω/sq). The dopant loss trough the surface is about 30% for both annealings. A higher ratio of flash energy versus pre heat temperature (730°C, 5s & 23 J/cm²) enables a higher activation (Rs = 164 Ω/sq) with a steeper profile (5 nm/dec) and a negligible dopant loss. The slope can be adjusted from 5 nm/dec to 10 nm/dec. The second experiment is based on a model SiGe-HBT with a B base of 8 nm width at a concentration of 1018/cm³ to investigate the influence of the thermal treatment on the shape of the profile. SPA at 1020°C with 250 K/s results in a 40 nm broad profile. The reduction of this broadening down to 20 nm was defined as an internal project goal. FLA (780°C, 30s & 14 J/cm²) reduces the profile broadening by 10 nm. A stronger flash pulse with a colder pre heat (730°C, 5s & 21 J/cm²) achieve our requirements. Based on this FLA process an experimental SiGe HBT technology featuring fT / fmax / BVCEO = 505 GHz / 720 GHz / 1.6 V was developed.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing, heterojunction bipolar transistor, spike annealing, Germanium
  • Lecture (Conference)
    22nd International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology 2018, 16.-21.09.2018, Würzburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28675 - Permalink


Engineering of highly coherent spin centers in silicon carbide
Astakhov, G. V.;
Building quantum devices based on silicon carbide (SiC) is highly desirable, facilitated by established SiC CMOS technology. Optoelectronic SiC devices have already been demonstrated, however, the signal- mediating quantum defects are usually introduced in a semi-random manner, by bulk electron or neutron irradiation. We present the controlled generation of quantum centers in silicon carbide (SiC) by focused proton beam in a noncomplex manner without need for pre- or postirradiation treatment. The generation depth and resolution can be predicted by matching the proton energy to the material’s stopping power, and the amount of quantum centers at one specific sample volume is tunable from ensembles of millions to discernible single photon emitters. We identify the generated centers as silicon vacancies through their characteristic magnetic resonance signatures and demonstrate that they possess highy coherent spin properties even at room temperature.
Keywords: Spin defects, quantum applications, silicon carbide
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    3rd International Conference on Metamaterials and Nanophotonics METANANO 2018, 16.-21.09.2018, Sochi, Russian

Publ.-Id: 28674 - Permalink


Evaluation of Nanoparticle Inks on Flexible and Stretchable Substrates for Biocompatible Application
Schubert, M.; Wang, Y.; Vinnichenko, M.; Rebohle, L.; Fritsch, M.; Schumann, T.; Bock, K.;
The flexible and stretchable electronic market is increasing particularly in the field of biomedical electronics. Widely used printed silver conductive tracks today are only eligible for on-skin applications. However, for biomedical applications fully biocompatible, flexible and even stretchable materials for device fabrication are needed. This paper presents an additive printing approach to fabricate flexible and stretchable electronics by using a biocompatible platinum material. Usually, in order to realize electrically conducting Pt-interconnects by inkjet printing, it requires a furnace sintering at prohibitively high temperatures, which are not compatible with thermal sensitive polymeric substrates. This paper describes a high-power diode laser sintering (HPDL) and a flash lamp annealing (FLA) as promising alternative sintering methods. Both processes are eligible whereas laser sintering showed slightly better results. Bending tests and adhesive strength tests of platinum printed inks on polyimide with up to 180 000 cycles, show that printed platinum is a suitable biocompatible material for flexible electronics.
Keywords: flexible, stretchable, biocompatible, photonic sintering, platinum, silver, nanoparticle ink, flash lamp, laser sintering
  • Poster
    7th Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference, 18.-21.09.2018, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    7th Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference, 18.-21.09.2018, Dresden, Deutschland
    DOI: 10.1109/ESTC.2018.8546494

Publ.-Id: 28672 - Permalink


Flash lamp annealing of memristive BiFeO3 thin films simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics
Bürger, D.; Baitule, S.; Rebohle, L.; Schulz, S.; Schmidt, H.;
Annealing techniques are key technologies in semiconductor industry. Removing implantation damage, activating dopants, and crystallizing sputtered amorphous layers are only some applications of annealing technologies. Pulsed laser annealing on the nanosecond timescale and longterm annealing in the range of hours are on the short and on the long end of the time scale, respectively. On an intermediate millisecond time scale, flashlamp annealing (FLA) plays an important role as an homogenous annealing technique with a large throughput for industrial applications [1]. Adjustable FLA parameters are energy density and the duration of the pulse. Pulse repetition frequency and shape of the pulse are technical aspects of FLA setups with lower energy density which are commonly used for materials on flexible substrates. So far, less attention has been paid to the geometry of the chamber and to the substrate holder influencing the temperature of the annealed wafer. The former one is influencing the irradiance distribution, the latter one is influencing the heat conduction and the cooling rate of the wafer. The irradiance distribution has a large influence on the temperature close to inhomogeneities on the surface or the edge of the sample [2]. The cooling rate after the FLA pulse determines the effect of thermal treatment on the sample properties due to diffusion processes within the sample. Our studies on BiFeO3 thin films on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt substrates, which we develop for resistive switching applications, show that highly energetic pulses may lead to a phase separation in BiFeO3 and can cause formation of metallic-like conduction paths whereas multiple flashes with lower energy density keep the insulating and memristive properties of BiFeO3 (BFO).
To understand these aspects in detail, we simulated the FLA of BFO using COMSOL. In a first step, we have constructed the geometry of a typical flashlamp annealing chamber (Fig. 1). Within this geometry, the Raytracing module of COMSOL has been used to study the distribution of the rays within the chamber. As a result after MATLAB-treatment of the raw data, we have obtained an polar information of the irradiance distribution depending on the angle of incidence (Fig. 2). This information can help to understand the incorporated energy on the sample surface/wafer edges in a better way. For example, the intensity of the light at an angle of 30° with respect to the wafer-normal is still 89% of the intensity compared with the intensity directly from the top (0°). At 45° and at 65° the intensity is reduced to 75% and 38%, respectively. This irradiance distribution causes overheating of wafers at positions with non-planar structure.
In a second step, the heat conduction through a wafer has been simulated with different underlying materials of different thermal conductivity. The motivation for these simulation is caused by the fact that BFO thin films on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt substrates annealed by one highly energetic pulse do not show the expected memristive switching. Instead, BFO thin films on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt substrates which have been annealed with multiple low energy pulses show memristive switching. In that case the sample lies on a thermally insulating SiO2 wafer which should prevent the flow of the energy in the underlying metallic plate. The strongly reduced cooling rate of the annealed wafer after each FLA pulse allows a step-by-step increase in temperature during multiple FLA pulses. The complete annealing process with 10 3 ms-pulses takes 6.6 seconds, but it is still more effective for BFO than alternative thermal annealing techniques. Fig. 3 presents the simulated surface temperature after 10 ms. Due to the transmission of the light, the surface of the SiO2 wafer remains quite cold. In contrast to that the surface temperature of the BFO thin film on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt is enhanced. After 100 ms (Fig. 4), the temperature of the surface of the SiO2 wafer is increasing because the hot steel plate transfer a part of the energy to the SiO2 wafer. In general, the temperature of the BFO on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt is enhanced with respect to the SiO2 wafer. Multiple pulses lead to a step-by-step increase in temperature which might be one reason for the success of the annealing of BFO.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing, BiFeO3, COMSOL Multiphysics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials for Advanced Metallization, 18.-21.03.2018, Milano, Italy

Publ.-Id: 28669 - Permalink


Spin colour centres in SiC as a material platform for sensing and information processing at ambient conditions
Anisimov, A.; Soltamov, V.; Baranov, P.; Astakhov, G.ORC; Dyakonov, V.
Atomic-scale colour centres in bulk and nanocrystalline SiC are promising systems for quantum photonics compatible with fiber optics, quantum information processing and sensing at ambient conditions. Colour centres which acts as stable single photon sources in SiC can be key elements for quantum photonics and communications. It has been shown that there are at least two families of colour centres in SiC with S = 1 and S = 3/2, which have the property of optical alignment of the spin levels even at room temperature and above. The spin state can be initialized, manipulated and readout by means of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR), level anticrossing and cross-relaxation. Recently, we observed the effects of “hole burning” in the ODMR spectra, which made it possible to narrow the ODMR line by approximately an order of magnitude, which substantially increases the possibilities of technological applications of spin centres.
Keywords: Quantum technology, atom-scale defects, silicon carbide

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Publ.-Id: 28668 - Permalink


Evaluation of defects in two-dimensional MoTe2: from point to extended defects
Ghorbani-Asl, MahdiORC; Lehnert, T.; Köster, J.; Komsa, H.-P.; Kaiser, U.; Krasheninnikov, A.
Defects frequently govern the characteristics of solids, e.g., mechanical or optical properties. They also provide an efficient way to engineer materials properties, similar to doping in semiconductors. Using first-principles calculations combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experiments, we study the creation, agglomeration, and evolution of vacancies in monolayer MoTe 2 under electron irradiation. Various types of point and extended defects are studied and their atomic structures and formation energies are determined. The stability of flower-like defects and trefoil-like defects are compared with the line vacancies. Our results show that single Te vacancies have a tendency for agglomeration into vacancy lines. The stability of line defects is also found to be dependent on their orientation. We have also studied the effects of uniaxial and biaxial strain on the stability and dynamics of line defects. Our electronic structure calculations show that the defects can change the electronic properties of MoTe2, suggesting new opportunities for defect engineering in these layered materials.
Keywords: 2D materials beyond graphene, TMDCs, defects, MoTe2
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Spring Meeting, 16.03.2018, Berlin, Germany
  • Poster
    Conference on Physics of Defects in Solids: Quantum Mechanics Meets Topology, 09.07.2018, ICTP, Trieste, Italy
  • Poster
    Flatlands beyond Graphene, 03.09.2018, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28667 - Permalink


Ultrafast X-ray tomography data set for the investigation of gas-liquid two-phase flows in an impeller of a centrifugal pump
Schäfer, T.; Bieberle, A.ORC; Pietruske, H.; Hampel, U.ORC

In this study the behaviour of gas-liquid two-phase flow inside a centrifugal pump impeller is investigated using

  • ultrafast X-ray computed tomography
  • different rotational speed (1300 rpm, 1480 rpm, 1600 rpm)
  • different inlet gas/liquid fractions
  • different inlet gas-liquid flow regimes (disperse, swirling) 

Keywords: centrifugal pump; two-phase flow investigations; ultrafast X-ray computed tomography
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-01-16
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.75

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Publ.-Id: 28666 - Permalink


Simulation of Nanodevices
Wagner, C.; Teichert, F.ORC; Fuchs, F.; Schuster, J.ORC; Schreiber, M.ORC; Gessner, T.
Presentation of TP1 / DFG research unit 1713 “Sensoric micro- and nano systems
  • Lecture (others)
    Abschlussverteidigung DFG Forschergruppe 1713 "Sensorische Mikro- und Nanosysteme", 20.09.2018, Chemnitz, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28664 - Permalink


Dressing intersubband transitions at terahertz frequencies
Schmidt, J.; Winnerl, S.; Dimakis, E.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.;
We combine intense, spectrally narrow THz pulses from a free-electron laser with broadband THz probe pulses and electro-optic sampling for highly nonlinear THz spectroscopy. We exploit this approach for dressing intersubband transitions in a wide GaAs quantum well and for investigating the associated coherent phenomena with added spectral resolution.
Keywords: terahertz spectroscopy, intersubband transition, quantum well, free-electron laser
  • Lecture (Conference)
    43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 09.-14.09.2018, Nagoya, Japan
  • Contribution to proceedings
    43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 09.-14.09.2018, Nagoya, Japan
    2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz): IEEE
    DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2018.8510160

Publ.-Id: 28663 - Permalink


Strain-dependent scaling of excitons in carbon nanotubes
Wagner, C.ORC; Schuster, J.ORC; Schleife, A.ORC
Optical transitions in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show a strong strain sensitivity, which makes them suitable for optical strain sensing at the nano-scale and for strain-tunable emitters. The origin of this effect is the dependence of the CNT band-gap on strain and chirality, which is well explored. However, there is no quantitative model for the strain dependence of optical transitions — which are subject to strong excitonic effects due to the quasi one-dimensional structure of CNTs.

One approach towards such a model is a parametrized description of the quasiparticle gap as well as the scaling relation of the exciton binding energy in CNTs given by Perebeinos et al [1]. However, the description of screening in the scaling relation is insufficient, since for CNTs, a one-dimensional wave-vector dependent dielectric function є(q) is required instead of an effective-medium dielectric constant є0.

We improve the approach by Perebeinos et al [1] by relating the screening physics in CNTs to the electronic transitions. The resulting model is fitted to electronic-structure calculations within many-body perturbation theory. This enables us to quantitatively predict the strain dependence of optical transitions for any CNT.

[1] V. Perebeinos et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 257402 (2004).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung und EPS-CMD27, 12.-16.03.2018, Berlin, Deutschland

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Publ.-Id: 28662 - Permalink


Interessante Beobachtungen in der FIB - Artefakte oder wissenschaftlich neue Ergebnisse?
Engelmann, H.-J.; Hübner, R.;
Interessante Beobachtungen in der FIB - Artefakte oder wissenschaftlich neue Ergebnisse?
  • Lecture (others)
    6. Sächsisches TEM-Präparatorentreffen, 10.04.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28660 - Permalink


Impact of flotation hydrodynamics on the optimization of fine-grained carbonaceous sedimentary apatite ore beneficiation
Hoang, D. H.; Hassanzadeh, A.; Peuker, U. A.; Rudolph, M.;
The flotation beneficiation of phosphate ore is increasingly facing challenges, especially for finely disseminated sedimentary ores rich in carbonates. This study aims to optimize and assess the impact of key hydrodynamic parameters including pulp density, air flowrate and impeller speed on flotation and metallurgical responses (i.e. grade, recovery, flotation rate constant and selectivity index (SI)). We carried out locked cycle flotation tests using the best conditions from the rougher flotation test to generate an experimental simulation of a continuous circuit. The mineralogical and chemical properties were characterized by mineral liberation analysis (MLA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques, respectively. A modified-McGill bubble size viewer was used for measuring bubble sizes and evaluating the interaction between hydrodynamic factors and bubble diameters. Finally, the design of experiment (DOE) method was applied to determine the relative intensity of the studied factors. It was found that under optimal conditions with the targets of high recovery and maximum SI, the final apatite concentrate achieved a recovery of 86.3 % at a grade of 35.5 %, while the MgO content was 1.2 % and 84.3 % of dolomite was removed from a feed ore containing about 25 % P2O5, 4.6 % MgO, and 41 % CaO. Furthermore, another locked cycle flotation test showed that a 0.82 % MgO content in the final apatite concentrate can be achieved with an apatite recovery of 75.6 % at a P2O5 grade of 36.76 %, and a ratio CaO/P2O5 = 1.33. The obtained concentrate in this investigation under the optimum conditions is the highest in both apatite recovery and grade with low MgO content reported in the literature.
Keywords: Carbonaceous sedimentary apatite; Locked cycle flotation; Impeller speed; Pulp density; Rare earth; Design of experiment

Publ.-Id: 28659 - Permalink


Non-ferrous metals metallurgy industry
Reuter, M. A.;
Recycling forms the heart of the Circular Economy (CE) system. Ultimately all products will have to be recycled at their End-of-Life (EoL). Maximizing the recovery of materials and also especially strategic elements from EoL products requires a deep understanding of the fundamental limits and the dynamics of the evolving system, thus an adaptive processing and metallurgical infrastructure is critical to recover all metals and materials. Paramount is the quantification of the “mineralogy”, the complex and interlinked composition of products, to trace and quantify specifically all the losses of materials, metals, alloys, etc. due to thermodynamic and other non-linear interactions. We named this product centric recycling. The recycling potential and performance must be quantified and demonstrated for products, collection systems, waste separation and recovery technologies, and material supply. Emphasis is also placed on informing the consumer through iRE i.e. informing Resource Efficiency in an easy-to-understand way. System Integrated Metal Processing (SIMP) using big-data, multi-sensors, simulation models, metallurgy, etc. links all stakeholders through Circular Economy Engineering (CEE), an important enabler to maximize Resource Efficiency and thus iRE.
Keywords: Circular Economy (CE), Digitalization, CE system, Design for recycling
  • Lecture (others)
    Non-ferrous metals metallurgy industry / Academic course, 13.12.2018, Madrid, Spanien

Publ.-Id: 28656 - Permalink


Oxygen in ultrahigh magnetic fields
Nomura, T.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12th International Conference on Research in High Magnetic Fields (RHMF 2018), 24.-28.06.2018, Santa Fe, USA

Publ.-Id: 28654 - Permalink


On the magnetocaloric properties of Heusler compounds
Gottschall, T.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 11.-16.03.2018, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28653 - Permalink


Welche (globale) Recycling-Infrastruktur braucht eine Circular Economy?
Reuter, M. A.;
Recycling forms the heart of the Circular Economy (CE) system. Ultimately all products will have to be recycled at their End-of-Life (EoL). Maximizing the recovery of materials and also especially strategic elements from EoL products requires a deep understanding of the fundamental limits and the dynamics of the evolving system, thus an adaptive processing and metallurgical infrastructure is critical to recover all metals and materials. Paramount is the quantification of the “mineralogy”, the complex and interlinked composition of products, to trace and quantify specifically all the losses of materials, metals, alloys, etc. due to thermodynamic and other non-linear interactions. We named this product centric recycling. The recycling potential and performance must be quantified and demonstrated for products, collection systems, waste separation and recovery technologies, and material supply. Emphasis is also placed on informing the consumer through iRE i.e. informing Resource Efficiency in an easy-to-understand way. System Integrated Metal Processing (SIMP) using big-data, multi-sensors, simulation models, metallurgy, etc. links all stakeholders through Circular Economy Engineering (CEE), an important enabler to maximize Resource Efficiency and thus iRE.
Keywords: Metallurgical Recycling infrastructure, circular economy
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    NEXUS - Tagung zur Rohstoffgewinnung und -recycling und dem nötigen Energiebedarf, 07.12.2018, Stuttgart, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28651 - Permalink


Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie: Vorstellung des HIF, Forschung und neues Technikum
Kelly, N.; Recksiek, V.; Scharf, C.;
Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie: Vorstellung des HIF, Forschung und neues Technikum
  • Lecture (Conference)
    34. Arbeitskreis Magnesiumrecycling, 19.04.2018, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28648 - Permalink


Überführung der Kupfer-Eisen-Trennung vom Becherglas- in den Pilotmaßstab
Rädecker, P.; Scharf, C.;
Die Trennung von Kupfer und Eisen durch Solventextraktion ist in der Metallurgie, speziell bei der Verarbeitung von Lösungen aus dem Laugungsprozess oxidischer Kupfererze, ein vielfältig untersuchtes Verfahren. Im Rahmen der durchgeführten Untersuchungen wurde als Ausgangsmaterial ein Flugstaub aus der historischen Kupfererzeugung verwendet.
Ausgangspunkt für die Untersuchungen bildeten Versuche im Becherglasmaßstab (200 ml) unter Verwendung des Extraktionssystem LIX984 gelöst in Kerosin. Es wurden die Reaktionsisotherme für Kupfer, die Zeit- und Konzentrationsabhängig-keiten sowie die Trennung von Kupfer und Eisen bestimmt. Die ermittelten optimalen Parameter werden angewendet, um den Prozess auf eine gerührte 32-mm KÜHNI-Extraktionskolonne (bereitgestellt durch SULZER Chemtech AG) zu übertragen. Die Einbauten sind aus korrosionsfestem Kunststoff und die wässrige Phase wird als disperse Phase gefahren. Das Ziel ist die selektive Extraktion von Kupfer aus synthetischen Lösungen sowie realen Laugungslösungen mit einem möglichst großen Durchsatz. Dafür werden für die Extraktionskolonne, der Flutpunkt und der Holdup sowie die theoretischen Trennstufen der Kolonne bestimmt.
  • Poster
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppe Extraktion & Rohstoffe, 12.03.2018, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28647 - Permalink


Zur selektiven Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion von Oxoanionen aus alkalischen Lösungen
Kelly, N.; Mansel, A.; O'Toole, N.; Scharf, C.;
Europa steht vor der Herausforderung, eine gesicherte Versorgung von Metallen wie Chrom, Vanadium, Niob oder Molybdän zu gewährleisten, welche eine wichtige Rolle hinsichtlich der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit im Fertigungssektor und bei den Innovationen im Hochtechnologiebereich spielen. Gleichzeitig sind solche Metalle in großen Mengen in Sekundärressourcen gebunden, wo ihr eigentlicher Wert nicht voll ausgenutzt werden kann. Das Verfahren der Solventextraktion stellt dabei eine vielversprechende Methode da, um diese Metalle aus zuvor erhaltenen Laugungslösungen selektiv zurückzugewinnen.
Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Untersuchung der Extraktionseigenschaften von kommerziell erhältlichen Extraktionsmitteln wie Aliquat 336 gegenüber den gebildeten Oxoanionen von Chrom, Vanadium, Molybdän und Niob. Detaillierte Studien zum Einfluss der Parameter pH-Wert (Abb.1), Kontaktzeit und Volumenverhältnis der beiden Phasen sowie die Rolle der eingesetzten Modifier bzw. zusätzlicher Extraktionsmittel oder anwesender Anionen (Abb. 2) werden näher diskutiert.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppe Extraktion & Rohstoffe, 12.03.2018, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28646 - Permalink


Heteropolynuclear Cu(II)/Ln(III) complexes of hexadentate Schiff bases: Syntheses, structures and solution studies
Kelly, N.; Doert, T.; Gloe, K.; Weigand, J. J.; Gloe, K.;
The coordination chemistry of heteropolynuclear 3d/4f metal complexes with multifunctional Schiff base ligands has received increasing attention due to their magnetic and catalytic properties but also for their biological activities and the role in separation processes. The underlying self-assembly processes are controlled by the nature of metal ions, ligands, counter anions or solvents and the experimental conditions. It remains a great challenge to understand the influence of all these factors on the assembly process in order to synthesize materials with defined properties.
In this work we report the synthesis of complexes of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl and 3-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphenyl diimines having different linking elements. According to similar ligands in the literature these Schiff bases lead to heteropolynuclear complexes with d- and f-block elements, like Cu(II) and Ln(III), using the N₂O₂ and O₄ donor sets whereby the formation of the bi-, tri and tetranuclear complexes depends on the type of the lanthanide ion and the structure of the organic ligand. The different isolated structures will be compared and discussed in detail as well as results of studies in solution (UV/vis, ESI-MS, solvent extraction).
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 10th International Symposium on Nano & Supramolecular Chemistry, 12.07.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28645 - Permalink


Heterodinuclear Metal Complexes of Multifunctional Diimine and Diamine Ligands in Synergistic Extraction
Kelly, N.; Gloe, K.;
Heterodinuclear Metal Complexes of Multifunctional Diimine and Diamine Ligands in Synergistic Extraction
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    5th International Conference on Methods and Materials for Separation Processes "Separation Science - Theory and Practice", 27.08.2018, Kudowa-Zdroj, Polen

Publ.-Id: 28643 - Permalink


Combining hyperspectral and geomagnetic drone- borne data for non-invasive mineral exploration.
Jackisch, R.; Madriz, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Saartenoja, A.; Pirttijarvi, M.; Salmirinne, H.; Jylaenki, J.; Heincke, B.; Gloaguen, R.;
Combining hyperspectral and geomagnetic and drone- borne data for non-invasive mineral exploration.
Keywords: UAS, hyperspectral, multispectral, mineral exploration, geomagnetic field, fluxgate, magnetometer
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4. ArcHub meeting, 19.-20.11.2018, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publ.-Id: 28641 - Permalink


A machine learning technique for drill core hyperspectral data
Contreras, C.; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Tusa, L.; Ghamisi, P.; Gloaguen, R.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Innovative Technologies in Exploration and Mineral Detection. Practical Workshop, 2nd edition., 12.-13.12.2018, Barcelona, Spain

Publ.-Id: 28640 - Permalink


Mineral exploration, based on ground and airborne hyperspectral imaging
Gloaguen, R.; Kirsch, M.; Zimmermann, R.; Lorenz, S.; Booysen, R.; Tusa, L.; Brazzo, N.; Unger, G.; Herrmann, E.;
Mineral exploration, based on ground and airborne hyperspectral imaging
Keywords: UAS, drone, hyperspectral, magnetic, drill core, outcrop sensing
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Practical workshop on Innovative technologies in exploration and mineral detection, 12.-14.12.2017, Barcelona, Spain

Publ.-Id: 28639 - Permalink


A novel approach combining geomagnetic and hyperspectral drone-borne data. Advances in remote sensing based mineral exploration and environmental monitoring.
Jackisch, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Lorenz, S.; Saartenoja, A.; Pirttijärvi, M.; Gloaguen, R.;
The demand for raw materials is constantly growing for more than twenty years in our modern societies. Therefore, there is an acute necessity for the exploration of new deposits to sustain the need for high-technology metals. Remote or formerly non-lucrative mineral deposits suddenly become attractive to the industry. Thus, non-invasive and efficient tools for a sustainable exploration are required to fit our present societal requirements.
We identified light-weight drone technology as one of the disruptive technologies in that respect. Further, making use of these unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with multiple sensors will boost non-invasive exploration.
We present a novel approach for non-invasive mineral exploration based on the integration of remote sensing techniques. Advantages of UAS in this context are that they are fast, easily deployable and deliver high resolution data with short turn-around times. We combine light-weight UAS technology with a hyperspectral sensor and a fluxgate magnetometer. Both datasets of high-resolution hyperspectral surface data and subsurface data using the Earth’s magnetic field are merged. This allows us to identify surficial rock exposures and estimates the subsurface proportions of the aforesaid targets. We also measure the extent of the impact of exploration and mining operations on the environment (e.g., Acid rock drainage) using precise hyperspectral mapping.
An octocopter platform carrying the hyperspectral sensor system maps the area of interest and a fixed-wing UAS acquires magnetic data. Hyperspectral data is corrected for topographic effects and automatically georeferenced. Magnetic data is calibrated for orientation effects of the UAS. External and diurnal induced field fluctuations are rectified with base station data. Validation of the measurements is achieved with traditional field methods and in situ sampling. Ground spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence are used to validate the results. We tested this approach in Namibia, Greenland, Finland and Germany.
The results are promising and demonstrate that drone-based exploration becomes more attractive and feasible to the mining industry and the geoscientific community.
Keywords: UAS, hyperspectral, remote sensing, drone, magnetic, fluxgate
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Resources for Future Generations - RFG, 16.-21.06.2018, Vancouver, Canada

Publ.-Id: 28638 - Permalink


Seltene Erden – Woher sie kommen und wie wir sie gewinnen
Möckel, R.;
Wie und wo kommen die Seltenen Erden vor und wie werden sie gewonnen? Die Seltenen Erden sind gar nicht so selten, wie ihr Name vielleicht vermuten lässt. Trotzdem sind die Gewinnung und die damit verbundenen Risiken nicht zu unterschätzen. Der Vortrag gibt einen Einblick in die Geologie der Seltenen Erden, moderne Konzepte und Entwicklungen für eine künftig sichere Versorgung mit den begehrten Metallen sowie diesbezüglich aktuelle Projekte am Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie (HIF), das zum Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf gehört.
Keywords: seltene Erden, rare earth elements, Seltenerdelemente
  • Lecture (others)
    Dresdner Seniorenakademie Wissenschaft und Kunst, 10.01.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28637 - Permalink


Chiral Skyrmion and Skyrmionium States Engineered by the Gradient of Curvature
Pylypovskyi, O. V.; Makarov, D.; Kravchuk, V. P.; Gaididei, Y.; Saxena, A.; Sheka, D. D.;
Curvilinear nanomagnets can support magnetic skyrmions stabilized at a local curvature without any intrinsic chiral interactions. Here, we propose an alternative mechanism to stabilize chiral Neel skyrmion states relying on the gradient of curvature. We illustrate our approach with an example of a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy shaped as a circular indentation. We show that in addition to the topologically trivial ground state, there are two skyrmion states with winding numbers +/- 1 and a skyrmionium state with a winding number 0. These chiral states are formed due to the pinning of a chiral magnetic domain wall at a bend of the nanoindentation due to spatial inhomogeneity of the curvature-induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The latter emerges due to the gradient of the local curvature at the bend. While the chirality of the skyrmion is determined by the sign of the local curvature, its radius can be varied in a broad range by engineering the position of the bend with respect to the center of the nanoindentation. We propose a general method, which enables us to reduce the magnetic problem for any surface of revolution to the common planar problem by means of proper modification of constants of anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

Publ.-Id: 28636 - Permalink


Drastic Fermi-surface reconstruction in Nd-doped CeCoIn5
Green, E.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12th International Conference on Research in High Magnetic Fields, 24.-28.06.2018, Santa Fe, USA

Publ.-Id: 28631 - Permalink


A novel multicaloric cooling cycle that exploits thermal hysteresis
Gottschall, T.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    9th JEMS Conference 2018 (Joint European Magnetic Symposia), 03.-07.09.2018, Mainz, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Thermag VIII, 16.-20.09.2018, Darmstadt, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28630 - Permalink


Solid oxygon in ultrahigh magnetic fields
Nomura, T.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    CC2018 - 12th International Conference on Cryocrystals and Quantum Crystals, 26.-31.08.2018, Wroclaw, Poland

Publ.-Id: 28628 - Permalink


Controlled coexcitation of direct and indirect ultrafast demagnetization in Co/Pd multilayers with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
Pan, S.; Hellwig, O.; Barman, A.;
Ever since its discovery in 1996, ultrafast demagnetization has ignited immense research interest due to its scientific rigor and technological potential. A flurry of recent theoretical and experimental investigations has proposed direct and indirect excitation processes in separate systems. However, it still lacks a unified mechanism and remains highly debatable. Here, we demonstrate that instead of either direct or indirect interaction, simultaneous and controlled excitation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of demagnetization is possible in multilayers composed of repeated Co/Pd bilayers. Moreover, we are able to modulate demagnetization time (from ∼350 to ∼750 fs) by fluence and thickness-dependent indirect excitation due to heat current flowing vertically downward from top layers, which is combined with an altogether different scenario of direct irradiation. Finally, by regulating the pump wavelength, we can effectively control the contribution of indirect process, which gives a confirmation to our understanding of the ultrafast demagnetization process.
Keywords: ultrafast demagnetization, Co/Pd multilayers

Publ.-Id: 28624 - Permalink


Ion-trap analog of particle creation in cosmology
Fey, C.; Schätz, T.; Schützhold, R.;
We consider the transversal modes of ions in a linear radio-frequency trap where we control the time-dependent axial confinement to show that we can excite quanta of motion via a two-mode squeezing process. This effect is analogous to phenomena predicted to occur in the early universe, in general out of reach for experimental investigation. As a substantial advantage of this proposal in comparison to previous ones we propose to exploit the radial and axial modes simultaneously to permit experimental access of these effects based on state-of-the-art technology. In addition, we propose to create and explore entanglement between the two ions.

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Publ.-Id: 28622 - Permalink


Discrete worldline instantons
Schneider, C.; Torgrimsson, G.; Schützhold, R.;
The semiclassical approximation of the worldline path integral is a powerful tool to study non-perturbative electron-positron pair creation in spacetime-dependent background fields. Finding solutions of the classical equations of motion, i.e., worldline instantons, is possible analytically only in special cases, and a numerical treatment is nontrivial as well. We introduce a completely general numerical approach based on an approximate evaluation of the discretized path integral that easily and robustly gives the full semiclassical pair production rate in nontrivial multidimensional fields, and apply it to some example cases.

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Publ.-Id: 28619 - Permalink


Interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a gravitational wave
Schützhold, R.;
Partly motivated by recent proposals for the detection of gravitational waves, we study their interaction with Bose-Einstein condensates. For homogeneous condensates at rest, the gravitational wave does not directly create phonons (to lowest order) but merely affects existing phonons or indirectly creates phonon pairs via quantum squeezing-an effect which has already been considered in the literature. For inhomogeneous condensate flows such as a vortex lattice, however, the impact of the gravitational wave can directly create phonons. This more direct interaction can be more efficient and could perhaps help bring such a detection mechanism for gravitational waves a step closer towards experimental realizability-even though there is still a long way to go. Finally, we argue that super-fluid helium might offer some advantages in this respect.

Downloads:

Publ.-Id: 28618 - Permalink


Graphene Oxide Functional Nanohybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Improved Vectorization of Doxorubicin to Neuroblastoma Cells
Lerra, L.; Farfalla, A.; Sanz, B.; Cirillo, G.; Vittorio, O.; Voli, F.; Le Grand, M.; Curcio, M.; Pasquale Nicoletta, F.; Dubrovska, A.; Hampel, S.; Iemma, F.; Goya, G.;
With the aim to obtain a site-specific doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we designed an hybrid nanocarrier combining graphene oxide (GO) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), acting as core elements, and a curcumin–human serum albumin conjugate as functional coating. The nanohybrid, synthesized by redox reaction between the MNPs@GO system and albumin bioconjugate, consisted of MNPs@GO nanosheets homogeneously coated by the bioconjugate as verified by SEM investigations. Drug release experiments showed a pH-responsive behavior with higher release amounts in acidic (45% at pH 5.0) vs. neutral (28% at pH 7.4) environments. Cell internalization studies proved the presence of nanohybrid inside SH-SY5Y cytoplasm. The improved efficacy obtained in viability assays is given by the synergy of functional coating and MNPs constituting the nanohybrids: while curcumin moieties were able to keep low DOX cytotoxicity levels (at concentrations of 0.44–0.88 µM), the presence of MNPs allowed remote actuation on the nanohybrid by a magnetic field, increasing the dose delivered at the target site.
Keywords: graphene oxide; iron oxide nanoparticles; magnetic targeting; nanohybrids; synergism

Publ.-Id: 28613 - Permalink


Subspace Multinomial Logistic Regression Ensemble for Classification of Hyperspectral Images
Khodadadzadeh, M.; Ghamisi, P.; Contreras, C.; Gloaguen, R.;
Exploiting multiple complementary classifiers in an ensemble framework has shown to be effective for improving hyperspectral image classification results, especially when the training samples are limited. With a different principle and based on this assumption that hyperspectal feature vectors effectively lie in a low-dimensional subspace, the subspace-based techniques have shown great classification performance. In this work, we propose a new ensemble method for accurate classification of hyperspectral images, which exploits the concept of subspace projection. For this purpose, we extend the subspace multinomial logistic regression classifier (MLRsub) to learn from multiple random subspaces for each class. More specifically, we impose diversity in constructing MLRsub by randomly selecting bootstrap samples from the training set and subsets of the original hyperspectral feature space, which leads to generate different class subspace features. Experimental results, conducted on two real hyperspectral data sets, indicate that the proposed method provides significant classification results in comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches.
Keywords: Hyperspectral images, classification, ensemble-based approaches, subspace multinomial logistic regression, remote sensing
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IGARSS 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 22.-27.07.2018, Valencia, Spain

Publ.-Id: 28612 - Permalink


Subspace clustering algorithms for mineral mapping
Khodadadzadeh, M.; Contreras, C.; Tusa, L.; Gloaguen, R.;
The application of drill core hyperspectral data in exploration campaigns is receiving great interest to obtain a general overview of a mineral deposit. However, the main approach to the investigation of such data is by visual interpretation, which is subjective and time-consuming. To address this issue, recently, the use of machine learning techniques is proposed for the analysis of this data. For drill core samples that for which only very little prior knowledge is often available, applying classification algorithms which are supervised learning methods is very challenging. In this paper, we suggest to use clustering (unsupervised) methods for mineral mapping, which are similar to classification but no predefined class labels are needed. To handle mapping of the very highly mixed pixels in drill core hyperspectral data, we propose to use advanced subspace clustering methods, in which pixels are assumed to lie in a union of low-dimensional subspaces. We conduct a comparative study and evaluate the performance of two well-known subspace clustering methods, i.e., sparse subspace clustering (SSC) and low-rank representation (LRR). For the experiments, we acquired VNIR-SWIR hyperspectral data and applied scanning electron microscopy based Mineral Liberation Analysis (MLA) for two drill core samples. MLA is a high-resolution imaging technique that allows detailed mineral characterization. We use the high-resolution MLA image as a reference to analyze the clustering results. Qualitative analysis of the obtained clustering maps indicates that the subspace clustering methods can accurately map the available minerals in the drill core hyperspectral data, especially in comparison to the traditional k-means clustering method.
Keywords: Mineral mapping, drill core, hyperspectral data, subspace clustering, remote sensing
  • Contribution to proceedings
    SPIE Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XXIV, 10.-13.09.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28609 - Permalink


Multidimensional fluid mixing capabilities of ATHLET 3.1A during an overcooling transient in a generic PWR KONVOI
Diaz Pescador, E.;
In the presented work, a simulation of a 10% main steam line break (MSLB) in steam generator (SG) 1 in a generic German PWR KONVOI model is carried out and investigated by means of the system code ATHLET 3.1A. The accident analysis is focused first, on a thermal-hydraulic transient characterization, in order to subsequently study the multidimensional fluid mixing in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), and further verification against suitable experimental data. With this aim, in the ATHLET simulation, the nominal plant operational parameters of the generic KONVOI reactor are transposed with the boundary conditions from the test PKL G3.1. The obtained results show an increase in the heat removal through the U-tubes of SG 1during boil-off, giving rise to an asymmetric overcooling in the reactor coolant system. At the arrival of the overcooled water to the RPV, the cold water stream mixes with the ambient coolant in the downcomer and eventually spreads across the whole region. In the core region, the overcooled water propagates from the periphery towards the core centre. The obtained behavior is in good agreement with the experimental results from the ROCOM and PKL test facilities.
  • Poster
    Workshop of Doctoral Candidates (PhD student seminar), 13.12.2018, Zittau, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28606 - Permalink


Integration of drone-borne hyperspectral and geomagnetic data. A combined approach in geologic remote sensing. A test from the Siilinjärvi carbonatite, Finland.
Jackisch, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Lorenz, S.; Saartenoja, A.; Pirttijärvi, M.; Heincke, B.; Gloaguen, R.;
The worlds need for critical materials sees a surge since the last two decades. Most of Europe’s larger mineral deposits have been discovered and exploited by now. A rising need to include formerly unattractive or inaccessible prospects is apparent. Here, using drones for detailed prospecting of small areas comes in handy. Drones have the advantage of being cost-efficient, easily deployable and having a short turn-around time for high resolution data.
With this study, we introduce a novelty approach for non-invasive mineral exploration based on the integration of remote sensing applications. In particular, we combine the advantage of light-weight drone technology with a snapshot hyperspectral camera and a magnetometer. The platform delivers specified, integrated measurements of spectrometric high-resolution surface images fused with data of the earth’s magnetic field. This allows us to identify surficial rock exposures and the estimation of the subsurface proportions of the aforesaid target.
The sensor system is attached to an octocopter platform with a flight endurance of around 30 minutes. A fixed-wing drone is used to acquire magnetic data of the same target with a larger area. The combined data is processed through a framework of correction software and projected on digital elevation models (DEMs) from the target area. The DEMs are acquired via Structure-from-Motion Multi-View Stereo photogrammetry. Hyperspectral data is corrected for topographic effects and automatically georeferenced using the MEPHYSTo toolbox. Magnetic data is calibrated for orientation effects and corrected for diurnal and external induced field fluctuations via base station recordings. We validate the measurements with a field-tested assembly of different techniques, e.g., mineralogical and geochemical analysis, in-situ ground spectroscopy and geomagnetic readings.
The results are promising and we demonstrate that drone-based exploration becomes more affordable, intuitive and accessible to the mining sector and the geoscientific community.
Keywords: UAS, UAV, remote sensing, mineral exploration, hyperspectral, geomagnetic, fluxgate

Publ.-Id: 28605 - Permalink


Atomistic Simulations to Design a Room-Temperature Single Electron Transistor
Prüfer, T.; Möller, W.; von Borany, J.; Heinig, K. H.;
For future low power-consumption nanoelectronics, a room-temperature single-electron transistor may be configured by placing a small (few nm diam.) Si nanodot in a thin (<10 nm) SiO2 interlayer in Si. This can be achieved by ion-irradiation induced interface mixing, which turns the oxide layer into metastable SiOx, and subsequent high-temperature thermal decomposition which leaves, for a sufficiently small mixed volume, a single Si nanodot in the SiO2 layer. Corresponding ion mixing simulations have been performed using the binary collision approximation (BCA)[1], followed by kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) simulations[2] of the decomposition process, with good qualitative agreement with the structures observed in related experiments. Quantitatively, however, the BCA simulation appears to overestimate the mixing effect. This is attributed to the neglect of the positive entropy of mixing of the Si-SiO2 system, i.e. the immiscibility counteracts the collisional mixing by “up-hill diffusion” [3]. Consequently, intermitting KMC diffusion steps have been introduced into the BCA mixing simulation, resulting in an excellent predictive power for the irradiation step of the production process. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 688072.

• [1] W. Möller et al., NIM B, 322, 23–33
• [2] M. Strobel et al., PRB 64, 245422
• [3] B. Liedke et al., NIM B 316 (2013) 56–61
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2018 Fall Meeting, 17.-21.09.2018, Warschau, Polen

Publ.-Id: 28603 - Permalink


Si Quantum Dots for Single Electron Transistor: Synthesis, Characterization and Theoretical Comparison
Prüfer, T.; Wolf, D.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Hübner, R.; Bischoff, L.; Hlawacek, G.; Heinig, K.-H.; Facsko, S.; Xu, X.; von Borany, J.;
The appearance of quantum effects makes nanoparticles (NPs) more and more important in semiconductor physics and especially in nanoelectronics. One very promising application is the single electron transistor (SET). Common field effect transistors (FET) could be outperformed by SETs in many applications because of their ultra-low power consumption (~100 times). Important for the fabrication of SETs operating at room temperature is the control of position and size of nano dots (<5nm). Our CMOS-compatible approach to manufacture SETs follows a two-step synthesis of NPs: (i) Producing tiny SiOx volumes by ion beam irradiation of ultrathin buried SiO2 layers (<10nm) and (ii) self-organizing single Si nanodots by phase separation during thermal treatment.
Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) is an advanced technique for the structural analysis of Si NPs in buried SiO2 layers. Although the NPs in the SiO2 layer superimpose in 2-dimentional projections from cross-sectional TEM samples, we managed to characterize the density and size distribution of the formed nanoclusters using the knowledge of the electron mean free path length to convert the Si-plasmon-loss filtered TEM image into a Si-thickness map. Here we will present the characterization and a comparison with theory to show a significant overestimation of the mixing effect by BCA simulation. This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 688072.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, 17.-21.09.2018, Warschau, Polen

Publ.-Id: 28602 - Permalink


A sizeable change in the electronic properties of GaAs via strain engineering in lattice-mismatched core/shell nanowires
Schneider, H.; Balaghi, L.; Bussone, G.; Grifone, R.; Hübner, R.; Grenzer, J.; Shan, S.; Fotev, I.; Pashkin, A.; Ghorbani-Asl, M.; Krasheninnikov, A.; Helm, M.; Dimakis, E.;
III-V compound semiconductors have fueled many breakthroughs in physics and technology owing to their direct band gap and high electron mobility. It has also been very important that these fundamental properties can be tailored in ternary or quaternary alloys by selecting the chemical composition appropriately. Here we explore the great possibilities for strain engineering in core/shell nanowires as an alternative route to tailor the properties of III-V semiconductors without changing their chemical composition. In particular, we demonstrate that the GaAs core in GaAs/InₓGa₁₋ₓAs or GaAs/InₓAl₁₋ₓAs core/shell nanowires can sustain unusually large misfit strains that would have been impossible in equivalent thin-film heterostructures, and undergoes a significant modification of its electronic properties. Core/shell nanowires were grown in the self-catalyzed mode on SiOₓ/Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Strain analysis was performed using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy, and showed that for a thin enough core, the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the built-in misfit strain can be regulated via the composition and the thickness of the shell. Beyond a critical shell thickness, we obtain a heavily tensile-strained core and an almost strain-free shell. The tensile strain of the core exhibits a predominantly-hydrostatic character and causes the reduction of the GaAs band gap energy in accordance with our theoretical predictions using deformation-potential theory and first-principle calculations. For 7 % of strain (x = 0.54), the band gap energy was reduced to 0.87 eV at 300 K, i.e. a remarkable reduction of 40 %. Signatures of valence-band splitting were also identified in polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements, as a result of the strain anisotropy in GaAs. Presuming a reduced effective mass of electrons in the tensile-strained core of GaAs/InₓAl₁₋ₓAs nanowires (core diameter = 22 nm, x = 0.39 - 0.49), the corresponding electron mobility was measured by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy to be in the range of 4000 cm²/V·s at 300 K. These values are the highest reported, even in comparison to GaAs/AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs nanowires with double the core thickness. Our results demonstrate that strained GaAs in core/shell nanowires can resemble the electronic properties of InₓGa₁₋ₓAs, surmounting issues with phase separation, surface segregation or alloy disorder that typically exist in ternary alloys and limit the device performance.
Keywords: core/shell III-V semiconductor nanowires, molecular eam epitaxy, MBE, strain, effective mass
  • Poster
    34-th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (ICPS 2018), 29.07.-03.08.2018, Montpellier, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 28601 - Permalink


Squeezing information about ThO2 nanoparticles’ size and shape from high resolution XANES
Amidani, L.; Rossberg, A.; Romanchuk, A.; Plakhova, T.; Kvashnina, K.;
Extracting information on the size and shape of very small nanoparticles (NPs) is not a trivial task and it is fundamental to push the analysis of the available techniques to extract as much in-formation as possible from the available data. In this perspective we present a detailed modelling of Th L3 edge high resolution XANES collected on ThO2 NPs showing how the size and shape of the NP impacts the spectral shape.
Nanoparticles of ThO2 with average size between 2 and 35 nm were synthesized by chemical precipitation and measured at Th L3 edge with High-Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detected (HERFD) XANES. The HERFD-XANES spectrum of NPs with diameter above 2.5 nm are all very similar, while for NPs below 2.5 nm the first post edge feature is missing. In order to un-derstand what this absence could be correlated to, we performed a series of simulations with the FDMNES code on particles of different shape and with size close to 2 – 2.5 nm. We considered three possible shapes and cut the structures from ThO2 bulk. As a first approximation we did not consider disorder at the surface, but only the effects induced by size and shape. After cutting the NPs from the bulk, the symmetry of the crystal is lowered and different Th atoms have different local environment. We set the cutoff radius of our simulations to 6 Å and identified the groups of equivalent Th atoms by comparing the local environment of each Th up to 6 Å. To fully characterize the XANES of the NP under study, a separate simulation per equivalent Th atom was performed with the FDMNES code.
By comparing the simulations of Th atoms at the surface and inside the NP it clearly emerges that the first post edge feature is particularly sensitive to the number of Th second nearest neigh-bors. The spectrum of a specific shape is given by the weighted average of all the different Th in the NP. Considering that the shape determines how many Th with a specific local environment will be present, each shape results in a different final spectrum. By comparing the data and the simulations we suggest that the ThO2 NP with diameter below 2.5 nm have octahedral shape.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Workshop on Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy, 06.-09.11.2018, Nice, France

Publ.-Id: 28600 - Permalink


The Structural and Compositional Changes of Graphene Oxide Induced by Irradiation With 500 keV Helium and Gallium Ions
Malinsky, P.; Macková, A.; Florianová, M.; Cutroneo, M.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bohácová, M.; Szokölová, K.; Böttger, R.; Sofer, Z.;
Structural and compositional modification of 2D materials as graphene or graphene oxide (GO) are topical objects of nowadays due to their many technological applications. Ion irradiation of graphene based materials, as a method for improvement of their surface properties started recently. Ion mass, energy, and fluence are crucial for forming of GO electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. In this work, the GO films are irradiated with 500 keV He and Ga ions to different fluences. The ions with different masses and electronic/nuclear stopping power ratios, are chosen with the aim to examine mechanisms of radiation defect creation. The elemental composition of the GO is investigated using Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) techniques. The structural and chemical changes are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy and the electrical properties are determined by two-point method. The RBS and ERDA analyses indicate deoxygenation and dehydrogenation of the irradiated GO surface. The thickness and the degree of O and H depletion depend on the ion mass. XPS and Raman spectroscopy show removal of oxygen functionalities and structural modifications leading to a decrease in the surface resistivity.
Keywords: graphene oxide, ion Irradiation, Helium, Gallium, structure, composition

Publ.-Id: 28598 - Permalink


A Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer Add-on for the Helium Ion Microscope
Klingner, N.; Heller, R.; Hlawacek, G.; von Borany, J.; Facsko, S.;
In a Helium Ion Microscopes (HIM) a Gas Field Ion Source (GFIS) is used to create a Helium or Neon ion beam with a diameter smaller than 0.5 nm and 1.8 nm, respectively. The method is well known for its high resolution imaging and nano-fabrication capabilities which it is able to provide not only for conducting but also insulating samples without the need for a conductive coating.

However, the existing HIM tools suffered from the lack of a well integrated analytic method that can enrich the highly detailed morphological images with materials contrast. Recently, we designed, implemented and reported on the first time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) add-on that can be retrofitted to existing microscopes [1,2,3].

After a brief introduction to the HIM, I will focus on the new time-of-flight setup. It is based on fast blanking electronics that chop the primary beam into pulses with a minimal length of 20 ns. In combination with a MCP based stop detector this enables TOF backscattering spectrometry with 54 nm lateral resolution [1,2] - the world record for spatially resolved backscattering spectrometry. In order to extend the TOF setup for SIMS an ion optic has been designed and optimized for high transmission by ion transport simulations and an evolutionary algorithm. The high transmission is crucial to collect enough signal from nanoparticles prior to their complete removal by ion sputtering.

The setup can obtain SIMS data from a region of interest or can be used in imaging mode to obtain elemental line profiles and maps of the surface. For m/q ≤ 80 u a m/∆m > 200 has been achieved. This is sufficient for many life science applications that rely on the isotope identification of light elements (e.g. C, N). The lateral resolution has been evaluated to 8 nm using the knife edge method and a 75%/25%. The results will be compared to the theoretical achievable lateral resolution and the limiting experimental and physical constraints of this approach will be reviewed.


References

[1] Klingner, N.; Heller, R.; Hlawacek, G.; von Borany, J.; Notte, J. A.; Huang, J. and Facsko, S. (2016). Nanometer scale elemental analysis in the helium ion microscope using time of flight spectrometry, Ultramicroscopy 162 : 91-97.
[2] Heller, R.; Klingner, N.; Hlawacek, G. (2016). Backscattering Spectrometry in the Helium Ion Microscope: Imaging Elemental Compositions on the nm Scale. In: Hlawacek, G. & Gölzhäuser, A. (Ed.), Helium Ion Microsc., Springer International.
[3] Klingner, N.; Heller, R.; Hlawacek, G.; Facsko, S. and von Borany, J.; (2018) Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry in the helium ion microscope, submitted.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SIMS Europe 2018, 16.-18.09.2018, Münster, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28592 - Permalink


Compositional analysis and in-situ experiments in the HIM
Klingner, N.; Heller, R.; Hlawacek, G.; von Borany, J.; Serralta, E.; Facsko, S.;
The HIM is well known for its imaging with spot sizes below 0.5 nm, its nano-fabrication capabilities, the small energy spread of less than 1 eV and the extremely high brightness. However, it still suffers from the lack of instruments for in-situ studies as well as capabilities for a well integrated material analysis. In the first part a plug and socket system for sample holders will be shown with up to six freely customizable high-voltage electrical connections Additionally time-of flight spectrometry has been implemented for compositional analysis [1]. New results, drawbacks and derive conclusions for the practical use of time-of-flight SIMS will be presented [2]. Our setup delivers a mass resolution delta m < 0.3 u (for m/q < 80 u) and a lateral resolution of 8 nm.

[1] N. Klingner, R. Heller, G. Hlawacek, J. von Borany, J.A. Notte, J. Huang, S. Facsko. Ultramicroscopy 162 (2016), pp 91-97
[2] N. Klingner, R. Heller, G. Hlawacek, S. Facsko, J. von Borany (2018), submitted
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd international HeFIB conference on Helium and emerging Focused Ion Beams, 11.-13.06.2018, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28591 - Permalink


High Resolution in 3 dimensions – TOF-SIMS in the Helium Ion Microscope
Klingner, N.; Heller, R.; Hlawacek, G.; Facsko, S.; von Borany, J.;
Ongoing miniaturization in semiconductor industry, nanotechnology and life science requirement further improvements for high-resolution imaging, fabrication and analysis of the produced nanostructures. Continuously shrinking object dimensions lead to an enhanced demand on spatial resolution and surface sensitivity of modern analysis techniques. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), as one of the most powerful techniques for surface analysis, performed on the nanometer scale may comply with this demands. The direct determination of the sputtered ions mass provides elemental and molecular information and even allows to measure isotope concentrations.

During the last decades, primary ion species used in SIMS have been optimized in terms of best ionization probabilities and less molecular fragmentation. Thereby, highest mass-resolution has been one of the biggest design goals in the development of new SIMS spectrometers. In contrast to former developments, our approach aims for ultimate lateral resolution.

In recent years helium ion microscopy has been developed as a valuable tool for nanofabrication and high-resolution imaging. Helium ion microscopy (HIM) utilizes a gas field ion source to form a helium or neon ion beam with a diameter of less than 0.5 nm and 1.8 nm, respectively. This is not only possible for conducting but also for insulating samples without the need for a conductive coating. However, the existing tools suffer from the lack of a well integrated analytic method that can enrich the highly detailed morphological images with materials contrast. While the technology is relatively young several efforts have been made to add such an analytic capability. Past and ongoing activities of various labs for in situ analysis will be summarized.

Recently, we implemented time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry to measure the energy of backscattered particles, the mass of sputtered ions [1, 2]. In future activities we intent to determine the energy loss of transmitted particles as well. Based on the findings obtained with this first approachof integrating a TOF SIMS setup, a dedicated extraction optics for secondary ions has been designed and tested (see figure 1).

The focus of this presentation will be on the technical realization of the significantly improved setup. The setup can be operated in spot mode to obtain local mass spectra or in imaging mode to obtain element maps of the specimen surface (see figure 2).

New results, drawbacks and derived conclusions for the practical use of this promising technique will be presented [4]. Similarities and differences to the also recently developed system using a sophisticated magnetic sector field analyzer will be shown [5]. We will reveal that SIMS can be performed with unprecedented lateral resolutions.

First experiments revealed a very high relative transmission which is crucial to collect enough signal from nanoparticles prior to their complete removal by ion sputtering. For m / q <= 80 u a mass resolution of delta m <= 0.3 u has been achieved. This is sufficient for many life science applications that rely on the isotope identification of light elements (e.g.: C, N). The lateral resolution of 8 nm has been evaluated using the knife edge method and a 75 % / 25 % criterion and represents a world record for spatially resolved secondary ion mass spectrometry.

The results will be compared to the theoretical limit of achievable lateral and depth resolution and the experimental and physical constraints of this approach will be reviewed.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    HRDP 9 - 9th International Workshop on High-Resolution Depth Profiling, 25.-29.06.2018, Uppsala, Sweden

Publ.-Id: 28590 - Permalink


Verification of ATHLET against TRACE on Superphenix start-up tests
Di Nora, V. A.; Fridman, E.; Mikityuk, K.;
The thermal-hydraulics (TH) code ATHLET has been upgraded to be capable of sodium flow modeling. Its new extension is under verification and validation phase. The presented study aimed to demonstrate ATHLET capability in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) transient predictions, through the comparison against TRACE TH code, this last being more established and tested for SFR applications. Calculations were performed on a set of start-up tests on Superphénix (SPX) SFR, and compared with TRACE results, which were used as a reference. It has been shown that given a specific set of reactivity coefficients, ATHLET and TRACE give consistent and close results.
Keywords: Superphénix start-up tests; Benchmarking ATHLET against TRACE; ATHLET for SFRs
  • Lecture (others)
    Workshop of Doctoral Candidates (PhD student seminar), 13.12.2018, Zittau, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28588 - Permalink


Ion-induced surface patterning and its application in nanofabrication via templated growth
Erb, D.; Malsch, G.; de Schultz, R.; Facsko, S.;
Low-energy ion irradiation of surfaces can lead to nanoscale pattern formation with a wide variety of morphologies, resulting from a number of interacting ballistic and diffusive mechanisms which govern the mass redistribution under ion irradiation. The choice of process parameters such as sample temperature or ion incidence angle determines the relative influence of these mechanisms and thereby the pattern morphology.
After briefly outlining the patterning mechanisms and discussing the resulting morphologies on semiconductor surfaces, we present our approaches at templated nanostructure growth based on these ion-induced surface patterns. They include epitaxial nanowires via geometric shading, long-range chemical ordering in diblock-copolymer thin films, and engineering of magnetic anisotropy in topographically modulated thin films.
The required technologies of low-energy ion irradiation, polymer chemistry, and physical vapor deposition are well-established and can readily be implemented at industrially relevant scales. Thus, nanostructured materials fabricated in such bottom-up manner have the potential to make substantial contributions to solving our society’s present challenges: They can increase the sensitivity of diagnostical tools in medicine, lead to novel information technology, or enhance the efficiency of energy harvesting from renewable sources.
  • Poster
    SNI2018 - Conference for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons and Ion Beams at Large Facilities, 17.-19.09.2018, Garching, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28584 - Permalink


Nanostructure arrays via templated growth
Erb, D.; Schlage, K.; Röhlsberger, R.; Facsko, S.;
Nanostructured materials have the potential to make substantial contributions to solving our society’s present challenges, e.g. in the fields of medicine, information technology, or energy harvesting from renewable sources. The possibility to fabricate them at industrially relevant scales will maximize the impact of such materials.
We present bottom-up nanopatterning approaches which promise easy implementation and scale-up by combining well-established techniques and effects:
(a) spontaneous nanopatterning of crystalline surfaces upon heating,
(b) suface nanopatterning induced by low-energy ion irradiation,
(c) diblock copolymer self-assembly
(d) physical vapor deposition with selective wetting,
(e) physical vapor deposition with geometrical sha-ding.
Combinations of these techniques and effects can result in highly regular nanostructure arrays of various morphologies and are applicable to a wide range of materials. The versatility of these approaches enables creative research and may lead to beneficial applications in diverse fields, ranging from optics and magnetism to catalysis.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    NAP2018 - 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials: Applications & Properties, 09.-14.09.2018, Zatoka, Ukrajina

Publ.-Id: 28583 - Permalink


Surface nanopatterning induced by low-energy ion irradiation: Experimental investigations of non-equilibrium pattern formation
Erb, D.; de Schultz, R.; Malsch, G.; Facsko, S.;
Irradiating a surface with low-energy ions of about 100 to 1000 eV activates a number of different processes: the surface is eroded by sputtering; the ion impacts create vacancies and ad-atoms; mass redistribution of the mobile species proceeds via both diffusive and ballistic effects; anisotropies in mass redistribution can be induced both by the ion beam and the structure of the surface on the atomic scale. Some mechanisms destabilize the surface height while others lead to surface smoothing. The simultaneous presence of such counteracting effects can result in the formation of periodic nanoscale surface patterns. Depending on factors such as temperature, ion energy, or the incidence orientation of the ion beam, the individual surface processes are enhanced or suppressed, yielding different pattern morphologies. The fact that the patterning can be influenced by various readily accessible external parameters offers a way toward deeper understanding of the underlying processes and their interactions. Furthermore, it enables large-scale production of novel templates for bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures or nanostructured materials for future applications in diverse fields, ranging from optics and magnetism to catalysis.
We discuss our experimental studies of ion-induced pattern formation on different semiconductor surfaces in dependence of external process parameters and with regard to temporal evolution, pattern symmetry and morphology, and patterning defects. Further, we present our approaches to employing these patterned surfaces for nanostructure fabrication, especially by means of physical vapor deposition.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CAARI 2018 - 25th Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 12.-17.08.2018, Grapevine, USA

Publ.-Id: 28582 - Permalink


Morphology, density, and temporal evolution of topological defects in reverse epitaxy
Erb, D.; Malsch, G.; Facsko, S.;
Low-energy ion-irradiation of semiconductors above their recrystallization temperature has been shown to induce regular nanoscale patterning of the crystalline surface. The mechanism is called reverse epitaxy in analogy to epitaxy in growth: ion-induced mobile vacancies and ad-atoms on the crystalline surface encounter the Ehrlich-Schwoebel energy barrier for crossing terrace steps and exhibit preferential diffusion along specific in-plane directions. This can lead to the formation of well-defined faceted surface structures with morphologies strongly dependent on crystalline structure and surface orientation. For instance, GaAs(001) and InAs(001) develop periodic ripple structures with a saw tooth profile.
We have studied the topological defects in ion-induced patterns on GaAs(001) and InAs(001), i.e. ripple junctions, and present results from both experiments and simulations on the following aspects:
- defect morphology and the influence of polar and azimuthal ion incidence angles thereon
- dependence of the defect density on sample temperature and ion energy
- temporal evolution of the defect density
- defect motion and annihilation processes
We find strong dependencies on the easily controllable external process parameters, which is crucial information when preparing ion-induced surface patterns for specific applications.
  • Poster
    Ion Beam Workshop 2018 - MAT Science Week, 24.04.2018, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28581 - Permalink


A route to epitaxial growth of periodic metal nanostructure arrays
Erb, D.; Malsch, G.; Hübner, R.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Facsko, S.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.;
Epitaxial thin film growth on planar substrate surfaces is well-established for many materials. We present a novel bottom-up approach showing that it can also be feasible to grow nanostructures in an oriented manner on nanopatterned crystalline surfaces. Produced by a scalable procedure on large surface areas, such nanostructure arrays may find diverse applications in research and technology, e.g. in the fields of magnetism or catalysis.
On semiconductor substrates, nanoscale surface patterns with well-defined lateral periodicity form under low-energy ion irradiation via non-equilibrium self-assembly of vacancies and ad-atoms [1]. For appropriate process temperatures, the crystallinity of the substrate is retained during ion irradiation. When a material is then deposited onto the substrate by PVD under non-normal incidence, shadowing effects give rise to the formation of separated nanostructures [2], while a suitable lattice matching can induce epitaxial growth.
In this contribution, we outline the patterning and growth procedure. As an example, we will present periodic Fe/Au nanostructure arrays and discuss their strongly anisotropic optical and magnetic properties.

[1] X. Ou, K.-H. Heinig, R. Hübner, J. Grenzer, X. Wang, M. Helm, J. Fassbender,
S. Facsko, Nanoscale 7, 18928 (2015)
[2] Q. Jia, X. Ou, M. Langer, B. Schreiber, J. Grenzer, P. F. Siles, R. D. Rodriguez,
K. Huang, Y. Yuan, A. Heidarian, R. Hübner, T. You, W. Yu, K. Lenz, J. Lindner,
X. Wang, and S. Facsko, Nano Research 15, 1 (2017)
  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2018 - Sektion Kondensierte Materie, 11.03.2018, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28580 - Permalink


Ion-induced nanopatterning of crystalline surfaces for applications in bottom-up nanostructure fabrication
Erb, D.; Hübner, R.; Malsch, G.; de Schultz, R.; Grenzer, J.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Facsko, S.;
Nanostructured materials will be key components in future technological solutions of our society’s present challenges: They can enhance the efficiency of energy harvesting from renewable sources, increase the sensitivity of diagnostical tools in medicine, or enable novel information technology. For making substantial contributions to these fields by applying nanostructured materials, we must be able to fabricate them easily and reproducibly on industrially relevant scales. This can be achieved by the bottom-up approach of templated growth on substrates nanopatterned by ion irradiation: The required technologies of low-energy ion irradiation, polymer chemistry, and physical vapor deposition are well-established.
In this contribution, we outline the mechanism of self-assembly of vacancies and adatoms on crystalline semiconductor surfaces induced by low-energy ion irradiation [1,2]: At temperatures above the material’s recrystallization temperature, the substrate crystallinity is retained. Thus, diffusion of vacancies and adatoms on the surface is highly anisotropic, which leads to the formation of surface nanopatterns reflecting the crystal symmetry of the substrate material. The various resulting pattern morphologies and the influence of external process parameters will be presented. We hope to initiate discussion and collaboration by highlighting potential applications based on these ion-induced nanopatterns, such as growing epitaxial nanowire arrays by shadowing effects at oblique incidence deposition, or inducing long-range order in copolymer thin films to fabricate chemically nanopatterned templates for nanostructure growth [3].

Acknowledgement
We thank K. Potzger and A. Henschke (HZDR) for their support in MBE for templated nanowire growth.

References
[1] X. Ou et al., Nanoscale 7, 18928 (2015)
[2] Q. Jia et al., Nano Research 15, 1 (2017)
[3] D. Erb et al., Science Advances 1, e1500751 (2015)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SHIM-ICACS 2018 - 10th InternationaL Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter & 28th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solids, 01.-06.07.2018, Caen, France

Publ.-Id: 28579 - Permalink


Ex situ n+ doping of GeSn alloys via non-equilibrium processing
Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Wang, M.; Rebohle, L.; Böttger, R.; Fischer, I. A.; Augel, L.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Voelskow, M.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, S.;
Full integration of Ge-based alloys like GeSn with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology would require the fabrication of p- and n-type doped regions for both planar and tri-dimensional device architectures which is challenging using in situ doping techniques. In this work, we report on the influence of ex situ doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GeSn alloys. n-type doping is realized by P implantation into GeSn alloy layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) followed by flash lamp annealing. We show that effective carrier concentration of up to 1 × 10^19 cm−3 can be achieved without affecting the Sn distribution. Sn segregation at the surface accompanied with an Sn diffusion towards the crystalline/amorphous GeSn interface is found at P fluences higher than 3 × 10^15 cm−2 and electron concentration of about 4 × 10^19 cm−3. The optical and structural properties of ion-implanted GeSn layers are comparable with the in situ doped MBE grown layers.
Keywords: Ge, GeSn, MBE, n-type doping, flash lamp annealing, ion implantation

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  • Secondary publication expected from 08.05.2019

Publ.-Id: 28578 - Permalink


Structural and electrical properties of Se-hyperdoped Si via ion implantation and flash lamp annealing
Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Yuan, Y.; Heller, R.; Berencén, Y.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
We report on the hyperdoping of silicon with selenium obtained by ion implantation followed by flash lamp annealing. It is shown that the degree of crystalline lattice recovery of the implanted layers and the Se substitutional fraction depend on the pulse duration and energy density of the flash. While the annealing at low energy densities leads to an incomplete recrystallization, annealing at high energy densities results in a decrease of the substitutional fraction of impurities. The electrical properties of the implanted layers are well-correlated with the structural properties resulting from different annealing processing.
Keywords: Silicon, hyperdoping, Se, flash lamp annealing, ion implantation

Publ.-Id: 28577 - Permalink


Oxygen Exchange Kinetics of SrTiO3 Single Crystals: A Non-Destructive, Quantitative Method
Stoeber, M.; Cherkouk, C.; Leisegang, T.; Schelter, M.; Zosel, J.; Walter, J.; Hanzig, J.; Zschornak, M.; Prucnal, S.; Boettger, R.; Meyer, D. C.;
The time-resolved oxygen exchange rate of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) single crystals is studied by means of oxygen solid electrolyte coulometry (OSEC) and compared to model calculations. Experiments are performed on pure, ion implanted (Ni, Ag, O and N ions) and partially covered crystals with silver layer. In this work, a theoretical model is used, which is based on defect chemistry under equilibrium conditions. It is applied as a fit in order to determine the effective rate constants and activation energy of the oxygen exchange reaction on the crystal surface. OSEC is used for the first time to characterize kinetic parameters of oxygen exchange on single crystalline surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy and sputter X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are performed to determine structural and chemical changes after ion implantation.
Keywords: strontium titanate, ion implantation, oxygen exchange reaction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Publ.-Id: 28575 - Permalink


Ion Beam Modification of ZnO Epilayers: Sequential Processing
Turos, A.; Ratajczak, R.; Mieszczynski, C.; Jozwik, P.; Stonert, A.; Prucnal, S.; Heller, R.; Skorupa, W.; von Borany, J.; Guziewicz, E.;
Defect agglomeration in ion-implanted compound semiconductors produces lattice stress eventually causing plastic deformation at sufficiently high fluence. Consequently, a dislocations tangle is formed which can hardly be completely removed by thermal annealing. To solve this problem, a new method of sequential processing has been developed consisting of low fluence ion implantation followed by subsequent annealing. The procedure can be then repeated until the required impurity concentration has been reached without producing excessive damage. Epitaxial ZnO layers are grown using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Structural changes in ZnO epilayers due to Yb-ion implantation and subsequent annealing are analyzed by Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/c) and photoluminescence (PL). Correlation between defect transformations and PL efficiency is determined. Increased Yb-atom optical activation upon sequential processing as compared to the standard single-step annealing is observed.
Keywords: ZnO, ALD, Defects, ion implantation, RBS

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Publ.-Id: 28574 - Permalink


Interplay between localization and magnetism in (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As
Yuan, Y.; Xu, C.; Hübner, R.; Jakiela, R.; Böttger, R.; Helm, M.; Sawicki, M.; Dietl, T.; Zhou, S.;
Ion implantation of Mn combined with pulsed laser melting is employed to obtain two representative compounds of dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFSs): Ga1−xMnxAs and In1−xMnxAs. In contrast to films deposited by the widely used molecular beam epitaxy, neither Mn interstitials nor As antisites are present in samples prepared by the method employed here. Under these conditions the influence of localization on the hole-mediated ferromagnetism is examined in two DFSs with a differing strength of p-d coupling. On the insulating side of the transition, ferromagnetic signatures persist to higher temperatures in In1−xMnxAs compared to Ga1−xMnxAs with the same Mn concentration x. This substantiates theoretical suggestions that stronger p-d coupling results in an enhanced contribution to localization, which reduces hole-mediated ferromagnetism. Furthermore, the findings support strongly the heterogeneous model of electronic states at the localization boundary and point to the crucial role of weakly localized holes in mediating efficient spin-spin interactions even on the insulator side of the metal-insulator transition.
Keywords: electronic-structure; magnetotransport properties; curie-temperature; coulomb gap; (ga,mn)as; ga1-xmnxas; semiconductors; ferromagnetism
  • Poster
    DPG-Jahrestagung und DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 13.03.2018, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28572 - Permalink


Luminescence in the Visible Region from Annealed Thin ALD-ZnO Films Implanted with Different Rare Earth Ions
Ratajczak, R.; Guziewicz, E.; Prucnal, S.; Łuka, G.; Böttger, R.; Heller, R.; Mieszczynski, C.; Wozniak, W.; Turos, A.;
Epitaxial ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition on GaN/Al2O3 substrates are implanted with Yb, Dy, and Pr ions to a fluence of 5e14 atcm-2 and subsequently anneals at 800 C using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system. Structural properties of implanted and annealed ZnO films and the optical response are evaluated by channeling Rutherford backscattering (RBS/c) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), respectively. RTA leads to a partial removal of the post-implantation defects with simultaneous native defects transformation and optical activation of RE ions. It is found that two groups of defects: defects formed during implantation process and native defects, play an important role in the luminescence in the visible region. The room temperature PL spectra obtained from annealed ZnO:RE films do not show sharp PL lines from transitions within the RE 4f shell, but show near band gap emission and defect related emission, which energy emission is controlled by the RE atoms. It suggests a presence of RE-related complexes that are formed during hightemperature annealing in oxygen atmosphere. The excitonic and defect emission modified by RE ions create an optical response of the system resulting in a specific color of the emitted light.
Keywords: ZnO, flash lamp annealing, PL, ion implantation, rare earth

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Publ.-Id: 28571 - Permalink


Strain and Band-Gap Engineering in Ge-Sn Alloys via P Doping
Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Wang, M.; Grenzer, J.; Voelskow, M.; Hübner, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Scheit, A.; Bärwolf, F.; Zviagin, V.; Schmidt-Grund, R.; Grundmann, M.; Żuk, J.; Turek, M.; Droździel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Kudrawiec, R.; Polak, M. P.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
Ge with a quasi-direct band gap can be realized by strain engineering, alloying with Sn, or ultrahigh n-type doping. In this work, we use all three approaches together to fabricate direct-band-gap Ge−Sn alloys. The heavily doped n-type Ge−Sn is realized with CMOS-compatible nonequilibrium material processing. P is used to form highly doped n-type Ge−Sn layers and to modify the lattice parameter of P-doped Ge−Sn alloys. The strain engineering in heavily-P-doped Ge−Sn films is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and micro Raman spectroscopy. The change of the band gap in P-doped Ge−Sn alloy as a function of P concentration is theoretically predicted by density functional theory and experimentally verified by near-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. According to the shift of the absorption edge, it is shown that for an electron concentration greater than 1 × 10^20 cm the band-gap renormalization is partially compensated by the Burstein-Moss effect. These results indicate that Ge-based materials have high potential for use in near-infrared optoelectronic devices, fully compatible with CMOS technology.
Keywords: Ge, GeSn, n-type doping, ion implantation, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, strain

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Publ.-Id: 28570 - Permalink


Advanced doping of Ge and GeSn
Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Hübner, R.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Wang, M.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
One of the main obstacles towards wide application of Ge in nanoelectronics is the indirect band gap of Ge and the lack of an efficient doping method with well controlled junction depth. Heavily n-type doped Ge becomes a quasi-direct bandgap semiconductor [1] which makes it very attractive for modern optoelectronics but n-type Ge doped above 5×10^19 cm-3 is metastable and thus difficult to be achieved [2]. In contrast to Ge, the GeSn alloy with direct band gap is the most promising semiconductor material for light emitters integrated with CMOS technology [3]. Here an overview of different doping techniques of Ge and fabrication methods to form GeSn will be presented. Special attention will be focused on the use of ion implantation followed by flash-lamp (FLA) annealing for the fabrication of heavily doped n-type Ge and GeSn with direct band gap [4]. In contrast to conventional annealing procedures, rear-side FLA leads to full recrystallization of Ge and GeSn, and simultaneously the Sn segregation and diffusion of n-type dopants are supressed. The maximum electron concentration is well above 10^20 cm-3 both in Ge and in GeSn with Sn concentration up to 6%. Due to the ultra-high n-type doping, Ge becomes a quasi-direct band gap semiconductor showing room-temperature photoluminescence from G-HH transitions [4]. The recrystallization mechanism and the dopant distribution in Ge and GeSn alloy synthesized by ion implantation during rear-side FLA are discussed in detail.
Moreover, we report on the strong mid-IR plasmon absorption in heavily n-type doped Ge and GeSn thin films in the wavelength range from 3000 nm to 10 000 nm.

[1] R. E. Camacho-Aguilera et al., Optics Express 20, 11316-11320 (2012)
[2] S. Prucnal et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 27643 (2016).
[3] S. Wirths et al., Nat. Photon., 9, 88–92 (2015)
[4] S. Prucnal et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 115006 (2017).
Keywords: Ge, GeSn, ion implantation, flash lamp annealing, n-type doping
  • Lecture (Conference)
    34th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, 29.07.-03.08.2018, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 28569 - Permalink


Abnormal lattice location and electrical activation in chalcogen-hyperdoped Si
Wang, M.; Prucnal, S.; Debernardi, A.; Heller, R.; Yuan, Y.; Xu, C.; Berencén, Y.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
Hyperdoping has emerged as a promising method for designing semiconductors with unique physical properties. In general, these properties are primarily determined by the lattice location of the impurity atoms in the host material. In this contribution, the lattice location of implanted chalcogens in Si was experimentally determined by means of Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C). The implication on the electrical activation of chalcogens in Si will be discussed with respect to the Hall effect results. The obtained carrier concentration and the RBS angular scans across the <100> and <110> axis reveal that the electrically active/inactive concentration of Te correlates with the concentration of substitutional/interstitial site Te atoms. Surprisingly, contrary to the general belief, we find that the interstitial fraction decreases with increasing impurity concentration. This abnormal dependence of lattice location and electrical activation on impurity concentration suggests that the formation energy for the substitutional Te or Te-Te dimers in Si is lower than for the interstitial Te. This assumption is theoretically verified by the first-principles calculations.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IBMM-2018 - The 23rd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, 28.06.2018, San Antonio, USA

Publ.-Id: 28567 - Permalink


Extended infrared photoresponse in room-temperature Si hyperdoped with Te
Wang, M.; Berencén, Y.; Prucnal, S.; García-Hemme, E.; Hübner, R.; Yuan, Y.; Xu, C.; Rebohle, L.; Böttger, R.; Heller, R.; Schneider, H.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
Presently, room-temperature infrared sub-band-gap photoresponse in Si is of great interest for the development of on-chip complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic platforms [1]. One of the most promising approaches to further extend the photoresponse of Si to the mid- and far-infrared (MIR/FIR) ranges consists of introducing deep-level dopants into the Si band gap at concentrations in excess of the solid solubility limit [2]. In this work, we demonstrate strong room-temperature sub-band-gap photoresponse of photodiodes based on Si hyperdoped with tellurium [3]. A CMOS-compatible approach of combining ion implantation with pulsed laser melting was applied to synthesize single-crystalline and epitaxial Te-hyperdoped Si layers with a Te concentration five orders of magnitude above the solid solubility limit. Driven by increasing Te concentration, both the insulator-to-metal transition and a band-gap renormalization are observed. The sub-band optical absorptance in the resulting Te-hyperdoped Si layers is found to increase monotonically with increasing Te concentration and extends well into the MIR/FIR ranges (1.4 to 25 μm). Importantly, the MIR/FIR optoelectronic response from Te-hyperdoped Si photodiodes is demonstrated to be related with known Te deep-energy levels into the Si band-gap. This work contributes to pave the way towards establishing a Si-based broadband infrared photonic system operating at room temperature.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ION 2018 - XII-th International Conference on Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 19.06.2018, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland
  • Poster
    IBMM-2018 - The 23rd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, 25.06.2018, San Antonio, USA
  • Poster
    ICPS-2018 - 34th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, 30.07.2018, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 28566 - Permalink


Towards room-temperature extended infrared Si-based photoresponse: A case study of Te-hyperdoped Si
Wang, M.; Berencén, Y.; García Hemme, E.; Hübner, R.; Yuan, Y.; Xu, C.; Rebohle, L.; Böttger, R.; Heller, R.; Schneider, H.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
Presently,room-temperature broadband Si-based photodetectors are required for Si photonic systems.Here,we demonstrate roomtemperature sub-band gap photoresponse of photodiodes based on Si hyperdoped with Te.The epitaxially recrystallized Te-hyperdoped Si layers are developed by ion implantation combined with pulsed laser melting and incorporate Te concentrations beyond the solid solubility limit.An insulator-to-metal transition driven by increasing Te concentration accompanied with a band gap renormalization is observed.The optical absorptance is found to increase monotonically with increasing Te concentration and extends well into the mid- and far- infrared regions.This work contributes to establish room temperature Si-based broadband infrared photonic system.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2018, 12.03.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28565 - Permalink


Mid- to far-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance in chalcogen-hyperdoped Si
Wang, M.; Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Rebohle, L.; Schönherr, T.; Yuan, Y.; Xu, C.; Khan, M. B.; Böttger, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.;
Mid-infrared plasmonic sensing allows the direct targeting of molecules relevance in the so-called “vibrational fingerprint region”. Presently, heavily doped semiconductors exhibiting the potential to replace and outperform metals in the mid- infrared frequency range to revolutionize plasmonic devices. In this work, we demonstrate the occurrence of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in Te heavily-doped Si layers developed by ion implantation combined with flash lamp annealing. We fabricate micrometer-sized antennas out of the Te-hyperdoped Si layers by electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching processes. The optical response characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrates the enhancement of localized plasmon resonances in antennas, from mid- to far- infrared frequency range. Our results set a new path toward integration of plasmonic sensors with the one-chip CMOS platform.
  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2018, 14.03.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28564 - Permalink


Towards a Vertical Nanopillar-Based Single Electron Transistor – A High-Temperature Ion Beam Irradiation Approach
Xu, X.ORC; Heinig, K.; Möller, W.; Gharbi, A.; Tiron, R.; Engelmann, H.; Bischoff, L.; Prüfer, T.; Hübner, R.; Facsko, S.; Hlawacek, G.; von Borany, J.
We propose an ion irradiation based method to fabricate a single Si nanocrystal embedded in a Si(001)/SiO2/Si nanopillar layer stack as a prerequisite for manufacturing a CMOS-compatible, room-temperature Si single electron transistor. After either 50 keV broad beam Si+ or 25 keV focused Ne+ beam from a helium ion microscope (HIM) irradiation of the nanopillars (with diameter of 35 nm and height of 70 nm) at room temperature with a medium fluence (2e16 ions/cm2), strong plastic deformation has been observed which hinders further device integration. This differs from predictions made by the Monte-Carlo based simulations using the program TRI3DYN. We assume that it is the result from the ion beam induced amophisation of Si accompanied by the ion hammering effect. The amorphous nano-structure behaves viscously and the surface capillary force dictates the final shape. To confirm such a theory, ion irradiation at elevated temperatures (up to 672 K) has been performed and no plastic deformation was observed under these conditions. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy micrographs confirmed the crystallinity of the substrate and nanopillars after HT-irradiation.
When a semiconductor material such as silicon is heated above its amorphisation critical temperature during ion irradiation, it stays crystalline due to an interplay between ion damage and dynamic annealing process. Viscous flow does not occur for the crystalline nano-structures and the shape remains intact. This effect has been observed previously mainly for swift heavy ions and energies higher than 100 keV. Such high-temperature irradiation, when carried out on a nanopillar with Si/SiO2/Si layer stack, would induce ion beam mixing without suffering from the plastic deformation of the nanostructure. Due to a limited mixing volume, single Si-NCs would form in a subsequent rapid thermal annealing process via Oswald ripening and serve as a basic structure of a gate-all-around single electron transistor device.
This work is supported by the European Union’s H-2020 research project ‘IONS4SET’ under Grant Agreement No. 688072.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2018 MRS Fall Meeting & Exhibit, 25.11.2018, Boston, USA

Publ.-Id: 28563 - Permalink


Synthesis and characterization of transition-metal germanides
Xie, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Hübner, R.; Wang, M.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Prucnal, S.;
Si was sufficient to fulfil the requirements of microelectronic industry for more than five decades. Further progress based on the miniaturisation of transistors is challenging. Therefore new materials and concepts are considered for the next generation of nanoelectronics. In this work, we present the formation of transition-metal germanides epitaxially grown on Ge wafer. Those materials have great promise for both the ohmic contacts to n-type Ge with extremely low specific contact resistivity and spintronics. The transition-metal germanides are synthesized by metal sputtering on Ge followed by millisecond range flash lamp annealing which is suitable for larger-area fabrication and compatible with CMOS technology. On one hand, orthorhombic NiGe whose contact resistivity is only around 1.2×10-6 Ω cm2, is beneficial for achieving high-performance Ge-based nano-electronic devices. On the other hand, cubic FeGe with B20 phase is a Skyrmion-carrier material attractive for spintronics. In summary, the epitaxial transition-metal germanides materials can be obtained by a novel epitaxial approach which provides insight to their technological usage.
Keywords: transition-metal germanides, spintronics
  • Poster
    2018 DPG Spring Meeting Berlin, 12.03.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 28562 - Permalink


Ultra-fast solid phase epitaxy of Mn5Ge3 on (001) Ge substrate
Xie, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Hübner, R.; Wang, M.; Xu, C.; Grenzer, J.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Prucnal, S.;
In the present work, we report on epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 thin films on (001) Ge substrates induced by Mn in-diffusion during non-equilibrium flash lamp annealing for 20 ms. The ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3/Ge samples with very sharp interface between the Mn5Ge3 layer and the Ge substrate can be used to fabricate spintronic devices. Temperature-dependent magnetization reveals a Curie temperature of 282 K which can be tuned much above room temperature by strain engineering and/or co-doping with C. The microstructural properties of the fabricated films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional TEM and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Both used material and technology are highly compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and can be used for spintronics.
Keywords: Epitaxial growth, ferromagnetic,flash lamp annealing
  • Poster
    2018 EMRS Spring Meeting Strasbourg, 18.06.2018, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 28561 - Permalink


The Geo-metallurgy of the circular economy: Fairphone
Reuter, M. A.;
tools - HSC Sim & GaBi LCA
Particle description of recycling systems inclusive of exergy & energy
Recycling
Analysis of systems: Rock, residue, recyclate to refined metal
Copper production system: Irreversibility analysis of system & Footprint of complete system
Bill-of-Materials & Full Material Declaration linked to metallurgy, alloy and materials production
Keywords: HSC Sim, GaBi LCA, recycling systems, exergy, energy, Recycling,
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Mineral Processing Congress, 17.-21.09.2018, Moskau, Russland

Publ.-Id: 28558 - Permalink


Thermodynamic evaluation using the law of mass action under consideration of the activity coefficients in the system NdCl3-HCl (or NaOH)-H2O-DEHPA-kerosene
Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.;
For the recovery of neodymium, an important rare earth metal, solvent extraction using DEHPA as extractant is a possible process for winning and recycling. A preceding study by the authors has provided extensive experimental data of the system neodymium-chloride-hydrochloric acid (or sodium hydroxide)-water-di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA)-kerosene. It was found that the description of the reaction Nd3+ + 3 (DEHPA)2 <=> Nd(DEHP·DEHPA)3 + 3 H+ by an ideal mass action law is only partly satisfactory. This article investigates the contribution of several parameters to non-ideality. On this basis, expressions for activity coefficients of neodymium in the aqueous phase as well as DEHPA and neodymium in the organic phase are derived. The resulting equations are shown to represent the system with considerably better accuracy than previously possible.
Keywords: thermodynamic evaluation, solvent extraction, neodymium, DEHPA

Publ.-Id: 28557 - Permalink


CIRCULAR ECONOMY STRATEGIES - Responsible Business Practices // Process Model Based Footprints Using HSC Chemistry Software
Reuter, M. A.; Roine, A.;
SusCritMat aims to educate people from Master’s student level up, both in industry and academia about important aspects of Sustainable critical raw materials. In a novel concept, it introduces courses on these complex and interdisciplinary topics in a modula structure, adaptable to a variety of different formats and accessible to both students and managers in industry. These courses will develop new skills which will help participants to better understand the impact and role of critical raw materials in the whole value chain; enabling them to identify and mitigate risks. Understanding the bigger picture and the interconnected nature of global business and society is increasingly necessary to and valued by industry. SusCritMat is an EU-funded project that brings together the technical and pedagogical expertise of leading educational institutions and business partners. It uses and creates teaching materials which can be combined into different course formats. Multi-media education materials will be made available to participants of summer and winter schools so that they can work with state-of-the-art techniques and data.
Keywords: Circular Economy, resource efficiency, sustainability, Digitalization, Simulation
  • Lecture (others)
    SusCritMat Autumn School for Professionals 2018, 24.-26.10.2018, Delft, Niederlande

Publ.-Id: 28556 - Permalink


Interface reactions of differently coated carbon-bonded alumina filters with an AZ91 magnesium alloy melt
Schramm, A.; Bock, B.; Schmidt, A.; Zienert, T.; Ditze, A.; Scharf, C.; Aneziris, C. G.;
To investigate possible reactions between differently coated carbon-bonded alumina filters and an AZ91 magnesium alloy melt, immersion tests were carried out. Uncoated as well as MgAl2O4-, Al2O3-, nano- (carbon nano tubes/alumina nano sheets) and MgO-C-coated filters were tested. Thermodynamic calculations showed that only magnesia (MgO) and carbon are stable against molten magnesium; alumina (Al2O3) and spinel (MgAl2O4) will be reduced under the formation of magnesia. Optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as EDX analysis were performed near and at the filter-magnesium alloy-interface of the cooled and sectioned filter samples after their immersion into the AZ91 melt. The results of the thermodynamic calculations were confirmed by the experiments. The MgO-C-coated filter was the only one that did not show an in situ-formed layer on its surface after being in contact with the magnesium alloy melt. The alumina- or spinel-containing filter surfaces displayed platelet-like in situ layers after their contact with the molten AZ91. The results of the EDX analysis of these layers suggest their composition of MgO, since notable respective Mg and O contents were detected, as predicted by the calculations.
Keywords: Ceramic Foam Filter, Interfaces, Al2O3, MgO

Publ.-Id: 28555 - Permalink


Semi-Solid remelting of Magnesium-Chips
Ohmann, S.; Ditze, A.ORC; Scharf, C.
Compact and loose magnesium chips were processed by means of remelting. The remelting was successfully performed using the new method of semi-solid melting, without the addition of flux, at temperatures between 580°C and 600°C. In this temperature range, the exothermic reaction between magnesium and the oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere is avoided; in addition, the oxygen layer of the chips is stripped off by the particles of the semi-solid melt. Results show that more than 95% of the magnesium chips can be recovered as metal. Experiments were performed on different scales to obtain production parameters for the recycling process. Larger particle sizes of magnesium chips can be remelted faster than smaller ones. The ability to remelt at temperatures in the semi-solid region of alloys demonstrates the possibility of recovering virtually all of the metal from the chips.

Publ.-Id: 28554 - Permalink


System integration, Environmental impact and Business models
Reuter, M. A.;
Determine economic feasibility (OPEX and CAPEX) for industrial scale pretreatment based on different energy sources and their integration with existing industrial production of Mn-alloys for different cases;
Prepare a business plan for implementation of pretreatment technology at the project partners;
Prepare a strategy for future exploitation of the developed technology outside the project consortium and identify how this will reduce CO2 emissions also by including the embodied energy of the system;
Assess environmental impact on manganese alloy production, especially effect on CO2 emission and energy consumption of industrial scale pretreatment in separate unit integrated with existing industrial Mn-alloy production. This will be estimated by linking system simulation with environmental footprint using LCA and Life Cycle Cost analysis tools; and
Maximize the resource efficiency of manganese production by optimising the processing and the infrastructure of the system of technologies. This will be based on applied scales for mass flows and production processes. Both energy and exergy efficiency will be maximized.
Keywords: energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, resource efficiency
  • Lecture (others)
    PreMa Project Meeting, 22.-23.10.2018, Trondheim, Norwegen

Publ.-Id: 28553 - Permalink


Multi-source hyperspectral imaging of carbonatite-hosted REE-Nb-Ta mineralization at Marinkas Quellen, Namibia
Booysen, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Lorenz, S.; Gloaguen, R.; Nex, P. A. M.;
The demand for mineral and metalliferous resources needs to match the continued global rise in population and global economic growth. Rare Earth Elements (REEs), Niobium (Nb) and Tantalum (Ta) are such deposits in high demand. This global rise makes it difficult to meet the growing demand using only the currently available resources, such as recycled REEs and known REE deposits. Although the concept of a purely circular economy is very attractive through the use of recyclable REE-Nb-Ta, this model is not completely sustainable due to the increased energy needed to bolster such a model. Therefore, a renewed focus on the exploration of REE-Nb-Ta deposits is imperative to ensure the future development of this commodity.
Traditional exploration techniques are mainly based on extensive field work supported by geophysical surveying. Restrictions such as field accessibility, financial status, area size and climate can hinder these traditional exploration techniques. Hence, we suggest to increase the use of multi-source and multi-scale hyperspectral remote sensing in order to decrease conventional restrictions in the exploration of minerals through the use of aerial and ground-based methods. The multi-scale, multi-source approach will consist of a downscaling procedure, moving from low spatial resolution to high spatial resolution. Firstly, satellite data (Sentinel-2) will be used to identify the study area, then hyperspectral airborne data (HyMap) will be used to refine the area of interest. Subsequently, a snapshot hyperspectral camera will be attached to a UAV to acquire drone-borne data for the investigation of the deposit in more detail. We further argue that the addition of drone-borne hyperspectral data can also vastly improve the accuracy of field mapping in future mineral exploration. Drone-borne measurements can supplement and direct geological observation immediately in the field and therefore allow better integration with in-situ ground investigations. In particular, in inaccessible and remote areas with little infra-structure, such systems are an excellent reconnaissance tool because it allows a systematic, dense and completely non-invasive surveying, which is often not possible using ground-based techniques. Additionally, spectral and spatial information will be integrated by combining drone-borne hyperspectral and Light Detection And Raging (LiDAR) data to provide more accurate classification results.
Ultimately, the corrected drone-borne data provide information on the spectral signatures of outcropping lithologies to the exploration teams. This is achieved by using end-member modelling and classification techniques such as non-linear machine learning algorithms, e.g., Neural Networks and decision tree based methods. The drone based data are integrated in a comprehensive workflow including in-situ acquisitions and results in an hypercloud. The validation of the resulting digital outcrop is performed via field spectroscopy, portable XRF and representative geochemical whole-rock analysis.
The area of interest for this study is the massive carbonatite intrusion at Marinkas Quellen, Namibia. The location is in a remote environment and characterized by difficult terrains and a complete carbonatite suite (e.g. calsio-, ferro- and magnesio-carbonatites). The first two factors would normally impede or restrict traditional field surveying. Preliminary results indicate that drone-borne surveying has a very high potential to directly detect REE-concentrations and indicator minerals for Nb and Ta, in fundamentally lowering the acquisition costs and increasing the information potential of data captured in the field.
Keywords: REEs; Multis-source; Hyperspectral; Exploration; Marinkas Quellen
  • Poster
    WHISPERS - Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing Workshop, 23.-26.09.2018, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 28552 - Permalink


Stoffkreislauf der Metalle – von der Gewinnung bis zum Recycling
Reuter, M. A.; Stelter, M.;
In der heutigen Zeit bestimmen Metalle unser tägliches Leben. Im Bereich der Mobilität – sei es beim Auto mit Verbrennungsmotor oder bei Elektrofahrzeugen – sind immer Metalle die wesentlichen Bestandteile, ohne die unsere Welt nicht funktionieren würde. Im Bereich der Kommunikation, der Unterhaltungselektronik, aber auch in der Medizin sind sie ebenfalls unverzichtbar. Ihre herausragenden Eigenschaften – wie Härte, Duktilität, Umformbarkeit, Korrosionsbeständigkeit – machen sie zu idealen Werkstoffen für fast alle Anwendungen. Besonders zeichnet sie aber die Recyclingfähigkeit aus, denn Metalle können prinzipiell zu 100 % nach ihrer Nutzung zurückgewonnen werden.
Dass wir dies bisher nur eingeschränkt tun, hat verschiedene Ursachen. In der Arbeitsgruppe sollen die Aspekte der Kreislaufwirtschaft beleuchtet werden. So werden technologische Möglichkeiten und Grenzen in Beziehung zu den ökonomischen Bezügen gestellt. Gibt es eine optimale Kreislaufführung und, wenn ja, wie sieht sie aus? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen die dafür notwendigen unangewandten Prozesse? Ist es sinnvoll, in jedem Fall zu versuchen, eine Recyclingrate von 100 % zu erreichen? Und ist dies überhaupt möglich?
Eine differenzierte Betrachtung bezüglich unterschiedlicher Stoffgruppen ist dabei erforderlich. Eine weiter in die Details eindringende Betrachtung soll am Beispiel der Metalle den Teilnehmenden der Arbeitsgruppe Chancen und Risiken der Stoffkreislaufführung vermitteln. In Gesprächsrunden und Diskussionen sollen die Vor- und Nachteile von technologischen Prozessen herausgearbeitet und deren Nutzen für die Kreislaufführung der Werkstoffe bewertet werden.
Keywords: Recyclingfähigkeit, Metalle, optimale Kreislaufführung
  • Lecture (others)
    Workshop - Sommerakademie der Studienstiftung, 19.-30.08.2018, St. Johann, Italien

Publ.-Id: 28550 - Permalink


Circular Economy engineering - Recycling 4.0 - Challenges of the circular economy
Reuter, M. A.;
The last hundred years have brought an unprecedented increase in natural resource use. This trend is likely to continue in the coming decades. Global resource use is expected to double by 2030. For Europe, these developments raise major concerns . Europe's economy depends on an uninterrupted flow of natural resources , metals, minerals, energy carriers and other raw materials , with imports providing a substantial proportion of these materials in many cases. Increasingly, this dependence will be a source of vulnerability, as growing global competition for natural resources has contributed to marked increases in price levels and volatility. Uncertain and unstable prices disrupt the industrial sectors that are dependent on these resources. At the same time, rapid increases in extraction and exploitation of natural resources are having a wide range of negative environmental impacts, particularly in Europe. Air, water and soil pollution, acidification of ecosystems, biodiversity loss, climate change and waste generation put economic and social well-being at risk. Creating a circular economy in Europe can help to address many of these challenges, and further improve the efficiency of resource use. It will have obvious economic benefits, reducing costs and risks while enhancing competitiveness. European leadership in the transition to a circular economy also offers opportunities securing first-mover advantages in the global economy.

The conference will address the issues impacting the transition from the linear take-make-consume-dispose economic model that currently dominates to a circular model that represents a fundamental alternative and explore the huge challenges and business opportunities in a circular economy. The conference will include presentations and panel discussions featuring renowned researchers within circular economy and leading Polish businesses presenting relevant projects and views on why and how the circular economy is introduced in their factories. It will bring together industry leaders, authorities and city planners, technology providers, business consultants, researchers and inventors, all with the common goal of driving innovation in new materials and better, more economic products and services and securing first-mover advantages in the global economy.

Recycling 4.0: digitalizing the system
Recycling 4.0: physics of separation
Recycling 4.0: industrial applications
Recycling 4.0 digital platforms
Keywords: Recycling 4.0
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    European Technology Forum 2018 / From Waste to Resources, 26.-27.09.2018, Katowice, Polen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    THM-Kolloquim, 08.10.2018, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28549 - Permalink


SOCRATES 3nd Network-Wide Event
Reuter, M. A.;
What have we done so far?
Current Status of SOCRATES projects
Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation progress
What are we going to do? Our contribution to SOCRATES
Keywords: SOCRATES, Copper production process, HSC Sim
  • Lecture (others)
    SOCRATES 3nd Network-Wide Event, 13.-16.02.2018, Bonn, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 28548 - Permalink


Numerical Studies of Normal Conducting Deflecting Cavity Designs for the ELBE Accelerator
Hallilingaiah, T. G.; van Rienen, U.; Arnold, A.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.;
Currently, in the electron linac ELBE there is a single beam line. Therefore, at any given time only single user can use the beam. Moreover, as different user experiments require distinct beam intensity settings, not all the experiments fully utilize the 13 MHz CW beam capability of the facility. To utilize the full beam capacity, multiple beam lines can be established by using an array of transverse deflecting structures. For that, an RF cavity was the design choice due to its inherent advantages with respect to repeatability of the kick voltage amplitude and phase, and the possibility of CW operation in the MHz range. Potential design candidates are the CEBAF RF separator, the three proposed crab cavities for the HL-LHC upgrade project, and a novel NC deflecting cavity design. In this comparative study, the figures of merit of the cavities are computed from electromagnetic field simulations for a transverse voltage of 300 kV. This comparative study supported our selection of the deflecting cavity design for ELBE.
Keywords: normal conducting, RF cavity, RF kicker, beam spreader
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    9th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 29.04.-04.05.2018, Vancouver, British Columbia,, Canada
    Proceedings of the 9th International Particle Accelerator Conference: JACoW, ISBN 978-3-95450-184-7, 3824-3827
    DOI: 10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2018-THPAL074

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Publ.-Id: 28547 - Permalink


Sub-threshold production of K0s mesons and Λ hyperons in Au(1.23A GeV)+Au
Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Behnke, C.; Belounnas, A.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chernenko, S.; Chlad, L.; Deveaux, C.; Dreyer, J.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Filip, P.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; Greifenhagen, R.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Maurus, S.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D. M.; Morozov, S.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Nowakowski, K. N.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petukhov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramos, S.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, P.; Rosier, P.; Rost, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Scozzi, F.; Seck, F.; Sellheim, P.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Szala, M.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Usenko, E.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wiebusch, M. G.; Wirth, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.; Leifels, Y.;
We present first data on sub-threshold production of K0s mesons and Λ hyperons in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 2.4 GeV. We observe an universal scaling of hadrons containing strangeness, independent of their corresponding production thresholds. Comparing the yields, their part> scaling, and the shapes of the rapidity and the pt spectra to state-of-the-art transport model (UrQMD, HSD, IQMD) predictions, we find that none of the latter can simultaneously describe all observables with reasonable χ2 values.

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Publ.-Id: 28546 - Permalink


Strong absorption of hadrons with hidden and open strangeness in nuclear matter
Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Atomssa, E. T.; Behnke, C.; Belounnas, A.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Chernenko, S.; Chlad, L.; Chudoba, P.; Ciepal, I.; Deveaux, C.; Dittert, D.; Dreyer, J.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; Greifenhagen, R.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kornas, F.; Kotte, R.; Kubos, J.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Linev, S.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Maier, L.; Malige, A.; Markert, J.; Maurus, S.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D. M.; Mikhaylov, V.; Morozov, S.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Nowakowsk, K.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petukhov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Prozorov, A. P.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, P.; Rost, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Scozzi, F.; Seck, F.; Sellheim, P.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Smyrski, J.; Spataro, S.; Spies, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Szala, M.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Ungethüm, C.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wiebusch, M. G.; Wirth, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.;
We present the first observation of K- and φabsorption within nuclear matter by means of π- -induced reactions on C and W targets at an incident beam momentum of 1.7 GeV/c studied with HADES at SIS18/GSI. The double ratio (K-/K+)W / (K-/K+)C is found to be 0.319 \pm 0.009(stat)+0.014-0.012 (syst) indicating a larger absorption of K- in heavier targets as compared to lighter ones. The measured φ/K- ratios in π-+C and π^- +W reactions within the HADES acceptance are found to be equal to 0.55±0.03(stat)+0.06−0.07 (syst) and to 0.63±0.05(stat)−0.11+0.11 (syst), respectively. The similar ratios measured in the two different reactions demonstrate for the first time experimentally that the dynamics of the φmeson in nuclear medium is strongly coupled to the K- dynamics. The large difference in the φ production off C and W nuclei is discussed in terms of a strong \phiN in-medium coupling.

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Publ.-Id: 28544 - Permalink


Observation of multiple magnetic phases and complex nanostructures in Co implanted amorphous carbon films
Suschke, K.; Gupta, P.; Williams, G. V. M.; Hübner, R.; Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, J.;
Room temperature implantation of 30 keV Co ions into an amorphous carbon film with a high fluence of 1.2×1017 Co/cm2 results in formation of magnetic nanostructures displaying multiple magnetic phases. Cross-sectional TEM images show formation of Co containing nanoparticles at the surface and near-surface regions of the implanted films. EDXS measurements suggest the nanoparticles to be composed primarily of Co and O at the surface and Co and C in deeper regions. These nanoparticles with differing compositions were observed to be segregated by a thin layer devoid of Co. Magnetic measurements reveal the presence of superparamagnetic behavior from small CoxC nanoclusters with a blocking temperature of 5 K. There is a small fraction of larger CoxC nanoclusters that show magnetic hysteresis even at room temperature. The saturation magnetic moment is as high as 0.51 μB/Co at 2 K and 0.32 μB/Co at room temperature. Spin-disorder is seen with a range of spin glass temperatures below ∼70 K. Our high fluence Co implantation into amorphous carbon has resulted in the formation of complex magnetic nanostructures composed of cobalt, oxygen, and carbon. These nanostructures give rise to multiple magnetic phases such as superparamagnetism, spin glass, ferromagnetism, and possibly antiferromagnetism.
Keywords: a-C, DLC, Ion implantation, Superparamagnetic, Magnetization, Cobalt oxide, Cobalt carbide
  • Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 127(2019), 158-163

Publ.-Id: 28543 - Permalink


On a spectral problem in magnetohydrodynamics and its relevance for the geodynamo
Stefani, F.; Tretter, C.;
One of the most remarkable features of the geodynamo is the irregular occurrence of magnetic field reversals. Starting with the operator theoretical treatment of a non-selfadjoint dynamo operator, we elaborate a dynamical picture of those reversals which relies on the existence of exceptional spectral points.
Keywords: geodynamo, magnetohydrodynamics

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Publ.-Id: 28542 - Permalink


Laser Plasma Based Accelerators for Radiobiological Applications - From Research Field MATTER to HEALTH
Metzkes-Ng, J.ORC; Levy, Dan
Laser Plasma Based Accelerators for Radiobiological Applications - From Research Field MATTER to HEALTH
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Festive Symposium on the occasion of the inaugruation of the Helmholtz Tel Aviv Office, 22.10.2018, Tel Aviv, Israel

Publ.-Id: 28541 - Permalink


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