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23090 Publications
P1211-Verfahren und System zur Abtrennung von Schwermetallen
Lütke, L.; Moll, H.
Abstract: Die Erfindung betrifft das Gebiet der Aufreinigung schwermetallbelasteter Gewässer, sowie den Nachweis von Schwermetallen in Lösungen. Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, eine effektive Abtrennung von Uran (Schwermetallen allgemein) durch mikrobielle Zellen ohne einen zusätzlichen Immobilisierungsschritt zu erzielen. Die Lösung der Aufgabe erfolgt durch ein erfindungsgemäßes Verfahren zur Abtrennung von Schwermetallen, enthaltend die folgenden Schritte: a. Bereitstellen einer Lösung enthaltend ein Minimalmedium und metabolisch aktive Biomasse aus gramnegativen Bakterien, b. Inkontaktbringen dieser Lösung mit einer Lösung enthaltend Schwermetalle, c. Einstellen der Phosphatkonzentration auf, 0,05 mmol/l bis 0,1 mol/l, bevorzugt 0,2 mmol/l bis 0,5 mmol/l, wobei die Schritte b und c in beliebiger Reihenfolge erfolgen können. Ebenfalls erfindungsgemäß ist ein System zur Abtrennung von Schwermetallen, enthaltend ein Minimalmedium, metabolisch aktive Biomasse aus gramnegativen Bakterien und Phosphat in einer Konzentration von 0,05 mM bis 0,1 M, bevorzugt 0,2 mM bis 0,5 mM. Ebenfalls erfindungsgemäß ist die Verwendung des erfindungsgemäßen Verfahrens oder des erfindungsgemäßen Systems zur Aufreinigung schwermetallbelasteter Gewässer oder zum Nachweis von Schwermetallen in Gewässern.
  • Patent
    DE102013207197.3 - Offenlegung-23.10.2014
Registration No. 21179

Dual Role of B7 Costimulation in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Metabolic Dysregulation
Chatzigeorgiou, A.; Chung, K.-J.; Garcia-Martin, R.; Alexaki, V.-I.; Klotzsche-Von Ameln, A.; Phieler, J.; Sprott, D.; Kanczkowski, W.; Tzanavari, T.; Bdeir, M.; Bergmann, S.; Cartellieri, M.; Bachmann, M.; Nikolakopoulou, P.; Androutsellis-Theotokis, A.; Siegert, G.; Bornstein, S. R.; Muders, M. H.; Boon, L.; Karalis, K. P.; Lutgens, E.; Chavakis, T.
Abstract: The low-grade inflammatory state present in obesity contributes to obesity-related metabolic dysregulation, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and insulin resistance. Intercellular interactions between immune cells or between immune cells and hepatic parenchymal cells contribute to the exacerbation of liver inflammation and steatosis in obesity. The costimulatory molecules, B7.1 and B7.2, are important regulators of cell-cell interactions in several immune processes; however, the role of B7 costimulation in obesity-related liver inflammation is unknown. Here, diet-induced obesity (DIO) studies in mice with genetic inactivation of both B7.1 and B7.2 (double knockout; DKO) revealed aggravated obesity-related metabolic dysregulation, reduced insulin signalling in the liver and adipose tissue (AT), glucose intolerance, and enhanced progression to steatohepatitis resulting from B7.1/B7.2 double deficiency. The metabolic phenotype of B7.1/B7.2 double deficiency upon DIO was accompanied by increased hepatic and AT inflammation, associated with largely reduced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in these organs. In order to assess the role of B7 costimulation in DIO in a non-Treg-lacking environment, we performed antibody (Ab)-mediated inhibition of B7 molecules in wild-type mice in DIO. Antibody-blockade of both B7.1 and B7.2 improved the metabolic phenotype of DIO mice, which was linked to amelioration of hepatic steatosis and reduced inflammation in liver and AT. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a dual role of B7 costimulation in the course of obesity-related sequelae, particularly NASH. The genetic inactivation of B7.1/B7.2 deteriorates obesity-related liver steatosis and metabolic dysregulation, likely a result of the intrinsic absence of Tregs in these mice, rendering DKO mice a novel murine model of NASH. In contrast, inhibition of B7 costimulation under conditions where Tregs are present may provide a novel therapeutic approach for obesity-related metabolic dysregulation and, especially, NASH. Registration No. 21160

Two-phase flow measurements with ultrafast X-ray tomography
Hampel, U.; Banowski, M.; Barthel, F.; Hoppe, D.; Lucas, D.; Rabha, S.; Wagner, M.
Abstract: Ultrafast X-ray tomography provides a means for the contactless high-resolution scanning of multiphase flows. In the current version the technique is able to scan flows in vessels of up to 160 mm diameter with scan rates of several thousand frames per second, a nominal spatial resolution of around one millimeter and in two consecutive planes. One of the main advantages is that two-phase flows in opaque and complex structures can be disclosed.
A challenging subject in the frame of ultrafast X-ray tomography is data processing and analysis. The high scanning rates yield large data sets and automated image processing must be applied to extract typical hydrodynamic parameters of interest, such as gas hold-up profiles, bubble and particle size distributions and velocities and interfacial area. On the other hand it is difficult to obtain some parameters from the continuous phase, such as continuous phase velocities or turbulence parameters. Here combination of different measurement techniques has further potential.
The presentation will provide an overview over the capacities and limits of ultrafast X-ray tomography by discussing different two-phase flow problems with increasing complexity: two-phase flow in vertical pipes, slurry bubble columns and static mixers. Moreover different image processing and data analysis techniques will be introduced and discussed in detail.

Keywords: ultrafast X-ray tomography, two-phase flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 52nd European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting (ETPFGM2014), 07.-09.05.2014, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 21157

Ultrafast X-ray tomography for multiphase flow analysis
Hampel, U.; Banowski, M.; Barthel, F.; Hoppe, D.; Rabha, S. S.; Schubert, M.
Abstract: Ultrafast X-ray tomography provides a means for the contactless high-resolution scanning of multiphase flows. In the current version the technique is able to scan flows in vessels of up to 195 mm diameter with scan rates of several thousand frames per second, a nominal spatial resolution of around one millimetre and in two consecutive planes. One of the main advantages is that two-phase flows in opaque and complex structures can be disclosed. A challenging subject in the frame of ultrafast X-ray tomography is data processing and analysis. The high scanning rates yield large data sets and automated image processing must be applied to extract typical hydrodynamic parameters of interest, such as gas hold-up profiles, bubble and particle size distributions, disperse phase velocities and interfacial area. On the other hand it is difficult to obtain certain parameters from the continuous phase, such as continuous phase velocities or turbulence. Here combination of different measurement techniques has further potential.
Keywords: ultrafast X-ray tomography, multiphase flow, tomographic image processing
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th International Workshop on Process Tomography (IWPT-5), 16.-18.09.2014, Jeju, Korea
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    5th International Workshop on Process Tomography (IWPT-5), 16.-18.09.2014, Jeju, Korea
Registration No. 21156

Surface-mediated formation of Pu(IV) nanoparticles on muscovite
Schmidt, M.; Knope, K. E.; Lee, S. S.; Stubbs, J. E.; Eng, P. J.; Bellucci, F.; Fenter, P.; Soderholm, L.
Abstract: Nanoparticles have long been recognized as an important factor in actinide chemistry,[1] as well as reactive transport.[2, 3] The formation of Pu(IV) nanoparticles can be enhanced by the presence of a mineral surface[4], even if Pu is not initially present as Pu(IV).[5] Redox activity of the mineral surface is not a prerequisite for this oxidation/ polymerization reaction.[6]
Upon reaction of a solution of Pu(III) with muscovite mica the formation of Pu(IV)-oxo-nanoparticles was observed by surface x-ray scattering [crystal truncation rods (CTR) and resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity (RAXR)] and atomic force microscopy (AFM).[6] The surface-mediated polymerization has been related to the enhanced concentration of mobile plutonium near the interface, as well as the redox equilibrium of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) under atmospheric conditions.
Here we present our recent findings demonstrating that the same mechanism is also found when Pu is initially present in its hexavalent state PuO22+, thus requiring reduction instead of oxidation to reach the tetravalent state. Surface x-ray scattering in combination with x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveal the presence of Pu(IV) nanoparticles after 12 hours reaction time. Grazing incidence XANES shows only Pu(IV) at the interface, within the detection limits. The interfacial structure revealed by CTR and RAXR will be discussed and compared to the structures formed upon sorption of preformed Pu(IV) nanoparticles[7], as well as after surface-mediated formation of nanoparticles from trivalent plutonium.[6]
[1] Knope, K.E., et al., Chem. Rev., 2012. 113(2): 944; [2] Kersting, A.B., et al., Nature, 1999. 397: 56; [3] Novikov, A.P., et al., Science, 2006. 314: 638; [4] Powell, B.A., et al., ES&T, 2011. 45(7): 2698; [5] Kirsch, R., et al., ES&T, 2011. 45(17): 7267; [6] Schmidt, M., et al., ES&T, 2013. 47(24): 14178; [7] Schmidt, M., et al., Langmuir, 2012. 28: 2620.

Keywords: Plutonium, Redox chemistry, CTR, RAXR, AFM, XANES
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt 2014, 08.-13.06.2014, Sacramento, CA, USA
Registration No. 21154

Interfacial Reactivity of Pu and Th at the Muscovite (001) Basal Plane
Schmidt, M.; Fenter, P.; Lee, S. S.; Bellucci, F.; Wilson, R. E.; Knope, K. E.; Soderholm, L.
Abstract: The geochemistry of the actinides is of utmost importance in understanding and predicting their behavior in contaminated legacy sites as well as nuclear waste storage facilities. The unique chemistry of this group of elements including strong hydrolysis, complex redox chemistry, and the potential for polymerization reactions in combination with the actinides’ inherent radioactivity and toxicity makes studies challenging. However, especially for artificial elements like Pu and other transuranics, no natural analogues are available and homologues frequently fall short in accurately reproducing the actinides’ behavior.
We will present and discuss recent results from in situ resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity (RAXR) and crystal truncation rod (CTR) experiments, shedding light on the inter-action of Th(IV) as well as Pu(III) and Pu(IV) with the negatively charged muscovite (001) basal plane. The example of Th(IV) demonstrates how the strong hydration of the highly charged cations prevents a close approach to the surface, instead favoring adsorption as a highly hydrated extended outer sphere complex. Subsequently, it will be shown how similar adsorption behavior in combination with the complex redox chemistry of plutonium, leads to a surface-enhanced formation of nanoparticles.
Results from surface x-ray scattering will be supplemented by ex situ alpha-spectrometry quantification and atomic force microscopy (AFM), to yield a more complete understanding of the interfacial structure.

Keywords: Plutonium, Thorium, RAXR, CTR, AFM
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ActinideXAS 2014: 7th Workshop on Speciation, Techniques, and Facilities for Radioactive Materials at Synchrotron Light Sources, 20.-22.05.2014, Böttstein, Schweiz
Registration No. 21153

How polytypism in InAs nanowires is affected by the presence of liquid indium during the growth on silicon
Dimakis, E.; Biermanns, A.; Davydok, A.; Sasaki, T.; Geelhaar, L.; Takahasi, M.; Pietsch, U.
Abstract: The self-assisted growth of vertical InAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates offers the possibil-ity to integrate monolithically the two materials, e.g. for novel transistor architectures, without the risk of contamination by foreign catalysts. However, arsenide nanowires that grow along the [111] crystallographic orientation are prone to wurtzite-zincblende polytypism, making the control of the crystal phase very challenging. In this work, we attempt to describe the dynamic relation between the growth conditions and the structural composition of the nanowires, and to identify potential ways to achieve phase-pure, particularly wurtzite, InAs nanowires.
Using in-situ X-ray scattering and diffraction measurements during the growth by molecular beam epitaxy, we were able to monitor the liquid phase of indium and the crystal structure of the growing nanowires throughout the growth process (Fig. 1). Although we used a much higher flux for arsenic than for indium as it is typically done for InAs nanowires, we directly observed the spontaneous build-up of liquid indium in the beginning of the growth process. Most im-portantly, the presence of liquid indium was associated with the simultaneous nucleation of InAs nanowires predominantly in the wurtzite phase. Since the build-up of liquid indium is driven by the surface diffusion of indium adatoms on the Si substrate under extremely arsenic-rich conditions, only a limited number of liquid indium sites were possible to form on the substrate, while their existence lasted for a limited period of time. In fact, the number and the lifetime of the liquid indium sites were the two parameters that defined the nucleation phase for the nan-owires.
After their nucleation, the nanowires continue to grow in the absence of liquid indium, and with a highly defective wurtzite structure. Numerical simulations based on a Monte Carlo ap-proach were employed to fit the ex-situ diffuse X-ray scattering measurements, showing that the structural degradation of the nanowires is due to the formation of planar stacking faults with their planes perpendicular to the growth direction. The onset of the formation of stacking faults is correlated with the transition from indium- to arsenic-rich conditions on each nanowire shortly after their nucleation.
After all, our study reveals the role of liquid indium in the nucleation and the structural com-position of InAs nanowires that grow on Si(111), implying that pure wurtzite nanowires may be obtained if the growth is performed in the continuous presence of liquid indium, i.e. the vapour-liquid-solid mode.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nanowire Growth Workshop, 25.08.2014, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Registration No. 21150

2nd International Workshop on Advanced Techniques for Actinide Spectroscopy (ATAS 2014) Abstract Book
Foerstendorf, H.; Müller, K.; Steudtner, R. (Editors)
Abstract: In 2012, The Institute of Resource Ecology at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf organized the first international workshop of Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy (ATAS). A very positive feedback and the wish for a continuation of the workshop were communicated from several participants to the scientific committee during the workshop and beyond.
Today, the ATAS workshop has been obviously established as an international forum for the exchange of progress and new experiences on advanced spectroscopic techniques for international actinide and lanthanide research. In comparison to already established workshops and conferences on the field of radioecology, one main focus of ATAS is to generate synergistic effects and to improve the scientific discussion between spectroscopic experimentalists and theoreticians.
The exchange of ideas in particular between experimental and theoretical applications in spectroscopy and the presentation of new analytical techniques are of special interest for many research institutions working on the improvement of transport models of toxic elements in the environment and the food chain as well as on reprocessing technologies of nuclear and non-nuclear waste.
Spectroscopic studies in combination with theoretical modelling comprise the exploration of molecular mechanisms of complexation processes in aqueous or organic phases and of sorption reactions of the contaminants on mineral surfaces to obtain better process understanding on a molecular level. As a consequence, predictions of contaminant’s migration behaviour will become more reliable and precise. This can improve the monitoring and removal of hazardous elements from the environment and hence, will assist strategies for remediation technologies and risk assessment.
Particular emphasis is placed on the results of the first inter-laboratory Round-Robin test on actinide spectroscopy (RRT). The main goal of RRT is the comprehensive molecular analysis of the actinide complex system U(VI)/acetate in aqueous solution independently investigated by different spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods applied by leading laboratories in geochemical research. Conformities as well as sources of discrepancies between the results of the different methods are to be evaluated, illuminating the potentials and limitations of cou-pling different spectroscopic and theoretical ap-proaches as tools for the comprehensive study of actinide molecule complexes. The test is understood to stimulate scientific discussions, but not as a competitive exercise between the labs of the community.
Hopefully, the second ATAS workshop will continue to bundle and strengthen respective research activities and ideally act as a nucleus for an international network, closely collaborating with international partners. I am confident that the workshop will deliver many exciting ideas, promote scientific discussions, stimulate new developments and collaborations and in such a way be prosperous.
This workshop would not take place without the kind support of the HZDR administration which is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, the or-ganizers cordially thank all public and private sponsors for generous funding which makes this meeting come true for scientists working on the heavy metal research field.

Thorsten Stumpf
Director of the Institute of Resource Ecology
  • Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-054 2014
    ISSN: 2191-8708
Registration No. 21149

Sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposite as photovoltaic absorber - influence of composition of the SiOx precursor
Schumann, E.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Endrino, J. L.; Abrasonis, G.
Abstract: Absorber layers consisting of nanostructured Si are candidates to improve the effciency of thin film Si solar cells. Si-SiO2 nanocomposites with sponge-like Si embedded in SiO2 are promising materials as they exhibit a widened band gap and maintain the electrical interconnectivity. These structures can be formed upon annealing of SiOx films (x<1), which leads to spinodal phase separation into a percolacated network of Si nanowires embedded in SiO2. This can be accompanied by crystallization of the silicon. The influence of the composition of the precursor SiO2 on the evolving sponge-like nanostructure is investigated. SiOx layers have been grown by reactive sputter deposition. SiOx layers with compositions between x=0 and x=1.2 have been studied. The transformation of SiOx into Si-SiO2 nanocomposites has been performed by scanning a diode laser line source. Dwell times in the ms range and power densities of the red laser light of about 103 W/cm2 have been investigated. while thin a-Si films show crystallization under our annealing conditions, oxygen-rich films with Si structures smaller than 2 nm do not crystallize. Our results demonstrate that the composition of the precursor material is of crucial importance to obtain a Si-SiO2 nano sponge-like material suitable as photovoltaic absorber.
Keywords: Silicon, Silicon oxide, Nanocomposites, Energy Filtered TEM
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung der Sektion Kondensierte Materie, 30.03.-04.04.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21139

Sponge-like Si-SiO2 Nanocomposite as Photovoltaic Absorber – Influence of Composition of the SiOx Precursor
Schumann, E.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Carcelén Valero, V.; Endrino, J. L.
Abstract: Nano structured Si absorber layers are candidates to improve efficiencies of thin film Si solar cells without increasing costs. Si-SiO2 nano sponge-like nanocomposites are promising materials as they exhibit a widened band gap due to quantum confinement and electrical interconnectivity due to percolation of the nanostructured Si. The sponge-like structures can be formed upon annealing of substoichiometric SiOx films (x<1), which leads to spinodal phase separation into a perlocated network of Si nanowires embedded in SiO2, tentatively accompanied by crystallization of the Si.
Here the influence of the precursor composition on the evolving sponge-like nanostructure and on the optical properties is investigated. SiOx layers have been grown by reactive sputter deposition where the composition of SiOx films was controlled by varying the oxygen flow during the deposition and subsequently measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). SiOx layers with compositions between x=0 and x=1.2 have been addressed. The Si-SiO2 nanocomposites are fabricated using a very rapid thermal processing by scanning a diode laser line source. Dwell times in the ms range and power densities of the red laser light of about 103 W/cm2 have been investigated.
Laser treatment of the precursor SiOx layers leads to decomposition into Si and SiO2 thereby forming Si-SiO2 sponge-like structures as observed by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). While thin a-Si films show crystallization, oxygen rich films with Si structures smaller than 2nm do not show crystallization. The widening of the band gap due to quantum confinement has been confirmed by optical measurements.
Our results demonstrate that the composition of the precursor material is of crucial importance to obtain a Si-SiO2 nano sponge-like material suitable as PV absorber.

Keywords: Silicon, Silicon oxide, Nanocomposite, Energy Filtered TEM
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2014 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit, 21.-25.04.2014, San Francisco, United States of America
Registration No. 21137

Mechanism of spin crossover in LaCoO3 resolved by shape magnetostriction in pulsed magnetic fields
Rotter, M.; Wang, Z.-S.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Prabhakaran, D.; Tanaka, A.; Doerr, M.
Abstract: In the scientific description of unconventional transport properties of oxides (spin-dependent transport, superconductivity etc.), the spin-state degree of freedom plays a fundamental role. Because of this, temperature- or magnetic field-induced spin-state transitions are in the focus of solid-state physics. Cobaltites, e.g. LaCoO3, are prominent examples showing these spin transitions. However, the microscopic nature of the spontaneous spin crossover in LaCoO3 is still controversial. Here we report magnetostriction measurements on LaCoO3 in magnetic fields up to 70 T to study the sharp, field-induced transition at Hc ≈ 60 T. Measurements of both longitudinal and transversal magnetostriction allow us to separate magnetovolume and magnetodistortive changes. We find a large increase in volume, but only a very small increase in tetragonal istortion at Hc. The results, supported by electronic energy calculations by the configuration interaction cluster method, provide compelling evidence that above Hc LaCoO adopts a correlated low spin/high spin state. Registration No. 21135

Ultrasound study of FeCr2S4 in high magnetic fields
Felea, V.; Yasin, S.; Günther, A.; Deisenhofer, J.; Krug Von Nidda, H.-A.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Quach, D. V.; Groza, J. R.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Tsurkan, V.; Lemmens, P.; Wosnitza, J.; Loidl, A.
Abstract: We report on ultrasound studies of FeCr2S4 in static and pulsed magnetic fields exhibiting an orbital-order transition at 9K. A longitudinal acoustic mode exhibits distinct features in the phase space of temperature and magnetic field due to magnetic and structural transformations. Pulsed-field measurements show significant differences in the sound velocity below and above the orbital-ordering transition as well as the spin-reorientation transition at 60 K. Our results indicate a reduction of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy on entering the orbitally ordered phase. Registration No. 21133

Coexistence of localized and collective magnetism in the coupled-spin-tetrahedra system Cu4Te5O12Cl4
Choi, K.-Y.; Do, S.; Lemmens, P.; van Tol, J.; Shin, J.; Jeon, G. S.; Skourski, Y.; Rhyee, J.-S.; Berger, H.
Abstract: We report high-field magnetization, electron spin resonance (ESR), and Raman scattering measurements of the coupled spin-tetrahedra system Cu4Te5O12Cl4 with magnetic ordering at TN = 13.6 K. We find thermodynamic and spectroscopic signatures for the concomitant occurrence of localized and collective magnetism. Magnetization measurements up to 60 T exhibit a spin-flop transition at μ0HSF = 16 T only for H∥c as well as periodic magnetization steps at μ0H = 16.5, 24.8, 33.8, 42.3, and 49.7 T, which are independent of the crystallographic orientations. For T > TN, the temperature dependence of ESR linewidth is described by a critical power law, ΔBpp(T) ∝ (T−TN)−0.56±0.02. For T < TN, an antiferromagnetic resonance mode is observed for H ∥ c, and its linewidth is given by ΔBpp(T) ∝ T3.13±0.04, being close to T4 expected for a classical magnet. Raman spectra show three one-magnon-like excitations superimposed on a broad two-magnon continuum. While the two higher frequency modes show an intensity variation in accordance to a three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, the lower frequency mode clearly deviates. These results suggest that Cu4Te5O12Cl4 is a unique material which shows a dual character of zero-dimensional, localized and three-dimensional, collective magnetic behaviors. Registration No. 21132

Anwendung des Systemcodes ATHLET zur Modellierung der Fluiddynamik in solarthermischen Kraftwerken mit Direktverdampfung
Hoffmann, A.; Hirsch, T.
Abstract: Anwendung des Systemcodes ATHLET zur Modellierung der Fluiddynamik in solarthermischen Kraftwerken mit Direktverdampfung
Keywords: Parabolrinnenkraftwerk, Siphoninstabilität, Zweiphasenströmung, ATHLET, Thermische Oszillationen,
  • Poster
    46. Kraftwerkstechnisches Kolloquium 2014, 14.-15.10.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21131

Full access to nanoscale Bismuth-Palladium intermetallics by low-temperature syntheses
Heise, M.; Chang, J.-H.; Schönemann, R.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Wosnitza, J.; Ruck, M.
Abstract: The microwave-assisted polyol process was applied and modified to synthesize phase-pure micro- or nanocrystalline samples of all intermetallic phases in the bismuth−palladium system. Reaction temperatures range between 170 and 240 °C, whereas conventional syntheses from melt necessitate 500 to 1000 °C. Reaction times of few minutes up to 1 h are sufficient. Although not stable at the temperature of synthesis, high-temperature phases are accessible as well. Differences in the redox potentials of the two metals have effectively been compensated by adding auxiliaries such as oleylamine, oleic acid, and potassium hydroxide. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy. Magnetic properties and electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline samples were measured. The high temperature compound γ-BiPd showed superconductivity with Tc = 3.2 K. Nanocrystalline nc-Bi2Pd5 revealed an unusual temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity indicating an electronic phase transition at about 230 K. The electronic band structures of γ-BiPd, Bi2Pd5, Bi12Pd31, and BiPd3 were calculated including spin−orbit coupling. Registration No. 21130

Complex formation of tetravalent metal ions with small carboxylic ligands
Hennig, C.
Abstract: The complex formation mechanisms of M(IV) ions with carboxylates in aqueous solution is still widely unknown. This presentation gives an overwiew about the actual knowledge, presents new insights and gives an perspective for large molecules.
Keywords: EXAFS, XRD, actinides(IV), Ce(IV), Zr(IV)
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institut de Chimie de Nice Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 31.10.2014, Nice, France
Registration No. 21127

Baseline model for simulation of bubbly flows
Rzehak, R.; Ziegenhein, T.; Liao, Y.; Kriebitzsch, S.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.
Abstract: A key parameter appearing in closure relations for the Euler-Euler two-fluid model is the bubble size. A distribution of bubble sizes is established as a result of bubble-coalescence and -breakup processes. These processes are very complex and models are considerably less developed than e.g. for bubble forces and even bubble-induced turbulence. Therefore, a two-step procedure is adopted for model validation where in a first step measured values are substituted for the bubble size distribution. In this way the uncertainties of the less developed modeling for bubble-coalescence and -breakup are bypassed and a validation of the other parts of the overall model becomes possible. In a second step the previously qualified models for bubble forces and bubble-induced turbulence are used without any change and the validity of models for bubble-coalescence and -breakup can be assessed. This procedure is illustrated by application to a set of data obtained for vertical upward flow in a pipe. In the first step satisfactory agreement is achieved like in previous investigations. A first attempt at the second step shows promising results as well. From the observed level of agreement between simulation and experiment, issues requiring further investigation are identified.
Keywords: Dispersed gas-liquid multiphase flow, Euler-Euler two-fluid model, closure relations, bubble-coalescence and -breakup
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Multiphase Process Engineering, 24.-27.09.2014, Hamburg, Germany
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Multiphase Process Engineering
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Symposium on Multiscale Multiphase Process Engineering, 24.-27.09.2014, Hamburg, Germany
Registration No. 21120

Experimental evidence for the formation of titanium vacancies in TiO2 based transparent conductive oxides
Neubert, Marcel; Lungwitz, F.; Butterling, M.; Gebel, T.; Vinnichenko, M.; Cornelius, S.; Potzger, K.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Gemming, S.
Abstract: The work is focused on understanding the physical mechanism leading to limited free electron density and mobility by variation of the oxygen content in polycrystalline tantalum doped TiO2 films. The films were prepared on glass substrates using a two-step approach involving direct-current magnetron sputtering of non-conducting amorphous films followed by annealing in vacuum. It is demonstrated that that fine tuning of the oxygen content during growth is crucial to ensure the formation of anatase films with low resistivity in the range of 10-3 Ωcm and high optical transmittance after the annealing process. An increase of the oxygen content in the anatase film leads to a decrease of the free electron density and the mobility. This dependence of the film electrical properties is discussed in terms of the effective electrical activation of the Ta dopant taking into account the formation of negatively charged acceptor like defects.
Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to determine the density of negatively charged open-volume defects as a function of oxygen deficiency of the Ta-doped anatase TiO2 films. It is observed that the density of these negatively charged defects increases with increasing oxygen content in the films, which is attributed to the formation of Ti-related vacancies. These acceptor like defects are considered to counteract n-type doping by Ta resulting in a decreasing electron density with increasing oxygen content. Furthermore, due to their maximum charge state of q = -4, Ti vacancies are effective scattering centers for free electrons [1]. Thus, their presence is believed to contribute to the observed decrease of the free electron mobility with increasing oxygen content in the films. These experimental results are consistent with previously reported first-principles calculations [1] of the point defect formation enthalpies for Ti substitution by Ta and for intrinsic Ti-vacancies in anatase TiO2 in dependence of the oxygen chemical potential.

1. J. Osorio-Guillen, S. Lany, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 036601 (2008).

Keywords: TCO, Transparent Conductive Oxide, Titanium, Tantalum, TiO2, Positron Annihilation, negative defects
  • Poster
    5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12.-17.10.2014, Platanias - Chania, Greece
Registration No. 21116

Broken axial symmetry as essential feature to predict radiative capture in heavy nuclei
Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.
Abstract: Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted for more than 140 spin-0 target nuclei with A >50. Allowing the breaking of spherical and axial symmetry in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for bothlevel density and photon strength is obtained which employs with surprisingly few fit parameters only. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians. They are based on theoretical predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths and add up to the TRK sum rule. For the small spins reached by capture resonance spacings are well described by a level density parameter close to the nuclear matter value; a significant collective enhancement is apparent due to the deviation from axial symmetry. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability – important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste – are expected to result from the global parameterization presented.
Keywords: Radiative neutron capture Level density Isovector giant dipole resonance Lorentzian Photon strength function Triaxiality Registration No. 21115

High-Speed PIXE - First results: Laterally resolved trace element maps of geological samples
Buchriegler, J.; Hanf, D.; Merchel, S.; Munnik, F.; Nowak, Stanisław H.; Renno, Axel D.; Scharf, O.; von Borany, J.; Ziegenrücker, R.
Abstract: The so-called “High-Speed PIXE” is a novel combination of the SLcam® [1,2] and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The fluorescence radiation is excited by 3-4 MeV protons provided by the 6 MV tandem accelerator at HZDR. The pixel-detector comprising 264 x 264 pixels in combination with a polycapillary X-ray optics allows a fast detection of laterally resolved elemental maps over a detection area of 12 x 12 mm² simultaneously for all pixels.
Based on the pixel size of 48 x 48 μm² and considering the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem a lateral resolution better than 100 μm should be achievable. By measuring well-known structures of copper and chromium with appropriate dimensions, this assumption could be verified.
The system is intended for the detection of trace elements in geological samples by using a pnCCD-chip with an energy resolution better than 160 eV (@Mn Kα) for each pixel. The distribution of known trace element concentrations (<0.1%) in minerals could be proven in a short measurement time with this new PIXE set-up.
[1] O. Scharf et al., Anal. Chem., Vol. 83, pp. 2532-2538 (2011).
[2] I. Ordavo et al., NIM A, Vol. 654, pp. 250-257 (2011).
  • Poster
    8th International Symposium on BioPIXE, 14.-19.09.2014, Bled, Slovenia
Registration No. 21110

Bright X-ray Pulse Generation by Laser Thomson-Backscattering and Traveling Wave Optical Undulators
Schramm, U.; Bussmann, M.; Couperus, J.; Cowan, T.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Sauerbrey, R.; Steiniger, K.
Abstract: Measured Thomson-backscattering X-ray spectra recorded as a function of the observation angle and quantitatively reproduced in simulations are presented. A traveling wave scheme is proposed to increase the yield and may allow for all-optical free-electron laser operation.
Keywords: Thomson scattering, laser plasma acceleration, optical undulators
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Frontiers in Optics, 19.-23.10.2014, Tucson, AZ, USA
Registration No. 21109

Impact of thyroid hormones on the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in mice detected by combined [18F]FDGPET/ MR imaging
Steinhoff, K.; Kranz, M.; Zeisig, V.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Faßhauer, M.; Stumvoll, M.; Tönjes, A.; Brust, P.; Sabri, O.; Hesse, S.; Krause, K.
Abstract: Aim: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is essential in regulation of energy balance, body temperature and body weight in rodents as in humans. A main BAT activation path leads via β3 adrenoceptors to an increased thyroid hormone (TH) conversion from T4 in T3 followed by mitochondrial heat production. As a direct BAT regulation via TH was not shown before our aim was to prove a direct influence of peripheral TH on BAT by combined [18F]FDG‐PET/MR measurements and gene expression studies.

Materials and methods: We induced hyperthyroidism in C57BL/6 mice by oral application of L‐thyroxine as well as hypothyroidism by an iodine deficient diet containing propylthiouracil. In these mice as well as in an euthyroid control cohort (each n=3) [18F]FDG‐PET/MR (nanoScan®, Mediso) was performed after i.p. injection of 15 MBq [18F]FDG. Glucose uptake (SUVmean) in interscapular BAT (iBAT) was measured by using MR‐based VOI analysis (PMOD v. 3.3). In order to evaluate the effects of TH on gene expression patterns in adipose tissue, microarray analyses were performed on visceral, subcutaneous and BAT. Results: Hyperthyroid mice showed a non‐significant increased [18F]FDG uptake in iBAT compared to the control group (SUVmean 8.78 ± 2.08 and 6.16 ± 0.57, p=0.16 ). In contrast, hypothyroid mice were found with significant reduced FDG uptake in iBAT (SUVmean 3.53 ± 0.65; p<0.01 vs. hyperthyroid and vs. control, respectively). In addition, differential gene expression analysis between the three mice cohorts are pointing to a discrepancy in the expression of brown and beige adipocyte differentiation markers in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in hyper‐ and hypothyroid mice.
Conclusion: These findings confirm the impact of TH on iBAT activity in mice and substantiate the use of [18F]FDG PET/MR as a valuable tool to map the effects of TH on BAT activity. In addition, this is the first study confirming decreased iBAT activity in hypothyroid mice.
Furthermore, a current clinical study is investigating the translation of these results into humans with thyroid disorders in order to further explore the complex regulation of BAT as a potential treatment target, particularly in obesity. Acknowledgement: The first two authors contributed equally.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EANM 2014, 18.-22.10.2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 41(2014)2, S264
Registration No. 21108

Azimuthal MRI as a dissipation-induced instability
Kirillov, O.
Abstract: With the use of the formal short-wavelength asymptotic expansions of geometric optics we derive the local transport equations for the amplitude of the localized non-axisymmetric perturbation of a rotating flow under the influence of an azimuthal magnetic field with arbitrary radial dependence. Looking for the solution of the local transport equations in the modal form we derive a dispersion relation of the azimuthal magnetorotational instability that is suitable for testing stability in the case of both ideal and dissipative MHD. It is found that the marginally stable Chandrasekhar’s equipartition solution is generically destabilized by weak but finite electrical resistivity and in particular cases already by infinitesimally weak electrical resistivity resulting in AMRI, which is therefore a dissipation-induced instability.
Keywords: Azimuthal magnetorotational instability, inductionless limit, ideal MHD, dissipation-induced instabilities
  • Lecture (Conference)
    European GdR Dynamo Meeting, 01.-04.09.2014, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Registration No. 21106

Inductionless AMRI as a dissipation-induced instability of the Chandrasekhar’s equipartition solution and its connection to Tayler instability
Kirillov, O.; Stefani, F.; Fukumoto, Y.
Abstract: We present a study of destabilization of a rotating flow of an electrically conducting and viscous fluid in an external azimuthal magnetic field of arbitrary radial dependence.
With the use of the WKB approximation we obtain a dispersion relation which gives us the growth rates of the non-axisymmetric perturbation and conditions for the onset of the azimuthal magnetorotational instability in an explicit form.
We demonstrate that in the absence of the dissipation the flow is marginally stable if the ratio of the magnetic Rossby number and the hydrodynamic Rossby number is equal to the squared ration of the angular velocity of the fluid to the Alfven angular velocity.
In particular, this constraint contains the Chandrasekhar's equipartition solution - a special solution of ideal MHD equations for which the fluid velocity is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field and magnetic and kinetic energies are finite and equal.
With the use of the explicit expression for the onset of AMRI we demonstrate that AMRI is a destabilized by the electrical resistivity Chandrasekhar's equipartition solution that is marginally stable in the ideal MHD. Finally, we establish an expression that allows for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the transition between the AMRI and Tayler instability.

Keywords: magnetorotational instability, azimuthal magnetic field, diffusive MHD instability, Tayler instability
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics General Meeting, 28.06.-01.07.2014, Berlin, Germany
Registration No. 21105

Inductionless instabilities in rotational MHD flows: A comprehensive short-wavelength analysis
Kirillov, O.; Stefani, F.
Abstract: We perform a local stability analysis of rotational ows in the presence of a constant vertical magnetic eld and an azimuthal magnetic eld with a general radial dependence characterized by an appropriate magnetic Rossby number. Employing the short-wavelength approximation we develop a unied framework for the investigation of the standard, the helical, and the azimuthal version of the magnetorotational instability, as well as of current-driven kink-type instabilities. Considering the viscous and resistive setup, our main focus is on the case of small magnetic Prandtl numbers which applies, e.g., to liquid metal experiments but also to the colder parts of accretion disks. We show in particular that the inductionless versions of MRI that were previously thought to be restricted to comparably steep rotation proles extend well to the Keplerian case if only the azimuthal eld slightly deviates from its current-free prole.
Keywords: Magnetorotational instability, asymptotic analysis, WKB, MHD
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The Seventh International Conference on Differential and Functional Differential Equations, 22.-29.08.2014, Moscow, Russia
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop ISTROF-2014: Instabilities and Turbulence in Stratified Rotational Flows, 23.-25.06.2014, Le Havre, France
Registration No. 21104

Chandrasekhar's equipartition solution, dissipation-induced instabilities and azimuthal magnetorotational instability (MRI)
Kirillov, O. N.
Abstract: I present a WKB study of the azimuthal magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a viscous electrically conducting rotating fluid with arbitrary radial profiles of the angular velocity and azimuthal component of the magnetic field. In the ideal setting II recover the results of Ogilvie and Pringle of 1996, whereas in the non- ideal case the azimuthal MRI is treated as a dissipation- induced instability of a Chandrasekhar equipartition solution for which the fluid velocity is parallel to the direction of the magnetic fiield and magnetic and kinetic energies are finite and equal.
Keywords: magnetorotational instability, rotating flow, dissipation-induced instabilities, Chandrasekhar's equipartition solution, azimuthal field
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XXXIV Dynamics Days Europe, Minisymposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasma Astrophysics, 08.-12.09.2014, Bayreuth, Germany
Registration No. 21103

The angular distribution of neutrons scattered from deuterium below 2 MeV
Nankov, N.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Rao, R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Yakorev, D.; Wagner, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Canton, L.; Nolte, R.; Röttger, S.; Beyer, J.; Svenne, J.
Abstract: Neutron elastic scattering measurements were carried out at the nELBE neutron time-of-flight facility at a 6 m fight path.
Energies below 2 MeV were studied using a setup consisting of eight 6Li-glass detectors placed at nominal angles of 15° and 165° with respect to the incident neutron beam. A deuterated polyethylene sample with 99.999% enrichment in deuterium was used. These angles were chosen since an earlier study showed that the ratio of the differential cross section at these angles is the most sensitive to differences in evaluated modes and model calculations. Accurate 165°/15° angle ratios were obtained. Above 1 MeV these are are somewhat larger than given by ENDF/B-VII. Simultaneously the early day experiments using a proportional counter to infer angular distributions from deuterium recoil pulse height distributions are being studied through a new experiment with such a device at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). At 500 keV this experiment favors ENDF/B-VII over JENDL-4.0, while at lower energies agreement with the data is similar.

Keywords: Neutron elastic scattering time-of-flight 6Li-glass deuterium cross section Registration No. 21099

Silicon Nanoparticles for Bioapplications
Hsu, C.-W.; Licciardello, N.; Septiadi, D.; Hunoldt, S.; Viehweger, K.; Stephan, H.; de Cola, L.
Abstract: Silicon based nanomaterials have been well studied and applied in bio-applications such as cell imaging, targeting, and drug delivery. The major interests for these nanoparticles (NPs), rely in their biocompatibility, intrinsic luminescence as well as photo- and electro- stability. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have indeed shown that Si NPs do not display any cytotoxicity and are good candidate for cancer labeling.
Here we report on the synthesis of Si NPs via wet chemistry methods either by reducing Si(OMe)4[2] in reverse micelle or oxidizing Mg2Si.[6] The Si NPs were fully characterized by HR-TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and their photophysical properties are discussed. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to control the surface functionalization of the NPs by covalently binding different functional groups for multimodal bio-imaging. The in vitro study, cellular localization, and cell viability test of Hela cells also give us a tool to understand these materials for further nanomedicine research.
  • Poster
    5th EuCheMS Chemistry Congress, 31.08.-04.09.2014, Istanbul, Turkey
Registration No. 21093

A multi-scale modelling approach for industrial multiphase flows
Lucas, D.
Abstract: A new modelling approach for gas-liquid flows which involve a wide spectrum of typical length scales for the interfaces between the phases is presented. It aims on medium and large scale industrial applications and bases for that reason on the multi-fluid approach. In many flow situations dispersed and segregated morphologies of the phases occur not only simultaneously, but the flow is characterized by transitions between these morphologies. The recently developed GENTOP concept provided a modelling frame for such flow situations. Examples for application are bubble entrainment by jets impinging on a liquid pool, flashing flows, e.g. in the feed line of distillation columns, flows in column tray and many others. The inhomogeneous MUSIG approach is extended to include beside a number of bubble size classes also a continuous gas phase. Interfaces which are at least 4 times larger than the cell size of the numerical grid are resolved, while smaller structures are handled as dispersed phase as usual in Euler-Euler methods. The resolved interfaces are treated in a similar way as in the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density model (AIAD). Transitions between these different morphologies are considered as coalescence and breakup processes. In several demonstration cases the capabilities of the concept are shown.
Keywords: CFD, multiphase, multi-fluid
  • Contribution to proceedings
    13th International Conference Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants, 17.-19.09.2014, Sestri Levante, Italy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th International Conference Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants, 17.-19.09.2014, Sestri Levante, Italy
Registration No. 21091

Numerical simulations for effects of pipe size on countercurrent flow limitation in slightly inclined pipes
Murase, M.; Utanohara, Y.; Kusunoki, T.; Lucas, D.; Tomiyama, A.
Abstract: Under postulated accident conditions in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) such as loss-of-RHR (residual heat removal systems) during mid-loop operation, steam and condensate water form countercurrent flows in a hot leg and a pressurizer surge line, so that countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) may occur. For CCFL in the hot leg, we measured CCFL characteristics in a 1/15-scale model using air and water [1], carried out numerical simulations for a full-scale hot leg using a volume of fluid method (VOF), and derived a CCFL correlation [2] using Wallis parameters [3]. For CCFL in the surge line (consisting of a vertical pipe, a vertical elbow, and a slightly inclined pipe with elbows), we measured CCFL characteristics in a 1/10-scale model using air and water [4]. However, the layout of the surge line is different in each PWR plant and a generalized method to predict CCFL characteristics in the inclined pipe with elbows is necessary. Therefore, we did one-dimensional (1D) computations [5] and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations [6] for the 1/10-scale air-water experiments [4] to validate the 1D computation and 3D simulation.
In this study, we did 1D computations and 3D simulations for the 1/10-scale and full scale models to confirm effects of the pipe size on CCFL characteristics. Working fluids in the computation were air and water at room pressure and temperature and these conditions allowed us to evaluate pure effects of the pipe size.

Keywords: counter-current flow limitation, inclined pipe
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ANS Annual Meeting, 07.-11.06.2015, San Antonio, TX, USA
Registration No. 21090

Effects of inclination angles on countercurrent flow limitation in slightly inclined pipes
Murase, M.; Utanohara, Y.; Kusunoki, T.; Lucas, D.; Tomiyama, A.
Abstract: Under postulated accident conditions in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), steam and condensate water form countercurrent flows in a hot leg and a pressurizer surge line, so that countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) may occur. There are many studies for CCFL in hot leg models, but there are only a few studies for CCFL in a pressurizer surge line (consisting of a vertical pipe, a vertical elbow, and a slightly inclined pipe with elbows). In our previous studies, we measured CCFL characteristics in a 1/10-scale model of a pressurizer surge line using air and water, developed a one-dimensional (1D) computation model, and also did three-dimensional (3D) simulations for the inclination angle of 0.6 deg (slope of 1/100) to validate simulation capability. 1D computations and 3D simulations gave good agreement with the 1/10-scale air-water data for the inclination angle of 0.6 deg. In the present study, we did 1D computations and 3D simulations for air-water countercurrent flows in the 1/10-scale model of the pressurizer surge line to validate them for effects of inclination angles on CCFL. Although 1D computations and 3D simulations gave good agreement with measured data for the inclination angle of 0.6 deg, they slightly underestimated effects of inclination angles on CCFL for the inclination angles of 0 deg and 1.0 deg.
Keywords: counter-current flow limitation, pressure surge line
  • Contribution to proceedings
    23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering - ICONE-23, 17.-20.05.2015, Chiba, Japan
Registration No. 21089

Sensitivity analyses for countercurrent flow limitation in a pressurizer surge line
Murase, M.; Utanohara, Y.; Kusunoki, T.; Lucas, D.; Tomiyama, A.
Abstract: Sensitivity analyses for countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) in a pressurizer surge line were done to predict CCFL in an
actual surge line. The results showed that CCFL on the Wallis diagram was mitigated in a large diameter line.

Keywords: pressurizer surge line, countercurrent flow limitation, numerical simulation
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2015 Annual Meeeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, 20.-22.03.2015, Hitachi, Japan
Registration No. 21088

Partial Wave Analysis of the Reaction p(3.5GeV)+p→pK+Λ to Search for the "ppK−" Bound State
Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Sarantsev, A. V.
Abstract: mploying the Bonn-Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p(3.5GeV)+p→pK+Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster "ppK−" via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical KbarNN (or, specifically "ppK−") cluster signal must not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectra like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a good description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a KbarNN cluster. At a confidence level of CLs=95\% such a cluster can not contribute more than 2-12\% to the total cross section with a pK+Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process. Registration No. 21087

FDG PET/MR for the Assessment of Lymph Node Involvement in Lymphoma: Initial Results and Role of Diffusion-Weighted MR
Platzek, I.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Ordemann, R.; Maus, J.; Schramm, G.; Kitzler, H. H.; Laniado, M.; Kotzerke, J.; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for nodal involvement in malignant lymphoma.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with malignant lymphoma (16 men and 11 women; mean age, 45 years) were included in this retrospective study. The patients underwent FDG PET/MR after intravenous injection of FDG (176-357 MBq FDG, 282 MBq on average). Follow-up imaging and histology served as the standard of reference.
Results: One-hundred and twenty-seven (18.1%) of 702 lymph node stations were rated as having lymphoma-involvement based on the standard of reference. One-hundred and twenty-four (17.7%) of 702 lymph node stations were rated as positive by FDG PET/MR. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/MR for lymph node station involvement were 93.8% and 99.4%.
Conclusions: FDG PET/MR is feasible for lymphoma staging and has a high-sensitivity and specificity for nodal involvement in lymphoma. Comparison with PET/CT is necessary to determine whether FDG PET/MR can replace PET/CT for lymphoma staging.
Registration No. 21084

Zero-field spin-transfer oscillators combining in-plane and out-of-plane magnetized layers
Fowley, C.; Sluka, V.; Bernert, K.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Rippard, W. H.; Pufall, M. R.; Russek, S. E.; Deac, A. M.
Abstract: Excited magnetization dynamics in a spin-valve device consisting of an in-plane polarizer and an out-of-plane free layer were studied numerically. Such devices hold promise for nanoscale wireless transmitters operating at gigahertz frequencies, compatible with current technologies [1]. We solve the Landau Lifschitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation taking into account the spin-transfer-torque asymmetry.
This asymmetry is directly responsible for the appearance of excited dynamics in this specific geometry as it leads to a net spin transfer torque over one precession cycle. Unfortunately, when the free layer lacks any in-plane anisotropy components, i.e. is circular in shape and posesses purely uni-axial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a finite external field is required to generate steady-state dynamics, in agreement with previous reports[2][3].
We demonstrate that this constraint can be removed and precession can be stabilized in zero applied field by introducing an additional in-plane anisotropy axis, in this case an elongation of the free layer in the direction of the injected spin polarized current. Moreover, the in-plane anisotropy offers an additional degree of freedom for tuning the frequency response of the device[4].
The shape anisotropy introduces a variable in-plane magnetic field whose direction is dependent on the exact location of the magnetisation of the free layer around the precession trajectory. The field induced by the shape anisotropy is sufficient to balance the action of the spin transfer torque and leads to steady state precession in suitably shaped devices. The frequency dependence, frequency spectra as well as a selected precession orbit for a 90nmx80nm free layer at zero applied field are shown in the figure to the right.
Our results show that the use of an intrinsic shape anisotropy is beneficial for spin transfer oscillators in order to achieve consistent high-power, zero-field, out-of plane precessional states without any initial magnetization direction dependence.
[1] S. I. Kiselev et al., Nature 425, 380 (2003).
[2] W. H. Rippard et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 014426 (2010).
[3] S. M. Mohseni et al., Phys. Status Solidi: Rapid Res. Lett. 5, 432 (2011).
[4] C. Fowley et al., Applied Physics Express 7, 043001 (2014)

Keywords: Spin-transfer-torque, spin-transfer-oscillators, spin-valves, magnetoresistance, spin dynamics, microwave oscillators, zero-field spin-transfer-oscillators
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Moscow International Symposium on Magnetism MISM-2014, 29.06.-03.07.2014, Moscow, Russia
Registration No. 21082

Guided-wave phase-matched second-harmonic generation in KTiOPO4 waveguide produced by swift heavy-ion irradiation
Cheng, Y.; Jia, Y.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Chen, F.
Abstract: We report on the guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a KTiOPO4 nonlinear optical waveguide fabricated by a 17  MeV O5+ ion irradiation at a fluence of 1.5×1015  ions/cm2. The waveguide guides light along both TE and TM polarizations, which is suitable for phase-matching frequency doubling. Second harmonics of green light at a wavelength of 532 nm have been generated through the KTiOPO4 waveguide platform under an optical pump of fundamental wave at 1064 nm in both continuous-wave and pulsed regimes, reaching optical conversion efficiencies of 5.36%/W and 11.5%, respectively. The propagation losses have been determined to be ∼3.1 and ∼5.7  dB/cm for the TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, respectively.
Keywords: Second-harmonic generation; Waveguides; Ions; Planar waveguides; Crystals Registration No. 21081

Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend
Domínguez-González, L.; Andreani, L.; Stanek, K. P.; Gloaguen, R.
Abstract: This work applies recent advances in tectonic geomorphology in order to understand the geomorphic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend located along the Caribbean–Gonâve–North American plate boundary. We propose a classification of landscapes according to their erosional stages. The approach is mainly based on the combination of two DEM-based geomorphic indices: the hypsometric integral which highlights elevated surfaces, and the surface roughness which increases when the relief is incised by the drainage network. River longitudinal profiles were also analyzed as the drainage network responds quickly to base-level change triggered by external forcing such as tectonics. Anomalies in river profiles (knickpoints and convex segments) were mapped using stream length-gradient (SL) and normalized steepness (ksn) indices. The results provide new insights for understanding the complex evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. Three main morphotectonic regions were identified in Jamaica: (1) the Blue Mountain–Wagwater unit located at the eastern tip of the island, (2) the Jamaican highlands plateau which covers most of the northern and central areas and (3) the tilted block province located along the southern part of Jamaica. Each region has a specific morphological signature which marks a different stage in the Late Miocene to present evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. The evolution of the bend is mainly associated with the western propagation of major E-trending strike-slip faults and NW-trending thrusts. In the western and central parts of Jamaica the present-day motion between the Caribbean plate and the Gonâve microplate is broadly distributed along several structures, while in the easternmost part of the island this motion seems to be almost completely accommodated along the Blue Mountain range and the Plantain-Garden Fault.
Keywords: Jamaican restraining bend; Tectonic geomorphology; Geomorphic indices; Caribbean plate; North American plate; Gonâve microplate Registration No. 21079

Large Eddy Simulations for dispersed bubbly flows
Ma, T.; Lucas, D.
Abstract: Die Untersuchungen zur Einbeziehung eines geeigneteren Turbulenzmodells für das GENTOP-Konzept wurden fortgesetzt. Der erste Schritt zur Untersuchung des Turbulenzanteils der nicht aufgelösten Blasen wurde durchgeführt. Es wurden Scale-Resolving Simulationen (hier, LES und SAS) auf unterschiedliche Blasensäulen gerechnet.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HZDR PhD-Seminar, 07.-09.10.2014, Altenberg, Deuschland
Registration No. 21077

Large Eddy Simulation of a bubble plume
Ma, T.; Ziegenhein, T.; Lucas, D.; Fröhlich, J.
Abstract: The paper presents Euler-Euler Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of dispersed bubbly flow in a rectangular bubble column. The flow is characterized by a low Reynolds number. The set of physical models describing the momentum exchange between the phases was chosen according to previous experiences of the authors. The emphasis of the study is the analysis of bubbly flows concerning the investigation of the influence of the subgrid-scale model and the bubble induced turbulence model. It was found that the presented modelling combination provides good agreement with experimental data for the mean flow and liquid velocity fluctuations. The energy spectrum obtained from the resolved velocity is presented and discussed.
  • Book chapter
    Jochen Fröhlich, Stefan Odenbach, Konrad Vogeler: Strömungstechnische Tagung 2014 Tagung anlässlich des 100. Geburtstags von Werner Albring, Dresden: TUDpress, 2014, 978-3-944331-78-2
  • Poster
    Strömungstechnische Tagung 2014, 10.10.2014, Dresden, Deuschland
Registration No. 21076

Exploiting the material-specific current-voltage-pressure relationship of the reactive magnetron discharge for the growth of transparent conductive (Al,Ga):ZnO and Nb:TiO2
Cornelius, S.; Vinnichenko, M.; Möller, W.
Abstract: Reactive magnetron sputtering is an attractive technique for the fabrication of transparent conductive oxide thin films, due to several advantages compared to other PVD methods. These include the scalability to large substrate areas and the use of cost efficient metallic alloy targets as well as
(pulsed) DC technology for plasma excitation. Besides these technological benefits reactive magnetron sputtering (MS) inherently offers great flexibility for the control of the film stoichiometry. In particular for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials, the precise control of the oxygen deficiency of the layers is of utmost importance to achieve the desired electrical and optical properties.
The present work demonstrates that the material-specific shape of the current-voltage-pressure relationship of the reactive magnetron discharge may be used to tailor the electrical and optical properties of transpar-ent conductors by controlling the metal to oxygen flux ratio towards the growing film. It is shown that two groups of metals with distinctly different reactive behavior in Ar/O2 magnetron plasmas exist. Consequently, the reactive process control must be adapted in a material-specific way in order to stabilize the reactive discharge in the transition mode. This enables both control of oxygen deficiency as well as high film growth rates. In contrast to conventional reactive MS operation schemes like optical plasma emission to oxygen flow feedback, in this work an alternative technique is explained which allows controlling the oxygen partial pressure without changing the oxygen gas flow. The effect is based on the interplay of changes in secondary electron emission and sputter yield at the (partially) oxidized sputter target surface in conjunction with the internal reactive gas gettering effect of the MS setup itself.
Model experiments for the reactive magnetron sputter deposition of transparent conductive (Al,Ga) doped ZnO and Nb doped TiO2 layers are presented in detail. The effect of oxygen deficiency induced by exploiting the current-voltage-pressure relationship on the electrical and optical film properties will be discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of reactive MS control is suitable to prepare high quality transparent conductive oxide thin films. Crucial parameters for TCO performance like free electron mobility and dopant activation are found to be highly dependent on oxygen to metal flux ratio during growth.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition reactive magnetron sputtering transparent conductive oxide ZnO TiO2
  • Poster
    5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12.-17.10.2014, Chania, Crete, Greece
  • Poster
    14th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 15.-19.09.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Registration No. 21072

Interplay of phase formation, oxygen deficiency, dopant activation and charge transport in Nb doped TiO2 prepared by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering
Cornelius, S.; Vinnichenko, M.; Möller, W.; Potzger, K.
Abstract: Intense research on TiO2 as a transparent conductor material was triggered less than ten years ago by a series of breakthrough publications demonstrating a combination of resistivity below
5x10-4 Ωcm and average visible transmittance above 80% for Nb doped anatase phase TiO2 thin films [1]. Scientific as well as commercial interest in transparent conducting TiO2 is further driven by the prospective additional functionality and low production costs due to the exceptionally high refractive index, the chemical inertness and the very high abundance of TiO2 compared to the conventional transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Early experiments were focused on pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystalline substrates resulting in record free electron mobilities of up to ~25 cm²/Vs in epitaxial anatase layers [1,2]. However, neither the PLD technique nor epitaxial substrates are suitable for typical large area TCO applications. Consequently, the investigations were extended to magnetron sputter (MS) deposition and low-cost glass substrates. Here, the main focus was put on radio-frequency MS [3] and more recently on direct current MS [4] using (electrically conductive) oxygen deficient ceramic sputter targets. After initial reports on poor electron mobilities of ~1cm²/Vs in sputtered TiO2 films directly grown onto heated amorphous (glass) sub-strates, it was soon realized that controlling the crystallization from the amorphous state, the suppression of the rutile phase formation and the extrinsic doping level in conjunction with the oxygen deficiency are crucial to obtain high quality TiO2 based TCO layers. However, there are several drawbacks associated with sputtering from ceramic targets such as limited variability of the oxygen deficiency, low growth rates and higher material costs compared to metallic targets.
Therefore, this contribution is aimed at understanding the influence of the oxygen deficiency and the phase composition on the electrical and optical film properties of Nb:TiO2 prepared by pulsed direct current MS of TiNb alloy targets in Ar/O2 atmosphere. For this purpose, three routes for film preparation, including direct growth at elevated substrate temperatures, post deposition annealing of amorphous layers and epitaxial growth on SrTiO3(100), are investigated. A non-conventional process stabilization method based on the material specific current-voltage-pressure characteristics of the reactive MS discharge is employed to obtain high growth rates as well as precisely tunable oxygen partial pressures in the so-called transition mode. This approach enables the investigation of the effect of the oxygen deficiency on the crystallization of amorphous films during annealing, the Nb dopant activation (Rutherford Backscattering), the phase composition (X-ray diffraction), the charge transport (Hall Effect) and the optical properties of the Nb:TiO2 films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry together with spectral photometry, an optical model of the dielectric function of Nb:TiO2 with different crystalline structure and conductivity is established. Moreover, charge transport in degenerately doped anatase TiO2 films will be discussed in the framework of a unified charge transport model including optical phonon scattering, ionized impurity scattering and grain boundary effects. Implications for the maximum achievable electron mobility in polycrystalline anatase TiO2 films are derived from a comparison of transport data of epitaxial and polycrystalline thin films, revealing the crucial role of the highly anisotropic effective electron mass.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition reactive magnetron sputtering transparent conductive oxide TiO2 charge transport charge carrier mobility
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12.-17.10.2014, Chania, Crete, Greece
  • Poster
    TCO 2014 - Transparent Conductive Oxides - Fundamentals and Applications, 29.09.-02.10.2014, Leipzig, Germany
Registration No. 21071

Limits to charge transport and electrical dopant activation in transparent conductive (Al,Ga):ZnO prepared by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering
Cornelius, S.; Vinnichenko, M.; Möller, W.; Munnik, F.
Abstract: Degenerately doped ZnO is a highly promising material for applications as transparent electrode (TE) in a variety of modern opto-electronic applications. All of them have in common that the TE material should be highly conductive and transparent at the same time. However, both properties cannot be improved simultaneously due to the optical absorption caused by the free charge carriers. Therefore, a well accepted strategy of materials design is the improvement of the free electron mobility resulting in both decreased resisitivity and enhanced near-infrared transmittance. The present work discusses the limitations to the charge carrier mobility in Al and Ga doped ZnO thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering.
The dominant scattering mechanisms are identified by comparison of experimental data to different charge transport models. A systematic study covering a wide range of dopant concentrations and deposition conditions allows to estimate a material limit for the minimum resisitivity of transparent conductive zinc oxide. It is shown that this limit may be reached by a proper choice of depositions conditions during reactive magnetron sputtering – demonstrating the potential of the method for practical applications. Further, it is shown that electron scattering caused by the incorporation of the Al and Ga dopant into the ZnO host lattice is one of the main limitations for the electron mobility.
Therefore, the effective dopant activation in ZnO is quantified by a combination of electrical, optical and ion-beam analysis characterization methods. Possible mechanisms leading to the deactivation of the dopant at high growth temperatures are discussed. It is demonstrated that Ga is a more efficient electron donor than Al, confirming theoretical predictions on the point defect formation energetics in ZnO.

Keywords: physical vapor deposition reactive magnetron sputtering transparent conductive oxide ZnO charge transport charge carrier mobility
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 15.-19.09.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Registration No. 21069

Speciation studies of uranyl(VI) using combined theoretical and luminescence spectroscopic methods
Drobot, B.; Steudtner, R.; Raff, J.; Brendler, V.; Geipel, G.; Tsushima, S.
Abstract: Continuous wave luminescence spectra of uranyl(VI) hydrolysis were analyzed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Distribution patterns of five major species were thereby derived under a fixed uranyl concentration (10-5 M) over a wide pH range from 2 to 11. UV (180 nm to 370 nm) excitation spectra were extracted for individual species. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations revealed ligand excitation (water, hydroxo, oxo) in this region and ligand-to-metal charge transfer responsible for luminescence. Thus excitation in the UV is extreme ligand sensitive and highly specific.
  • Poster
    Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy 2014 (ATAS 2014), 03.-07.11.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21067

Risk management in companies - a questionnaire as an instrument for analysing the the present situation
Stiller, D.; Joehnk, P.
Abstract: The topic risk management receives new impulses in the context of the financial and economic crisis in the years 2007 until 2011 as well as the question whether companies took consequences. The article briefly describes the importance of risk management and then explained the theoretical principles of empirical methods. Excerpts from developed questionnaire will be presented.
Keywords: Industrial management, risk management, ermirical research, qualitative and quantitative survey
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Doctoral Seminar 2014, 19.-21.05.2014, Zielona Gora, Poland
    Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Vol. 22, 83-88
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Doctoral Seminar 2014, 19.-21.05.2014, Zielona Gora, Poland
Registration No. 21065

Coherent and nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductors with a free-electron laser
Schneider, H.
Abstract: This talk reviews recent experimental studies carried out using the mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) facility FELBE in Dresden, Germany. Its intense, nearly transform-limited picosecond pulses, which can also be combined with synchronous pico- or femtosecond pulses from near-infared tabletop lasers, provide unique research opportunities to advance our knowledge on the interaction of mid-infrared and THz fields with materials and devices.
Keywords: terahertz spectroscopy, free-electron laser
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    7th International Symposium on Ultrafast Phenomena and Terahertz Waves (ISUPTW 2014), 13.-14.10.2014, Shanghai, China
Registration No. 21063

Dark current mechanism of terahertz quantum-well photodetectors
Jia, J. Y.; Gao, J. H.; Hao, M. R.; Wang, T. M.; Shen, W. Z.; Zhang, Y. H.; Cao, J. C.; Guo, X. G.; Schneider, H.
Abstract: Dark current mechanisms of terahertz quantum-well photodetectors (THz QWPs) are systematically investigated experimentally and theoretically by measuring two newly designed structures combined with samples reported previously. In contrast to previous investigations, scattering-assisted tunneling dark current is found to cause significant contributions to total dark current. A criterion is also proposed to determine the major dark current mechanism at different peak response frequencies. We further determine background limited performance (BLIP) temperatures, which decrease both experimentally and theoretically as the electric field increases. This work gives good description of dark current mechanism for QWPs in the THz region and is extended to determine the transition fields and BLIP temperatures with response peaks from 3 to 12 THz.
Keywords: terahertz quantum-well photodetector, dark current, GaAs/AlGaAs Registration No. 21062

A route toward the development of 3D magnetic scaffolds with tailored mechanical and morphological properties for hard tissue regeneration: preliminary study
de Santis, R.; Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; Tampieri, A.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Ambrosio, L.
Abstract: A basic approach toward the design of three-dimensional (3D) rapid prototyped magnetic scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration has been proposed. In particular, 3D scaffolds consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) or iron-doped hydroxyapatite (FeHA) nanoparticles were fabricated through a 3D fibre deposition technique. As a first approach, a polymer to nanoparticle weight ratio of 90/10 (wt/wt) was used. The effect of the inclusion of both kinds of nanoparticles on the mechanical, magnetic, and biological performances of the scaffolds was studied. The inclusion of Fe3O4 and FeHA nanoparticles generally improves the modulus and the yield stress of the fibres if compared to those of neat PCL, as well as the modulus of the scaffolds. Micro-computed tomography has confirmed the possibility to design morphologically-controlled structures with a fully interconnected pore network. Magnetisation analyses performed at 37°C have highlighted M-H curves that are not hysteretic; values of saturation magnetisation (Ms) of about 3.9 emu/g and 0.2 emu/g have been evaluated for PCL/Fe3O4 and PCL/FeHA scaffolds, respectively. Furthermore, results from confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) carried out on cell-scaffold constructs have evidenced that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) better adhered and were well spread on the PCL/Fe3O4 and PCL/FeHA nanocomposite scaffolds in comparison with the PCL structures. Registration No. 21061

Sample preparation of cosmogenic nuclides apart from C-14
Merchel, S.
Abstract: invited talk - no abstract
Keywords: AMS, sample preparation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Cosmogenic nuclide dating workshop at the 14C Dating Centre, 06.11.2014, Aarhus, Danmark
Registration No. 21060

A basic approach toward the development of nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds for advanced bone tissue engineering
de Santis, R.; Gloria, A.; Russo, T.; D'Amora, U.; Zeppetelli, S.; Dionigi, C.; Sytcheva, A.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Dediu, V.; Ambrosio, L.
Abstract: Magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on a poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles were designed and developed through a three-dimensional (3D) fiber-deposition technique. PCL/Fe3O4 scaffolds were characterized by a 90/10 w/w composition. Tensile and magnetic measurements were carried out, and nondestructive 3D Imaging was performed through microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT). Furthermore, confocal analysis was undertaken to investigate human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading on the PCL/Fe3O4 nanocomposite fibers. The results suggest that nanoparticles mechanically reinforced the PCL matrix; the elastic modulus and the maximum stress increased about 10 and 30%, respectively. However, the maximum strain decreased about 50%; this suggested an enhanced brittleness. Magnetic results evidenced a superparamagnetic behavior for these nanocomposite scaffolds. Micro-CT suggested an almost uniform distribution of nanoparticles. Confocal Analysis highlighted interesting results in terms of cell adhesion and spreading. All of these results show that a magnetic feature could be incorporated into a polymeric Matrix that could be processed to manufacture scaffolds for advanced bone tissue engineering and, thus, provide new opportunity in terms of scaffold fixation and functionalization. Registration No. 21059

Partialoxidation von Isobutan
Willms, T.
Abstract: Im Rahmen des Helmholtz-Energy-Allianz-Projektes „Energieeffiziente chemische Mehrphasenprozesse“ wird das Potential der Energieeffizienzverbesserung der partiellen Oxidation von Isobutan mit Sauerstoff bzw. Luft zu tert.-Butylhydroperoxid (TBHP) angesichts der Technologie mikrostrukturierter Reaktoren evaluiert. Zur Untersuchung der Zusammensetzung des Reaktionsgemisches wird eine gaschromatographische Methode entwickelt, die es ermöglicht, die laut Literatur im Reaktionsgemisch oder aus der Zersetzung von TBHP zu erwartenden flüssigen Substanzen (TBHP, di-t-Butylperoxid (DTBP), t-Butanol, Methanol, Azeton, Ameisensäure, Isobutylenoxid, Methylethylketon, Isobutanol) sowie zahlreiche andere Komponenten wie Lösungsmittel (Acetonitril, Hexan, Ethanol, Dioxan, Dekan), potentielle interne Standards (Methyl-t-Butylether) sowie weitere Substanzen (Hexanol, Essigsäure) zu trennen. Des Weiteren können auch die zu erwartenden gasförmigen Substanzen (Sauerstoff, Stickstoff, Isobutan, Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlendioxid, Methan, Isobuten) getrennt werden. Dazu wird eine STABILWAX-Säule verwendet, die mittels eines Switch sowohl mit einer Molsiebsäule als auch mit dem Massenspektrometer (MS) verbunden ist. Im Falle der Trennung von flüssigen Produkten wird das Gas durch einen geeigneten Befehl an den Switch nur ins MS geleitet. Zur Trennung der Gase wird der Gasstrom die ersten paar Minuten über die Molsiebsäule geleitet und die getrennten Permanentgase Stickstoff, Sauerstoff, Kohlenmonoxid und Kohlendioxid) über einen Wärmeleitfähigkeitsdetektor detektiert. Die restlichen Gase werden über die STABILWAX -Säule getrennt und dann mittels des MS detektiert.

In the frame of the Helmholtz-Energy-Alliance project “Energy efficient chemical multiphase processes“ the potential to improve the energy efficiency of the partial oxidation of isobutane by oxygene and air to t-Butyl hydroperoxide in view of the technology of microstructured reactors is evaluated.
To investigate the composition of the reaction mixture a gaschromatographic method has been developed, which is able to separate the substances expected according to literature in the reaction mixture or due to the decomposition of TBHP (TBHP, di-t-Butyl peroxide (DTBP), t-butanol, methanol, acetone, formic acid, Isobutylen oxide, Methylethyl ketone, Isobutanol) as well as numerous other compounds like solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol, dioxane, decane), potential internal standards (Methyl-t-butyl ether) as well as further substances (hexanol, acetic acid). Furthermore, also the expected gaseous substances (oxygen, nitrogen, isobutane, carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, isobutene) can be separated. To achieve this a STABILWAX column is used, which can be connected either to a mol sieve column or the mass spectrometer. In case of the separation of liquid products, the gas flow will only be separated by the STABILWAX column and conducted to the mass spectrometer by an adequate command to the switch. To separate gases, the gas flow is conducted within the first minutes to the molsieve column and the separated permanent gases (oxygen, nitrogen, isobutane, carbon monoxide, methane) are detected by a thermal conductivity detector. The other gases are detected by the mass spectrometer.

Keywords: gas chromatography, GC-MS, isobutane oxidation, reaction products, t-butyl hydroperoxide
  • SHIMADZU NEWS 03(2014), 8-9
Registration No. 21056

Organotypical vascular model for characterization of radioprotective compounds: Studies on antioxidant 2,3-diaryl-substituted indole-based cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors
Ullm, S.; Laube, M.; Bechmann, N.; Knieß, T.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Radiotherapy of various cancers is closely associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arachidonic acid metabolites are supposed to play a key role in radiation-induced vascular dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of novel, antioxidative 2,3-diaryl-substituted indole-based selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (2,3-diaryl-indole coxibs) on radiation-induced formation of arachidonic acid metabolites via COX-2 and oxidant stress pathways in an organotypical vascular model of rat aortic rings. Acute and subacute effects of X-ray radiation (4 and 10 Gy; 1 and 3 days post irradiation) with or without the presence of 1 µM of the 2,3-diaryl-indole coxib 2-[4-(aminosulfonyl)phenyl]-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indole (C1) or celecoxib as reference compared to sham-irradiated controls were assessed. The following parameters were measured: metabolic activity of the aortic rings; induction and regulation of COX-2 expression; release of prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha-isoprostane. Irradiation without presence of coxibs resulted in a dose-dependent augmentation of all parameters studied. When aortic rings were exposed to the 2,3-diaryl-indole coxib 1 h before irradiation, metabolic activity was restored and the release of both prostaglandin and isoprostane was inhibited. The latter indicates a direct interaction with oxidant stress pathways. By contrast, celecoxib exhibited only slight effects on the formation of isoprostane. The reduction of radiation-induced vascular dysfunction by antioxidative coxibs may widen the therapeutic window of COX-2 targeted treatment.
Keywords: Aortic ring model, coxibs, prostanoids, normal tissue damage, radiation therapy, adjuvant radioprotective therapy, cardiovascular disease Registration No. 21055

Role of Mn in a Magnetic Semiconductor: InMnP
Khalid, M.; Weschke, E.; Hübner, R.; Baehtz, C.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: The manganese induced magnetic, electrical and structural modification in InMnP epilayers, prepared by Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing, are investigated in the following work. All samples exhibit clear hysteresis loops and strong spin polarization at the Fermi level. The degree of magnetization, the Curie temperature and the spin polarization depend on the Mn concentration. The bright-field transmission electron micrographs show that InP samples become almost amorphous after Mn implantation but recrystallize after pulsed laser annealing. We did not observe an insulator-metal transition in InMnP up to a Mn concentration of 5 at.%. Instead all InMnP samples show insulating characteristics up to the lowest measured temperature. Magneotresistance results obtained at low temperatures support the hopping conduction mechanism in InMnP. We find that the Mn impurity band remains detached from the valence band in InMnP up to 5 at.% Mn doping. Our findings indicate that the local environment of Mn ions in InP is similar to GaMnAs, GaMnP and InMnAs, however, the electrical properties of these Mn implanted III-V compounds are different. This is one of the consequences of the different Mn binding energy in these compounds.
Keywords: III-V magnetic semiconductors
  • Poster
    Moscow International Symposium on Magnetism MISM-2014, 29.06.-03.07.2014, Moscow, Russia
Registration No. 21054

Extremely High Energy Density Deposition by Heavy Polyatomic Ion Impacts – Surface Nanopatterning and Frozen Phase Diagram Pathways
Böttger, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Bischoff, L.; Anders, C.; Urbassek, H. M.; Hübner, R.; Liedke, B.
Abstract: Bi and Au ions of a few tens of keV deposit a high energy density into the collision cascade volume of due to (i) their high mass and (ii) their low projected range. At higher energies, this density becomes diluted as the cascade volume increases super-linearly with ion energy.
Compared to monatomic ions, polyatomic ions deposit a much higher energy density. This is sufficient to form a pool of a localized, almost classical melt in a semiconductor surface lasting up to half of a nanosecond. Local melting and resolidification by single polyatomic ion impacts is proven by molecular dynamics calculations.
Well-ordered, self-organized dot patterns on Si and Ge surfaces have been found after heavy polyatomic ion irradiation, which can be attributed to the impact-induced local transient melting. The kinetics of localized melt pools leads to a generic, Bradley-Harper-type partial differential equation for the surface evolution. Whereas so far the mechanisms of ion-induced surface pattern evolution are assumed to be surface curvature dependent ion erosion or ion-momentum-induced mass drift of surface atoms, for heavy polyatomic ions we have identified a completely different mechanism.
The local melting and quenching process is so far from equilibrium that particularities of phase diagrams like the Bi state in Si or Ge are frozen into the nanostructure of the resolidified volume. This opens the possibility to study extremely fast solid-liquid phase transitions.

Keywords: self-organization, nanopatterning, polyatomic ions, energy deposition
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop Ionenstrahlen & Nanostrukturen, 20.-22.07.2014, Paderborn, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 14.-19.09.2014, Leuven, Belgium
Registration No. 21053

Experimente mit schnellen Neutronen an der Flugzeit-Anlage nELBE
Beyer, R.
Abstract: Beschreibung der verschiedenen bisher an der Neutronen-Flugzeit-Anlage nELBE durchgeführten Experimente.
Keywords: nELBE, neutron time-of-flight, transmission, inelastic scattering, fission
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fachbereichsseminar, 19.09.2014, Braunschweig, Deutschland
Registration No. 21052

Frequency-Domain Magnetic Resonance—Alternative Detection Schemes for Samples at the Nanoscale
Möller, M.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.
Abstract: Magnetic Resonance in the frequency domain provides a tool to investigate and quantitatively measure many important magnetic key parameters, such like the effective magnetization, magnetic anisotropies, magnetic damping parameters or coupling field strengths. Although it has been widely employed for studying magnetic bulk and thin film samples, the sensitivity of this classical method often suffers from being too low when single nanostructures are of interest. This review discusses Magnetic Resonance as technique, providing an introduction also to non-experts in the field. The theoretical background is discussed on an ‘easy to read’ basis, followed by a brief summary of methods that are capable of investigation spin dynamics within single nanostructures (nearfield microscopy, Brillouin Light Scattering, time-resolved Magneto-optical Kerr-effect). Focusing on frequency-domain approaches we then give a detailed explanation of what we call conventional way of experimentally detecting Magnetic Resonance which is based on the use of microwave cavities. This serves a basis to discuss different approaches to enhance sensitivity within a frequency-domain Magnetic Resonance experiment. As shown this includes either improving the conventional setup itself (microresonators) or using alternative detection routes, such as optical or electrical detection.
Keywords: FMR, ferromagnetic resonance, Kerr effect, MOKE, Microresonators, Magnetism, Magnetic nanostructures Registration No. 21051

Magnetic Bioinspired Hybrid Nanostructured Collagen - Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Supporting Cell Proliferation and Tuning Regenerative Process
Tampieri, A.; Iafisco, M.; Sandri, M.; Panseri, S.; Cunha, C.; Sprio, S.; Savini, E.; Uhlarz, M.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.
Abstract: A bioinspired mineralization process was applied to develop biomirnetic hybrid scaffolds made of (Fe2+/Fe3+)-doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystals nucleated on self-assembling collagen fibers and endowed with super-paramagnetic properties, minimizing the formation of potentially cytotoidc magnetic phases such as magnetite or other iron oxide phases. Magnetic composites were prepared at different temperatures, and the effect of this parameter on the reaction yield in terms of mineralization degree, morphology, degradation, and magnetization was investigated. The influence of scaffold properties on cells was evaluated by seeding human osteoblast-like cells on magnetic and nonmagnetic materials, and differences in terms of viability, adhesion, and proliferation were studied. The synthesis temperature affects mainly the chemical-physical features of the mineral phase of the composites influencing the degradation, the microstructure, and the magnetization values of the entire scaffold and its biological performance. In vitro investigations indicated the biocompatibility of the materials and that the magnetization of the super-paramagnetic scaffolds, induced applying an external static magnetic field, improved cell proliferation in comparison to the nonmagnetic scaffold. Registration No. 21050

Quantitative molecular plating of large-area 242Pu Targets with improved layer properties
Vascon, A.; Runke, J.; Trautmann, N.; Cremer, B.; Eberhardt, K.; Düllmann, Ch. E.
Abstract: For measurements of the neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Pu, large-area (42 cm2) 242Pu targets were prepared on Ti-coated Si wafers by means of constant current density molecular plating. Radiochemical separations were performed prior to the platings. Quantitative deposition yields (495%) were determined for all targets by means of alpha-particle spectroscopy. Layer densities in the range of 100–150 μg/cm2 were obtained. The homogeneity of the targets was studied by radiographic imaging.
A comparative study between the quality of the layers produced on the Ti-coated Si wafers and the quality of layers grown on normal Ti foils was carried out by applying scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Ti-coated Si wafers resulted clearly superior to Ti foils in the production of homogeneous 242Pu layers with minimum defectivity.

Keywords: 242Pu Large-area targets Molecular plating Quantitative deposition yield Registration No. 21049

Thermal properties of point defects and their clusters in bcc Fe
Devaraj, M.; Posselt, M.; Schiwarth, M.
Abstract: Ferritic Fe and Fe-Cr alloys are basic structural materials of present and future nuclear fission and fusion reactors. The formation of the micro- and nanostructure of these alloys and the structural evolution under irradiation is essentially influenced by the interaction between solutes, vacancies and self-interstitials. These processes take place in different alloys such as reactor-pressure-vessel and oxide-dispersion-strengthened steels. The understanding of the nanostructure of those materials and of its radiation-induced evolution is indispensable for nuclear reactor safety. First-principle calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) are a very useful method to get atomistic insights into the interactions between solutes, vacancies and self-interstitials in bcc Fe. Traditionally, formation and binding energies of these species are investigated at T=0 and these data are further used in calculations on larger length and time scales such as in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and Rate Theory.
The main objective of present work is the determination of the temperature-dependent free formation and binding energy of selected point defects and their clusters in bcc Fe. For this purpose DFT is used to obtain the corresponding vibrational free energies within the framework of the harmonic approximation. The substitutional solutes Cu, Y and Ti, the interstitial solute atom O, the vacancy as well as small clusters consisting of solute atoms and vacancies are considered. The results are compared with theoretical data obtained by other authors and discussed in relation to experimental solubility data. It is found that the free energies show a significant dependence on temperature. This must be taken into account in multiscale simulations that use DFT input data.

Keywords: point defects, nanoclusters, bcc-Fe, free energy, temperature dependence, Density Functional Theory
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th International Conference on Multiscale Materials Modeling (MMM 2014), 06.-10.10.2014, Berkeley, USA
Registration No. 21048

Establishing the Fundamental Magnetic Interactions in the Chiral Skyrmionic Mott Insulator Cu2OSeO3 by Terahertz Electron Spin Resonance
Ozerov, M.; Romhanyi, J.; Belesi, M.; Berger, H.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.; van den Brink, J.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Rousochatzakis, I.
Abstract: The recent discovery of Skyrmionics in Cu2OSeO3 has established a new platform to create and manipulate Skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electron spin resonance with a terahertz free-electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify its microscopic spin-spin interactions. In addition to the previously observed long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by standard low-frequency electron spin resonance. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theoretical framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this Skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra. Registration No. 21047

Solid phase recrystallization of Si nanowires
Posselt, M.; Liedke, B.; Baldauf, S.
Abstract: Advanced Si and Ge nanowire transistors can be produced by top-down or bottom-up approaches. In order to obtain the desired electrical properties doping of the nanowires is required. Ion implantation is one of the favored methods to introduce dopant atoms in a controlled manner. If relatively high ion fluences are needed the originally single-crystalline nanowire is amorphized. Subsequently, thermal processing must be used to restore the Si or Ge crystal and to activate the dopants electrically. In planar structures a complete restoration can be achieved by solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization, whereas more complex processes take place in nanowires, due to the significant influence of surfaces and interfaces. In order to understand the solid-phase recrystallization in such confined systems molecular dynamics simulations are performed. Partially amorphized nanowires embedded in a matrix as well as free nanowires and nanopillars are considered. In dependence on whether embedded or free nanowires are investigated several phenomena are observed, such as stacking fault and twin formation, random nucleation of separate crystalline grains, as well as edge rounding and necking. The simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings.
Keywords: Solid phase recrystallization, Si nanowires, Molecular dynamics simulation
  • Poster
    7th International Conference on Multiscale Materials Modeling (MMM 2014), 06.-10.10.2014, Berkeley, USA
Registration No. 21046

Properties of oxide nanoclusters in ODS ferritic steels: A combined DFT and Monte Carlo simulation study
Devaraj, M.
Abstract: Not available, please contact the author.
Keywords: oxide nanoclusters, ferritic steels, Density Functional Theory, Monte Carlo simulations
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag im Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, UK, 02.10.2014, Loughborough, UK
Registration No. 21045

Electronic properties of a distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12
Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Gukasov, A.; Petricek, V.; Baranov, N. V.; Skourski, Y.; Eigner, V.; Paukov, M.; Prokleska, J.; Goncalves, A. P.
Abstract: Electronic properties of Dy3Ru4Al12 (hexagonal crystal structure, Dy atoms form distorted kagome nets) are studied on a single crystal by means of magnetization, neutron diffraction, specific heat, and resistivity measurements. The onset of a long-range magnetic order of Dy moments occurs at 7 K through a first-order phase transition. The compound has a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector (1/2 0 1/2). The configuration of the Dy moments is consistent with the monoclinic Shubnikov group Cc2/c. The gamma coefficient in the temperature linear term of the specific heat is strongly enhanced to 500 mJ mol-1 K-2 taking into account the localized nature of Dy magnetism. An additional contribution originates from spin fluctuations induced in the 4d subsystem of Ru by the exchange field acting from the Dy 4f moments. In an applied magnetic field Dy3Ru4Al12 displays magnetization jumps along all crystallographic directions. All the metamagnetic transitions are accompanied by large positive magnetoresistance. The maximum effect (125%-140%) is attained for current along the [100] axis and field along the [120] or [001] axes. The large positive effect is explained by changes in the conduction electron spectra through the jumps as the conduction electrons interact with localized magnetic moments. Registration No. 21044

Temperature and flux dependence of ion-beam mixing in crystalline and amorphous germanium isotope multilayers
Radek, M.; Posselt, M.; Liedke, B.; Schmidt, B.; Bischoff, L.; Prucnal, S.; Bougeard, D.; Bracht, H.
Abstract: The availability of highly enriched stable isotopes enables the preparation of isotopically controlled semiconductors. By means of crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized (a-Ge) germanium isotope multilayer structures we investigated the temperature and flux dependence of ion-beam induced self-atom mixing. Low,intermediate,and high temperature regions with different mixing behavior are identified after Ga implantation at 310 keV and various temperatures. In the first region (0K - 470K) the amount of mixing in c-Ge and a-Ge is very similar, an increasing mixing with increasing temperature is observed. Region 2 (470K - 540K) reveals a strong drop of mixing in c-Ge whereas the mixing in a-Ge still increases with temperature. In region 3 (570K and above) the mixing in a-Ge drops to the level of c-Ge. Within region 2 no significant structural change occurs during implantation suggesting an efficient annealing of the radiation damage. In addition we performed Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) implantations with 60 keV Si ions into Ge using two different fluxes at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the annealing of radiation damage is not only temperature but also flux dependent.
Molecular dynamics simulations with a Stillinger-Weber type potential are used to study the self-atom mixing observed in the experiment. It is found that the dominant mechanisms of mixing are thermal spikes formed by transferring kinetic energy of the incident ion to the lattice. If the transferred energy is high enough,locally molten regions are created in which the atoms can move more freely compared to the lattice atoms. With increasing temperature the thermal spikes last longer and the mixing increases. This is in accord with the experimentally observed mixing behavior in region 1. Differences between the mixing in a-Ge and c-Ge in region 2 are related to the initial crystal structure. Qualitative agreement is achieved with molecular dynamics simulations.

Keywords: ion-beam mixing, Ge isotope multilayers, temperature and flux dependence
  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014), 14.-19.09.2014, Leuven, Belgium
Registration No. 21043

Quo vadis?: Ion Beam Engineeering and beyond…
Skorupa, W.
Abstract: There is no doubt that ion beam based research and applications- like all semiconductor-based revolutionary developments of our society- have reached a kind of saturation overlooking the last 60 years when ion implantation started as a child of the early nuclear weapon development. It was the mass separator as a key part of the ion implanter allowing the formation of atomically pure beams. Doping of semiconductor materials with a clear dominance of silicon was the technology driver for the development of ion beam technology. Moreover, the physical and chemical modification of surfaces as well as regions in shallow and deeper regions below the surface of solid materials was the matter of interest for using this efficient tool. At all times, annealing/thermal treatment of ion beam treated materials within different time ranges –from hours down to picoseconds- was a close relative of ion beam engineering. Even flash lamp annealing as one of the annealing methods based on early experiments performed for the simulation of strong optical radiation impact on materials during nuclear weapon attacks. In this talk I will shortly discuss historical and future aspects of ion beam engineering to initiate a discussion on: From nuclear weapons to superchips…, what remains to be done? or, ...what more do people really need? I will extend this lecture to issues that should be of broader interest, but also, to our community!
Keywords: ion beam engineering, flash lamp annealing, ion beam technology
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    X-th International Conference Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 23.-26.06.2014, , Poland, 23.-26.06.2014, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland
Registration No. 21041

Development and Characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via Inverse Compton Scattering
Jochmann, A.
Abstract: Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pumpprobe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point.
The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation.
The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement.
The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified.
A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources.
The results will serve as a milestone and starting point for the scaling of the Xray flux based on available interaction parameters of an ultrashort bright X-ray source at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources. The knowledge of the spatial and spectral distribution of photons from an inverse Compton scattering source is essential in designing future experiments as well as for tailoring the X-ray spectral properties to an experimental need.
  • Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-055 2014
Registration No. 21040

The development of a compact EBIS with integrated ion optics for FIB applications
Schmidt, M.; Zschornack, G.; Gierak, J.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Condensed Matter in Paris 2014, CMD 25 – JMC 14, 25.08.2014, Paris, France
Registration No. 21039

IMALION – Creation and Low Energy Transportation of Milliampere Metal Ion Beams
Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 16.06.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21038

Implementation of a Superconducting Electron Beam Ion Source into the HIT Ion Source Testbench
Ritter, E.; Silze, A.; Zschornack, G.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Peters, A.; Winkelmann, T.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 16.06.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21037

Eifficient charge-breeding of Helium-6 in an EBIT for precision measurement of the beta-neutrino correlation
Schmidt, M.; Hass, M.; Zschornack, G.; Rappaport, M. L.; Heber, O.; Prygarin, A.; Shachar, Y.; Vaintraub, S.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps (EBIS/T 2014), 20.05.2014, East Lansing, USA
Registration No. 21036

Momentum phase space analysis with charged particle diagnostic devices
Zschornack, G.; Ritter, E.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2014, 17.03.2014, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschland
Registration No. 21035

Electron Beam Ion Sources for Student Education
Zschornack, G.; Ritter, E.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2014, 17.-21.03.2014, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschland
Registration No. 21034

Materials Analysis with Electron Beam Ion Sources
König, J.; Bischoff, L.; Kentsch, U.; Kreller, M.; Pilz, W.; Ritter, E.; Schmidt, M.; Silze, A.; Zschornack, G.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2014, Sektion Mikroproben, 02.04.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21033

Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon
Gaiduk, P. I.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Bregolin, F. L.; Skorupa, W.
Abstract: By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumulation of carbon in the SiSn layers after high temperature carbon implantation and high temperature thermal treatment. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects and formation of dopant-defect complexes are suggested to be responsible for the effects. The possibility for carbon assisted segregation-free high temperature growth of heteroepitaxial SiSn/Si and GeSn/Si structures is argued.
Keywords: ion implantation, precipitation, carbon, tin, SiSn alloy, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry Registration No. 21032

Chemoradiotherapy with nimorazole: Factors influencing local tumor control
Mobius, L.; Koi, L.; Yaromina, A.; Schmidt, M.; Zips, D.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.
Abstract: Chemoradiotherapy with nimorazole: Factors influencing local tumor control
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 190(2014), 21-22
Registration No. 21030

Vorsicht bei der hypofraktionierten dosiseskalierten Strahlentherapie beim nicht-kleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom [Caution with hypofractionated dose-escalating radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer].
Philipp, J.; Baumann, M.
Abstract: no abstract available Registration No. 21029

Radiogenomics: Radiobiology Enters the Era of Big Data and Team Science
Rosenstein, B.; West, C.; Bentzen, S.; Alsner, J.; Andreassen, C.; Azria, D.; Barnett, G.; Baumann, M.; Burnet, N.; Chang-Claude, J.; Chuang, E.; Coles, C.; Dekker, A.; de Ruyck, K.; de Ruysscher, D.; Drumea, K.; Dunning, A.; Easton, D.; Eeles, R.; Fachal, L.; Gutierrez-Enriquez, S.; Haustermans, K.; Henriquez-Hernandez, L.; Imai, T.; Jones, G.; Kerns, S.; Liao, Z.; Onel, K.; Ostrer, H.; Parliament, M.; Pharoah, P.; Rebbeck, T.; Talbot, C.; Thierens, H.; Vega, A.; Witte, J.; Wong, P.; Zenhausern, F.
Abstract: there is no abstract Registration No. 21028

BAY 87-2243, a novel inhibitor of hypoxia-induced gene activation, improves local tumor control after fractionated irradiation in a schedule-dependent manner in head and neck human xenografts
Helbig, L.; Koi, L.; Bruechner, K.; Gurtner, K.; Hess-Stumpp, H.; Unterschemmann, K.; Baumann, M.; Zips, D.; Yaromina, A.
Abstract: Background: The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway plays an important role in tumor response to cytotoxic treatments. We investigated the effects of a novel small molecule inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity BAY-87-2243, on tumor microenvironment and response of human squamous cell carcinoma (hSCC) to clinically relevant fractionated radiotherapy (RT) with and without concomitant chemotherapy.
Methods: When UT-SCC-5 hSCC xenografts in nude mice reached 6 mm in diameter BAY-87-2243 or carrier was administered before and/ or during RT or radiochemotherapy with concomitant cisplatin (RCT). Local tumor control was evaluated 150 days after irradiation and the doses to control 50% of tumors (TCD50) were compared between treatment arms.
Tumors were excised at different time points during BAY-87-2243 or carrier treatment for western blot and immunohistological investigations.
Results: BAY-87-2243 markedly decreased nuclear HIF-1 alpha expression and pimonidazole hypoxic fraction already after 3 days of drug treatment. BAY-87-2243 prior to RT significantly reduced TCD50 from 123 to 100 Gy (p=0.037). Additional BAY-87-2243 application during RT did not decrease TCD50. BAY-87-2243 before and during radiochemotherapy did not improve local tumor control.
Conclusions: Pronounced reduction of tumor hypoxia by application of BAY-87-2243 prior to RT improved local tumor control. The results demonstrate that radiosensitizing effect importantly depends on treatment schedule. The data support further investigations of HIF-1 pathway inhibitors for radiotherapy and of predictive tests to select patients who will benefit from this combined treatment.

Keywords: HIF pathway inhibition; Cisplatin; Fractionated radiation; Local tumor control; Tumor microenvironment; Human tumor xenograft Registration No. 21026

Paramagnetism in neutron irradiated graphite
Wang, Y.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Bukalis, G.; Skorpa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Defect induced magnetism in carbon based materials has many attractive perspectives in the fundamental understanding of magnetism as well as in future spintronic applications. Graphite has been reported that it can be ferromagnetic after proton irradiation. After that, successive investigation was done for confirming the ferromagnetism in graphite and for finding other carbon based materials to be ferromagnetic. So far although the mechanism of ferromagnetism in carbon-based materials is still an open question, more and more experiments show some common features: First, paramagnetism can be largely enhanced by introducing defects. Second, ferromagnetism only appears under certain defect concentration. Third, defects induced or disturbed electron states play an important role to generate local moments and to establishing the ferromagnetic coupling. In the past most of researchers used ions implantation to introduce defects in graphite or graphene. This technology usually generates defect in the near--surface and it is hard to effectively increasing the total number of defect in the whole matrix. Consequently, the magnetic signal is so weak that confuses the interpretation for the source of the observed ferromagmetism. To obtain more reliable information, thereby to better understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to enhance the total number of defect states and simultaneously keep defect concentration constant when the ferromagnetism appears. So in this contribution we use neutron irradiation to extend defect region in graphite from the near surface region to the whole sample. We present the magnetic properties and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of irradiated graphite.
Keywords: XAS, neutron irradiation, graphite
  • Poster
    19th international conference on ion beam modification of materials (IBMM 2014), 14.-19.09.2014, Leuven, Belgium
Registration No. 21025

Gleichgewichtsdynamik der Huminstoff-Komplexbildung: Konzentrations- und zeitabhängige Effekte
Lippold, H.
Abstract: Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (others)
    7. Workshop zum Verbundprojekt "Rückhaltung endlagerrelevanter Radionuklide im natürlichen Tongestein und in salinaren Systemen", 28.-29.10.2014, Saarbrücken, Deutschland
Registration No. 21023

Low energy proton radiation impact on 4H-SiC nMOSFET gate oxide stability
Florentin, M.; Alexandru, M.; Constant, A.; Schmidt, B.; Millán, J.; Godignon, P.
Abstract: The 4H-SiC MOSFET electrical response to 180 keV proton radiations at three different fluences has been evaluated. For a certain dose, the devices show an improvement of their electrical characteristics likely due to the N and/or H atoms diffusion inside the oxide layer. This work shows that not only the 4H-SiC material is robust to the radiation, but also a MOSFET build on this material can withstand it, and even its electrical performance results improved if submitted to an appropriate fluence.
Keywords: Charge trapping; Mobility; Proton irradiation; SiC MOSFET; Threshold voltage; Time bias stress instability Registration No. 21022

Simultaneous measurement of AMR and observation of magnetic domains in stripe-patterned permalloy
Osten, J.; Langer, M.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.
Abstract: AMR depends on the angle between applied current and the direction of the internal magnetization. The influence of magnetic domains on the AMR is still not fully understood. Therefore it is important to observe the domain structure while measuring the AMR. To observe the domain structure Kerr microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr effect was applied. For measuring the AMR during imaging, the sample holder was equipped with electrical contacts in four-point style.The investigated permalloy films are stripe patterned by Implantation.The implantation leads to a lower saturation magnetization in the implanted stripes compared to the non-implanted ones. Our measurements show a clear correlation between AMR and the magnetic domain structur.

Here we present how simultaneous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and Kerr microscopy measurements of patterned samples can be applied to develop new types of magnetic sensors. One observes that the AMR has a minmum value if the magnetization is perpendicular to the current and a maximum value if parallel. Without patterning Permalloy the resistance shows a symmetric behavior. By introducing a certain stripe structure it was possible to achieve a sinusoidal resistance.

Keywords: magnetic domains, AMR, Kerr microscope
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Magnetics Conference, 04.-08.05.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Physikerinnentagung, 16.-19.10.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21021

Atomistic modeling of ion-beam induced processes in Si and Ge
Liedke, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Böttger, R.; Anders, C.; Urbassek, H.; Facsko, S.; Posselt, M.
Abstract: Modeling of ion-beam induced processes includes ion beam – solid interactions as well as solid state physics. Thus, a rather broad field of physics has to be considered which can be approached using a large variety of modeling techniques. Atomistic models of ion-induced materials modification can be classified as follows: (i) including the ion-induced collision cascade, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide the most accurate way to simulate a single or a few ion impacts. The predictive power of MD simulations depends on the accuracy of the interatomic potentials in the wide energy range from meV to keV. (ii) For energetic ions, with the Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) properties like the ion range can be predicted with similar precision like with MD, but thermally activated processes following the collision cascade cannot be simulated; (iii) kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) simulations can be used very efficiently and with an acceptable accuracy for modelling of diffusion, relaxation and precipitation of defects and impurities.
Here we will address all of three types of atomistic simulations: (i) With our recently developed TRIDER program, which unifies the BCA and KMC methods [1], low-energy irradiation of a-Si surface has been accurately simulated, in particular the rotation of self-organized surface ripples with the angle of ion incidence. (ii) The BCA, KMC and MD simulation methods have been employed to study the surface stability of Ge and Si under irradiation with heavy ion. [2]. KMC simulations show that the hole-like and sponge-like morphologies results from the vacancy kinetics. The origin of dot-like patterns after irradiation with poly-atomic ions or at elevated substrate temperatures has been revealed by a model based on TRIM and MD simulations: Single ion impacts induce tiny, short-living melt pools. Each meltpool generates a local surface minimization which leads, together with the high ion erosion rate, to a pronounce surface instability. (iii) Swift-heavy-ions change drastically the shape of spherical nanoparticles embedded in silica: Metal clusters become rods, whereas e.g. Ge clusters form to discs. [3]. A model has been developed which is based on transient melting of the nanoparticles by single ion hits, and the volume change of the metal/Ge upon this phase transition. Our KMC program has been modified to simulate the ion-induced shape evolution of different elements for different ion species, energies and fluences even quantitatively, where finally just one fit parameter describes all experiments.
1. Liedke, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Möller, W.; Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 316, 56 (2013)
2. Böttger, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Bischoff, L.; Liedke, B.; Facsko, S.; Appl. Phys. A 113, 53 (2013)
3. Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Mücklich, A.; Akhmadaliev,; Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 267, 1345 (2009)

Keywords: molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte-Carlo, TRIM, TRIDER, surface patterning, ion-beam shaping
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Swift Heavy ions in Materials Engineering and Characterization (SHIMEC 2014), 14.-17.10.2014, New Delhi, India
Registration No. 21019

First Investigation of the two-phase oxidation of isobutane by a micro reactor.
Willms, T.; Kryk, H.
Abstract: The micro reactor, the principal structure and components of the lab facility and the most important challenges of its construction are presented. As a proof of functionality, the first two-phase flow oxidation experiment of isobutane to t-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in a micro reactor was accomplished. Challenges of the gas chromatographic analytics (GC) of the reaction are discussed.
The chromatogram of the reaction mixture obtained by the first experiment has been interpreted.
Furthermore a device has been developed to allow the analysis of the gaseous products in a high pressure steel crucible for Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
It has been used to analyze the gases resulting from the decomposition of TBHP at higher temperatures by GC.

Keywords: micro reactor, isobutane oxidation, gas chromatography
  • Lecture (others)
    Halbjahresmeeting Helmholtz-Energie-Allianz, 09.-10.10.2014, Hamburg, Duetschland
Registration No. 21018

Investigation of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy of Fe3Si-trilayers using ferromagnetic resonance
Schneider, T.; Hübner, R.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.
Abstract: In this thesis, magnetic properties of single Fe3Si-films und trilayer structures are investigated by ferromagnetic resonance. Using this technique, it is possible to determine the magnetic anisotropy energy and interlayer exchange coupling J1 in absolute units. Further on, values for the magnetic anisotropy constants and the g-factor should be confirmed in this work. Due to the use of a broad band setup, it is possible to investigate the linewidth of the measured signals. The measurements are carried out using structures containing two Fe3Si films separated by one MgO-layer. The MgO thickness is varied to obtain two different samples. In one of these samples both layers can be considered as decoupled. In the second sample both layers are coupled due to interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). The main results of this thesis are: (i) The obtained parameters for magnetic anisotropy and the g-factor match former results quite well. (ii) The investigation of the resonance linewidth shows contributions of two-magnon-scattering and inhomogeneous broadening due to the mosaicity. (iii) For both used layer thicknesses the interlayer exchange coupling can always be neglected. (iv) The origin of the uniaxial anisotropy is given by effects at the interfaces between the Fe3Si and MgO or the Fe3Si and GaAs layers.
Keywords: Interlayer exchange coupling, FMR, Fe3Si
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Gruppenseminar AG Wende, 14.01.2014, Duisburg, Deutschland
Registration No. 21016

Taktsynchronisierung und Zeitmessung in einem verteilten Datenerfassungssystem

Abstract: Die Zeitmessung mit einem verteilten Datenerfassungssystem erfordert die Synchronisierung der einzelnen Teilsysteme. Eine dedizierte Taktverteilung ist für diese Anwendung eine einfache und präzise Lösung, erfordert aber zusätzlichen Installationsaufwand und bereitet vor allem bei der Skalierung des Gesamtsystems Probleme. Stattdessen können auch die vorhandenen Datenlinks der einzelnen Module für eine Rückgewinnung des Systemtaktes verwendet werden. Hier wird gezeigt, wie mit industriellen Komponenten (FPGA und Gigabit-Ethernet PHY) die Synchronisierung auf eine gemeinsame Taktfrequenz realisiert wird. Der Abgleich der Uhren erfolgt anschließend protokollbasiert über die Ethernet-Schnittstelle. Es werden die hardwareseitigen Anforderungen, die Umsetzung sowie die experimentellen Ergebnisse vorgestellt. Das implementierte System erreicht Genauigkeiten im Sub-Nanosekunden Bereich mit einer 1000BASE-T Punkt-zu-Punkt Verbindung.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    105. Tagung der Studiengruppe elektronische Instrumentierung im Frühjahr 2014, 10.-12.03.2014, Geesthacht, Deutschland, Hamburg: Verlag Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 978-3-935702-85-0, 238-242
Proceedings 2014 PDF
Registration No. 21015

Ferromagnetic InMnAs with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy synthesized by ion implantation
Yuan, Y.; Khalid, M.; Wang, Y.; Weschke, E.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Due to the great potential application in spintronic device, III-Mn-V dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have drawn significant attention during the past two decades. Although of the model member GaMnAs (mostly be prepared by low-temperature molecule beam epitaxy: LTMBE) have been comprehensively investigated, the challenge for preparing other DMS such as InMnAs still exists. Therefore, the understanding about the full family III-Mn-V DMS is far from satisfaction. Ferromagnetic DMS GaMnAs and GaMnP were firstly obtained alternatively by Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing [1, 2], a method rather than LTMBE. The Mn concentration and depth could be controlled through implanting fluence and implanting energy, respectively. When annealing under pulsed laser, due to high temperature gratitude, the large regrowth velocity could trap Mn atoms into the substitutional sites, which is quite effective to obtain high quality laser with less defects which can act as double donors and be harmful to ferromagnetism.
We prepared ferromagnetic InMnAs with different Mn concentrations by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing. The formation of an epitaxial InMnAs on InAs substrates was proved by Rutherford Backscatting/Channeling and X-ray diffraction. The Curie temperature could be as high as around 75 K when the Mn concentration is around 8%. The out-of-plane direction is the easy axis, originating from the compreassive strain along the perpendicular direction, as expected from the case of GaMnAs [3, 4]. The perpendicular anisotropy is particularly useful for exploiting spintronics functionalities, such as current induced magnetization switching.

[1] M. A. Scarpulla et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 207204 (2005)
[2] M. A. Scarpulla et al. Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 1251 (2003)
[3] Shengqiang Zhou et al. APEX, 5, 093007 (2012)
[4] K. W. Edmonds et al. Phys. Rev. Lett., 96 117207 (2006)

Keywords: InMnAs, Ferromagnetic Semiconductors, Ion implantation
  • Poster
    International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 14.-19.09.2014, leuven, Belgium
Registration No. 21014

Mikrobiologische Verfahren in der Hydrometallurgie
Kutschke, S.; Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.
Abstract: Die Vorbereitung von Erzen zur Verhüttung kann mit hydrometallurgischen Verfahren erfolgen. Dazu zählen Extraktionsverfahren mit wässrigen Lösungen, die Flotation, Sink-Schwimmtrennung und Fällungen. Diese Verfahren finden häufig in äußerst aggressiver Umgebung statt. Für einige dieser Prozesse stehen interessante Alternativen zur Verfügung. Die untersuchten und dargestellten Methoden werden durch Mikroorganismen oder ihre Stoffwechselprodukte unterstützt.
Seit 1980 wird Bioleaching im industriellen Maßstab in Chile eingesetzt. Zur Laugung trägt in diesen Anlagen die Oxidation der sulfidischen Erze durch Acidithiobacillus sp. bei. Oxidische oder carbonatische Erze können auf diesem Weg nicht gelaugt werden. Untersuchungen zeigen, dass in diesen Fällen der Einsatz von Pilzen und Bacillus sp. zur Freisetzung von Metallen aus diesen Erzen beiträgt. Dabei spielen die von Mikroorganismen gebildeten organischen Säuren eine entscheidende Rolle.
Für Sink- Schwimmtrennungen und Fällungen können weitere biologische Komponenten verwendet werden. Zum einen sind es Phagen mit speziell gestalteten Oberflächen. Diese Oberflächen können so konstruiert werden, dass sie spezifisch für einzelne Metalle sind. Durch weitere Variationen der Phagenoberfläche kann die Hydro¬phobi¬zität der mikroskopisch kleinen Partikel an die Anforderungen zum Beispiel einer Flotation angepasst werden. Zum anderen sind es calciumbindende Proteine, die über spezifische und unspezifische Bindungsstellen verfügen und darüber einzelne industrierelevante Metalle sehr selektiv binden können. Die letzten beiden Ideen werden in anderen Bereichen bereits genutzt, zeigen aber auch ein sehr hohes Anwendungspotential bei der Aufbereitung von Erzen.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung 2013 „Aufbereitung und Recycling“, 13.-14.11.2013, Freiberg, Deutschland
Registration No. 21012

Tilting column and 3D pattern formation during ion beam assisted growth of carbon:nickel nanocomposite films
Krause, M.; Buljan, M.; Möller, W.; Facsko, S.; Zschornak, M.; Wintz, S.; Heller, R.; Endrino, J. L.; Gemming, S.
Abstract: Ion assistance provides unique opportunities to influence the microstructure of growing films due to energy and momentum transfer. Here, ion effects on the microstructure of C:Ni nanocomposite thin films grown at RT to 500°C by ion-beam sputtering with assisting oblique incidence angle Ar+ ion beam irradiation (50 – 130 eV) are studied by SEM, (c)AFM, TEM, GISAXS, and TRI3DYN simulations. Two types of ordered metallic nanostructures in an amorphous carbon matrix are identified and characterized: i) tilted parallel columns [1] and ii) rippled, periodic three-dimensional nanoparticle arrays [2]. For the former one, the tilt angle and diameter of the nanocolumns are controlled by the deposition parameters. Ion-enhanced diffusivity and ion-induced surface drift are responsible for the tilted column microstructure. Complex secondary structures like chevrons with partially epitaxial junctions are grown by sequential deposition. For a given composition of the depositing flux, the transition from the columnar growth to the 3D pattern formation regime as a function of the assisting ion energy is demonstrated. The 3D pattern is attributed to the transfer of compositionally modulated surface ripples into the bulk of the C:Ni thin film. The essential experimental features are reproduced by three-dimensional binary collision computer simulations. This agreement points to ion-induced preferential displacements as the driving force for the 3D pattern formation.
Keywords: Nanocomposites, Ion assistance, pattern formation
  • Poster
    14th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 15.-19.09.2014, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Deutschland
Registration No. 21011

P1311-Anordnung zur schnellen Elektronenstrahl-Röntgencomputertomographie
Barthel, F.
Abstract: Aufgabe der Erfindung ist es, eine Anordnung zur Elektronenstrahl-Röntgen-Computertomographie anzugeben, die ohne die erhebliche axiale Ausdehnung des Elektronenstrahlers auskommt, und weitgehend auf elektronenoptische Strahlführungselemente verzichtet. Die Erfindung umfasst, dass ein Röntgendetektorbogen (6) und das Target (4) um den Untersuchungsquerschnitt innerhalb einer Bestrahlungsebene angeordnet sind, und ein im Elektronenstrahlerzeuger generierter Elektronenstrahl in den Durchflutungsbereich einer oder mehrerer Längsspulen radial eingebracht wird, und durch das Magnetfeld auf eine Kreisbahn gezwungen wird. Durch periodisches Verstellen der Feldstärke wird der Radius der Kreisbahn vergrößert, was dazu führt, dass der Elektronenstrahl das Target (4) in einem tangential wandernden Brennfleck (7) trifft. Vom das Target umgebenden Röntgendetektor(6) werden Durchstrahlungsprojektionen des in der Mitte der Anordnung befindlichen Objekts (8) aufgenommen. Der Elektronenstrahlerzeuger (1) kann sowohl innerhalb als auch außerhalb der Längsspulen (3) angeordnet sein. Darüber hinaus kann die Target- und Röntgendetektorebene mit oder ohne Axialversatz angeordnet sein.
  • Patent
    DE102013206252A1 - Offenlegung - 09.10.2014; Nachanmeldung
Registration No. 21010

Tetrahedral amorphous carbon coatings for friction reduction of the valve train in internal combustion engines
Götze, A.; Makowski, S.; Kunze, T.; Hübner, M.; Zellbeck, H.; Weihnacht, V.; Leson, A.; Beyer, E.; Joswig, J.-O.; Seifert, G.; Abrasonis, G.; Posselt, M.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, S.; Krause, M.
Abstract: Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is studied as a tribological coating for the valve train’s exhaust camshaft of a combustion engine. The coated camshafts were installed in a non-fired engine, tested in a computerized component test bench under practice-relevant conditions and analyzed for their frictional behavior. A notable reduction of the valve train’s drive torque on the test bench is demonstrated. Namely, on a roller cam system with ta-C coated camshaft the reduction is about 15% in average within the entire engine-map. The ta-C coatings were extensively characterized under laboratory conditions before and after the investigations on the test bench. Mechanistic understanding of the tribological behavior of ta-C coatings under dry or starving lubricated conditions was achieved by atomistic simulations of the tribological contact. Industrial utilization of these results would lead to a significant increase of the energy efficiency of combustion engines.
Keywords: tribological coatings, tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), combustion engines, atomistic simulations
  • Advanced Engineering Materials 16(2014), 1226-1233
Registration No. 21009

Heterogeneous nucleation in cfd simulation of flashing flows in converging-diverging nozzle
Janet, J. P.; Liao, Y.; Lucas, D.
Abstract: Flashing flow is an important industrial phenomenon present in many contexts. In flashing flow, a liquid boils in response to a depressurization. CFD is used to simulate the complex two-phase nature of flow, but nucleation is frequently neglected in these simulations. In this work, 3 models for wall nucleation in flashing flow are tested and compared against experimental data. The models are implemented as source terms at the walls only, consistent with experimental observations. The model proposed by Blinkov et al. (1993) is found to provide the best agreement with no parameter fitting. Axial properties and mass flow can be well predicted, but matching the radial profiles requires the addition of a bulk heterogeneous nucleating term, which is small in comparison to wall nucleation and has little impact on average properties but has a large effect on the vapour structure. Additionally, other effects such as coalescence influencing bubble size should be taken into account, since radial distribution of the vapour phase depends directly on the bubble size.
Keywords: Flashing, Nozzle, CFD, Nucleation, Depressurization
  • Poster
    Strömungstechnische Tagung 2014, 10.10.2014, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 21008

Imaging systems for dose monitoring in particle therapy
Fiedler, F.
Abstract: no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Interdisciplinary Symposium ''Precision, Speed and Flexibility: New radiation detection methods for ion beam radiotherapy, 23.-25.10.2014, Heidelberg, Deutschland
Registration No. 21007

Particle Therapy Positron Emission Tomography (PT-PET) for Treatment Verification
Fiedler, F.
Abstract: Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality in cancer therapy. New radiation species, like protons and light ions have the potential of increasing tumor conformality of irradiation. Because of the way these particles deposit their energy on their path through tissue they allow for an increased dose deposition in the tumor volume and reduce the damage of the surrounding normal tissue.
High precision radiotherapy treatment requires efficient quality assurance techniques. Even small changes in the irradiated volume will lead to a mismatch of the deposited dose maximum and the tumor. This causes missing dose in the tumor volume and potential damage to normal tissue. Therefore, a treatment verification system is highly desirable. Between 1997 and 2008, the in-beam Positron Emission Tomography (PET) method was used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany to monitor the dose delivered by 12C beams [1]. This method makes use of the β+-activity produced via nuclear interactions between the therapeutic beam and the patient tissue. The results and experiences of the clinical application of in-beam PET for carbon ions GSI will be shown. Based on this experience several approaches to improve the significance of the result have been studied.
Since the dose delivery is evaluated by means of a comparison between measured and simulated data a reliable prediction of β+-activity is crucial. To model the positron emitter production accurately, cross sections for all possible nuclear reactions occurring in the tissue during irradiation which lead to positron emitters are required. Since these cross sections are available only for a few reaction channels in the required energy range, a novel approach for estimating the positron emitter production from experimental data is introduced [2].
Up to now the comparison of the distributions is performed by well-trained observers (clinicians, physicists). This process is very time consuming and low in reproducibility. Therefore, a semi-automatic method has been developed evaluating the range and including a cavity filling detection algorithm. System inherent uncertainties are handled by means of a statistical approach [3, 4].
The Particle Therapy (PT)- PET method has been approved for static tumors under clinical conditions. However, also for intra-fractionally moving targets, the 4D simulation [5] as well as the 4D reconstruction [6] of PT-PET data has been established. By means of dedicated 4D-PET experiments the results of the comparison between measured and anticipated activities have been investigated.
[1] W. Enghardt, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth A 525, 2004.
[2] M. Priegnitz, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59, 2012.
[3] S. Helmbrecht, et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 57, 2012.
[4] P. Kuess, et al., Med. Phys. 39, 2012.
[5] K. Laube, et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2013.
[6] K.Stützer, Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2013.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop on Range Assessment and Dose Verification in Particle Therapy, 29.-30.09.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21006

Hyperdoping Si with chalcogen: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy
Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Khalid, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in Si, the materials were previously only realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted Si or bare Si in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the Si surface renders it into a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping of S/Se/Te into the Si matrix. However, this method encounters a problem of S/Se/Te surface segregation. In this Letter, we propose a solid phase processing by flash lamp annealing in the millisecond range, which is in between the conventional rapid thermal annealing and pulsed laser annealing. Flash lamp annealed Se-implanted Si shows a substitutional rate of more than 70% with the implanted concentration up to 1-2%. The resistivity is lower and the carrier mobility is higher than those of laser annealed samples. Our results show that flash lamp annealing is superior laser annealing in preventing surface segregation and in allowing scalability.
Keywords: Chalcogen elements, pulsed laser annealing
  • Poster
    E-MRS 2014 FALL MEETING, 15.-18.09.2014, Warsaw, Poland
Registration No. 21003

Hyperdoping Si with deep level impurities by ion implantation and short-time annealing
Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Khalid, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Impurities play an important role in determining the electrical, optical and structural properties of semiconductors. It has been proposed that deep level impurities, such as Titanium (Ti) or chalcogens in Si, can induce an impurity band inside the bandgap at high enough doping concentration [1, 2]. The insertion of an impurity band can enhance the absorption at a broader wavelength range and leads to applications in the so-called intermediate band solar cell [3]. In the present work, we use ion implantation combined with short-time annealing to realize hyperdoping of Ti and chalcogens in Si. The structural, electrical and optical properties were determined by X-raydiffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling, electrical transport measurement and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that the implanted Si layer can be recrystallized by both flashlamp and pulsed laser annealing. Ti ions mainly occupy the interstitial sites, while S and Se ions substitute the Si in the lattice. The consequent changes in electrical properties are also observed.

[1] J. Olea, G. González-Díaz, D. Pastor, I. Mártil, A. Martí, E. Antolín, and A. Luque, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063718 (2011).
[2] Brion P. Bob, Atsushi Kohno, Supakit Charnvanichborikarn, Jeffrey M. Warrender, Ikurou Umezu, Malek Tabbal, James S. Williams, and Michael J. Aziz J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123506 (2010)
[3] A. Luque and A. Martí, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014 (1997).

Keywords: Ion implantation, deep level impurities
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ION, 23.-26.06.2014, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland
Registration No. 21002

Hyperdoping Si with deep level impurities by ion implantation and short-time annealing
Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Khalid, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Impurities play an important role in determining the electrical, optical and structural properties of semiconductors. It has been proposed that deep level impurities, such as Titanium (Ti) or chalcogens in Si, can induce an impurity band inside the bandgap at high enough doping concentration [1, 2]. The insertion of an impurity band can enhance the absorption at a broader wavelength range and leads to applications in the so-called intermediate band solar cell [3]. In the present work, we use ion implantation combined with short-time annealing to realize hyperdoping of Ti and chalcogens in Si. The structural, electrical and optical properties were determined by X-raydiffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling, electrical transport measurement and Raman spectroscopy. Analysis shows that the implanted Si layer can be recrystallized by both flashlamp and pulsed laser annealing. Ti ions mainly occupy the interstitial sites, while S and Se ions substitute the Si in the lattice. The consequent changes in electrical properties are also observed.

[1] J. Olea, G. González-Díaz, D. Pastor, I. Mártil, A. Martí, E. Antolín, and A. Luque, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063718 (2011).
[2] Brion P. Bob, Atsushi Kohno, Supakit Charnvanichborikarn, Jeffrey M. Warrender, Ikurou Umezu, Malek Tabbal, James S. Williams, and Michael J. Aziz J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123506 (2010)
[3] A. Luque and A. Martí, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5014 (1997).

Keywords: Ion implantation, deep level impurities
  • Poster
    Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, 30.03.-04.04.2014, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 21001

Ferromagnetic GaMnP prepared by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing
Y, Yuan.
Abstract: We present the magnetic, transport and structural properties of GaMnP with different Mn concentrations prepared by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing. The Curie temperature increases with Mn concentration and the samples show in-plane magnetic anisotropy due to the in-plane compressive strain in the GaMnP layer. Anomalous Hall effect and negative magnetoresistance are observed, indicating the carrier mediated nature of the ferromagnetism in GaMnP. According to the micro-Raman spectroscopy data after pulsed laser annealing the implanted layer has been fully recrystallized and the carrier concentration (hole) increases with Mn concentration.
Keywords: Ferromagnetic semiconductors, GaMnP, Ion Implantation, Pulsed laser annealing
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Magnetics Conference, 04.-08.05.2014, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 21000

Possible defect-induced ferromagnetism in Cr doped SiC single crystals
Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, S.; Sun, W.; Chen, X.
Abstract: Defect-induced ferromagnetism (FM) was realized in non-magnetic materials, such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), HfO2, and Li doped ZnO. Recently, such FM was also found in SiC by doping, neutron bombardment and ion implantation. As now SiC crystals are available in microelectronic grade, the good crystallinity makes SiC a kind of potential materials for spin electronics. However, one problem in defect-induced FM in bulk SiC crystals is that the magnetization induced by defects is not strong, which might increase the difficulty for the further study. Here, we demonstrate the enhanced defect-induced FM in Cr doped SiC. The 4H-SiC single crystals were grown by physical vapor transport method. The SiC sample is diamagnetic when the nominal doping density of Cr is below 0.5%, whereas the room-temperature FM reaching 1.5 x 10-3 emu/g is observed in SiC with 1% Cr doping. However, the actual Cr concentrations in magnetic SiC measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy are nearly equal in both the nominal 0.5% and 1% samples, so Cr doping is not the origin of the FM. After annealing, the decreased magnetization suggests that the FM is closely associated with defects. However, we can not distinguish the defect types by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy or photoluminescence. The defects with higher dimensions rather than divacancies are proposed to induce the FM in Cr doped SiC. More efforts are needed to clarify this puzzling phenomenon.
Keywords: defect-induced ferromagnetism, SiC, Cr doping, semiconductors
  • Poster
    The 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014), 14.-19.09.2014, Leuven, Belgium
Registration No. 20999

Possible defect-induced ferromagnetism in Cr doped SiC single crystals
Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, S.; Sun, W.; Chen, X.
Abstract: Defect-induced ferromagnetism (FM) was realized in non-magnetic materials, such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), HfO2, and Li doped ZnO. Recently, such FM was also found in SiC by doping, neutron bombardment and ion implantation. As now SiC crystals are available in microelectronic grade, the good crystallinity makes SiC a kind of potential materials for spin electronics. However, one problem in defect-induced FM in bulk SiC crystals is that the magnetization induced by defects is not strong, which might increase the difficulty for the further study. Here, we demonstrate the enhanced defect-induced FM in Cr doped SiC. The 4H-SiC single crystals were grown by physical vapor transport method. The SiC sample is diamagnetic when the nominal doping density of Cr is below 0.5%, whereas the room-temperature FM reaching 1.5 x 10-3 emu/g is observed in SiC with 1% Cr doping. However, the actual Cr concentrations in magnetic SiC measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy are nearly equal in both the nominal 0.5% and 1% samples, so Cr doping is not the origin of the FM. After annealing, the decreased magnetization suggests that the FM is closely associated with defects. However, we can not distinguish the defect types by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy or photoluminescence. The defects with higher dimensions rather than divacancies are proposed to induce the FM in Cr doped SiC. More efforts are needed to clarify this puzzling phenomenon.
Keywords: defect-induced ferromagnetism, SiC, Cr doping, semiconductors
  • Poster
    E-MRS 2014 SPRING MEETING, 26.-30.05.2014, Lille, France
Registration No. 20998

Ferromagnetic InMnAs prepared by Ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing
Yuan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Khalid, M.; Weschke, E.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Ferromagnetic InMnAs has been previously prepared by low temperature MBE. In this contribution, we present an alternative method what combines Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing to achieve In1-xMnxAs (x = 0.04 and 0.08) [1], and to obtain a remarkably high Curie Temperature (TC) up to 80 K compared to InMnAs with the same Mn concentration as prepared by MBE. The advantage of pulsed laser annealing is its high process temperature within the nano-second range, eliminating n-type defects which can decrease its magnetization and TC. The saturation magnetization is ~2.6μB / Mn by consideration of all implanted Mn ions. The out-of-plane [001] is the easy axis displaying a nearly square like hysteresis loop. Our results suggest that InMnAs prepared by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing shows a promising prospect to get high TC DMS after optimizing the preparation parameters.
Keywords: Ferromagnetic Semiconductors, Ion Implantation, Pulsed laser annealing
  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 30.03.-04.04.2014, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 20996
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