Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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28136 Publications
Magnetic flow control in growth and casting of photovoltaic silicon: Numerical and experimental results
Poklad, A.; Pal, J.; Galindo, V.ORC; Grants, I.; Heinze, V.; Meier, D.; Pätzold, O.; Stelter, M.; Gerbeth, G.
Corresponding author: Galindo, V. HZDR
Abstract: A novel, vertical Bridgman-type technique for growing multi-crystalline silicon ingots in an induction furnace is described. In contrast to conventional growth, a modified setup with a cone-shaped crucible and susceptor is used. A detailed numerical simulation of the setup is presented. It includes a global thermal simulation of the furnace and a local simulation of the melt, which aims at the influence of the melt flow on the temperature and concentration fields. Furthermore, seeded growth of cone-shaped Si ingots using either a monocrystalline seed or a seed layer formed by pieces of poly-Si is demonstrated and compared to growth without seeds. The influences of the seed material on the grain structure and the dislocation density of the ingots are discussed. The second part addresses model experiments for the Czochralski technique using the room temperature liquid metal GaInSn. The studies were focused on the influence of a rotating and a horizontally static magnetic field on the melt flow and the related heat transport in crucibles being heated from bottom and/or side, and cooled by a crystal model covering about 1/3 of the upper melt surface.
Keywords: Magnetic flow control, Crystall-Growth, Photovoltaic Silicon, Numerical Simulation

Registration No. 25951 - Permalink


Modeling electromagnetically driven free-surface flows motivated by the Ribbon Growth on Substrate (RGS) process
Beckstein, P.; Galindo, V.ORC; Schönecker, A.; Gerbeth, G.
Corresponding author: Beckstein, Pascal HZDR
Abstract: The Ribbon Growth on Substrate (RGS) technology is a crystallization technique that allows direct casting of silicon wafers and sheets of advanced metal-silicide compounds. With the potential of reaching high crystallization rates, it promises a very efficient approach for future photo-voltaic silicon wafer production compared to well-established processes in industry. However, a number of remaining problems, like process stability and controllability, need to be addressed for the RGS technology to eventually become a competitor in the near future. In this regard, it is very desirable to gain detailed insights into the characteristic process dynamics. To comply with this demand, we have developed a new numerical tool based on OpenFOAM (foam-extend), capable of simulating the free-surface dynamics of the melt flow under the influence of an applied alternating magnetic field. Our corresponding model thereby resolves the interaction of hydrodynamic and magnetodynamic effects in three-dimensional space. Although we currently focus on the RGS process, the modeling itself has been formulated in a more general form, which may be used for the investigation of similar problems, too. Here we provide a brief overview of these developments.
Keywords: RGS process, OpenFOAM, electromagnetic driven flow, foam-extend, free-surface

Registration No. 25948 - Permalink


Validation of X-ray radiography for characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals
Keplinger, O.; Shevchenko, N.; Eckert, S.
Corresponding author: Eckert, S.
Abstract: X-ray radiography has proved to be an efficient and powerful tool for the visualization of two-phase flows in non-transparent fluids, in particular in liquid metals. This paper presents a validation of the X-ray radiography by comparing measurements in water with corresponding results obtained by optical methods. For that purpose Ar bubbles were injected through a single orifice. The measurements results are compared in terms of bubble size, bubble shape and velocity. Furthermore, visualization experiments were performed in the eutectic alloy GaInSn where the image contrast between the liquid phase and the gas bubble is much stronger. Some obvious differences of the bubble dynamics in water and GaInSn are discussed.
Keywords: X-ray radiography, two-phase flows, GaInSn, water

Registration No. 25946 - Permalink


THz Nonlinear Response of Landau-Quantized Graphene
König-Otto, J. C.; Wang, Y.; Belyanin, A.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W. A.; Orlita, M.; Pashkin, A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.
Abstract: The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Landau-quantized graphene is studied by degenerate time-integrated four-wave mixing in the THz regime. The revealed resonance behavior and the observed field dependencies are in agreement with our theoretical calculations.
Keywords: graphene, Landau-quantized graphene, nonlinear optics, carrier dynamics, spectroscopy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CLEO, 14.-19.05.2017, San Jose, USA

Registration No. 25941 - Permalink


Influence of structural quality on the carrier dynamics in graphene
König-Otto, J. C.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.
Abstract: Production of large-scale high quality graphene is a challenging task. Therefore understanding how quality will influence the properties of graphene is crucial for industrial applications. In this work we focus on the influence of defects on the carrier dynamics. To this end areas of a multilayer epitaxial graphene sample with high structural quality [1] are irradiated with different doses of low energy carbon ions. The different areas with now varying graphene quality (see D-Peaks in Raman spectra in Figure 1) are studied by a pump-probe experiment utilizing low energetic photons from a free-electron laser (photon energy 75meV). In this regime carrier relaxation is particularly slow as compared to excitation with visible light since scattering with optical phonons (energy 200meV) is efficiently suppressed [2]. The change in transmission is depicted in Figure 2 for three different structural qualities. One can directly see that the relaxation in the damaged areas is significantly faster than in the pristine graphene. This might be an indication for the presence of the intensively discussed supercollisions in graphene [3].
References
[1] C. Berger et al., Science 312, 1191 (2006).
[2] S. Winnerl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 237401 (2011).
[3] J. C. W. Song et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 106602 (2012).
Keywords: graphene, defects, carrier dynamics
  • Poster
    Graphene2017, 28.-31.03.2017, Barcelona, Espana

Registration No. 25940 - Permalink


Landau-Quantized Graphene: A Tunable Nonlinear Optical Material in the THz Range
König-Otto, J. C.; Wang, Y.; Belyanin, A.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W. A.; Orlita, M.; Pashkin, A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.
Abstract: Finding nonlinear optical materials for the THz and mid-infrared regimes is not straightforward. State-of-the-art devices with a high third-order optical susceptibility are often processed as complex multiquantum-well structures designed to feature one specific resonance frequency. In our work we study Landau-quantized graphene as a tunable and simple to produce nonlinear material. To this end we perform time-integrated degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) experiments at a photon energy of 78 meV resonant to the transitions between the Landau levels LL−1, LL0 and LL1 at a magnetic field of roughly 4 T. We can recover expected scaling of the FWM-signal with the incident fields and the resonance behavior. The value of the third-order surface susceptibility in this material is in agreement with our calculations based on the density matrix formalism. We find the order of 𝜒(3) of Landau-quantized graphene to be competitive with more complex and elaborated solutions.
Keywords: graphene, Landau-quantized graphene, nonlinear optics, carrier dynamics, spectroscopy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 19.-24.03.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Registration No. 25939 - Permalink


“Brothers in Arms” – HIF High-Speed PIXE and MEGA Spectrometer
Renno, A. D.ORC; Buchriegler, J.; Dreßler, S.; Hanf, D.; Munnik, F.; Scharf, O.; Ziegenrücker, R.
Abstract: In a fast growing world with increasing demand on resources like high-tech metals as In, Ga, Ge, or rare earth elements (REE), mineralogists and economic geologists need faster and automated analytical tools to explore mineral deposits, make them accessible and define necessary initial data for all subsequent processing steps. Next to the necessary knowledge in which phases the elements of interest, ecotoxical as well as deleterious elements are concentrated, it is important to determine structural parameters like grain sizes and possible intergrowths relations of these minerals. These are typical geometallurgical analytical tasks, which are so far routinely performed by electron beam based methods of automated mineralogy, like MLA (mineral liberation analysis) or QEMSCAN, with their advantages and disadvantages. The methodological problems of these type of methods are, for example, the necessary measurement time, insufficient limits of detection (no trace element detection) and high background (electron Bremsstrahlung).

Some of these hurdles can be overcome by using alternative excitation radiation, like ions, known as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-rays, known as X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Combining these with a full-field detection system, such as the so-called SLcam®[1], allows the determination of trace element distributions in reasonable time over a large field of view.

The SLcam® consists of a 12 x 12 mm², X-ray sensitive pnCCD chip with 69696 pixels. A high read-out speed of up to 1000 Hz, allows the acquisition of complete X-ray spectra (2-20 keV) on each pixel simultaneously, with an energy resolution of around 160 eV (@ Mn-K even for high photon fluxes. A poly-capillary lens is used to guide the X-rays from their point of origin on the sample to the corresponding pixel on the detector-chip. Usage of a straight 1:1 lens results in a lateral resolution better than 100 µm.

The MEGA spectrometer is equipped with a laboratory-scale X-ray tube. XRF is used for the determination of major and trace element data. It’s “small”, table-top like size would in principle allow to use the set-up directly at the mining site. The so called High-Speed PIXE[2] uses a broad proton beam to excite the fluorescence radiation. Samples with a total weight of up to 10 kg and a maximum size 25 x 25 x 2.5 cm³ can be mounted in a dedicated vacuum sample chamber. The instrument is installed at the Ion Beam Center at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The advantages and disadvantages of both instruments will be presented, as well as first results of combined qualitative studies of the distribution of trace elements in representative samples to demonstrate the importance of these innovative concepts for geometallurgical research.

[1] Scharf, O., et al. (2011). Compact pnCCD-Based X-ray Camera with High Spatial and Energy Resolution: A Color X-ray Camera. Analytical Chemistry, 83(7), 2532–2538.
[2] Hanf, D., et al. (2016). A new particle-induced X-ray emission set-up for laterally resolved analysis over wide areas. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 377, 7-24.
Keywords: PIXE, High-Speed PIXE, XRF, Trace Elemenet Analysis
  • Poster
    2nd International Conference on Applied Mineralogy & Advanced Materials and 13th International Conference on Applied Mineralogy, 05.-09.06.2017, Castellaneta Marina- Taranto, Italy

Registration No. 25937 - Permalink


Distribution and kinetics of the Kv1.3-blocking peptide HsTX1[R14A] in experimental rats.
Bergmann, R.; Kubeil, M.; Zarschler, K.; Chhabra, S.; Tajhya, R.; Beeton, C.; Pennington, M.; Bachmann, M.; Norton, R.; Stephan, H.
Corresponding author: Bergmann, R.
Abstract: The peptide HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, which is a highly promising target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and other conditions. In order to assess the biodistribution of this peptide, it was conjugated with NOTA and radiolabelled with copper-64. [Cu-64] Cu-NOTA-HsTX1[R14A] was synthesised in high radiochemical purity and yield. The radiotracer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The biodistribution and PET studies after intravenous and subcutaneous injections showed similar patterns and kinetics. The hydrophilic peptide was rapidly distributed, showed low accumulation in most of the organs and tissues, and demonstrated high molecular stability in vitro and in vivo. The most prominent accumulation occurred in the epiphyseal plates of trabecular bones. The high stability and bioavailability, low normal-tissue uptake of [Cu-64] Cu-NOTA-HsTX1[R14A], and accumulation in regions of up-regulated Kv channels both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that HsTX1[R14A] represents a valuable lead for conditions treatable by blockade of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. The pharmacokinetics shows that both intravenous and subcutaneous applications are viable routes for the delivery of this potent peptide

Registration No. 25932 - Permalink


The FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation package and its applications at the HZDR
Müller, S. E.
Abstract: Vorstellung der FLUKA Monte Carlo Simulations Software und deren Anwendungen am HZDR
Keywords: FLUKA, Radiation Transport, HZDR
  • Lecture (Conference)
    VKTA KS-Klausurberatung, 08.-09.08.2017, Lohmen, Germany

Registration No. 25927 - Permalink


Development and characterization of human melanoma cell lines and xenograft models exhibiting different levels of transglutaminase 2
Hauser, S.; Aepler, J.; Pufe, J.; Wodtke, R.; Pietsch, M.; Löser, R.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Tissue transglutaminase (TGase 2) is involved in the progression of many different tumor entities, including malignant melanoma, via antiapoptotic processes and mechanisms supporting cellular survival, adhesion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition [1]. Accordingly, it has been shown that TGase 2 expression is higher in metastatic and chemoresistant tumors compared to primary tumors, underlining its role during tumor progression [2]. Therefore, TGase 2 represents an interesting target for the development of selective inhibitors for theranostics of progressive malignant melanoma. In order to evaluate potent candidate compounds in vitro and in vivo, suitable transgenic melanoma cell lines and xenograft models with different TGase 2 expression and activity were developed.
A375 and MeWo cells, two human malignant melanoma cell lines with high and very low TGase 2 expression, respectively, were stably transfected with a lentiviral pHATtrick-mCherry vector (mCherry control cells) and a lentiviral pHATtrick-TGase 2 vector (TGase 2 cells). The resulting cell lines differed in their TGase 2 expression and activity, as determined by Western Blotting and fluorescence anisotropy assay [3]. Transfection and overexpression of TGase 2 did not influence cell proliferation behavior. 5×106 cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously in athymic nude mice (NMRI-Foxn1nu) to form tumor xenografts that differed in their growth characteristics as well as in their TGase 2 expression and activity. TGase 2 activity in tumors was evaluated ex vivo by incorporation of fluorescently labeled cadaverine derivatives, which could be inhibited by a selective TGase 2 inhibitor. These results indicate that the established tumor xenograft models provide the opportunity to evaluate potent candidate substances for diagnosis and therapy of melanoma on the one hand and to investigate pathophysiological processes associated with TGase 2 in detail on the other.

References:
[1] Huang, L et al. Am J Cancer Res. 2015, 5, 2756-2776
[2] Fok, JY et al. Mol Cancer Ther 2006, 5, 1493-1503
[3] Hauser, C et al. Amino Acids 2017, 49, 567–583
  • Poster
    Debrecen University Symposium "Transglutaminases in Medicine", 03.-05.08.2017, Debrecen, Ungarn

Registration No. 25924 - Permalink


Evaluation of defect formation in helium irradiated Y2O3 doped W-Ti alloys by positron annihilation and nanoindentation
Richter, A.; Anwand, W.; Chen, C.-L.; Böttger, R.
Corresponding author: Richter, Asta Department Engineering Physics, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Hochschulring 1, 15745 Wildau, Germany
Abstract: Helium implanted tungsten-titanium ODS alloys are investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and nanoindentation. Titanium reduces the brittleness of the tungsten alloy, which is manufactured by mechanical alloying. The addition of Y2O3 nanoparticles increases the mechanical properties at elevated temperature and enhances irradiation resistance. Helium ion implantation was applied to simulate irradiation effects on these materials. The irradiation was performed using a 500 kV He ion implanter at fluences around 5 × 1015 cm−2 for a series of samples both at room temperature and at 600 °C. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the pristine and irradiated W-Ti-ODS alloy are compared with respect to the titanium and Y2O3 content. Radiation damage is studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy analyzing the lifetime and the Doppler broadening. Three types of helium-vacancy defects were detected after helium irradiation in the W-Ti-ODS alloy: small defects with high helium-to-vacancy ratio (low S parameter) for room temperature irradiation, larger open volume defects with low helium-to-vacancy ratio (high S parameter) at the surface and He-vacancy complexes pinned at nanoparticles deeper in the material for implantation at 600 °C. Defect induced hardness was studied by nanoindentation. A drastic hardness increase is observed after He ion irradiation both for room temperature and elevated irradiation temperature of 600 °C. The Ti alloyed tungsten-ODS is more affected by the hardness increase after irradiation compared to the pure W-ODS alloy.
Keywords: W-Ti-ODS alloys; He implantation; Positron annihilation spectroscopy; Nanoindentation; Vacancy defects

Registration No. 25918 - Permalink


Kooperationsprozess und strategisches Management entwickeln
Joehnk, P.
Corresponding author: Joehnk, Peter
Abstract: Anforderungen an das künftige Verhältnis zwischen Zuwendungsgebern, Forschungseinrichtungen und den Rechnungshöfen - Mängel im öffentlichen Sektor am Beispiel des Bundesrechnungshofs beheben
  • Science Finance 1(2017), 25-31

Registration No. 25914 - Permalink


HZDR, ZA Technischer Service, Abt. Bau- und technisches Gebäudemanagement
Oelke, M.
  • Lecture (others)
    HGF Arbeitskreis - Facility Management 2017, 16.-17.05.2017, xxx, Deutschland

Registration No. 25913 - Permalink


Gebäudeautomation im HZDR - Erfahrungsbericht
Oelke, M.
  • Lecture (others)
    HGF Arbeitskreis Facility Management, 09.-10.05.2012, xxx, Deutschland

Registration No. 25912 - Permalink


Neubau Heizwerk und Nahwärmenetz
Oelke, M.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HGF Arbeitskreis Facility Management – 36. Tagung, 15.-16.05.2013, Kiel, Deutschland

Registration No. 25911 - Permalink


Structure and energetics of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in bcc Fe
Vallinayagam, M.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Abstract: Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys (NFA) are considered as promising candidates for the structural materials of future fusion and fission reactors [1]. They consist of a ferritic or ferritic/martensitic Fe-Cr matrix with a high dispersion of nanometer size yttria-based oxide particles. In this research project (started in November 2016) the nature of nanometer-size yttria-based oxide clusters in a bcc Fe matrix shall be investigated by DFT calculations. The main goal of these studies is the better understanding of the nucleation as well as the structure and composition of the nanoclusters. The investigations shall clarify the conditions for the formation of nonstoichiometric clusters that are coherent with the bcc lattice and for the formation of oxide phases (in particular Y2O3 and Y2Ti2O7). The energetics of the different structures shall be determined and compared. Furthermore, the interaction of the nanoparticles with intrinsic point defects and He atoms shall be studied. Preliminary studies and their results on structure and energetics of certain Y-Ti-O nanoclusters will be presented on the poster. Two models are considered: (i) clusters consisting of Y, Ti, and O atoms on substitutional or defect sites of the bcc lattice [2-4], and (ii) cluster consisting of parts of the bixbyite (Y2O3) or pyrochlore (Y2Ti2O7) structure embedded in bcc Fe [5].
[1] G. R. Odette, JOM-J. Min. Met. Mat. S. 66, 2427 (2014)
[2] D. Murali, B.K. Panigrahi, M.C. Valsakumar, S. Chandra, C.S. Sundar, B. Raj, J. Nucl. Mater. 403, 113 (2010)
[3] A. Claisse, P. Olsson, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 303, 18 (2013)
[4] M. Posselt, D. Murali, B. K. Panigrahi, Model. Simul. Mater. Sc. 22, 085003 (2014)
[5] L. Barnard, G. R. Odette, I. Szlufarska, D. Morgan. Acta Mater. 60 (2012) 935 (2012)
Keywords: oxide nanoclusters, bcc Fe, nanoferritic alloy, DFT
  • Poster
    NSF/CECAM School on Computational Materials Science: From Basics to Applications, 17.-27.07.2017, Lausanne, Switzerland

Registration No. 25904 - Permalink


Influence of foreign atoms on the diffusion of oxygen in bcc Fe
Wang, X.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Abstract: In this research project (started in September 2016) the diffusion of foreign atoms in bcc Fe shall be investigated by first-principle methods and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The focus of the present work is on the diffusion of oxygen under the influence of other foreign atoms such as Al, Cr, Si, Ti, and Y. Oxygen plays e.g. an important role in the formation and evolution of nanoclusters in nanostructured ferritic Fe-Cr alloys which are considered as promising candidates for structural materials of future fusion and fission reactors [1]. In bcc Fe the most stable site of oxygen is the octahedral interstitial position and the tetrahedral interstitial position is the saddle point for the migration [2-5]. The presence of foreign atoms and intrinsic point defects modifies the migration path [5-7]. Using DFT calculations the binding energy between oxygen and a foreign atom is determined for different neighbor distances. Then the modified migration barriers are calculated, i.e. for the O jump between the first and the second neighbor of a foreign atom, etc. The results shall be used in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the whole diffusion process and for the determination of the corresponding diffusion coefficient in dependence on the concentration of foreign atoms. Finally, the calculated diffusion coefficient shall be compared with the few existing experimental data on oxygen diffusion in dilute iron alloys.
[1] G. R. Odette, JOM-J. Min. Met. Mat. S. 66, 2427 (2014)
[2] C.L. Fu, M. Krcmar, G.S. Painter, X.-Q. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 225502 (2007)
[3] D. Murali, B.K. Panigrahi, M.C. Valsakumar, S. Chandra, C.S. Sundar, B. Raj, J. Nucl. Mater. 403, 113 (2010)
[4] A. Claisse, P. Olsson, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 303, 18 (2013)
[5] S.L. Shang, H.Z. Fang, J. Wang, C.P. Guo, Y. Wang, P.D. Jablonski, Y. Du, Z.K. Liu, Corrosion Sci. 83, 94 (2014)
[6] P. Liu, W. Xing, X. Cheng, D. Li, Y. Li, X.-Q. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 90, 024103 (2014)
[7] C. Barouh, T. Schuler, C.-C. Fu, T. Jourdan, Phys. Rev. B 92, 104102 (2015)
Keywords: diffusion, oxygen, bcc Fe, DFT, foreign atoms
  • Poster
    NSF/CECAM School on Computational Materials Science: From Basics to Applications, 17.-27.07.2017, Lausanne, Switzerland

Registration No. 25903 - Permalink


Selective mass enhancement close to the quantum critical point in BaFe2(As1−xPx)2
Grinenko, V.; Iida, K.; Kurth, F.; Efremov, D. V.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Cherniavskii, I.; Morozov, I.; Hänisch, J.; Förster, T.; Tarantini, C.; Jaroszynski, J.; Maiorov, B.; Jaime, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Nakamura, I.; Fujimoto, R.; Hatano, T.; Ikuta, H.; Hühne, R.
Corresponding author: Grinenko, V. Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden & IFW Dresden, Dresden, Germany & Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
Abstract: A quantum critical point (QCP) is currently being conjectured for the BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 system at the critical value xc ≈ 0.3. In the proximity of a QCP, all thermodynamic and transport properties are expected to scale with a single characteristic energy, given by the quantum fluctuations. Such a universal behavior has not, however, been found in the superconducting upper critical field Hc2. Here we report Hc2 data for epitaxial thin films extracted from the electrical resistance measured in very high magnetic fields up to 67 Tesla. Using a multi-band analysis we find that Hc2 is sensitive to the QCP, implying a significant charge carrier effective mass enhancement at the doping-induced QCP that is essentially band-dependent. Our results point to two qualitatively different groups of electrons in BaFe2(As1−xPx)2. The first one (possibly associated to hot spots or whole Fermi sheets) has a strong mass enhancement at the QCP, and the second one is insensitive to the QCP. The observed duality could also be present in many other quantum critical systems.

Registration No. 25893 - Permalink


A new degree of freedom for electron holography
Röder, F.; Lubk, A.; Houdellier, F.; Denneulin, T.; Snoeck, E.; Hÿtch, M. J.
Abstract: Off-Axis Electron Holography permits the direct reconstruction of amplitude and phase of electron waves elastically scattered by an object (see, e.g., [1]). The technique employs the Möllenstedt biprism to mutually incline an object modulat-ed wave and a plane reference wave to form an interference pattern at the detec-tor plane. Limited coherence of the electron beam in presence of aberrations at-tenuates high spatial frequencies of the object exit wave spectrum, which is de-scribed by the sideband envelope function. We explore an extension of the con-ventional electron holography set-up given by deliberately tilting the reference wave independent from the object wave. This allows the transfer of spatial fre-quencies beyond the conventional sideband information limit as predicted by a generalized transfer theory for Off-Axis Electron Holography [2]. This is based on the idea that a reference wave tilted by q0 compensates the wave aberration for the spatial frequency q0 of the object wave spectrum. Thus, an off-axis hologram series with varying reference wave tilt allows in principle a linear synthesis of an effective coherent aperture with a radius reaching out beyond the conventional information limit. Furthermore, an object-independent measurement of aberra-tions as well as strain measurements by dark-field electron holography can be realized using this setup. The experimental realization of an arbitrarily tilted refer-ence wave is challenging and could be realized for the first time at the Hitachi HF3300C I2TEM at CEMES Toulouse for one direction [3]. We used an additional biprism placed in the illumination system. Three condenser lenses were adjusted to provide a demagnified image of the condenser biprism at the sample plane under parallel illumination. The pre-specimen deflectors were adapted to maintain the incident wave vector of the object wave and to realize a tilt of the reference wave as a function of the condenser biprism voltage. Finally, we have experimen-tally shown that dark-field holography can be conducted with an object-independent reference alleviating the need for a uniform area of known structure.

[1] H. Lichte, M. Lehmann, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71 (2008) 016102.
[2] F. Röder, A. Lubk, Ultramicoscopy 152 (2015) 63-74.
[3] F. Röder, F. Houdellier,T. Denneulin, E. Snoeck, M.J. Hÿtch, Ultramicoscopy 161 (2016) 23–40.
Keywords: electron holography, tilted reference wave, aperture systhesis, dark-field
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    PICO 2017 - Forth Conference on Frontiers of Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy, 30.04.-04.05.2017, Kasteel Valsbroek, The Netherlands

Registration No. 25889 - Permalink


Probing the Impact of the Initiator Layer on Grafted-from Polymer Brushes: A Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Study
Panzarasa, G.; Aghion, S.; Marra, G.; Wagner, A.; Liedke, M. O.; Elsayed, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Ferragut, R.; Consolati, G.
Abstract: Grafting-from is the technique of choice to obtain polymer brushes. It is based on the growth of polymer chains directly from an initiator-functionalized surface, and its development gained momentum thanks to recent advances in controlled polymerization techniques. However, despite the great amount of work that has been performed on this subject, the influence exerted by the initiator layer on the characteristics of the resulting brushes has been almost completely overlooked. Our group has already demonstrated that positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a valuable analytical tool for the study of polymer brushes. Here, we applied this technique to show that differences in the organization of the initiator layer dramatically reflect on the characteristics of polymer brushes. Brushes made by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of a pH-responsive polymer, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA), were investigated also in terms of the effects of protonation and of the incorporation of silver nanoparticles inside the brushes, shining a new light on the internal structure of such complex, fascinating systems.
Keywords: Grafting-from polymer brushes positron annihilation spectroscopy surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)

Registration No. 25884 - Permalink


Electrical Characterization of sub-20 nm Silicon Nanowires Fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching
Khan, M. B.; Deb, D.; Georgiev, Y. M.; Fuchs, F.; Schuster, J.; Erbe, A.
Abstract: Scaling down of CMOS faces strong challenges due to which new materials, enhanced functionality and new device concepts have gained importance. These concepts include undoped silicon nanowire based reconfigurable devices which can be programmed as p-FET or n-FET by controlling the electrostatic potential applied across gate. In this work, electrical characterization of undoped sub-20 silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is reported. SiNWs are fabricated on intrinsic SOI substrates in <110> and <100> crystal directions by a top down approach. Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), a negative tone electron beam resist is used for nano- patterning as well as hard mask for etching. Nanowire etching process is optimized using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source and C4F8/SF6/O2 mixed gas recipe at 18 oC. These NWs are oxidized to form a SiO2 shell and subsequently silicidized. For silicidation the SiO2 shell is wet etched at pre-defined positions followed by Nickel(Ni) sputtering and diffusion which yield silicide-silicon(Schottky) junctions. Ni is used for silicidation to selectively control the charge carriers injection at the junctions. Different transport and silicidation progress was observed in <110> and <100> crystal directions.
Keywords: Silicon nanowire; etching; lithography; schottky barrier devices
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, 19.-24.03.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25881 - Permalink


Development of structured reactors for transformation of biomass components to high-value products - green process industry
Salmi, T.; Shumilov, V. V.; Eränen, K.; Kumar, N.; Hupa, L.; Murzin, D.; Boden, S.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Sulman, E.
Abstract: Transformation of biomass components to high-value products used in industry over structured catalysts is the idea behind this project. Synthesis of 5-Methyl-1-Hydroxyethyl-2-Pyrrolidone by reductive amination of ethyl levulinate using 3-aminopropanol as the alkyl amine in the presence of hydrogen was performed. Reactor which uses porous ceramic monolith as a catalytic carrier was studied.

For the development of a new catalytic system, alumina was chosen as a carrier material and sponge replica technique was used for its production. Porous ceramics with different pore types and sizes are widely applied in chemical industry. The unique properties of porous materials allow to carry out a spectrum of well-established and recent applications, such as molten metal filtration, catalysis, refractory and thermal insulation, hot gas filtration. Porous form is perfect for heterogeneous catalysis because of high surface area, which enables liquid (or gas) to contact the catalyst intensively.

Alpha-Alumina is a strong material the surface area of which is low and so to enlarge surface area covering of the foam with a layer of gamma-alumina which has a much bigger surface area was performed.

Two methods of gamma-alumina coating were performed. One of them is covering alpha-alumina frame with gamma-alumina slurry. This method is limited by the pore size, as the smallest pores will be blocked after slurry adding. The second method is a hot water solution deposition where sedimentation of gamma-alumina from its salt takes place.

Pt and Ru in the form of nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of the porous structure. Catalysts were characterized by nitrogen desorption, SEM, EDXA, TEM and other methods. Reactor represents a tube with a diameter about 20 mm and length about 350 mm into which porous catalyst is placed.

Reductive amination of ethyl levulinate using 3-aminopropanol as the alkyl amine which was performed. Ethyl levulinate is a product of levulinic acid transformation. Levulinic acid is a well-known precursor for pharmaceuticals, plasticizers and other additives. It is a building block or starting material for a wide range of compounds.
  • Poster
    10th International Symposium on Catalysis in Multiphase Reactors and Multifunctional Reactors, 07.-10.07.2017, Qingdao, China

Registration No. 25875 - Permalink


Active targeting and in vivo multimodal imaging of renally excretable polymer nanoparticles
Pant, K.; Zarschler, K.; Neuber, C.; Pufe, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.; Stephan, H.; Haag, R.
Abstract: Multimodal imaging represents a strategy to integrate multiple modalities on a single carrier molecule so as to increase the detection sensitivity and to obviate the need to administer compounds with different pharmacokinetics. In this regard, dendritic polyglycerols are highly biocompatible nanoscale scaffolds with multiple attachment sites, anti-fouling properties and small size (2-20 nm).1 The great versatility of the dendritic polyglycerols allows to fine tune physicochemical parameters such as the size, water solubility, surface charge that are relevant for the successful preparation of theranostic systems. Previous experiments showed that the dendritic polyglycerols (>10kDa) show a fast renal clearance with negligible uptake in the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) organs such as the liver and spleen.2-3 The purpose of this work to design a PET/OI dual modal construct based on dendritic polyglycerols for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting. In this regard, a one-pot strategy was employed for simultaneous attachment of fluorescent labels for optical imaging (cy3/cy7) and macrocyclic chelators based on a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane system for 64Cu (PET tracer) to thiol anchoring groups of the dPGs. A small camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb) representing a potential recognition agent for EGFR as targeting vector was attached (1). In parallel, a probe with similar surface characteristics but an EGFR unspecific sdAb (control) was synthesized (2). The conjugates were purified using affinity chromatography, which selectively separates the antibody-conjugated mul-timodal conjugates. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to assess its diagnostic potential. The in vitro results revealed a highly specific receptor mediate uptake of 1 in EGFR expressing A431 and FaDu cell lines using confocal microscopy and radio detection.
Intravenous injection of 1 and 2 on mouse xenografted models studies using PET and optical imaging revealed an overwhelming tumor accumulation of the EGFR-specific 1 in comparison to the EGFR-unspecific 2 and a minimum off-target accumulation of both conjugates. These results unveil the potential of dendritic polyglycerols as efficient multimodal platforms for theranostic applications.
Keywords: dendritic polyglycerols, cancer, biodistribution, radiolabeling, renal clearance, protein corona, biomedical applications.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nanotech France 2017, 28.-30.06.2017, PARIS, France

Registration No. 25865 - Permalink


NMR investigations of paramagnetic effects in metal-organic complexes of trivalent and tetravalent actinides with soft-donor ligands
Radoske, T.; Adam, C.; Schöne, S.; Patzschke, M.; März, J.; Kaden, P.ORC
Abstract: When NMR spectroscopy is applied to paramagnetic metal-organic complexes additional chemical shifts are observed on nuclei of the ligands that originate from electronic interactions between metal and ligand. The major two contributors to these paramagnetic chemical shifts are either due to delocalisation of unpaired electron density in molecular orbitals involving both metal and ligand orbitals (Fermi contact shift, FCS), or due to distance- and angle-dependent dipolar coupling of electron spins through space (pseudo contact shift, PCS). However, mathematical models for the treatment of paramagnetic chemical shifts are not yet applicable to actinide compounds.
Covalence is assumed to be the reason for some soft-donor ligands selectivity for the complexation of trivalent actinides over lanthanide ions. This long-kept notion was recently substantiated by evaluation of paramagnetic chemical shifts of respective Am(III) complexes1,2. The mathematical separation of contributions in complexes of the trivalent actinides, however, is hampered by the lack of a reliable diamagnetic reference in the actinide series. Furthermore, all available theories behind mathematical disentangling of contributions to the paramagnetic chemical shift, even for the lanthanide series, omit the influence of spin-orbit effects that might have a sizeable contribution as well.
To assess the chemical bonding situation via the influences on paramagnetic chemical shifts we started to study metal-organic complexes of tetravalent actinides (An(IV)) with soft-donor ligands with Th(IV) as diamagnetic reference. With increasing number of unpaired electrons throughout the series additional effects to the observed chemical shift are expected. Herein we report the first results of investigations of N-donor ligand complexes of the An(IV) series.
References
1. C. Adam, P. Kaden, B. B. Beele, U. Müllich, S. Trumm, A. Geist, P. J. Panak, M. A. Denecke, “Evidence for covalence in a N-donor complex of americium(III)”, Dalton Trans., 42, 14068-14074 (2013).
2. C. Adam, B. B. Beele, A. Geist, U. Müllich, P. Kaden, P. J. Panak, “NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(III) and An(III) C5-BPP complexes”, Chemical Science, 6, 1548-1561 (2015).
Keywords: NMR, paramagnetic, diamagnetic reference, covalence, Fermi contact, pseudo-contact, U(IV), Th(IV), Am(III)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Actinides 2017, 09.-14.07.2017, Sendai, Japan

Registration No. 25860 - Permalink


Increased FDG uptake on late-treatment PET in non-tumour-affected oesophagus is prognostic for pathological complete response and disease recurrence in patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy
Zschaeck, S.; Hofheinz, F.; Zöphel, K.; Bütof, R.; Jentsch, C.; Schmollack, J.; Löck, S.; Kotzerke, J.; Baretton, G.; Weitz, J.; Baumann, M.; Krause, M.
Corresponding author: Zschaeck, S.
Abstract: Purpose

Early side effects including oesophagitis are potential prognostic factors in patients undergoing radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAEC). We assessed the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake within irradiated non-tumour-affected oesophagus (NTO) during restaging positron emission tomography (PET) as a surrogate for inflammation/oesophagitis.
Methods

This retrospective evaluation included 64 patients with LAEC who had completed neoadjuvant RCT and had successful oncological resection. All patients underwent FDG PET/CT before and after RCT. In the restaging PET scan maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean) were determined in the tumour and NTO. Univariate Cox regression with respect to overall survival, local control, distant metastases and treatment failure was performed. Independence of clinically relevant parameters was tested in a multivariate Cox regression analysis.
Results

Increased FDG uptake, measured in terms of SUVmean in NTO during restaging was significantly associated with complete pathological remission (p = 0.002) and did not show a high correlation with FDG response of the tumour (rho < 0.3). In the univariate analysis, increased SUVmax and SUVmean in NTO was associated with improved overall survival (p = 0.011, p = 0.004), better local control (p = 0.051, p = 0.044), a lower rate of treatment failure (p < 0.001 for both) and development of distant metastases (p = 0.012, p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, SUVmax and SUVmean in NTO remained a significant prognostic factor for treatment failure (p < 0.001, p = 0.004) and distant metastases (p = 0.040, p = 0.011).
Conclusions

FDG uptake in irradiated normal tissues measured on restaging PET has significant prognostic value in patients undergoing neoadjuvant RCT for LAEC. This effect may potentially be of use in treatment personalization.
Keywords: Oesophageal cancer Radiochemotherapy Side effects Inflammation FDG pet

Registration No. 25857 - Permalink


Nonmodal and nonlinear dynamics of helical magnetorotational instability
Mamatsashvili, G.; Stefani, F.
Abstract: The helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI), a relative of standard MRI (SMRI), has become a subject of active research in recent years in connection with the experiments on magnetized cylindrical Taylor-Couette (TC) flows. It occurs in the presence of helical magnetic field, consisting of azimuthal and axial components and, like SMRI with only axial magnetic field, taps into the rotational energy of the flow. However, a main advantage of HMRI is that, being governed by the Reynolds (Re) and Hartmann (Ha) numbers, it persists even at very small magnetic Prandtl numbers typical to liquid metals, in contrast to SMRI. The linear development of HMRI has been widely studied theoretically using both classical modal and more recently by nonmodal stability analysis, where a fundamental connection between nonmodal dynamics and dissipation-induced (double-diffusive) modal instabilities, such as HMRI, has been demonstrated. A series of specially designed liquid metal TC experiments provided the first experimental evidence of HMRI and reproduced the main results of the linear theory, such as the stability threshold and propagation speed (frequency) of HMRI-wave. More importantly, these experiments revealed much richer dynamics of HMRI as a function of system parameters (Re, Ha, etc.) than that obtained from the linear analysis only. These results prompted further theoretical studies of the nonlinear development of HMRI, but detailed physics of its saturation and sustenance still remains missing, especially when comparison with the experiment is concerned.
Motivated by the existing experimental results, we investigate the evolution of HMRI, from its linear growth to nonlinear saturation using numerical simulations.
We show that depending on the Reynolds number, two regimes of saturation can be realized. At Re below a certain critical value (but higher than the instability threshold), the saturation energy linearly depends on Re and the corresponding energy spectrum is dominated by the most unstable mode and its multiple wavenumbers, while at larger Re, the energy increases with Re, but not linearly, and the related spectrum looks like turbulent spectrum, being much smoother over wavenumbers. The nonlinear state remains markedly axisymmetric (m = 0)
and at high Re can be viewed as a 2D turbulence, whose (spectral) properties are further examined.
Keywords: MHD, turbulence, nonmodal growth, instabilities, numerical simulations
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd Conference on Natural Dynamos, 25.06.-01.07.2017, Valtice Castle, Czech Republic

Registration No. 25856 - Permalink


Kinetic Modeling of the New σ1 Receptor Ligand (-)-[18F]Fluspidine in the Human Brain
Becker, G. A. F.; Meyer, P.; Patt, M.; Hesse, S.; Luthardt, J.; Patt, J.; Rullmann, M.; Fischer, S.; Kluge, A.; Steinbach, J.; Wünsch, B.; Brust, P.; Sabri, O.
Corresponding author: Becker, G. A. F. University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Germany
Abstract: Objectives:
The σ1 receptor, a transmembrane protein located at the endoplasmatic reticulum is involved in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, e.g. depression, schizophrenia and drug addiction. The newly developed PET tracer (-)-[18F]Fluspidine was successfully applied to quantify σ1 receptors in the porcine brain [1]. Here we present the first PET quantification of σ1 receptors with (-)-[18F] Fluspidine in humans.
Methods:
After intravenous administration of 269.6±13.3 MBq (-)-[18F]Fluspidine PET brain imaging was performed in 10 healthy subjects (age 36.6±14.8 years; gender 5F/5M) using an ECAT EXACT HR+ system in 3D-acquisition mode. 26 frames were acquired from 0-210 min post injection and motion corrected with SPM2. Kinetic modeling using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TCM, 2TCM) with metabolite corrected arterial input-function was applied to the volume of interest (VOI) based tissue time-activity curves (TACs) in 43 brain regions (anatomically defined via MRI co-registration). Time ranges from 0 to 90 and 0 to 210 min were investigated. Model-based receptor parameter was the total distribution volume VT (ml/cm-3), a linear function of receptor density.
Results:
TACs of all 43 regions could be described with the 1- and 2TCM. VT in all cortical regions could be reliably estimated from 90 min PET data already. In white matter longer measurements can be necessary. The distribution volume was highest in the cerebellar cortex (31.4±6.1), low in the centrum semiovale (17.7±7.1) and ranged in cortical structures between 20.9±3.9 in the orbitofrontal and 24.9±5.7 in the posterior cingulate cortex (pcc) (2TCM, 90 min). The distribution volumes computed from 210 min data were comparable to 90 min results, e.g. in pcc 25.7±5.9 (2TCM) and 25.7±6.0 (1TCM).
Conclusions:
σ1 receptor parameters in cortical structures can be estimated with a 1- or 2TCM from 90 min (-)-[18F]Fluspidine TACs. If a model derived receptor parameter is used in a classification problem, e.g., distinguishing patients with depression from healthy controls, the final model decision should be made on the basis of the PET data of both groups.
References:
P. Brust, ..., O. Sabri, Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2014, 55, 1730-1736
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 60(2017)Suppl.1, S383

Registration No. 25855 - Permalink


Development of (S)-[18F]T1 as first PET tracer for imaging the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Sarasamkan, J.; Fischer, S.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Scheunemann, M.; Ludwig, F.-A.; Vajragupta, O.; Brust, P.
Abstract: Objectives:
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are composed of diverse subtypes which have different functional properties, distributions and pharmacological profiles. The α7, α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs are well recognized as drug targets implicated in cognitive disorders and addiction. Therefore, to image nAChRs in vivo, subtype-selective radiotracers need to be developed.
Methods:
A novel PET radiotracer for imaging nAChRs was developed based on the design and synthesis of six racemates (T1-T6) and its enantiomers based on the structure of triazole-quinuclidine QND8. All R enantiomers were found to be selective to α7 nAChR while their S counterparts were selective to α3β4 nAChR. (S)-T1 binds selectively to α3β4 nAChR (Ki 3.09 nM) with very modest off-target binding to α1 receptor, dopamine receptors and serotonin receptors. Radiosynthesis of (S)-[18F]T1 was achieved by two-step reaction, starting with the preparation of 18F-alkyne synthon (1-ethynyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzene; [18F]2), followed by the click reaction between [18F]2 and (S)-azidoquinuclidine.
Results:
The radiosynthesis of (S)-[18F]T1 was achieved in 130 min with the overall isolated radiochemical yield of 4.3±1.3%, radiochemical purity > 99%, and molar radioactivity > 158 GBq/µmol at end of synthesis. The brain uptake and brain-to-blood ratio of this tracer in mice at 30 min after injection were 6.06% ID/g and 6.1, respectively. The tracer remained intact > 99% in brain homogenates. Only one major radiometabolite was detected in plasma and urine samples. In vitro autoradiography on pig brain slices revealed high binding of (S)-[18F]T1 to brain regions consistent with the α3β4 nAChR distribution. Selective binding of (S)-[18F]T1 was evidenced by (i) the reduction of percent labeling of this tracer in the presence of a selective α3β4 nAChR partial agonist, AT-1001 and (ii) the retention of the tracer in the presence of α7 nAChR-specific SSR180711.
Conclusions:
These findings suggest the potential of (S)-[18F]T1 for imaging the α3β4 nAChR in the brain as a promising tool for both diagnosis and therapy monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases and addiction.
Acknowledgement:
This work was supported by Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (grant no. PHD/0272/2552) to J.S. and O.V.
References:
[1] K. Arunrungvichian, V. V. Fokin, O. Vajragupta, P. Taylor. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2015, 6, 1317-1330.
[2] J. Sarasamkan, M. Scheunemann, N. Apaijai, S. Palee, W. Parichatikanond, K. Arunrungvichian, et al. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2016, 7, 890- 895.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 60(2017)Suppl.1, S50

Registration No. 25854 - Permalink


ElectroHydroDynamic emitters developments for improving Focused Ion Beam machines
Gierak, J.; Bischoff, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bruchhaus, L.; Blanchard-Desce, M.; Vaultier, M.; Lozano, P.
Abstract: The patterning of samples using Focused Ion Beams (FIB) is very popular, widely used both for industrial [1] and emerging nanoscience prototyping applications [2]. This FIB technique allows 3D and direct patterning of target materials using a finely focused pencil of ions having speeds of several hundreds of km/seconds at impact with a penetration range of a few tens of nanometres. Thanks to this, local information and/or modifications can be obtained at the target surface. In what the ion nature is concerned, apart that many elements can be used in FIB technology as pure elements or in the form of alloys, gallium (Ga+ ions) is often preferred.
Traditionally for several decades FIB technology has been mainly based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). LMIS are also known as electrohydrodynamically (EHD) driven ion emitters operating in a cone-jet mode. The very high brightness, long lifespan, small source size, and easy handling of this emitter remain its chief and most decisive advantages. On the other hand, some weaknesses are also well known that inhibit the resolution of EHD/LMIS-based FIBs. Therefore progress on ion sources operational characteristics still remains very desirable.
In this presentation we will first summarize our work aiming at understanding, optimizing and evaluating gallium LMIS “needle type” performances. In particular stable operation at lowest possible emission currents will be detailed. The gains in terms of patterning resolution and beam selectivity [3], we will evaluate, are firm evidence that progresses can still be expected from this mature technology.
We will then review and detail the advantages of Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) that represent a promising alternative to expand the already remarkable application field and potential of FIB machines in the field of nanosciences. Indeed selecting the best suited elements transported in a focused ion beam can open new nanofabrication routes. In this presentation we will explain that nearly half of the elements of the periodic table can already be made available to the FIB technology as a result of a continuous research effort in this area [4] and how, in our opinion, nanofabrication shall now take benefit of these capabilities. Finally we will introduce our new addition to the arsenal of EHD driven devices: The Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS). ILIS are capable to produce ion beams through field-evaporation, also in the cone-jet mode, but from room temperature molten-salts [5]. The possibility of extracting both positive and negative ions at
emission current several orders of magnitude below LMIS standards is already a very appealing perspective in terms of source virtual source size and brightness. Then we will show that ILIS allows to access new ionic species thanks to the almost limitless chemical engineering latitude of molten salts. Moreover subsequent tuning can be achieved via selecting the tip polarity, the ion emission current and the ion landing energy. We will show the possibility to achieve a new kind of FIB patterning using a beam of chemically reactive ion radicals native in the transported beam. This represents a formidable perspective for FIB technology.
In conclusion we will summarize our vision on the future of FIB technology based on electrohydrodynamically (EHD) driven emitters operating in the conejet mode, both in terms of performances, versatility and on the science frontiers these might help to push.

[1] J. Orloff, Scientific American Oct. 1994, pp.74-79
[2] J. Gierak Nanofabrication 2014; Volume 1: pp. 35–52
[3] J. Gierak and R. Jede, Patent US8546768 B2, WO2010029270A1; Sept 2008
[4] L. Bischoff, P. Mazarov, L. Bruchhaus, and J. Gierak, Appl. Phys. Rev. 2016; 3: pp. 021101
[5] C. Perez-Martinez, J. Gierak, and P. C. Lozano, P106 (Invited), EIPBN Conference, May 31-
June 3, 2016, Pittsburgh, PA
Keywords: Focused Ion Beam; Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source; Ionic Liquid Ion Source; FIB patterning
  • Lecture (Conference)
    61th International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication EIPBN-2017, 30.05.-02.06.2017, Orlando, USA

Registration No. 25853 - Permalink


Ion-Beam-Induced Atomic Mixing in Ge, Si, and SiGe, Studied by Means of Isotope Multilayer Structures
Bracht, H.; Radek, M.; Posselt, M.; Liedke, B.; Schmidt, B.; Voelskow, M.; Bischoff, L.; Böttger, R.; Prucnal, S.; Hansen, J. L.; Larsen, A. N.; Bougeard, D.
Abstract: Crystalline and preamorphized isotope multilayers are utilized to investigate the dependence of ion beam mixing in silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and silicon germanium (SiGe) on the atomic structure of the sample, temperature, ion flux, and electrical doping by the implanted ions. The magnitude of mixing is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy provide information about the structural state after ion irradiation. Different temperature regimes with characteristic mixing properties are identified. A disparity in atomic mixing of Si and Ge becomes evident while SiGe shows an intermediate behavior. Overall, atomic mixing increases with temperature, and it is stronger in the amorphous than in the crystalline state. Ion-beam-induced mixing in Ge shows no dependence on doping by the implanted ions. In contrast, a doping effect is found in Si at higher temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations clearly show that ion beam mixing in Ge is mainly determined by the thermal spike mechanism. In the case of Si thermal spike, mixing prevails at low temperature whereas ion beam-induced enhanced self-diffusion dominates the atomic mixing at high temperature. The latter process is attributed to highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and during damage annealing.
Keywords: silicon; germanium; ion beam; atomic mixing; thermal spike; radiation enhanced diffusion; amorphization; recrystallization; molecular dynamics

Registration No. 25852 - Permalink


Modeling tumor control probability for spatially inhomogeneous risk of failure based on clinical outcome data
Lühr, A.; Löck, S.; Jakobi, A.; Stützer, K.; Bandurska-Luque, A.; Vogelius, I. R.; Enghardt, W.; Baumann, M.; Krause, M.
Corresponding author: Lühr, A. DKTK, OncoRay, DKFZ, HZDR
Abstract: Purpose

Objectives of this work are (1) to derive a general clinically relevant approach to model tumor control probability (TCP) for spatially variable risk of failure and (2) to demonstrate its applicability by estimating TCP for patients planned for photon and proton irradiation.
Methods and Materials

The approach divides the target volume into sub-volumes according to retrospectively observed spatial failure patterns. The product of all sub-volume TCPi values reproduces the observed TCP for the total tumor. The derived formalism provides for each target sub-volume i the tumor control dose (D50,i) and slope (γ50,i) parameters at 50% TCPi. For a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) prescription for 45 advanced head and neck cancer patients, TCP values for photon and proton irradiation were calculated and compared. The target volume was divided into gross tumor volume (GTV), surrounding clinical target volume (CTV), and elective CTV (CTVE). The risk of a local failure in each of these sub-volumes was taken from the literature.
Results

Convenient expressions for D50,i and γ50,i were provided for the Poisson and the logistic model. Comparable TCP estimates were obtained for photon and proton plans of the 45 patients using the sub-volume model, despite notably higher dose levels (on average +4.9%) in the low-risk CTVE for photon irradiation. In contrast, assuming a homogeneous dose response in the entire target volume resulted in TCP estimates contradicting clinical experience (the highest failure rate in the low-risk CTVE) and differing substantially between photon and proton irradiation.
Conclusions

The presented method is of practical value for three reasons: It (a) is based on empirical clinical outcome data; (b) can be applied to non-uniform dose prescriptions as well as different tumor entities and dose-response models; and (c) is provided in a convenient compact form. The approach may be utilized to target spatial patterns of local failures observed in patient cohorts by prescribing different doses to different target regions. Its predictive power depends on the uncertainty of the employed established TCP parameters D50 and γ50 and to a smaller extent on that of the clinically observed pattern of failure risk.
Keywords: Radiotherapy, Dose–response modeling, TCP, Inhomogeneous dose, Head and neck cancer, Proton therapy

Registration No. 25851 - Permalink


Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond
Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kačmarčík, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, J.; Szabó, P.; Yuan, H.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.
Corresponding author: Zhang, G. INPAC-Insititute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Heverlee, Belgium
Abstract: Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature Tc ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature TCurie > 400 K. In spite of the high TCurie, our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.
Keywords: anomalous Hall effect; giant positive magnetoresistance; nanodiamond; spin fluctuations; superconductivity and ferromagnetism

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 16.05.2018

Registration No. 25850 - Permalink


Structural and optical properties of Gd implanted GaN with various crystallographic orientations
Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Jagerová, A.; Sofer, Z.; Klímová, K.; Sedmidubský, D.; Pristovsek, M.; Mikulics, M.; Lorinčík, J.; Böttger, R.; Akhmadaliev, S.
Corresponding author: Macková, A. Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic
Abstract: Structure, morphology, and optical properties of Gd implanted GaN epitaxial layers were studied for (0001), (11 − 20), and (11 − 22) orientations. The GaN layers grown by MOVPE on sapphire were subsequently implanted with 200 keV Gd+ ions using fluences of 5 × 1015 and 5 × 1016 cm− 2. Dopant depth profiling was accomplished by Rutherford Back-Scattering spectrometry (RBS). Structural and optical changes during subsequent annealing were characterized by RBS, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurements. Post-implantation annealing induced a structural reorganization of GaN structure in the buried layer depending on the introduced disorder level, i.e. depending on the implantation fluence and on crystallographic orientation. The defect density depth distribution was evaluated by RBS. The surface morphology and optical properties depend on particular crystallographic orientation.
Keywords: GaN implantation; RBS channelling; Optical properties of Gd implanted GaN

Registration No. 25849 - Permalink


Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Processes in Continuous Casting: Results from the LIMMCAST-Project
Timmel, K.ORC; Kratzsch, C.; Asad, A.; Schurmann, D.; Schwarze, R.; Eckert, S.
Corresponding author: Eckert, S.
Abstract: The present paper reports about numerical simulations and model experiments concerned with the fluid flow in the continuous casting process of steel. This work was carried out in the LIMMCAST project in the framework of the Helmholtz alliance LIMTECH. A brief description of the LIMMCAST facilities used for the experimental modeling at HZDR is given here. Ultrasonic and inductive techniques and the X-ray radioscopy were employed for flow measurements or visualizations of two-phase flow regimes occurring in the submerged entry nozzle and the mold. Corresponding numerical simulations were performed at TUBAF taking into account the dimensions and properties of the model experiments. Numerical models were successfully validated using the experimental data base. The reasonable and in many cases excellent agreement of numerical with experimental data allows to extrapolate the models to real casting configurations. Exemplary results will be presented here showing the effect of electromagnetic brakes or electromagnetic stirrers on the flow in the mold or illustrating the properties of two-phase flows resulting from an Ar injection through the stopper rod.
Keywords: LIMTECH-alliance, Continuous Casting, numerical modeling, experimental modeling, liquid metal models, electromagnetic actuators, two-phase flow

Registration No. 25847 - Permalink


Theranostic mercury 197(m)Hg: comparing different Hg/Au separation methods
Wang, C.; Červenák, J.; Walther, M.; Lebeda, O.; Preusche, S.; Pietzsch, H. J.; Steinbach, J.
Abstract: Objectives: The access to no-carrier-added 197(m)Hg for imaging and therapy research based on proton or deuteron irradiation of gold was recently reported1,2. The development of a rapid, reliable method for Hg/Au separation represents an important prerequisite for increasing yields. Ideally would be, a reversible interaction at least of one of the two metal ions, allowing for the product elution into a small volume. Besides the liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl keton (MIBK)1, the solid phase extraction using LN resin (LaNthanides) containing di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid as extractant was examined for this application2.
Methods: The gold target was irradiated for 120 minutes with a 25 µA beam current of 10 MeV protons resulting in 200 MBq of 197(m)Hg or with 15.6 MeV deuteron beam at 7.8 µA beam current for 180 min resulting in ca 800 MBq of of 197(m)Hg (EOB). The irradiated gold foil was dissolved after 1 h in 700 µl of aqua regia (freshly prepared 1 h before EOB from 525 µl 30% HCl + 175 µl 65% HNO3) at room temperature. The column preparation was carried out directly before use by loading 3.6 g LN resin slurried with 10 ml of 6M HCl onto the column and rinsing with additional 30 ml of 6M HCl. After dilution of the 700 µl product solution with 300 µl 6M HCl, this mixture was loaded onto the column and eluted with 6M HCl in 1 ml aliquots.
Results: Comparing with the previously described liquid-liquid extraction1, the solid phase extraction using the LN resin showed shorter performance time. After loading the mixture of chloroauric acid and n.c.a. mercury chloride, the colored gold solution was observed to rapidly distribute in the upper part of the column and then slowly proceeds down during the stepwise elution with 6M HCl. After the addition of 5–6 ml of HCl, the yellow chloroauric acid extended roughly two thirds down the column and almost stopped to move, while over 90% of n.c.a. radiomercury chloride (higher than 60-80% extracted with 4×500 µl MIBK) eluted in the following 2 ml of HCl. The separated 197(m)Hg has excellent radionuclidic purity with no detectable traces of 198Au. It is massively produced in the deuteron activation of gold and acts as a very sensitive tracer of the separation process efficiency.
Conclusions: In contrast to the liquid-liquid extraction, LN resin based method is significantly more efficient and provides product of high radionuclidic purity. Another major advantages compared to the liquid-liquid extraction are obviously 1) better handling and easy automation that shorten the separation time and minimize radiation burden, 2) negligible product losses 3) open possibility to collect and recycle the target material.
  • Poster
    22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, 14.-19.05.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Registration No. 25842 - Permalink


Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics
Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.
Corresponding author: Weier, Tom
Abstract: Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.
Keywords: liquid metal batteries, Tayler instability, metal pad role instability, electro-vortex flows

Registration No. 25841 - Permalink


Strategies for the radiosynthesis of potent fluorinated Nε-acryloyllysines as potential PET tracers for transglutaminase 2
Wodtke, R.; Jäckel, E.; Bauer, D.; Lohse, M.; Wong, A.; Pufe, J.; Ruiz-Gómez, G.; Hauser, C.; Hauser, S.; Steinbach, J.; Teresa Pisabarro, M. T.; Pietsch, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Löser, R.
Corresponding author: Wodtke, Robert
Abstract: Objectives: Various kinds of tumour entities are characterised by increased activity of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2), which contributes to enhanced invasive potential of the tumour cells and their resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Therefore, this enzyme represents an interesting target for the development of PET tracers for functional imaging of tumours. Among the TGase 2 inhibitors described in the literature, Nε-acryloyllysine 1 [1] seems to be most suitable for radiotracer development as this compound exhibits both strong inhibitory potential and selectivity towards human TGase 2. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies by our group revealed some potent fluorinated analogues of 1, of which compounds 2 and 4 were identified as potential candidates for PET tracer development due to their great inhibitory potencies and promising pharmacokinetic properties.
Methods: Reference compounds 2 and 4 as well as the precursor 3 were synthesised in a modular synthetic route. For the radiosynthesis of [18F]2, thienyl and anisyl iodonium salts were envisaged as precursors for prosthetic labelling groups, which were synthesised starting from iodophenylacetates. The fluorination reactions using [18F]F- were performed under various conditions to maximise the radiochemical yield (RCY).
Results: Although a wide range of conditions for radiolabelling of the phenylacetic acid-derived iodonium salts were applied, no incorporation of [18F]F- could be observed. To identify possible reasons for this, the two other regioisomeric phenylacetic acid-derived iodonium salts were synthesised and subjected to labelling with [18F]F-. As a result of these efforts, the CH acidity of the benzylic methylene group was supposed to have a detrimental effect on the labelling reaction. In contrast to this, labelling of precursor 3 was successful with RCYs (non-isolated crude product) of up to 15%. Due to the difficult separation of 3 and [18F]4, the nitro group was reduced to the respective amino group by tin(II) chloride prior to purification by RP-HPLC.
Conclusions: After identifying fluorinated Nε-acryloyllysines as potential PET tracer candidates, strategies for their radiosynthesis were developed. While attempts for the incorporation of fluorine-18 at the non-activated phenylacetic acid moiety revealed inherent structural limitations, labelling at the 2-nitropyridine-derived precursor led to a promising PET tracer candidate.
References:
[1] J. Wityak et al. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 1024-1028

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  • Secondary publication expected from 12.05.2018

Registration No. 25836 - Permalink


Improving Stability of Cathepsin B Endopeptidase Substrates as Potential Cleavage Sites in Activatable Cell-Penetrating Peptides
Kuhne, K.; Behring, L.; Birgit Belter, B.; Wodtke, R.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Löser, R.
Corresponding author: Löser, Reik
Abstract: Objectives: The cysteine protease cathepsin B, whose expression in tumors correlates with increased metastasis, therapy resistance, and a generally poor prognosis, represents an excellent target for molecular imaging using radiotracers [1]. We aim to develop a cathepsin B specific, substrate-based radiotracer derived from poly-d-arginine-based activatable cell penetrating peptides [2]. With in vivo application of peptides being often limited by short biological half-life, stabilization against proteolytic degradation is a key aspect in the development of this agent.
Methods: Octapeptide substrates containing the FRET pair aminobenzoyl/dinitrophenyl (Abz/Dnp) were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis in high purities and good yields, using non-proteinogenic and N-methylated amino acids (AA) for stabilization. All substrates were evaluated for cleavage efficiency by cathepsin B in orientation to [3]. In vitro stability studies were performed in human serum, with analysis by UPLC-ESI-MS, using the UV absorbance of Dnp (λ = 365 nm) for quantification and subsequent ESI-MS analysis for identification of degradation products.
Results: Rapid degradation has been observed for the endopeptidase substrate Abz-Gly-Ile-Val-Arg-Ala-Lys(Dnp)-Gly-Ser-NH2 in the in vitro serum stability assay (T1/2 = 3.7 min), which was due to cleavage at the P1-P1’ cleavage site (Arg-Ala) as indicated by LC-MS analysis. In a first step, arginine was substituted by citrulline to decrease susceptibility to trypsin-like serum proteases, which increased serum stability (T1/2 = 8.9 min). The non-proteinogenic AA homoarginine, homocitrulline and O-carboxybenzylserine are being tested as further potential substitutes for arginine. Secondary cleavage sites, identified at P4-P3 (Gly-Ile) and P2’-P3’ (Lys-Gly), were suppressed by insertion of Nα-methyl-isoleucine and Nα-methyl-glycine.
Conclusions: After the optimization of the endopeptidase substrate with regards to cathepsin B-specific cleavage, substrate stabilization against other proteases is a crucial step to a peptide-based radiotracer. We have demonstrated the potential for stabilization by introduction of citrulline, with further stabilization by insertion of N-methylated and non-proteinogenic amino acids ongoing, which will pave the way to the envisaged substrate-based imaging probes.
References:
1. Löser & Pietzsch, Front. Chem. 2015, 3, 37
2. Jiang et al., PNAS 2004, 101, 17867
3. Cotrin et al., Anal. Biochem. 2004, 335, 244

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  • Secondary publication expected from 12.05.2018

Registration No. 25835 - Permalink


Thermal convection of liquid metal in the titanium reduction reactor
Teimurazov, A.; Frick, P.; Stefani, F.
Corresponding author: Teimurazov, Andrei ICMM Perm, Russia
Abstract: The structure of the convective flow of molten magnesium in a metallothermic titanium reduction reactor has been studied numerically in a three-dimensional non-stationary formulation with conjugated heat transfer between liquid magnesium and solids (steel walls of the cavity and titanium block). A nonuniform computational mesh with a total of 3.7 million grid points was used. The Large Eddy Simulation technique was applied to take into account the turbulence in the liquid phase. The instantaneous and average characteristics of the process and the velocity and temperature pulsation fields are analyzed. The simulations have been performed for three specific heating regimes: with furnace heaters operating at full power, with furnace heaters switched on at the bottom of the vessel only, and with switched-off furnace heaters. It is shown that the localization of the cooling zone can completely reorganize the structure of the large-scale flow. Therefore, by changing heating regimes, it is possible to influence the flow structure for the purpose of creating the most favorable conditions for the reaction. It is also shown that the presence of the titanium block strongly affects the flow structure.

Registration No. 25832 - Permalink


Transitions in a magnetized quasi-laminar spherical Couette flow
Kasprzyk, C.; Kaplan, E.; Seilmayer, M.; Stefani, F.
Corresponding author: Stefani, Frank HZDR
Abstract: First results of a new spherical Couette experiment are presented. The liquid metal flow in a spherical shell is exposed to a homogeneous axial magnetic field. For a Reynolds number Re=1000, we study the effect of increasing Hartmann number Ha. The resulting flow structures are inspected by ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. With a weak applied magnetic field, we observe an equatorially antisymmetric jet instability with the azimuthal wave number m=3. As the magnetic field strength increases, this instability vanishes. When the field is increased further, an equatorially symmetric return flow instability arises. Our observations are shown to be in good agreement with linear stability analysis and non-linear flow simulations.
  • Magnetohydrodynamics 53(2017)2, 393-401

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  • Secondary publication expected from 13.07.2018

Registration No. 25830 - Permalink


Comparison of MLAA-derived attenuation maps with and without utilisation of time-of-flight information in the attenuation estimation step
Nikulin, P.ORC; Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.ORC; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION
As is well known, quantitative combined PET/MR imaging depends on accurate MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC). While a mostly satisfactory state of affairs has been reached today, problems persist regarding segmentation
errors including unsatisfactory bone identification and residual systematic differences in comparison to PET/CT. Alternative or complementary strategies for attenuation correction (AC), therefore, are of considerable relevance. In this context, Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) is one of the most promising approaches. As A. Rezaei et al. have shown [1], Time-Of-Flight (TOF) image reconstruction is required to eliminate possible ”crosstalk” between the estimated activity and attenuation distribution. On the other hand, it is widely believed that use of the TOF information during attenuation estimation does not result in image quality improvement and thus is unnecessary, see for example ref. [2]. However, so far this assumption has never been thoroughly tested. We address this issue in the present investigation. To this end, we have compared TOF and non-TOF versions of the attenuation estimation algorithm as part of MLAA within the framework of our previously developed Tube of response High resolution OSEM Reconstruction (THOR), see ref [3].

METHODS
MLAA is an image reconstruction algorithm, which maximizes the Likelihood function by alternately updating activity distribution and attenuation map. Maximum-Likelihood Estimation-Maximization (MLEM) is normally used for the
activity estimation and Maximum-Likelihood Transmission Reconstruction (MLTR) for the attenuation estimation. In order to investigate the potential impact of using TOF-MLTR instead of nonTOF-MLTR in the MLAA workflow both of them were implemented as a part of our THOR application. List-mode MLEM algorithm was used for activity reconstruction and accelerated by utilizing ordered subsets. For scatter correction (SC), the time-of-flight extension of the Single Scatter Simulation algorithm (SSS) was used, see ref [4]. Attenuation map reconstruction was performed by ordered subsets accelerated list-mode version of MLTR, which is equivalent to the standard sinograms based MLTR in the non-TOF case. For the initial attenuation map estimate the MR-derived outline of the scanned object was uniformly filled with the attenuation coefficient of water. During reconstruction, attenuation map estimates were augmented by a pre-computed template of the patient bed. The main difference between TOF- and nonTOF-MLTR is the way how scatter and randoms corrections are handled. TOF information allows to individually compute this correction for each event (or TOF-bin) depending on event position along the LOR, while this correction is assumed to be the same for all the events within the LOR in the non-TOF algorithm. Consequently, any differences between both MLTR versions should be most pronounced for high contrast objects as is the case, e.g., if the bladder is within the field-of-view. Therefore, two different configurations of the whole body phantom L981602 were used. The phantom in configuration A has two cylindrical air-filled inserts and one cylindrical bone-like insert. This phantom allows to assess accuracy of the attenuation map estimate under low-contrast conditions. The phantom in configuration B comprises a large spherical ”bladder” insert with high target-to-background contrast and a small ”lesion” insert with lower contrast. The attenuation map is uniform in this case, which facilitates detection of scatter-related artifacts in the MLAA reconstructed attenuation image. Transmission scans of the phantoms with the Siemens HR+ scanner were performed and used as ground-truth for the attenuation maps.

RESULTS
The whole body phantom in both configurations was scanned with the Time-Of-Flight capable Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR scanner (TOF resolution (FWHM): ∼600 ps). Acquired data were reconstructed with THOR MLAA and TOF-MLTR and nonTOF-MLTR, respectively. In the case of configuration A (low activity contrast, high attenuation contrast) TOF-MLTR does not improve attenuation coefficients estimate significantly. Reconstructed attenuation values differ by less than 1% for bone and less than 15% for air. The situation is different for configuration B (high activity contrast, homogeneous attenuation). Due to presence of the large hot object in the field-of-view a massive artifact appears in the transaxial plane of the reconstructed attenuation map containing the ”bladder” insert. In the coronal view this artifact appears as a rather large area of apparently reduced attenuation in the middle of the phantom. The difference between the attenuation coefficient of the water background in the central and the peripheral zones depends on the reconstruction method used. Specifically, the use of TOF-MLTR instead of nonTOF-MLTR yields twofold decrease of the artifact. On the other hand, the attenuation coefficient inside the ”bladder” is about 12% higher than the reference value with TOF-MLTR compared to a 6% overestimate with nonTOF-MLTR (where this reduced deviation probably is due to the influence of the mentioned attenuation artifact).

CONCLUSION
Our preliminary results indicate that the use of TOF-MLTR within the MLAA framework provides only small improvements in terms of attenuation map accuracy if activity contrasts are modest. However, it can distinctly decrease scatter related artifacts in the presence of high activity contrast such as is frequently observed in the pelvis region. We hypothesize the advantages of TOF-MLTR will become even more apparent with increasing TOF resolution. A more detailed investigation of the benefits of TOF-MLTR usage within the MLAA workflow is under way.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Rezaei, M. Defrise, G. Bal, C. Michel, M. Conti, C. Watson, and J. Nuyts, “Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation in time-of-flight PET.” IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2224–33, dec 2012.
[2] A. Rezaei and J. Nuyts, “Simultaneous reconstruction of the activity image and registration of the CT image in TOF-PET,” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, vol. 1852, p. 1852, 2016.
[3] A. Lougovski, F. Hofheinz, J. Maus, G. Schramm, E. Will, J. van den Hoff, and J. van den Hoff, “A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 561–577, feb 2014.
[4] C. C. Watson, “Extension of Single Scatter Simulation to Scatter Correction of Time-of-Flight PET,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1679–1686, 2007.
Keywords: PET, TOF-PET, PET/MR, MLAA, MRAC, Attenuation Correction
  • Poster
    PSMR 2017 - 6th Conference on PET-MRI and SPECT-MRI, 29.-31.05.2017, Lisbon, Portugal

Registration No. 25829 - Permalink


Sun - Batteries - Sun
Stefani, F.; Galindo, V.; Giesecke, A.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.
Abstract: Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are presently discussed as cheap means for the storage of wind and solar energy. Among other drivers of undesired fluid motion that could destroy the three-fluids stratification, the Tayler instability (TI) sets some upper limit for the upscalability of LMBs. We present the principles of the TI, its possible effects on LMBs, and some simple ways to suppress it. We focus on the peculiar saturation mechanism of the TI at low magnetic Prandtl numbers, which relies on the change of the hydrodynamic base state. We discuss the recently found helicity oscillations of the m=1 velocity field of the TI which, in turn, might have consequences for stellar dynamo models for which the TI had originally been discussed. We show that these helicity oscillations can be resonantly excited by certain m=2 perturbations which would result, e.g., from planetary tidal forces. It is this high sensitivity of the helicity oscillations that could empower those very weak tidal forces to synchronize the entire solar dynamo.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International workshop on liquid metal battery fluid dynamics (LMBFD 2017), 16.-17.05.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25828 - Permalink


The DRESDYN project: planned experiments and present status
Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Räbiger, D.; Seilmayer, M.; Weier, T.
Abstract: The Dresden sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is a platform for large-scale liquid sodium experiments devoted to fundamental geo- and astrophysical questions as well as to various applied problems related to the conversion and storage of energy. Its most ambitious part is a precession driven dynamo experiment, comprising 8 tons of liquid sodium supposed to rotate with up to 10 Hz and to precess with up to 1 Hz. Another large-scale set-up is a Tayler-Couette experiment with a gap width of 0.2 m and a height of 2 m, whose inner cylinder rotates with up to 20 Hz. Equipped with a coil system for the generation of an axial field of up to 120 mT and two different axial currents through the center and the liquid sodium, this experiment aims at studying various versions of the magnetorotational instability and their combinations with the Tayler instability. We discuss the physical background of these two experiments and delineate the present status of their technical realization. Other installations, such as a sodium loop and a test stand for In-Service-Inspection experiments, will also be sketched.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    88th GAMM Annual Meeting, 06.-10.03.2017, Weimar, Germany

Registration No. 25827 - Permalink


Ultrasound propagation in bond frustrated HgCr2S4 spinel in magnetic fields
Felea, V.; Prodan, L.; Stefanet, E.; Cong, P. T.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Tsurkan, V.
Corresponding author: Tsurkan, V. Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova & Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany
Abstract: Ultrasound and magnetization studies of bond frustrated spinel HgCr2S4 are performed as a function of temperature in static magnetic fields. Beside the anharmonic effect, the sound velocity shows pronounced anomaly at the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at TN = 23 K with an additional significant increase of the order of 0.5 % indicating a strong spin-lattice coupling. External magnetic fields enhance the ferromagnetic (FM) correlations and shift the anomalies to lower temperatures concomitantly with the reduction of the Néel temperature. The constructed H–T Phase diagram beside the long-range AFM states reveals the state with induced FM order and regimes with short-range AFM and FM correlations as well.

Registration No. 25826 - Permalink


Comparison of arterial spin labeling registration strategies in the multi-center GENetic frontotemporal dementia initiative (GENFI)
Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Petr, J.; Thomas, D. L.; de Vita, E.; Cash, D. M.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Golay, X.; Groot, P. F. C.; Ourselin, S.; van Swieten, J.; Laforce, R.; Tagliavini, F.; Borroni, B.; Galimberti, D.; Rowe, J. B.; Graff, C.; D. Pizzini, F. B.; Finger, E.; Sorbi, S.; Castelo Branco, M.; Rohrer, J. D.; Masellis, M.; Macintosh, B. J.
Abstract: Purpose: To compare registration strategies to align arterial spin labeling (ASL) with 3D T1-weighted (T1w) images, with the goal of reducing the between-subject variability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images.
Materials and Methods: Multi-center 3T ASL data were collected at eight sites with four different sequences in the multi-center GENetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative (GENFI) study. In a total of 48 healthy controls, we compared the following image registration options: (I) which images to use for registration (perfusion-weighted images [PWI] to the segmented gray matter (GM) probability map (pGM) (CBF-pGM) or M0 to T1w (M0-T1w); (II) which transformation to use (rigid-body or non-rigid); and (III) whether to mask or not (no masking, M0-based FMRIB software library Brain Extraction Tool [BET] masking). In addition to visual comparison, we quantified image similarity using the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC), and used the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test.Results: CBF-pGM outperformed M0-T1w (CC improvement 47.2% 6 22.0%; P < 0.001), and the non-rigid transformation outperformed rigid-body (20.6% 6 5.3%; P < 0.001). Masking only improved the M0-T1w rigid-body registration (14.5% 6 15.5%; P 5 0.007).
Conclusion: The choice of image registration strategy impacts ASL group analyses. The non-rigid transformation is promising but requires validation. CBF-pGM rigid-body registration without masking can be used as a default strategy.
In patients with expansive perfusion deficits, M0-T1w may outperform CBF-pGM in sequences with high effective spatial resolution. BET-masking only improves M0-T1w registration when the M0 image has sufficient contrast.

Registration No. 25825 - Permalink


Scatter correction in TOF and non-TOF PET image reconstruction in THOR
Nikulin, P.ORC; Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.ORC; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION
As is well known, quantitative combined PET/MR imaging depends on accurate MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC). While a mostly satisfactory state of affairs has been reached today, problems persist regarding segmentation errors including unsatisfactory bone identification and residual systematic differences in comparison to PET/CT. Alternative or complementary strategies for attenuation correction (AC), therefore, are of considerable relevance. In this context, Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) is one of the most promising approaches but, as A. Rezaei et al. have shown [1], Time-Of-Flight (TOF) image reconstruction is then required to eliminate possible ”crosstalks” between the estimated activity and attenuation distribution. We are aiming at implementation of MLAA for the Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR scanner as part of our previously developed Tube of response High resolution OSEM Reconstruction (THOR), see ref [2]. As a prerequisite we are currently modifying THOR to make full use of the available TOF information. The most critical point in this context is accurate and computational efficient TOF Scatter Correction (TOF-SC). Here, we report on our approach to solving this issue and compare TOF-SC techniques with conventional non-TOF SC method.

METHODS
One possible implementation of TOF-SC uses a straight forward extension of Watson’s well-known Single Scatter Simulation (SSS) algorithm [3] but this approach results in about an order of magnitude increase of computational burden compared to standard SSS. Alternatively, one can use standard SSS to estimate the number of scattered events in each Line Of Response (LOR) and use an additional algorithm to estimate the shape of the time distribution of scattered events within each LOR (scatter mask). To integrate TOF-SC into our THOR reconstruction, four different approaches to scatter mask calculation have been investigated:
A. Simple scatter scaling
This approach assumes that scattered and unscattered events have identical time distribution within each single LOR.
B. Attenuation based SC
In this approach the object is modeled as a set of “scatter points” which are generated by SSS. Each scatter point is then also assumed to be a scatter source. For each detector pair and scatter point the geometric path difference from scatter source to both detectors is calculated and an effective position of the scattered event within the corresponding LOR is determined. By repeating this procedure for a large number of scatter points and post-processing the results by smoothing or using a TOF-binning technique one can compute the required scatter mask.
C. Attenuation and activity based SC
While approach B allows to properly handle the shape of the attenuating object it does not take into account the given activity distribution. To fix this issue scatter sources and scatter points should be separated. To do this in a simple and fast way we introduce a small set of “emission points” for approximation of the given activity distribution. The activity distribution/object is then described as superposition of suitable 3D Gaussian distributions around these emission
points. Calculation of the scatter masks is similar to the previous approach, but now scatter sources are determined as projections of emission points onto straight lines connecting selected scatter point and detectors. In this approach the intensity of each source is proportional to the intensity of corresponding emission point and decreases according to a Gaussian as a function of the distance between them.
D. TOF-SSS Time-Of-Flight extension of Single Scatter Simulation by Watson.

RESULTS
All four approaches have been integrated into THOR and tested in dedicated phantom and patient studies. Approach A does not yield quantitatively correct scatter distributions for big objects. Approach B is superior to A but notable artifacts remain in the presence of high-contrast. Approach C is able to eliminate part of these artifacts but requires more computation time. Approach D is the most accurate and computationally most expensive.

CONCLUSION
Our preliminary results indicate that attenuation based SC might be the best compromise between computation time and image quality for a wide range of applications.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Rezaei, M. Defrise, G. Bal, C. Michel, M. Conti, C. Watson, and J. Nuyts, “Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation in time-of-flight PET.” IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2224–33, dec 2012.
[2] A. Lougovski, F. Hofheinz, J. Maus, G. Schramm, E. Will, J. van den Hoff, and J. van den Hoff, “A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 561–577, feb 2014.
[3] C. C. Watson, “Extension of Single Scatter Simulation to Scatter Correction of Time-of-Flight PET,” IEEE Transations on Nuclear Science, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1679–1686, 2007.
Keywords: PET, TOF-PET, Scatter Correction, TOF-SC, Single Scatter Simulation, SSS
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Seminar on PET image reconstruction, 28.-30.09.2016, Leuven, Belgium

Registration No. 25824 - Permalink


Effect of Brain Extraction of Low Resolution Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) Fmri Images on Realignment and Coregistration
Liao, J.; Petr, J.; Lazar, R. M.; Marshall, R. S.; Asllani, I.
Abstract: ASL is an fMRI method that maps cerebral blood (CBF), which is a key parameter of brain physiology. In ASL, flow-weighted images are computed by subtracting a “labeled” image from a contiguously acquired unlabeled control image. The difference is then converted to a CBF image using partial volume (PV) maps obtained from the segmentation of the anatomical T1w image. It follows that the quality of ASL data is dependent on the quality of motion correction and coregistration of the high-resolution T1w image to the low-resolution ASL. We tested whether applying brain-extraction on the low-resolution ASL would improve both these processes. The test was performed on 8 patients with carotid occlusive disease. Improvement in motion realignment was defined as % change averaged over the 6 degrees of freedom and across patients; improvement in coregistration was assessed as a difference in the mutual information (MI) value between the T1w and extracted and original ASL, respectively. There was a noticeable effect of brain extraction on both realignment and coregistration.
Keywords: MR neuroimaging, Brain image analysis, Rigid-body image registration, ASL
  • Contribution to proceedings
    39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 11.-15.07.2017, Jeju Island, Korea
  • Poster
    39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 11.07.2017, Jeju Island, Korea

Registration No. 25823 - Permalink


SUR: a superior alternative to SUV as a surrogate of tumor glucose metabolism
van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Symposium Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 10.01.2017, Leuven, Belgien

Registration No. 25822 - Permalink


Standardised Uptake Ratio (SUR): die robuste Variante des SUV
van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Jahrestagung der Bayrischen Gesellschft für Nuklearmedizin, 01.07.2016, Regensburg, Deutschland

Registration No. 25821 - Permalink


Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries
Stefani, F.
Abstract: The increasing deployment of strongly fluctuating renewable energies requires a corresponding large-scale expansion of electricity storage. Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are presently discussed as a possible route of economical grid-scale energy storage. They consist of two liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt ionic conductor sandwiched between them. The density ratios allow for a stable stratification of the three layers. In the talk, we concentrate on the magnetohydrodynamic aspects of this cell type, with special focus on electro-vortex flows, the sloshing instability, and possible effects of the Tayler instability.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XXth Winter School on Continuous Media Mechanics, 13.-16.02.2017, Perm, Russia

Registration No. 25820 - Permalink


Time efficient scatter correction in Time-Of-Flight PET image reconstruction
Nikulin, P.ORC; Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.ORC; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: Aim
We are currently modifying our previously developed Tube of response High resolution OSEM Reconstruction (THOR), see ref [1], to make full use of the available Time-of-Flight (TOF) information. The most critical point in this context is accurate and computational efficient TOF Scatter Correction (TOF-SC). Here, we report on our approach to solving this issue.

Methods
Four different, partly newly developed approaches to estimation of scatter time distribution have been investigated: A. Simple scatter scaling: this approach assumes that scattered and unscattered events have identical time distribution within each single LOR. B. Attenuation based SC (new approach): in this approach the object is modeled as a set of “scatter points”. Each scatter point is also assumed to be a scatter source. C. Attenuation and activity based SC (new approach): in this approach a small set of “emission points” for approximation of the given activity distribution is introduced. Calculations are similar to B except that scatter sources are determined as projections of emission points onto straight lines connecting selected scatter point and detectors. D. TOF-SSS Time-Of-Flight extension of Single Scatter Simulation by Watson.

Results
All four approaches have been integrated into THOR and tested in dedicated phantom and patient studies. Approach A does not yield quantitatively correct scatter distributions for big objects. Approach B is superior to A but notable artifacts remain in the presence of high-contrast. Approach C is able to eliminate part of these artifacts but requires more computation time. Approach D is the most accurate and computationally most expensive.

Conclusion
Our preliminary results indicate that attenuation based SC might be the best compromise between computation time and image quality for a wide range of applications.

Literature
[1] A. Lougovski, F. Hofheinz, J. Maus, et al., Physics in Medicine
and Biology 59(3), 561 (2014)
Keywords: PET, TOF-PET, Scatter Correction, TOF-SC
  • Poster
    NuklearMedizin 2017, 26.-29.04.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25818 - Permalink


Liquid metal experiments on hydromagnetic dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.
Abstract: The magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies are generated by self-excitation in moving electrically conducting fluids. Magnetic fields play, in turn, an active role in cosmic structure formation by destabilizing rotational flows that would be otherwise hydrodynamically stable. For a long time, both effects had been the subject of purely theoretical investigations. The lecture gives an overview about the recent liquid metal experiments on dynamo action and magnetically triggered instabilities. An outlook on future experiments, including a precession driven dynamo and a large-scale Tayler-Couette experiment to be set-up in the framework of the DRESDYN project, is also given.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XXth Winter School on Continuous Media Mechanics, 13.-16.02.2017, Perm, Russia

Registration No. 25817 - Permalink


Time efficient scatter correction in Time-Of-Flight PET image reconstruction
Nikulin, P.ORC; Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.ORC; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION
As is well known, quantitative combined PET/MR imaging depends on accurate MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC). While a mostly satisfactory state of affairs has been reached today, problems persist regarding segmentation errors including unsatisfactory bone identification and residual systematic differences in comparison to PET/CT. Alternative or complementary strategies for attenuation correction (AC), therefore, are of considerable relevance. In this context, Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) is one of the most promising approaches but, as A. Rezaei et al. have shown [1], Time-Of-Flight (TOF) image reconstruction is then required to eliminate possible ”crosstalks” between the estimated activity and attenuation distribution. We are aiming at implementation of MLAA for the Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR scanner as part of our previously developed Tube of response High resolution OSEM Reconstruction (THOR), see ref [2]. As a prerequisite we are currently modifying THOR to make full use of the available TOF information. The most critical point in this context is accurate and computational efficient TOF Scatter Correction (TOF-SC). Here, we report on our approach to solving this issue.

METHODS
One possible implementation of TOF-SC uses a straight forward extension of Watson’s well-known Single Scatter Simulation (SSS) algorithm [3] but this approach results in about an order of magnitude increase of computational burden compared to standard SSS. Alternatively, one can use standard SSS to estimate the number of scattered events in each Line Of Response (LOR) and use an additional algorithm to estimate the shape of the time distribution of scattered events within each LOR (scatter mask). To integrate TOF-SC into our THOR reconstruction, three different approaches to scatter mask calculation have been investigated which are modifications/improvements of key ideas from article [4]:
A. Simple scatter scaling
This approach assumes that scattered and unscattered events have identical time distribution within each single LOR.
B. Attenuation based SC
In this approach the object is modeled as a set of “scatter points” which are generated by SSS. Each scatter point is then also assumed to be a scatter source. For each detector pair and scatter point the geometric path difference from scatter source to both detectors is calculated and an effective position of the scattered event within the corresponding LOR is determined. By repeating this procedure for a large number of scatter points and post-processing the results by smoothing or using a TOF-binning technique one can compute the required scatter mask.
C. Attenuation and activity based SC
While approach B allows to properly handle the shape of the attenuating object it does not take into account the given activity distribution. To fix this issue scatter sources and scatter points should be separated. To do this in a simple and fast way we introduce a small set of “emission points” for approximation of the given activity distribution. The activity distribution/object is then described as superposition of suitable 3D Gaussian distributions around these emission
points. Calculation of the scatter masks is similar to the previous approach, but now scatter sources are determined as projections of emission points onto straight lines connecting selected scatter point and detectors. In this approach the intensity of each source is proportional to the intensity of corresponding emission point and decreases according to a Gaussian as a function of the distance between them.

RESULTS
All three approaches have been integrated into our THOR reconstruction and tested in phantom and patient studies. Simple scatter scaling (approach A) does not yield quantitatively correct scatter distributions for big objects such as whole body phantoms. Attenuation based SC (approach B) does not have this problem due to proper handling of the object shape, but notable artifacts appear in the presence of high-contrast such as in the pelvis/bladder region. The combined attenuation and activity based algorithm (approach C) is able to eliminate part of the latter artifacts but requires more computation time.

CONCLUSION
Our preliminary results indicate that attenuation based SC might be the best compromise between computation time and image quality for a wide range of applications. A more detailed investigation of the efficiency and accuracy of the implemented TOF-SC methods is currently in progress.

REFERENCES
[1] A. Rezaei, M. Defrise, G. Bal, C. Michel, M. Conti, C. Watson, and J. Nuyts, “Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation in time-of-flight PET.” IEEE transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2224–33, dec 2012.
[2] A. Lougovski, F. Hofheinz, J. Maus, G. Schramm, E. Will, J. van den Hoff, and J. van den Hoff, “A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 561–577, feb 2014.
[3] C. C. Watson, “Extension of Single Scatter Simulation to Scatter Correction of Time-of-Flight PET,” IEEE Transations on Nuclear Science, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1679–1686, 2007.
[4] M. Conti, B. Bendriem, M. Casey, M. Chen, F. Kehren, C. Michel, and V. Panin, “First experimental results of time-of-flight reconstruction on an LSO PET scanner.” Physics in medicine and biology, vol. 50, no. 19, pp. 4507–4526, oct 2005.
Keywords: PET, TOF-PET, Scatter Correction, TOF-SC
  • Lecture (Conference)
    PSMR 2016 - 5th Conference on PET/MR and SPECT/MR, 23.-25.05.2016, Cologne, Germany

Registration No. 25816 - Permalink


DRESDYN: Liquid metal experiments on dynamo action and magnetorotational instability
Gundrum, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.; Steglich, C.
Abstract: We report on two large-scale liquid sodium experiments on precession-driven dynamo action and magnetorotational instability that are planned in the framework of the DRESDYN project.
  • Poster
    Nuclear Astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller, 26.-28.06.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25815 - Permalink


Can planetary tides synchronize the solar dynamo?
Stefani, F.; Galindo, V.; Giesecke, A.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.
Abstract: While the traditional explanation of the Hale cycle of the solar magnetic field relies on intrinsic features of the solar dynamo, we presently witness an increased interest in the question of whether gravitational forces of planets could influence the length and intensity of the cycle. Although tidal forces are usually considered as much too weak to play any role, one should note the large gravitational acceleration at the tachocline that amounts to 500 m/s². This translates the apparently tiny tidal heights of the order of 1 mm to equivalent velocities of 1 m/s. Such velocities, when allowed to coherently develop in the quiet regions of the tachocline, might indeed be relevant for the dynamo.
In our quest for a viable physical mechanism that could link the weak planetary force with solar dynamo action, we focus on the helicity oscillations that were recently found in simulations of the current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability that is characterized by an m=1 azimuthal dependence. We show how these helicity oscillations can be resonantly excited by m=2 perturbations that reflect tidal oscillations. Specifically, we speculate that the 11.07 years tidal oscillation induced by the tidally dominant Venus--Earth--Jupiter system may lead to a 1:1 resonant excitation of the oscillation of the associated alpha-effect. In the framework of a reduced, zero-dimensional alpha-Omega dynamo model, including a weak non-oscillatory and a resonantly excited oscillatory part of alpha, we recover the 22.14-year cycle of the solar dynamo. We finally show that the synchronization model can produce the correct orientation of the butterfly diagram even in case that the product of the non-oscillatory part of alpha with Omega is positive.
  • Poster
    2nd Conference on Natural Dynamos, 25.06.-01.07.2017, Valtice, Czech Republic

Registration No. 25814 - Permalink


Laboratory experiments on dynamo action and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.
Abstract: Magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies are known to be generated by the homogeneous dynamo effect in moving electrically conducting fluids, such as liquid metals or plasmas. Once generated, magnetic fields can foster cosmic structure formation by destabilizing, via the magnetorotational instability (MRI) or the Tayler instability (TI), those rotating flows that would be otherwise hydrodynamically stable. The mutual reinforcement of dynamo action and magnetic instabilities leads to interesting concepts such as the MRI-dynamo or the Tayler-Spruit-dynamo.
For a long time, all these topics had been the subject of purely theoretical and numerical research. This situation changed in 1999 when the threshold of magnetic-field self-excitation was exceeded in the two liquid sodium experiments in Riga and Karlsruhe. Since 2006, the VKS dynamo experiment in Cadarache has successfully reproduced many features of geophysical interest such as reversals and excursions. Further liquid metal experiments in Grenoble, Madison, Maryland, Perm, Princeton, Perm, and Socorro have contributed important findings related to the alpha, beta and Omega effects as well as to various wave phenomena in magnetized rotating fluids. MRI-related research was partly successful with the observation of the helical MRI and the azimuthal MRI at the PROMISE facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). First evidence of the current-driven Tayler instability in a liquid metal was also obtained.
The lecture gives an overview about liquid metal experiments on dynamo action and magnetically triggered flow instabilities. It concludes with an overview about future experiments, with special focus on the precession driven liquid sodium experiment and the large-scale Tayler-Couette experiment that are under construction in the framework of the DRESDYN project at HZDR.The prospects for experimental validation of the recently discussed magnetic destabilization of flows with positive shear are also discussed.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2nd Conference on Natural Dynamos, 25.06.-01.07.2017, Valtice, Czech Republic

Registration No. 25812 - Permalink


Evaluation of hemodynamic impairments in healthy elderly participants and patients with high-grade unilateral carotid artery stenosis
Kaczmarz, S.; Göttler, J.; Griese, V.; Petr, J.; van de Ven, K.; Helle, M.; Kooijman, H.; Kluge, A.; Karampinos, D.; Zimmer, C.; Sorg, C.; Preibisch, C.
Abstract: Internal carotid-artery stenosis (ICAS) causes complex and not yet well understood physiological impairments. We present preliminary data from an ongoing clinical study in ICAS patients and healthy, age-matched participants. The major aims were to evaluate the reliability of a multimodal MRI-protocol and investigate physiological changes. For ICAS patients, regionally impaired vascular-reactivity as well as hypo-perfusion were found. In accordance with literature, we did not find ICAS-induced changes in oxygen extraction on group level. The presented preliminary results thus imply successful application of multimodal MRI methods and are highly promising with respect to gaining a deeper insight into ICAS-related physiological changes.
Keywords: stenosis, ASL, perfusion, MRI
  • Contribution to proceedings
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.-27.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
    Proceedings of the 25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • Lecture (Conference)
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Registration No. 25811 - Permalink


Perfusion decrease during radiochemotherapy is not fully explained by volumetric gray matter changes
Petr, J.; Mutsaerts, H.; Hofheinz, F.; Asllani, I.; van Osch, M.; Platzek, I.; Seidlitz, A.; Krause, M.; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: Radiochemotherapy in brain-tumor patients was shown to cause gray matter (GM) volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes. The interaction of these two effects, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated GM volume and ASL CBF changes and their interaction in the healthy hemisphere of 38 glioblastoma patients undergoing radiochemotherapy with Temozolomide. We found a statistically significant CBF decrease with dependence on the RT-dose. PV-corrected results indicated that, while to a certain extent the apparent CBF decrease measured by ASL is caused by GM atrophy, there still remain significant CBF changes that cannot be explained by structural changes alone.
Keywords: ASL, perfusion, glioblastoma, radiochemotherapy, atrophy, partial volume
  • Contribution to proceedings
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.-27.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
    Proceedings of the 25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • Poster
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Registration No. 25810 - Permalink


Brain volume loss in glioblastoma patients following photon and proton radiochemotherapy
Petr, J.; Hofheinz, F.; Gommlich, A.; Raschke, F.; Troost, E.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Seidlitz, A.; Platzek, I.; Baumann, M.; Krause, M.; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: Gray matter (GM) atrophy in healthy brain tissue following radiochemotherapy was shown in brain-tumor patients in several studies. Here, we aimed to study GM and white matter (WM) changes in glioblastoma patients undergoing photon (n=43) and proton (n=12) radiochemotherapy. In photon-therapy patients, a statistically significant decrease of both GM (~2%) and WM (1.3-2.3%) volume was found with a positive influence of the RT-dose on the GM volume loss. In proton-therapy patients, no significant changes in GM and WM volumes were observed after therapy. This indicates that the proton-therapy has the potential to reduce structural GM changes in healthy tissue.
Keywords: radiochemotherapy, proton therapy, atrophy, morphometrics
  • Contribution to proceedings
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.-27.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
    Brain volume loss in glioblastoma patients following photon and proton radiochemotherapy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    25th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 22.04.2017, Honolulu, Hawaii

Registration No. 25809 - Permalink


Kinetic Modeling
van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: A mathematical description of the time-dependent tissue uptake and tissue clearance after injection of contrast agents or radioactively labeled tracers with suitable models (kinetic modeling) allows a detailed analysis of transport processes and metabolism in vivo. Such an analysis can provide at once quantitative information for several interesting parame- ters such as local blood volume, blood flow, distribution volumes, metabolic rates, binding potentials, and so forth. While the mathematical techniques are – with some reservations – in principle suited for data analysis in other tomographic modalities as well (notably CT and MRI), the broadest field of application is found in PET. We will focus especially on small animal PET in the following.
Keywords: PET, Kinetic Modeling, Small Animal Imaging
  • Book chapter
    Fabian Kiessling, Bernd J. Pichler, Peter Hauff: Small Animal Imaging: Basics and Practical Guide, Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing, 2017, 978-3-319-42200-8, 559-580
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42202-2_21

Registration No. 25808 - Permalink


Synthesis of two new 11C-labelled a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands.
Patt, J.-T.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Peters, D.; Brust, P.; Sabri, O.; Patt, M.
Abstract: Introduction
NS-9011 (4-[5-(4-Methoxy-phenyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-1,4-diaza-bizyclo[3.2.2]nonane) and NS-9030 (4-[5-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-1,4-diaza-the desmethyl precursor compounds with [11C]methyltriflate. The precursor compounds showed a high reactivity towards [11C]iodomethane, unfortunately not in the desired labelling position. In order to decrease the selectivity for the undesired compound(s) [11C]methyltriflate instead of [11C]iodomethane was used. The higher reactivity of the [11C]methyltriflate in combination with elevated temperature of 60 °C and using water as solvent should result in a considerable decrease in selectivity.
Methods
The radiosynthesis was carried out in a modified TracerLab C system (GEMS) equipped with a reaction loop instead of the glass reactor in the heating zone of the module. [11C]iodomethane was subsequently passed over silver triflate at 200 °C and through the reaction loop containing the precursor solution (prepared from 0.5 – 1.0 mg precursor and 30μl of 0.5 M NaOH solution) and 30 μl of water) heated to 60 °C. The reaction mixture was transferred with eluent into a HPLC valve and injected on a ReproSil-Pur 120 C18-Aq 5μ (125 mm x 10 mm) HPLC column. An eluent composed of 10 % Ethanol (NS-9011) or 13 % Ethanol (NS-9030) and buffer solution (40 ml sodium phosphate (Braun) per 1000 ml adjusted to pH 2 with phosphorc acid was used for purification.The product peak was collected, diluted and concentrated on a Phenomenex Strata X cartridge. The radiotracer was eluted with acetone (1.5 ml). Evaporation was performed manually in a heating block (70 °C) in a stream of nitrogen. The product was dissolved in 500 μl of physiological NaCl solution. Radiochemical purity was determined on a radio-HPLC system on a ReproSil-Pur 120 C18-Aq 5μ (250 mm x 4.6 mm) HPLC column.
Results and Discussion
By applying the reaction conditions described above, despite highly favoured competing labelling sites in the precursor molecule up to 0.5 GBq of tracer compound could be synthesized. The product was obtained in high radiochemical purity (>95 %). Comparison of the UV trace of authentic standard compound and the radioactivity signal of radiotracer spiked with standard compound showed a full match of radioactivity and UV signal. The yield was sufficient for first animal experiments and the reaction conditions were not further optimized.
  • Poster
    The 22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS 2017), 14.05.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25803 - Permalink


A clinical trial with (+)-[18F]Flubatine: evaluation of metabolism, plasma protein binding and parameters.
Patt, M.; Mishchenko, O.; Tiepolt, S.; Sattler, B.; Höpping, A.; Smits, R.; Becker, G. A. F.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Steinbach, J.; Brust, P.; Sabri, O.
Abstract: Introduction
(+)-[18F]Flubatine ((+)[18F]NCFHEB), the enantiomer of the recently introduced radioligand for quantificati(-)-[18F]Flubatine, was investigated in a clinical trial with patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy controls. In order to be able to apply full kinetic modelling biological parameters such as plasma protein binding, amount of parent compound over time and distribution between cellular and noncellular blood components, were determined. In addition the kinetics of the tracer distribution between plasma and whole blood was assessed.
Methods
Plasma protein binding was evaluated in vitro by means of ultracentrifugation using a blood sample from each subject prior to injection. The amount of unchanged tracer over time was determined at 11 time points ranging from 3 to 270 min p.i. by radio-HPLC analysis of protein free plasma obtained by centrifugation as described previously. The distribution of radioactivity between cellular and non-cellular blood components was determined at 11 time points p.i. after separation of the blood components by centrifugation.
Results/Discussion
Plasma protein binding of (-)-[18F]Flubatine was found to be 0.140.02 (meansd) without significant difference between AD and HC groups. Metabolic degradation of (+)-[18F]Flubatine was very low: the amount of parent compound was found to be 100 and 972 % at 90 and 270 min p.i., respectively. The activity distribution between plasma and whole blood was found to be 0.820.05 and did not change with time. Kinetics for the distribution of the tracer between plasma and whole blood was determined over a time period of 1.5 h and equilibrium was found to be reached instantaneously.
Conclusions Biological parameters such as plasma protein binding, metabolism and tracer/activity distribution between plasma and whole blood were investigated within a clinical trial using (+)-[1842 subtype of nAChRs. From the biological data obtained within this study we, conclude that (+)-[18F]Flubatine is a very suitable radiotracer for the determination of the 42 nAChRs by kinetic modelling since plasma protein binding is moderate and the equilibrium between whole blood and plasma is reached instantaneously. Furthermore, metabolic degradation of the radiotracer is negligible.
  • Poster
    The 22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS 2017), 14.-19.05.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25802 - Permalink


Superconductivity with broken time-reversal symmetry in ion irradiated Ba0.27K0.73Fe2As2 single crystals
Grinenko, V.; Materne, P.; Sarkar, R.; Luetkens, H.; Kihou, K.; Lee, C. H.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Efremov, D. V.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Klauss, H.-H.
Corresponding author: Grinenko, V. Institute for Solid State Physics, TU Dresden / IFW Dresden, Germany
Abstract: Over the last years a lot of theoretical and experimental efforts have been made to find states with broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS) in multi-band superconductors. In particular, it was theoretically proposed that in the Ba1−xKxFe2As2 system either an s + is or an s + id BTRS state may exist at high doping levels in a narrow region of the phase diagram. Here we report the observation of an enhanced zero field muon spin relaxation rate below the superconducting transition temperature for a high quality crystalline sample with x ≈ 0.73. This indicates that indeed the time reversal symmetry is broken in superconducting Ba1−xKxFe2As2 at this doping level.

Registration No. 25800 - Permalink


Positioning of cobalt atoms in amorphous carbon films by pre-selecting the hydrogen concentration
Gupta, P.; Williams, G. V. M.; Vajandar, S.; Osipowicz, T.; Becker, H.-W.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Leveneur, J.; Kennedy, J.; Markwitz, A.
Corresponding author: Markwitz, A. National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Abstract: Amorphous carbon and hydrogenated amorphous carbon layers were implanted at room temperature with Co ions to investigate the role of hydrogen on the Co distribution. Amorphous carbon (a:C) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a:C-H) films were prepared by mass selective ion beam deposition with a 5 kV acceleration voltage using C+ and C3H6+ ions, respectively. The typically 100 nm thin films were implanted with Co using a 30 kV acceleration voltage to a fluence of 4×1016 cm-2. Raman measurements showed that Co implantation in hydrogenated amorphous carbon causes increased sp2 clustering while in amorphous carbon there is significant rehybridisation of carbon from sp3 to sp2 bonding. High resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements indicated that in the absence of hydrogen in the base matrix, the implantation profile assumes a unimodal distribution as predicted by simulations. However, in the presence of hydrogen the effects of collision cascade enhanced diffusion are significant in altering the implantation profile resulting in a bimodal distribution. The difference in the Co depth distribution between a:C and a:C-H films is explained by the change in thermal conductivity of the carbon matrix in the presence of hydrogen. The ability to position Co (magnetic atoms) in the surface region of diamond-like carbon films offers great advantages for applications in novel magnetic devices.
Keywords: Atomic positioning, Bimodal distribution, Cobalt implantation, Diamond-like carbon, Hydrogen

Registration No. 25794 - Permalink


Bispidine ligands for the potential application in nuclear medicine
Comba, P.; Pietzsch, J.; Rück, K.; Starke, M.; Stephan, H.; Wadepohl, H.
Corresponding author: Comba, P. Universität Heidelberg
Abstract: Objectives
An important part of radiopharmaceuticals containing radiometals is the so-called bifunctional chelator (BFC). Bispidine ligands (3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) (see Figure 1) developed in the Comba group are perfectly suited BFCs for the application in nuclear medicine. Due to their preorganisation and rigidity of the backbone with the donor atoms N3 and N7 they generally form complexes fastly and with high stability.[1]
Methods
By choosing suitable moieties at position R1 and R2 and by fine tuning of the pyridyl groups at C2 and C4,[2] bispidines can be tailored for the complexation of many different metal ions. Coupling to vector entities is performed at the ester groups at C1/5 or the hydroxyl group at C9.[3-4] One of the applications for bispidine ligands is 64CuII PET imaging (positron emission tomography).[3,5] We design bispidine ligand systems for PET and evaluate their potential in radiolabeling experiments and stability studies.
Results
First in vitro and in vivo studies show the high potential of the bispidine chelators for PET application.[3] The hexadentate ligands N2Py4, N2Py3Pdz and the isomers Hbispa1a/b with pyridyl, pyridazyl or picolinic acid groups at R1 and/or R2 (see Figure 1) are promising BFCs for 64CuII PET imaging.[6-7]
Conclusions
The hexadentate ligands shown in Figure 1 and derivatives are further investigated regarding the application in nuclear medicine.
References
[1] P. Comba, M. Kerscher, W. Schiek, Prog Inorg Chem 2007, 55, 613-704.
[2] P. Comba, S. Hunoldt, M. Morgen, J. Pietzsch, H. Stephan, H. Wadepohl, Inorg Chem 2013, 52, 8131-8143.
[3] S. Juran, M. Walther, H. Stephan, R. Bergmann, J. Steinbach, W. Kraus, F. Emmerling, P. Comba, Bioconjugate Chem 2009, 20, 347-359.
[4] H. Stephan, M. Walther, S. Fahnemann, P. Ceroni, J. K. Molloy, G. Bergamini, F. Heisig, C. E. Muller, W. Kraus, P. Comba, Chem-Eur J 2014, 20, 17011-17018.
[5] A. Roux, A. M. Nonat, J. Brandel, V. Hubscher-Bruder, L. J. Charbonniere, Inorg Chem 2015, 54, 4431-4444.
[6] C. Bleiholder, H. Borzel, P. Comba, R. Ferrari, M. Heydt, M. Kerscher, S. Kuwata, G. Laurenczy, G. A. Lawrance, A. Lienke, B. Martin, M. Merz, B. Nuber, H. Pritzkow, Inorg Chem 2005, 44, 8145-8155.
[7] P. Comba, L. Grimm, C. Orvig, K. Rück, H. Wadepohl, Inorg Chem 2016, manuscript accepted.
  • Poster
    22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, 14.-19.05.2017, Dresden, Germany
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 60(2017)Suppl 1, S500
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3508

Registration No. 25791 - Permalink


TACN Ligands – A journey through radiopharmaceutical applications
Stephan, H.; Graham, B.; Spiccia, L.
Abstract: The design of tailor-made bifunctional copper radionuclide-complexing agents for nuclear medical application as well as acquisition of reliable information about the biodistribution of different materials represents an intensive and rapidly developing field of research. In this context, the tridentate macrocycle 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) is of special interest since it forms stable complexes with Cu(II) and the ligand structure can be easily modified. The introduction of further donor groups on the ligand scaffold, such as pyridine units, significantly enhances the thermodynamic stability as well as the kinetic inertness of the Cu(II) complexes formed. TACN ligands containing one or two pendant 2-picolyl arms prefer the formation of square-pyramidal coordination geometry with Cu(II). A hexadentate ligand with two picoline coordination groups as well as a carboxylic functionality, 2-[4,7-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl]acetic acid (DMPTACN-COOH), enforces a six-coordinate, distorted octahedral structure. DMPTACN-based ligands rapidly chelate copper(II) radionuclides under ambient conditions and the resulting complexes show high in vivo stability. The carboxylic acid group in DMPTACN-COOH allows for the ready introduction of linker groups, such as maleimide or isothiocyanate, thereby facilitating coupling of targeting molecules and bio(nano)materials.

Examples of target-specific peptides and bio(nano)materials equipped with DMPTACN ligands for labeling with 64Cu as an ideal positron emitter are discussed. This enables tumor imaging and the biodistribution of the materials to be studied over a period of days via positron emission tomography (PET).
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    6th Asian Conference on Coordination Chemistry, 24.-28.07.2017, Melbourne, Australia

Registration No. 25784 - Permalink


Optical Synchronization and Electron Bunch Diagnostic at ELBE
Kuntzsch, M.
Abstract: The talk summarizes the activities at ELBE in the fields of optical synchronization and electron bunch diagnostic.
Keywords: Optical Synchronization Diagnostic ELBE
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Graduiertenkolleg "Accelence", 06.07.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Registration No. 25781 - Permalink


DFO* - An Improved Chelating System for 89Zr-Immuno-PET Applications
Briand, M.; Zarschler, K.; Vugts, D.; Stephan, H.; Steinbach, J.; Gasser, G.; Mindt, T.
Abstract: Objectives
The potential of 89Zr-labelled antibodies as diagnostic probes for 89Zr-immuno-PET has been demonstrated by a number of clinical trials.[1] The only chelator used thus far in the clinic is the siderophore desferrioxamine (DFO). However, DFO does not satisfy the preferred ocatadentate coordination of zirconium-89, which results in vivo into unspecific uptake of the radiometal in, e.g., the bones. This can interfere with the detection of bone metastases and leads to additional radiation dose to non-targeted tissue.
We have previously reported the development of an extended, octadentate version of DFO, termed DFO*,[2] which provides complexes with [89Zr]Zr4+ of remarkably increased stability in vitro and in vivo. [2, 3] DFO* and derivatives thereof already fulfil a number of prerequisites to become a new standard chelator for zirconium-89; however, its solubility could be improved to facilitate further its application in conjugation chemistry. We here wish to report our efforts in developing novel DFO* derivatives which display an improved water solubility.

Methods
Based on the DFO* scaffold, new derivatives containing pharmacological modifiers to improve the water solubility were synthesized. In addition, different functional groups for bioconjugation chemistry were included. LogP values of the novel bifunctional chelating agents were determined by HPLC. First bioconjugations and radiolabelling experiments with 89Zr were performed according to published procedures. [1,3]

Results
All new derivatives exhibited an increased hydrophilicity and thus, enhanced water solubility in comparison to the original DFO* (as well as DFO) system. Preliminary results on their reactivity in bioconjugations, capability of 89Zr-complexation, and stability of radiometal complexes will be reported.

Conclusions
Structural modifications provided novel derivatives of DFO* with improved water solubility which could facilitate their application in bioconjugation chemistry for the 89Zr-labelling of delicate proteins under aqueous (e.g., organic solvent free) reaction conditions.

Acknowledgements
This work is supported by the Swiss National Sciences Foundation (grant N° 205321–157216).

References
[1] G.A.M.S. Van Dongen, M.C. Huisman, R. Boellaard et al. Q. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2015, 59, 18-38
[2] M. Patra, A. Bauman, C. Mari et al. Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 11523-11525
[3] D. Vugts, C. Klaver, C. Sewing et al. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Im. 2016, doi:10.1007/s00259-016-3499-x S394: Poster 22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences
  • Poster
    22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS 2017), 14.-19.05.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Registration No. 25778 - Permalink


Biasing in MC transport calculations
Müller, S. E.ORC
Abstract: The method of biasing in radiation transport simulations is described.
Keywords: Radiation transport, variance reduction, biasing, simulation
  • Lecture (others)
    Mu2e software and simulations workshop, 21.06.2017, Batavia, USA

Registration No. 25771 - Permalink


The use of FLUKA in the Mu2e experiment
Müller, S. E.ORC
Abstract: The use of FLUKA in the mu2e experiment
Keywords: FLUKA, mu2e
  • Lecture (others)
    Mu2e Sotware and Simulation Meeting, 07.06.2017, Batavia, USA

Registration No. 25770 - Permalink


Preliminary combination of the KLOE08, KLOE10 KLOE12 ISR measurements
Keshavarzi, A.; Müller, S. E.ORC; Teubner, T.; Venanzoni, G.
Abstract: Preliminary combination of the KLOE08, KLOE10 KLOE12 ISR measurements
Keywords: KLOE, g-2, hadronic contribution
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    First Workshop of the muon g-2 Theory Initiative, 04.06.2017, St. Charles, USA

Registration No. 25768 - Permalink


Irradiation study of UV Silicon Photomultipliers for the Mu2e calorimeter
Baccaro, S.; Cemmi, A.; Cordelli, M.; Diociaiuti, E.; Donghia, R.; Ferrari, A.; Giovannella, S.; Loreti, S.; Miscetti, S.; Müller, S.; Pillon, M.; Sarra, I.
Abstract: The Mu2e calorimeter is composed of 1400 un-doped CsI crystals, coupled to large area UV extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), arranged in two annular disks. This calorimeter has to provide precise information on energy, timing and position resolutions. It should also be fast enough to handle the high rate background and it must operate and survive in the high radiation environment. Simulation studies estimated that, in the highest irradiated regions, each photo-sensor will absorb a dose of 20 krad and will be exposed to a neutron fluency of 5.5E11 n(1MeV)/cm2 in three years of running, with a safety factor of 3 included. At the end of 2015, we have concluded an irradiation campaign at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG, Frascati, Italy) measuring the response of two different 16 array models from Hamamatsu, which differ for the protection windows and a SiPM from FBK. In 2016, we have carried out two additional irradiation campaigns with neutrons and photons at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR, Dresden, Germany) and at the Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ENEA-Casaccia, respectively. A negligible increment of the leakage current and no gain change have been observed with the dose irradiation. On the other hand, at the end of the neutron irradiation, the gain does not show large changes whilst the leakage current increases by around a factor of 2000. In these conditions, the too high leakage current makes problematic to bias the SiPMs, thus requiring to cool them down to a running temperature of ~0 C.
Keywords: Calorimeters; Photon detectors for UV, visible and IR photons (solid-state) (PIN diodes, APDs, Si-PMTs, G-APDs, CCDs, EBCCDs, EMCCDs etc)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th topical seminar on Innovative Particle and Radiation Detectors, 03.-06.10.2016, Siena, Italy

Registration No. 25767 - Permalink


Energy Transfer Kinetics in Photosynthesis as an Inspiration for Improving Organic Solar Cells
Nganou, C.; Lackner, G.; Teschome, B.; Deen, M. J.; Adir, N.; Pouhe, D.; Lupascu, D. C.; Mkandawire, M.
Corresponding author: Mkandawire, M. Verschuren Centre for Sustainability in Energy and the Environment, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS, Canada
Abstract: Clues to designing highly efficient organic solar cells may lie in understanding the architecture of light-harvesting systems and exciton energy transfer (EET) processes in very efficient photosynthetic organisms. Here, we compare the kinetics of excitation energy tunnelling from the intact phycobilisome (PBS) light-harvesting antenna system to the reaction center in photosystem II in intact cells of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina with the charge transfer after conversion of photons into photocurrent in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (va-CNT) organic solar cells with poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) as the pigment. We find that the kinetics in electron hole creation following excitation at 600 nm in both PBS and va-CNT solar cells to be 450 and 500 fs, respectively. The EET process has a 3 and 14 ps pathway in the PBS, while in va-CNT solar cell devices, the charge trapping in the CNT takes 11 and 258 ps. We show that the main hindrance to efficiency of va-CNT organic solar cells is the slow migration of the charges after exciton formation.
Keywords: Acaryochloris marina carbon nanotubes chromophore exciton photosynthesis photovoltaic polarons solar energy conversion

Registration No. 25765 - Permalink


Liquid metal based magnetic cooling: velocity measurements
Lei, Z.; Raebiger, D.; Eckert, S.; Eckert, K.ORC
Corresponding author: Lei, Z.
Abstract: Heat transfer enhancement in a segment of the active magnetic regenerator (AMR), consisting of a magnetocaloric material (Gadolinium) and a heat transfer fluid in between, which is periodically magnetized and demagnetized, is investigated in this work. After giving a brief account on how magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection can be used to enhance the heat transfer from flat plate gadolinium toward the heat transfer fluid we apply two different techniques for MHD flow generation. In the first approach, an electric current I was injected into an electrically conducting, aqueous heat transfer fluid (NaOH). A heat transfer enhancement of about 40% (I=3mA) was found by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In the second approach, a liquid metal (GaInSn) was used which is potentially an interesting candidate for a heat transfer fluid in an AMR operating with high cycling frequency. Velocity measurements by means of ultrasound doppler velocimetry with a quasi uniform static magnetic field (220mT) in the gadolinium channel are presented.
  • Magnetohydrodynamics 53(2017)2, 403-410

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  • Secondary publication expected from 10.07.2018

Registration No. 25761 - Permalink


Laser spectroscopy measurement of the 2s-hyperfinesplitting in lithium-like bismuth
Sánchez, R.; Lochmann, M.; Jöhren, R.; Andelkovic, Z.; Anielski, D.; Botermann, B.; Bussmann, M.; Dax, A.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Hammen, M.; Hannen, V.; Kuehl, T.; Litvinov, Y.; Coto, R. L.; Stoehlker, T.; Thompson, R.; Vollbrecht, J.; Wen, W.; Weinheimer, C.; Will, E.; Winters, D.; Noertershaeuser, W.
Corresponding author: Sánchez, R.
Abstract: We have recently reported on the first direct measurement of the 2s hyperfine transition in lithium-like bismuth (209Bi80+) at the GSI Helmholtz Centrefor Heavy Ion Research (GmbH) in Darmstadt, Germany. Combined with a newmeasurement of the 1s hyperfine splitting in hydrogen-like (209Bi82+) the so-called specific difference Δ’E = -61.37(36) meV could be determined and was found to bein good agreement with its prediction from strong-field bound-state QED. Here wereport on additional investigations performed to estimate systematic uncertainties of these results and on details of the experimental setup. We show that the dominating uncertainty arises from insufficient knowledge of the ion beam velocity which is determined by the electron-cooler (voltage). Two routes to obtain a cooler-voltage calibration are discussed and it is shown that agreement can be reached either of the experimental Δ’E with the theoretical result, or between the two measurements of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen-like bismuth, but not both at the same time.
Keywords: qed, spectroscopy, bismuth, hyperfine, lithium-like, storage ring, laser

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  • Secondary publication expected from 29.03.2018

Registration No. 25756 - Permalink


Structure and energetics of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in bcc Fe
Vallinayagam, M.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Abstract: Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys (NFA) are considered as promising candidates for the structural materials of future fusion and fission reactors [1]. They consist of a ferritic or ferritic/martensitic Fe-Cr matrix with a high dispersion of nanometer size yttria-based oxide particles. In this research project (started in November 2016) the nature of nanometer-size yttria-based oxide clusters in a bcc Fe matrix are investigated by DFT calculations. The main goal of these studies is the better understanding of the nucleation as well as the structure and composition of the nanoclusters.
The investigations shall clarify the conditions for the formation of nonstoichiometric clusters that are coherent with the bcc lattice and for the formation of oxide phases (in particular Y2O3 and Y2Ti2O7). Three models are considered: (i) clusters consisting of Y, Ti atoms on bcc lattice sites and O on octahedral site [2-4], termed as On-Lattice (OL) model, (ii) cluster consisting of parts of the bixbyite (Y2O3) or pyrochlore (Y2Ti2O7) structure embedded in bcc Fe [5] termed as Structure Matching (SM) model, and (iii) substituting O also on Fe site, termed as OFe model. In all cases vacancies are introduced into the simulation cell in order to provide additional volume for O atoms. We studied clusters of different sizes in the framework of the three models. Our results show that all three models lead to almost the same energy for considered cluster configurations. This revises the statement of Barnard et al. [5] who claimed that clusters with SM configuration are generally favored energetically.
[1] G. R. Odette, JOM-J. Min. Met. Mat. S. 66, 2427 (2014)
[2] D. Murali, B.K. Panigrahi, M.C. Valsakumar, S. Chandra, C.S. Sundar, B. Raj, J. Nucl. Mater. 403,
113 (2010)
[3] A. Claisse, P. Olsson, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 303, 18 (2013)
[4] M. Posselt, D. Murali, B. K. Panigrahi, Model. Simul. Mater. Sc. 22, 085003 (2014)
[5] L. Barnard, G. R. Odette, I. Szlufarska, D. Morgan. Acta Mater. 60 (2012) 935 (2012)
Keywords: DFT, Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in bcc-Fe, structure and energetics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Workshop on ODS materials, 26.-28.06.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25755 - Permalink


Influence of foreign atoms on the diffusion of oxygen in bcc Fe
Wang, X.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Abstract: Iron-based ferritic alloys are widely used in industrial applications. They contain varying concentrations of foreign atoms or solutes, most of which are purposely included in order to improve the mechanical properties, the corrosion and radiation resistance as well as the high-temperature stability. The diffusion of the solutes plays a crucial role in determining all these properties during fabrication and processing, and also influences the behavior of the materials in the various applications. In many cases the diffusion proceeds via bcc lattice sites by means of intrinsic point defects, i.e. vacancies and self-interstitial atoms, and in some cases via interstitial sites. Solute diffusion determines the micro- and nanostructure obtained after heat treatments, and the detailed knowledge of the atomistic diffusion mechanisms is necessary to obtain the desired properties. Moreover, micro- and nanostructure evolution under irradiation is controlled by atomic diffusion.
In this research project (started in September 2016) the diffusion of foreign atoms in bcc Fe shall be investigated by first-principle methods and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The focus of the present work is on the diffusion of oxygen under the influence of other foreign atoms such as Al, Cr, Ti, and Y. Oxygen plays an important role in the formation and evolution of a high dispersion of nanometer-size particles containing Y, Ti, and O in ODS steels which are considered as promising candidates for structural materials of future fusion and fission reactors [1]. The presence of foreign atoms and intrinsic point defects modifies the original migration path of oxygen [2-4]. Using DFT calculations the binding energy between oxygen and a foreign atom for different neighbor distances and the modified migration barriers, i.e. for the O jump between the first and the second neighbor of a foreign atom, etc are calculated.
[1] G. R. Odette, JOM-J. Min. Met. Mat. S. 66, 2427 (2014)
[2] S.L. Shang, H.Z. Fang, J. Wang, C.P. Guo, Y. Wang, P.D. Jablonski, Y. Du, Z.K. Liu, Corrosion
Sci. 83, 94 (2014)
[3] P. Liu, W. Xing, X. Cheng, D. Li, Y. Li, X.-Q. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 90, 024103 (2014)
[4] C. Barouh, T. Schuler, C.-C. Fu, T. Jourdan, Phys. Rev. B 92, 104102 (2015)
Keywords: DFT, diffusion of oxygen in bcc-Fe
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Workshop on ODS materials, 26.-28.06.2017, Dresden, Germany

Registration No. 25754 - Permalink


Simulations of a precession driven flow in a cylindrical cavity
Giesecke, A.; Vogt, T.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Herault, J.
Abstract: The project DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies) conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) provides a new platform for a variety of liquid sodium experiments devoted to problems of geo- and astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics [1]. The most ambitious experiment will be a dynamo experiment which consists of a large precessing cylindrical cavity filled with liquid sodium. The experiment is motivated by the idea of a precession-driven flow as a complementary energy source for the geodynamo [2] or the ancient lunar dynamo [3].

Our presentation addresses corresponding hydrodynamic simulations that provide characteristic properties of the precession-driven flow such as amplitudes or helicity and their implications for the dynamo effect. Our results show that the primary response of the fluid to the precession is an azimuthally rotating inertial wave, called Kelvin mode [4]. Increasing the precession ratio the fundamental Kelvin mode becomes unstable which goes along with the emergence of two free inertial waves due to a parametric resonance caused by the periodic perturbation of the primary flow [5]. The free inertial waves only exist within a narrow range of rather small precession ratios because increasing non-linear interactions give rise to the formation of an azimuthal circulation flow which alters the resonance condition (detuning effect) [6].

For large precession ratios, instead, we find a clear signature of Kelvin modes with the frequency of the forcing and higher azimuthal and/or axial wave numbers. In the turntable frame these Kelvin modes correspond to standing inertial waves that are caused by non-linear self-interaction of the fundamental forced mode. The contributions of these modes provide a breaking of the parity with respect to the equatorial plane which has proven to be beneficial for dynamo action [7].

Further considerations on the dynamo-ability of the precession driven flow require larger Reynolds numbers which are numerically no longer accessible. Therefore, they have to be based solely on data from the downscaled water experiment that currently is running at HZDR in preparation for the large liquid sodium facility (see contribution of T. Vogt). Comparisons of our simulations with experimental data from Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) measurements at similar Reynolds number show a surprisingly good consistency thus providing a basis for the development of flow models at larger Reynolds numbers for future kinematic dynamo models.

[1] Stefani, F. et al., Magnetohydrodynamics, 48 (1), 103--114, 2012.
[2] Malkus, W. V. R., Science, 160, 259--264, 1968.
[3] Noir, J., and D. C{\'e}bron, J. Fluids Mech., 737, 412--439, 2013.
[4] Thomson W, Phil. Mag. J. Sci. 10 (61), 155--168, 1880.
[5] Kerswell, R. R., J. Fluids Mech., 382, 283--306, 1999.
[6] Herault, J. et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids, in preparation, 2017.
[7] Tilgner, A., Phys. Fluids, 17 (3), 034, 104, 2005.
Keywords: Dynamo DRESDYN precession
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Natural Dynamos, 26.-30.06.2017, Valtice, Tschechien

Registration No. 25753 - Permalink


Solvent extraction: fundamental equilibrium studies of neodymium and DEHPA
Scharf, C.; Ditze, A.
Abstract: This article presents equilibrium studies into the NdCl3–HCl (or NaOH)–H2O–DEHPA (di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid)–kerosene system. The system plays a role in solvent extraction of rare earth elements from aqueous chloride solutions. Thereby neodymium is transferred into the organic phase consisting of DEHPA solved in kerosene. Measurements were taken at DEHPA concentrations between 1 and 40 vol.% and at concentrations of neodymium which prevent a gelatinous organic phase. Results are presented in tables. Three charts of process variables were evaluated which, under the assumption of ideal behaviour, should lead to slopes of 3 in double logarithmic scale in all three cases. Since the actual slopes of measured variables were 2.4, 2.5 and 3.8, ideal behaviour is only a first approximation, and non-ideal aspects need to be further studied. The plot of percentage extraction versus pH shows that neodymium is completely extracted at pH values above 1.
Keywords: solvent extraction / equilibrium system / neodymium / DEHPA / law of mass action

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Registration No. 25749 - Permalink


Experimental analysis of Taylor bubble behavior and mass transfer during lateral oscillation of a vertical milli-channel
Haghnegahdar, M.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.
Corresponding author: Haghnegahdar, Mohammadreza Institute of Fluid Dynamics
Abstract: In this paper, we report on an experimental study on the influence of low-frequency horizontal vibration of a vertical millimeter-size channel with Taylor bubbles. We investigated the motion, shape and dissolution rate of individual elongated Taylor bubbles of air and CO2, which were freely rising in stationary water. Bubble size and dissolution rate were determined from microfocus X-ray radiographs. From the shrinking rate we calculated the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient. The rise velocity of bubbles and surface wave motion were analyzed using a videometric technique. The comparison of the results for the stationary and the oscillating channel showed that mechanical vibration of the channel is able to enhance the mass transfer coefficient from gas to the liquid phase by 80% to 186%, depending on the frequency and amplitude of vibration. It was found that channel oscillation causes the increase of free rise velocity of bubbles which is mainly attributed to the development of propelling interfacial waves and increase of liquid film flow rate. Furthermore, analyzing the surface wave motion of bubbles revealed that the enlargement of contact area between the phases and the increased mixing enhances the mass transfer additionally up to 30% compared to non-agitated bubbles of similar Peclet number.
Keywords: Vibration; Milli-channels; Mass transfer; Taylor bubble; Carbon dioxide

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  • Secondary publication expected from 23.05.2018

Registration No. 25746 - Permalink


Combining dynamic modelling codes with medium energy ion scattering measurements to characterise plasma doping
England, J.; Möller, W.; van den Berg, J. A.; Rossall, A.; Min, W. J.; Kim, J.
Corresponding author: England, J. Varian Semiconductor Equipment, Silicon Systems Group, Applied Materials Inc., USA
Abstract: Plasma doping ion implantation (PLAD) is becoming increasingly important in the manufacture of advanced semiconductor device structures but a fundamental understanding of PLAD is complicated. A model of PLAD into planar substrates has been constructed using the one dimensional computer code TRIDYN to predict collision cascades and hence substrate compositional changes during implantation. Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) measurements of dopant profiles in PLAD processed samples were used to calibrate the input ion and neutral fluxes to the model. Rules could then be proposed for how post implant profiles should be modified by a cleaning step. This learning was applied to a three dimensional TRI3DYN based model for PLAD implants into FinFET like structures. Comparison of the model to dopant profile measurements made by time of flight (TOF)-MEIS revealed the angular distributions of neutral species and doping mechanisms acting in three dimensional structures.
Keywords: FinFET, Ion beam modelling, Ion-Implantation, PLAD, Plasma Doping, TRI3DYN, TRIDYN

Registration No. 25743 - Permalink


Roughness-induced domain structure in perpendicular Co/Ni multilayers
Lee-Hone, N. R.; Thanhoffer, R.; Neu, V.; Schäfer, R.; Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Broun, D. M.; Girt, E.
Corresponding author: Lee-Hone, N. R. Simon Fraser University
Abstract: We investigate the correlation between roughness, remanence and coercivity in Co/Ni films grown on Cu seed layers of varying thickness. Increasing the Cu seed layer thickness of Ta/Cu/8×[Co/Ni] thin films increases the roughness of the films. In-plane magnetization loops show that both the remanence and coercivity increase with increasing seed layer roughness. Polar Kerr microscopy and magnetic force microscopy reveal that the domain density also increases with roughness. Finite element micromagnetic simulations performed on structures with periodically modulated surfaces provide further insight. They confirm the connection between domain density and roughness, and identify the microsocpic structure of the domain walls as the source of the increased remanence in rough films. The simulations predict that the character of the domain walls changes from Bloch-like in smooth films to Néel-like for rougher films
Keywords: Domain density, Domain structure, In-plane magnetization, Micromagnetic simulations, Modulated surfaces, Polar-Kerr, Seed layer thickness, Varying thickness

Registration No. 25741 - Permalink


Impact of Self-Trapped Excitons on Blue Photoluminescence in TiO2 Nanorods on Chemically Etched Si Pyramids
Saini, C. P.; Barman, A.; Banerjee, D.; Grynko, O.; Prucnal, S.; Gupta, M.; Phase, D. M.; Sinha, A. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Skorupa, W.; Kanjilal, A.
Corresponding author: Prucnal, Slawomir
Abstract: Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of titanium oxide (TiO2) shows an evolution of blue emission when exposed to 50 keV At+ ions. The origin of observed PL has been examined by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) at Ti-K,L and O-K edges, revealing the reduction of ligand field splitting owing to the formation of oxygen vacancies (OVs) by destroying TiO6 octahedral symmetry. Detailed PL and XANES analyses suggest that the fluence (ions/cm(2)) dependent increase in OVs not only boosts the conduction electrons but also increases the density of holes in localized self-trapped exciton (STE) states near the valence band. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which doped conduction electrons are recombining radiatively with the holes in STE states for blue light emission.
Keywords: titanium oxide, ion implantation, photoluminescence, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, oxygen vacancy, localized self-trapped exciton

Registration No. 25740 - Permalink


High-field ESR in low-D spin systems
Zvyagin, S.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    L. A. Prozorova Workshop on Spin Dynamics, 17.-18.05.2017, Moscow, Russia

Registration No. 25739 - Permalink


The determination of the fast neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) at nELBE
Kögler, T.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Müller, S. E.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.
Abstract: The fast neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu was determined in the range of 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV relative to 235U(n,f) at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE. The number of target nuclei was calculated by means of measuring the spontaneous fission rate of 242Pu. Neutron transport simulations with Geant 4 and MCNP 6 are used to correct the relative cross section for neutron scattering. The determined results are in good agreement with current experimental and evaluated data sets.
Keywords: neutron-induced fission cross section, neutron scattering corrections, fast neutrons, nELBE
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Scientific Workshop on Nuclear Fission dynamics and the Emission of Prompt Neutrons and Gamma Rays, 19.-23.06.2017, Varna, Bulgaria

Registration No. 25737 - Permalink


Enhancement of superconductivity in FeSe thin crystals induced by biaxial compressive strain
Wang, X. F.; Zhang, Z. T.; Wang, W. K.; Zhou, Y. H.; Kan, X. C.; Chen, X. L.; Gu, C. C.; Zhang, L.; Pi, L.; Yang, Z. R.; Zhang, Y. H.
Corresponding author: Wang, X. F. High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract: We report on the enhancement of superconductivity in FeSe thin crystals induced by in-plane biaxial compressive strain, with an underlying scotch tape as an in-situ strain generator. It is found that, due to the compressive strain, the superconducting transition temperature Tc ≈ 9 K of FeSe is increased by 30%–40% and the upper critical field Hc2(0) ≈ 14.8 T is increased by ∼ 20%. In parallel, the T*, which characterizes an onset of enhanced spin fluctuations, is raised up from 69 K to 87 K. On the other hand, the structural transition temperature Ts ≈ 94 K, below which an orthorhombic structure and an electronic nematic phase settle in, is suppressed down by ∼ 5 K. These findings reveal clear evolutions of the orders/fluctuations under strain effect in FeSe, the structurally simplest iron-based superconductor where the lattice/spin/charge degrees of freedom are closely coupled to one another. Moreover, the presented research provides a simple and clean way to manipulate the superconductivity in the layered iron compounds and may promote applications in related materials. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Biaxial compressive strains; FeSe; Superconductivity

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Registration No. 25736 - Permalink


Ultrasonic Study on the Hexagonal Antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12
Ishii, I.; Takezawa, K.; Goto, H.; Kamikawa, S.; Andreev, A. V.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Suzuki, T.
Corresponding author: Ishii, I. Department of Quantum Matter, ADSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
Abstract: In the distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12 with TN = 7 K, a crystal electric field (CEF) effect is expected at high temperatures. To investigate the CEF effect and the phase transition at TN, we performed ultrasonic measurements on a single-crystalline sample. At high temperatures, both the longitudinal elastic modulus C11 and the transverse modulus C44 increase monotonically with decreasing temperature. Below 60 K a characteristic elastic softening is observed in C44 in contrast to C11 with monotonic hardening down to TN. We analyzed C44 using the Curie-Weiss-type equation and obtained a negative parameter: Θ which is proportional to a quadrupole-quadrupole coupling constant under the hexagonal CEF. With further decreasing temperature, both moduli exhibit abrupt elastic hardening at TN due to a magnetostriction.

Registration No. 25735 - Permalink


Manifestation of the Jahn-Teller effect in elastic moduli of strontium fluorite crystals doped with chromium ions
Averkiev, N. S.; Bersuker, I. B.; Gudkov, V. V.; Zhevstovskikh, I. V.; Sarychev, M. N.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Yasin, S.; Shakurov, G. S.; Ulanov, V. A.; Surikov, V. T.
Corresponding author: Gudkov, V. V. Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Abstract: Attenuation and phase velocity of ultrasound have been measured in strontium fluoride single crystal doped with chromium in the temperature range of 4 – 185 K at 56 -162 MHz. Anomalies have been found for all the normal modes corresponding to the non-vanishing elastic moduli of a cubic crystal. Interpretation of the observed anomalies has been done in the frame work of relaxation in the system of Jahn-Teller (JT) complexes CrF8 subject to full T2g X (eg+t2g)JT problem. Relaxation time has been calculated from the experimental data on ultrasonic attenuation and adiabatic and isothermal contributions of the impurity subsystem to the total elastic moduli have been obtained.

Registration No. 25732 - Permalink


Anisotropic physical properties of single-crystal U2Rh2Sn in high magnetic fields
Prokes, K.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Reehuis, M.; Klemke, B.; Gukasov, A.; Uhlirova, K.; Fabreges, X.; Skourski, Y.; Yokaichiya, F.; Hartwig, S.; Andreev, A. V.
Corresponding author: Prokes, K. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany
Abstract: We report on the crystal and magnetic structures,magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of U2Rh2Sn single crystals studied in part in high magnetic fields up to 58 T. The material adopts a U3Si2-related tetragonal crystal structure and orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 25 K. The antiferromagnetic structure is characterized by a propagation vector k = (0 0 1/2). The magnetism in U2Rh2Sn is found to be associated mainly with 5f states. However, both unpolarized and polarized neutron experiments reveal at low temperatures in zero field non-negligible magnetic moments also on Rh sites. U moments of 0.50(2) μB are directed along the tetragonal axis while Rh moments of 0.06(4) μB form a noncollinear arrangement confined to the basal plane. The response to applied magnetic field is highly anisotropic. Above ∼15 K the easy magnetization direction is along the tetragonal axis. At lower temperatures, however, a stronger response is found perpendicular to the c axis. While for the a axis no magnetic phase transition is observed up to 58 T, for the field applied at 1.8 K along the tetragonal axis we observe above 22.5 T a field-polarized state. A magnetic phase diagram for the field applied along the c axis is presented.

Registration No. 25731 - Permalink


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Signature of the Spin-Nematic Phase in LiCuVO4 at High Magnetic Fields
Orlova, A.; Green, E. L.; Law, J. M.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Chanda, G.; Krämer, S.; Horvatic, M.; Kremer, R. K.; Wosnitza, J.; Rikken, G. L. J. A.
Corresponding author: Green, E. L. Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany
Abstract: We report a 51V nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the frustrated spin-1/2 chain compound LiCuVO4, performed in pulsed magnetic fields and focused on high-field phases up to 56 T. For the crystal orientations H‖c and H‖b, we find a narrow field region just below the magnetic saturation where the local magnetization remains uniform and homogeneous, while its value is field dependent. This behavior is the first microscopic signature of the spin-nematic state, breaking spin-rotation symmetry without generating any transverse dipolar order, and is consistent with theoretical predictions for the LiCuVO4 compound.

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Registration No. 25729 - Permalink


Completely compensated ferrimagnetism and sublattice spin crossing in the half-metallic Heusler compound Mn1.5FeV0.5Al
Stinshoff, R.; Nayak, A. K.; Fecher, G. H.; Balke, B.; Ouardi, S.; Skourski, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Felser, C.
Corresponding author: Nayak, A. K. Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden & Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle, Germany
Abstract: The Slater-Pauling rule states that L21 Heusler compounds with 24 valence electrons never exhibit a total spin magnetic moment. In the case of strongly localized magnetic moments at one of the atoms (here Mn) they will exhibit a fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnetic state instead, in particular, when symmetry does not allow for antiferromagnetic order. With the aid of magnetic and anomalous Hall effect measurements, it is experimentally demonstrated that Mn1.5V0.5FeAl follows such a scenario. The ferrimagnetic state is tuned by the composition. A small residual magnetization, which arises due to a slight mismatch of the magnetic moments in the different sublattices, results in a pronounced change of the temperature dependence of the ferrimagnet. A compensation point is confirmed by observation of magnetic reversal and sign change of the anomalous Hall effect. Theoretical models are presented that correlate the electronic structure and the compensation mechanisms of the different half-metallic ferrimagnetic states in the Mn-V-Fe-Al Heusler system.

Registration No. 25728 - Permalink


Sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, northwestern Mediterranean: Distribution, availability and toxicity
Tiquio, M. G. J.; Hurel, C.; Marmier, N.; Taneez, M.; Andral, B.; Jordan, N.; Francour, P.
Corresponding author: Tiquio, M. G. J. Université Côte d´Azur, CNRS, Ecomers, France
Abstract: The concentration, potential mobility, cation exchange capacity and toxicity of eight sediment-bound metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, France were examined. Results revealed significant spatial gradient of metal contamination along Golfe-Juan coast. The distribution and concentration of the metals appear to be influenced by the geochemical properties of the sediment, proximity to anthropogenic sources and general water circulation in the bay. The portion of trace metals found in the exchangeable, carbonate, oxidizable and reducible fractions of the sediment constitute 31%-58% ofthe total sediment-bound trace metal content, suggesting significant potential for remobilization of metals into the water column. Pb and Ni content ofthe sediment exceed the limits ofthe French marine sediment quality. Whole sediment extracts showed acute toxicity to marine rotifers. This study concludes that monitoring and management ofsediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay are important so as not to underestimate their availability and risk to the marine ecosystems.
Keywords: trace metals, sediment, mussels, remobilization

Registration No. 25727 - Permalink


Synthesis and radiopharmacological evaluation of a novel 18F-labeled cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor based on dihydropyrrolo[3,2,1-hi]indole core structure
Laube, M.; Gassner, C.; Neuber, C.; Bergmann, R.; Kniess, T.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.
Corresponding author: Laube, M.
Abstract: Objectives
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key player in inflammation, is an attractive target for functional characterization of solid tumors by PET because its overexpression has been associated with chemo-/radioresistance and poor prognosis in cancer. We recently developed a novel series of selective COX-2 inhibitors based on a tricyclic core structure with IC50 values in the nanomolar range1 and herein report on the 18F-labeling and evaluation of a promising candidate.
Methods
5-(4-[18F]Fluorophenyl)-4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1,2-dihydropyrrolo[3,2,1-hi]indole ([18F]2) was synthesized according to our recently reported 18F-fluorination and McMurry cyclization approach2 with modifications reported herein. [18F]2 was evaluated in vitro in cell lines with different COX-1/COX-2 expression patterns. In vivo dynamic small animal PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in NMRI nu/nu mice bearing a COX-2-positive A2058 tumor-xenograft.
Results
18F-Fluorination under standard conditions2 was hampered by basic hydrolysis leading primarily to side product [18F]1b. Optimization experiments focused on the use of different bases with varying concentrations (K2CO3, KHCO3, KH2PO4) or no base using the ‘minimalist approach’3. As one result, the use of decreased amounts of K2CO3 (5 instead of 20 μmol) effectively suppressed hydrolysis and gave [18F]1a in high yield (Figure 1). An automated synthesis comprising mild 18F-fluorination, McMurry cyclization, and purification using a TracerLabFX-N module provided [18F]2 in 16% isolated RCY (d.c.) with a molar activity of 45-106 GBq/μmol at EOS. A LogDpH7.4 of 4.66 and a CHI IAM value of 48 indicated high lipophilicity and non-specific binding. Cell uptake was independent of COX-2 expression. Biodistribution and PET studies revealed highest uptake of [18F]2 in liver and adipose tissue but only low accumulation in A2058 tumors (tumor/muscle < 1) at 60 min post injection. Celecoxib pre-injection (20 mg/kg) did not significantly change tumor uptake although a trend towards decreased radiotracer uptake was observed by PET in a subset of mice.
Conclusions
Despite of a high COX-2 selectivity and metabolic stability, [18F]2 did not emerge as suitable radiotracer for imaging COX-2 in vitro and in vivo, likely due to its high lipophilicity and fast hepatobiliary excretion.4 Future efforts for the development of COX-2-targeted radiotracers should focus on adaption of lipophilicity and/or use of targeted delivery systems.
References
1Laube et al. J. Org. Chem. 2015, 80, 5611-5624. 2Kniess et al. Biorg. Med. Chem. 2012, 20, 3410-3421. 3Richarz et al. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2014, 12, 8094-8099. 4Gassner et al. ChemistrySelect, 2016, 1, 5812–5820.
Figure 1.: Radiosynthesis of [18F]2 by 18F-fluorination and McMurry cyclization. S156: Poster 22nd International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences
J

Registration No. 25721 - Permalink


Celecoxib based fluorine-18 radiolabelled probes for cyclooxygenase-2 monitoring - COX-2 affinity, radiosynthesis and in vitro studies.
Kniess, T.; Bechmann, N.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.
Corresponding author: Kniess, Torsten
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar

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  • Secondary publication expected from 14.05.2018

Registration No. 25718 - Permalink


Radio-U(H)PLC - the optimal flow cell for the gamma-detector ?
Kniess, T.; Fischer, S.; Ludwig, F.-A.; Steinbach, J.
Corresponding author: Kniess, Torsten
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar

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  • Secondary publication expected from 14.05.2018

Registration No. 25717 - Permalink


Hydrous 18F-Fluoroethylation - leaving off the azeotropic drying
Kniess, T.; Laube, M.; Steinbach, J.
Corresponding author: Kniess, Torsten
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar

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  • Secondary publication expected from 14.05.2018

Registration No. 25716 - Permalink


Immersed transient eddy current flow metering: a calibration-free velocity measurement technique for liquid metals
Krauter, N.; Stefani, F.
Corresponding author: Krauter, Nico HZDR
Abstract: Eddy current flow meters (ECFM) are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering (TECFM) has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system which is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation.
Keywords: flow measurement, inductive methods, calibration-free

Registration No. 25714 - Permalink


Actinide Bonding Analysis in Position Space
Patzschke, M.
Abstract: Actinides are a fascinating class of elements. They are difficult to work with in the laboratory, but they are also very challenging for the theoretician. The open f-shell sometimes necessitates the use of multi-reference calculations. They contribute many electrons, making the calculation more demanding. And lastly, relativistic effects become important. These problems certainly contribute to the situation in which far less is known and understood about actinide chemistry compared to e.g. the lanthanides. In this contribution, we use analysis methods that work in real space, i.e. on the electronic density. We present different tools and the application to the bonding in BTP complexes on actinides and lanthanides . BTP complexes have been investigated for numerous years now and it is still not entirely understood, why they bind actinides more strongly than lanthanides. The presented data is hopefully a step towards the solution of that problem.
Keywords: DFT, CASPT2, Lanthanides, Actinides, Covalency
  • Poster
    Magical Mystery Tour of Electron Correlation - A Symposium in Honour of Jeppe Olsen on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday, 24.-27.10.2016, Oslo, Norwegen

Registration No. 25713 - Permalink


Modifications of the magnetization ordering in Co/Mo/Co layers by Ga+ ion irradiation
Wawro, A.; Kurant, Z.; Tekielak, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Pietruczik, A.; Böttger, R.; Maziewski, A.
Abstract: Molecular beam epitaxy-grown layered structures Co/Mo/Co exhibit an antiparallel coupling of Co films magnetization in the Mo spacer thickness range between 0.5 nm and 1.0 nm and parallel beyond this range. Magnetic properties are substantially modified by beam irradiation of 35 keV Gaþ ions. With the increase in ion fluence, antiparallel coupling switches to the parallel one. Further increase in fluence results in gradual suppression of ferromagnetic behavior of the system. Experimental results are correlated with numerical simulations of layered structure evolution driven by irradiation.
Keywords: ion irradiation, magnetic multilayers, molecular beam epitaxy, ion implantation

Registration No. 25709 - Permalink


Interactions of coolants with hot-dip galvanized materials after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors
Harm, U.; Kryk, H.; Hampel, U.
Abstract: During the sump recirculation phase after loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors, coolant spilling out of the leak in the primary cooling circuit is collected in the reactor sump and recirculated to the reactor core by residual-heat removal pumps as part of the emergency core cooling system. The long-term contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized containment internals (e.g. grating treads, supporting grids of sump strainers) may cause corrosion of the corresponding materials.
Generic investigations regarding the influence of such corrosion processes on the coolant chemistry and possible resulting effects in the reactor core are subject of joint research projects of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), TU Dresden (TUD) and Zittau-Görlitz University of Applied Sciences (HSZG). Lab-scale experiments at HZDR and TUD are focused on elucidation of physico-chemical corrosion and precipitation processes [1].
Results of generic experiments in a lab-scale corrosion test facility suggest that there is a multi-stage corrosion process. The first stage comprises dissolution of the zinc layer in the coolant forming zinc ions and in turn affecting the coolant chemistry. During the second stage, the base material (steel) corrodes forming insoluble corrosion particles. The main influences on corrosion were identified as impact of the coolant leak jet onto the corroding surface, the coolant chemistry and the zinc surface / coolant volume ratio.
Furthermore, retrograde solubility of zinc corrosion products in boric acid containing coolants with increasing temperature was observed. Thus, formation and deposition of solid corrosion products cannot be ruled out if zinc containing coolant is heated up during its recirculation into hot downstream components (e.g. hot-spots in core). Corrosion experiments, which included formation of corrosion products at heated zircaloy cladding tubes, proved that zinc, dissolved in the coolant at low sump temperatures, turns into solid deposits of zinc borates when contacting heated zircaloy surfaces. Due to alternating heating and cooling of the coolant during sump recirculation operation, a cycle of zinc corrosion and zinc borate precipitation may be initiated.
Based on the experimental results, water chemical measures were tested to reduce corrosion and zinc borate precipitation effects [1]. Additionally, joint research projects have been established by the TUD and the HSZG dealing with local effects of corrosion, corrosion product precipitation and the interplay thereof at LOCA-specific conditions [1-2].
The investigations have been supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy under contract nos. 1501363, 1501430, 1501467 and 1501496.

References
[1] Kryk, H. , Harm, U., Hampel, U.: Reducing in-core zink borate precipitation after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT), Hamburg, 2016
[2] Seeliger, A.; Alt, S.; Kästner, W., Renger, S., Kryk, H., Harm, U. : Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors - thermo- and fluid- dynamic effects. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 2016, 305, 489-502
Keywords: Nuclear energy; Loss of coolant accident; corrosion; zinc release; experiments
  • Contribution to proceedings
    The Energy and Materials Research Conference (EMR 2017), 05.-07.04.2017, Lissabon (Lisbon), Portugal
    Book of Abstracts
  • Lecture (Conference)
    The Energy and Materials Research Conference (EMR 2017), 05.-07.04.2017, Lisabon (Lisbon), Portugal

Registration No. 25708 - Permalink


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