PET cyclotron „CYCLONE18/9”
|CYCLONE 18/9 with beam transport line and solid target system
ION BEAM APPLICATIONS s.a. (IBA), Belgium
The CYCLONE 18/9 is a computer-controlled cyclotron for the production of short-lived radionuclides for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The production of the radionuclides is done by irradiation of liquids, gases and solids with charged particles (ions). After the transport to the radiopharmaceutical labs the radionuclides are used for the syntheses of PET radiotracer and PET radiopharmaceuticals. Since 2003 a solid target system developed in-house is used additionally to liquid and gas targets. This system increases the flexibility of the CYCLONE 18/9 and enables the production of metallic PET radionuclides like 86Y, 60Cu, 61Cu and 64Cu for radiochemical and nuclear medical applications.
In the CYCLONE 18/9 negative ions of hydrogen and deuterium are accelerated up to 18 MeV and 9 MeV respectively. The targets are placed at the outer circumference of the magnet yoke. The negative ions are extracted by so-called stripper foils where the electrons are stripped away and thus protons and deuterons bombard the targets. Achievable ion beam currents on the stripper foils are 80 µA for protons and 35 µA for deuterons.
The following radionuclides are produced in routine operation of the CYCLONE 18/9: [18F]F- and [18F]F2 (110 min half-life), 11C (20 min), 13N (10 min) and 15O (2 min).
For radiopharmaceutical research purposes are produced: 86Y (14.74 hrs half-life; since 2003), 64Cu (12.7 hrs; 2006), 61Cu (3.32 hrs; 2008) and 89Zr (3.27 d; 2008). 56Co (77.3 d, 2004) is produced for the HZDR Institute of Radiation Physics and is used as gamma calibration source for HPGe-detectors at the ELBE linear accelerator.
In 1996 our institute initiated workshops of the CYCLONE 18/9 + 10/5 USER COMMUNITY. These workshops take place every 2 to 3 years in one of the CYCLONE 18/9 facilities worldwide and are organized together with IBA.
There are more than 25 cyclotrons for radionuclide production in Germany.
Radionuclide transport system (RATS)
Due to special local conditions at the HZDR site, the CYCLONE 18/9 is located at 500 m distance from the radiochemical laboratories. This distance is bridged by a computer-controlled radionuclide transport system (RATS) developed in-house.
RATS was designed to carry small volumes of the irradiated liquids [18O]H2O/[18F]F- and H2O/[13N]NH3 by a pneumatic transport system as well as radioactive gases in copper tubes.
The transport of metallic radionuclides like 86Y is carried out with lead containers.
(Preusche St., Füchtner F., Steinbach J., Zessin J., Krug H., Neumann W., Long-distance transport of radionuclides between PET cyclotron and PET radiochemistry Appl. Rad. Isot. 1999, 51, 625-630)
Principle of the distribution of the radionuclides