Mobile version: On

Publication database - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

"Online First" included
Without submitted and only approved publications
Only approved publications

24229 Publications
P1402-Kontrolle einer therapeutischen Bestrahlung durch eine Bestrahlungseinrichtung mit einem mikrogepulsten Teilchenstrahl
Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Helmbrecht, S.
Abstract: Die Erfindung betrifft Verfahren und Einrichtungen zur Kontrolle einer therapeutischen Bestrahlung durch eine Bestrahlungseinrichtung mit einem mikrogepulsten Teilchenstrahl mittels eines Positronen-Emissions-Tomografen. Diese zeichnen sich insbesondere dadurch aus, dass eine therapeutische Bestrahlung durch eine Bestrahlungseinrichtung mit einem mikrogepulsten Teilchenstrahl mittels eines Positronen-Emissions-Tomografen während der Bestrahlung kontrollierbar ist. Dazu werden wahre Koinzidenzen mittels – des durch die erlaubte Zeitdifferenz des Auftreffens zweier Photonen in verschiedenen Detektoren des Tomografen bestimmten Koinzidenzzeitfensters und – der Differenz zwischen prompten Fenster und verzögerten Fenster ohne wahre Koinzidenzen ermittelt. Dabei sind sowohl das Koinzidenzzeitfenster als auch die Zeitdifferenz zwischen prompten und verzögerten Fenster ein ganzzahliges Vielfaches der durch die Frequenz der beschleunigenden Wechselspannung des Hochfrequenzbeschleunigers gegebenen Zeitdauer einer Mikropulsperiode des Teilchenstrahls. Die Mikropulsperiode ist durch den Mikropuls und die Pause zwischen Mikropulsen definiert. Diese Zeitdauer ist durch die Frequenz der die Teilchen des Teilchenstrahls beschleunigenden Wechselspannung gegeben und damit zu wählen.
  • Patent
    DE102014202828.0 - Erteilung 15.04.2015; Nachanmeldung: WO
Registration No. 22178

Repeatability of tumor SUV quantification: the role of variable blood SUV
van den Hoff, J.; Hofheinz, F.
Abstract: kein Abstract verfügbar Registration No. 22151

Novel (pyrazolyl)benzenesulfonamides with a nitric oxide-releasing moiety as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors
Bechmann, N.; Kniess, T.; Köckerling, M.; Pigorsch, A.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy, but longterm medication with COX-2-inhibitors (coxibs) may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Functionalization of existing lead structures with nitric oxide (NO)-releasing moieties is an auspicious approach to minimize these effects. In this regard, an organic nitrate (–O–NO2) substituent was introduced at a (pyrazolyl)benzenesulfonamide lead structure. The novel NO-coxibs selectively inhibited COX-2 in a low micromolar range (IC50(COX-2): 0.22–1.27 lM) and are supposed to be promising antiinflammatory compounds with, in parallel, positive effects on vascular homeostasis.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory therapy; Cardiovascular side effects; Celecoxib; Direct/indirect NO coupling; Griess assay; Organic nitrate Registration No. 22150

Rational design of dual peptides targeting ghrelin and Y2 receptors to regulate food intake and body weight
Kilian, T. M.; Klöting, N.; Bergmann, R.; Els-Heindl, S.; Babilon, S.; Clément-Ziza, M.; Zhang, Y.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Chollet, C.
Abstract: Ghrelin and Y2 receptors play a central role in appetite regulation inducing opposite effects. The Y2 receptor induces satiety, while the ghrelin receptor promotes hunger and weight gain. However, the food regulating system is tightly controlled by interconnected pathways where redundancies can lead to poor efficacy and drug tolerance when addressing a single molecule. We developed a multitarget strategy to synthesize dual peptides simultaneously inhibiting the ghrelin receptor and stimulating the Y2 receptor. Dual peptides showed dual activity in vitro, and one compound induced a slight diminution of food intake in a rodent model of obesity. In addition, stability studies in rats revealed different behaviors between the dual peptide and its corresponding monomers. The Y2 receptor agonist was unstable in blood, while the dual peptide showed an intermediate stability compared to that of the highly stable ghrelin receptor inverse agonist. Registration No. 22149

On the relation between Kaiser-Bessel blob and tube of response based modelling of the system matrix in iterative PET image reconstruction
Lougovski, A.; Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Schramm, G.; van den Hoff, J.
Abstract: We investigate the question of how the blob approach is related to tube of response based modelling of the system matrix. In our model, the tube of response (TOR) is approximated as a cylinder with constant density (TOR-CD) and the cubic voxels are replaced by spheres. Here we investigate a modification of the TOR model that makes it effectively equivalent to the blob model, which models the intersection of lines of response (LORs) with radially variant basis functions ('blobs') replacing the cubic voxels. Implications of the achieved equivalence regarding the necessity of final resampling in blob-based reconstructions are considered. We extended TOR-CD to a variable density tube model (TOR-VD) that yields a weighting function (defining all system matrix elements) which is essentially identical to that of the blob model. The variable density of TOR-VD was modelled by a Gaussian and a Kaiser-Bessel function, respectively. The free parameters of both model functions were determined by fitting the corresponding weighting function to the weighting function of the blob model. TOR-CD and the best-fitting TOR-VD were compared to the blob model with a final resampling step (BLOB-RS) and without resampling (BLOB-NRS) in phantom studies. For three different contrast ratios and two different voxel sizes, resolution noise curves were generated. TOR-VD and BLOB-NRS lead to nearly identical images for all investigated contrast ratios and voxel sizes. Both models showed strong Gibbs artefacts at 4 mm voxel size, while at 2 mm voxel size there were no Gibbs artefacts visible.
The spatial resolution was similar to the resolution with TOR-CD in all cases. The resampling step removed most of the Gibbs artefacts and reduced the noise level but also degraded the spatial resolution substantially. We conclude that the blob model can be considered just as a special case of a TOR-based reconstruction. The latter approach provides a more natural description of the detection process and allows for modifications that are not readily representable within the blob framework.
Registration No. 22148

Positron-Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy using Electron Bremsstrahlung
Wagner, A.; Anwand, W.; Butterling, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Fiedler, F.; Fritz, F.; Kempe, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.
Abstract: A new type of an intense source of positrons for materials research has been set up at the superconducting electron linear. The source employs hard X-rays from electron-bremsstrahlung production generating energetic electron-positron pairs inside the sample under investigation. CW-operation allows performing experiments with significantly reduced pile-up artefacts in the detectors compared to pulsed mode operation in conventional accelerators. The high-resolution timing of the accelerator with bunch lengths below 10 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) allows positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements with high time resolution. A single-component annihilation lifetime of Kapton has been measured as (381.3 ± 0.3) ps. Employing segmented detectors for the detection of both annihilation photons allows for the first time to perform a 4D tomographic reconstruction of the annihilation sites including the annihilation lifetime.
Keywords: positrons materials research ELBE linac superconducting tomography


Registration No. 22147

Coulomb Dissociation Experiment of P-27
Marganiec, J.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Typel, S.; Wimmer, C.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Datta-Pramanik, U.; Elekes, Z.; Fulop, Z.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Giron, S.; Greife, U.; Hammache, F.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H.; Kiselev, O.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Litvinov, Y.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Paschalis, S.; Plag, R.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rodriguez Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Stanoiu, M.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.
Abstract: The 26Si(p;gamma)27P reaction, which might play an important role in the rp process, was studied by the Coulomb Dissociation method. The experiment was performed at GSI, Darmstadt. A secondary 27P ion beam of 500 MeV/nucleon was directed onto a Pb target. From this experiment, the Coulomb Dissociation cross section will be deduced and then converted to the photoabsorption cross section, and the radiative-capture cross section. Also information on the structure of 27P will be obtained. The analysis is in progress.
Keywords: Coulom dissociation radiative-capture radioactive beams


Registration No. 22141

Depth-resolved slow positron beam analysis of ECR proton and argon implanted graphite and boron nitride system
Ganguly, B. N.; Menon, R.; Yalagoud, N. P.; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.
Abstract: Layered materials and sp2 hybridized structures like graphite and hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN) have been subjected to electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion beam implantation of proton and argon ions at different fluences and studied primarily employing slow positron beam technique using positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). The results show remarkable structural perturbation effects in the implantation areas around the depth of 200–300 nm from the top surface, in both the systems but with glaring differences in the trends of the line shape analysis in terms of S and W parameters. Due to proton and argon ion implantation, structurally damaged lattice with open volume defects exists in graphite. But, for both the ion implantations at the high fluence, profound clustering effect of the respective atoms within the interstitial space are evident in h-BN. The structural effects of both graphite and h-BN lattice after the said implantation have been studied and corroborated through grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-Xray) method and Raman scattering spectroscopy as complementary analytical techniques.
Keywords: BN, graphite, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, positron beams, Raman spectroscopy, slow positrons Registration No. 22140

Investigating hadronic resonances in pp interactions with HADES
Przygoda, W.; Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Atomssa, E. T.; Behnke, C.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chernenko, S.; Deveaux, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, K.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Kuc3, H.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petousis, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schuldes, H.; Sellheim, P.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wirth, J.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.
Abstract: In this paper we report on the investigation of baryonic resonance production in proton-proton collisions at the kinetic energies of 1.25 GeV and 3.5 GeV, based on data measured with HADES. Exclusive channels npπ+ and ppπ0 as well as ppe+e− were studied simultaneously in the framework of a one-boson exchange model. The resonance cross sections were determined from the one-pion channels for Δ(1232) and N(1440) (1.25 GeV) as well as further Δ and N* resonances up to 2 GeV/c2 for the 3.5 GeV data. The data at 1.25 GeV energy were also analysed within the framework of the partial wave analysis together with the set of several other measurements at lower energies. The obtained solutions provided the evolution of resonance production with the beam energy, showing a sizeable non-resonant contribution but with still dominating contribution of Δ(1232)P33. In the case of 3.5 GeV data, the study of the ppe+e− channel gave the insight on the Dalitz decays of the baryon resonances and, in particular, on the electromagnetic transition form-factors in the time-like region. We show that the assumption of a constant electromagnetic transition form-factors leads to underestimation of the yield in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum below the vector mesons pole. On the other hand, a comparison with various transport models shows the important role of intermediate ρ production, though with a large model dependency. The exclusive channels analysis done by the HADES collaboration provides new stringent restrictions on the parameterizations used in the models.


Registration No. 22138

Developed turbulence and nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas
Meinecke, J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Bell, A.; Bingham, R.; Clarke, R.; Churazov, E.; Crowston, R.; Doyle, H.; Drake, R. Paul; Heathcote, R.; Koenig, M.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Kuranz, C.; Lee, D.; Macdonald, M.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Park, H.-S.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Wan, W.; Woolsey, N.; Yurchak, R.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.
Abstract: The visible matter in the universe is turbulent and magnetized. Turbulence in galaxy clusters is produced by mergers and by jets of the central galaxies and believed responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields. We report on experiments looking at the collision of two laser-produced plasma clouds, mimicking, in the laboratory, a cluster merger event. By measuring the spectrum of the density fluctuations, we infer developed, Kolmogorov-like turbulence. From spectral line broadening, we estimate a level of turbulence consistent with turbulent heating balancing radiative cooling, as it likely does in galaxy clusters. We show that the magnetic field is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a nonlinear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. Thus, our experiment provides a promising platform for understanding the structure of turbulence and the amplification of magnetic fields in the universe.
Keywords: galaxy clusters, laboratory analogues, lasers, magnetic fields, turbulence Registration No. 22136

Recycling of magnesium chips
Ohmann, S.; Ditze, A.; Scharf, C.
Abstract: Magnesium chips were processed by means of re-melting. An important requirement of re-melting the chips is the removal of oil and moisture. The results show that using acetone in a soxhlet as an organic solvent is a more efficient method to obtain good results compared to vacuum distillation with a rotational evaporator. The subsequent re-melting has been successfully performed without the addition of flux between temperatures of 580 °C and 600°C. At this temperature range, the exothermic reaction of magnesium with the oxygen present in the surrounding atmosphere was avoided. Results show that more than 95 % of the magnesium chips were able to be recovered as metal. Experiments were performed at different scales to obtain production parameters for the recycling process. Larger particle size of magnesium chips were able to be faster remelted than the smaller ones. In the case of added lime for oil removal, the yield of recovered magnesium was lower due to the reaction towards magnesium foam. The ability of re-melting at low temperatures without the need for flux demonstrates the possibility of recovering virtually all of the metal from the chips.
Keywords: Magnesium, Chips, Recycling, Remelting, Analysis
  • Contribution to proceedings
    European Metallurgical Conference, 14.-17.06.2015, Düsseldorf, Germany
    EMC 2015 Volume 1, 978-3-940276-61-2
Registration No. 22134

Liquid phase epitaxy of binary III-V nanocrystals in thin Si layers triggered by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing
Wutzler, R.; Rebohle, L.; Prucnal, S.; Bregolin, F.; Hübner, R.; Voelskow, M.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.
Abstract: The integration of III-V compound semiconductors in Si is a crucial step towards faster and smaller devices in future technologies. In this work, we investigate the formation process of III-V compound semiconductor nanocrystals, namely, GaAs, GaSb, and InP, by ion implantation and sub-second flash lamp annealing in a SiO2/Si/SiO2 layer stack on Si grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to identify the structural and optical properties of these structures. Raman spectra of the nanocomposites show typical phonon modes of the compound semiconductors. The formation process of the III-V compounds is found to be based on liquid phase epitaxy, and the model is extended to the case of an amorphous matrix without an epitaxial template from a Si substrate. It is shown that the particular segregation and diffusion coefficients of the implanted group-III and group-V ions in molten Si significantly determine the final appearance of the nanostructure and thus their suitability for potential applications.
Keywords: ion implantation, flash lamp annealing, III-V integration into silicon, nanostructure, liquid phase epitaxy, compound semiconductor Registration No. 22132

Flash-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition: Basics, Opportunities, Review, and Principal Studies on the Flash-Enhanced Growth of Thin Films
Henke, T.; Knaut, M.; Hossbach, C.; Geidel, M.; Rebohle, L.; Albert, M.; Skorupa, W.; Bartha, J.
Abstract: Within this work, flash lamp annealing (FLA) is utilized to thermally enhance the film growth in atomic layer deposition (ALD). First, the basic principles of this flash-enhanced ALD (FEALD) are presented in detail, the technology is reviewed and classified. Thereafter, results of our studies on the FEALD of aluminum-based and ruthenium thin films are presented. These depositions were realized by periodically flashing on a substrate during the precursor exposure. In both cases, the film growth is induced by the flash heating and the processes exhibit typical ALD characteristics such as layer-by-layer growth and growth rates smaller than one angstrom/cycle. The obtained relations between process parameters and film growth parameters are discussed with the main focus on the impact of the FLA-caused temperature profile on the film growth.

Similar, substrate-dependent growth rates are attributed to the different optical characteristics of the applied substrates. Regarding the ruthenium deposition, a single-source process was realized. It was also successfully applied to significantly enhance the nucleation behavior in order to overcome substrate-inhibited film growth. Besides, this work addresses technical challenges for the practical realization of this film deposition method and demonstrates the potential of this technology to extend the capabilities of thermal ALD.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing, atomic layer deposition


Registration No. 22131

XAS and XMCD studies of magnetic properties modifications of Pt/Co/Au and Pt/Co/Pt trilayers induced by Ga+ ions irradiation
Mazalski, P.; Sveklo, I.; Kurant, Z.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Fassbender, J.; Baczewski, L.; Wawro, A.; Maziewski, A.
Abstract: Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Pt/Co/Au and Pt/Co/Pt trilayers subjected to 30 keV Ga+ ion irradiation are compared. In two-dimensional maps of these properties as a function of cobalt thickness and ion fluence, two branches with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) for Pt/Co/Pt trilayers are well distinguished. The replacement of the Pt capping layer with Au results in the two branches still being visible but the in-plane anisotropy for the low-fluence branch is suppressed whereas the high-fluence branch displays PMA. The X-ray absorption spectra and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra are discussed and compared with non-irradiated reference samples. The changes of their shapes and peak amplitude, particularly for the high-fluence branch, are related to the modifications of the local environment of Co(Pt) atoms and the etching effects induced by ion irradiation. Additionally, in irradiated trilayers the XMCD measurements at the Pt L-2,L-3-edge reveal an increase of the magnetic moment induced in Pt atoms. Registration No. 22126

Kinematic dynamos resulting from the interaction of high permeability material and flows of liquid sodium.
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.
Abstract: We perform numerical simulations of the dynamo effect driven by various flow fields of a conducting liquid interacting with "magnetic material" characterized by a large relative permeability. The examinations are motivated by the key role of soft iron impellers for the Von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo [1] and by the repeatedly expressed idea to make use of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic/martensitic alloys in the core of a fast reactor which may exhibit a permeability much larger than one [2].

The results of our simulations that consider a localized distribution with finite permeability clearly differ from computations using simplyfying pseudo-vacuum boundary conditions (vanishing tangential field conditions) in order to mimic the impact of infinite permeability. Our kinematic simulations of an axisymmetric model of the VKS dynamo show a close connection between the exclusive occurrence of dynamo action in the presence of soft iron impellers and the observed axisymmetry of the magnetic field [3]. We qualitatively explain this effect by paramagnetic pumping at the fluid-disk interface and propose a simplified analytical model that quantitatively reproduces numerical results. In order to fully explain the observation of growing magnetic fields in the VKS dynamo we resort to mean-field dynamo theory [4] in terms of an α-effect caused by helical outflows between adjacent blades attached to the impeller disks.

In order to examine the properties of the α- and β-effect (which is closely related to the turbulent diffusivity) under influence of magnetic material [5] we use an idealized helical flow field (a modified Roberts flow). We compute the mean-field coefficients using the test-field method [6] and proof that the corresponding mean-field models are indeed capable to reproduce growth-rates and principle field structure of the fully resolved model by requiring much less computational efforts.

Further remarkable results are the observed reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number by roughly 30 percent independently of configuration or flow geometry when the permeability is sufficiently large. However, this universality is not reflected in the behavior of the mean-field coefficients. In particular, the β-effect strongly depends on the geometry and the permeability. A striking feature is the occurrence of negative β which has previously been observed in simulations [7] and, more recently, in experiments [8].

Our results for the mean-field coefficients allow the development of dynamo models for nearly arbitrary systems of various sizes consisting of a large number of helical small scale flow cells embedded into some large flow structure.

[1]Monchaux, R. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007), 044502
[2]Dubuisson, P., de Carlan, Y., Garat, V. and Blat, M., J. Nucl. Mater. 428 (2012), 6–12
[3]Giesecke, A. et al., New J. Phys. 14 (2012), 053005
[4]Krause, F. and Rädler, K.-H. Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory, Pergamon Press 1980
[5]Giesecke, A. et al., New J. Phys. 16 (2014), 073034
[6]Schrinner, M. et al., Astron. Nachr. 326 (2005), 245-249
[7]Rädler, K.-H. and Brandenburg, A., Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003), 026401
[8]Frick, P., Noskov, V., Denisov, S. and Stepanov ,R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010), 184502

Keywords: dynamo
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Russian Conference on Magnetohydrodynamics, 22.-25.06.2015, Perm, Russia
Registration No. 22124

Tomographic investigations on the effects of gas entrainment on centrifugal pumps
Schäfer, T.
Abstract: High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) was applied to clarify the two phase flow distribution inside the impeller wheel of a running pump. Thus, the accumulated gas holdup inside the impeller of an industrial centrifugal pump was investigated and analysed, depending on the suction side gas volume fraction and type of two phase flow regime. Using time-averaging rotation-synchronized tomographic imaging technique, effects on the conveying performance of the centrifugal pump could be clarified. The obtained results contributes to a better understanding of the flow behavior and its effects inside the impeller of a centrifugal pump, which is running under two phase flow conditions due to gas entrainment. Moreover, the results can help to develop improved pump designs to avoid loss of conveying performance due to gas entrainment.
Keywords: centrifugal pump, gas entrainment, two-phase flow, advanced gamma-ray computed tomography, phase fraction visualization
  • Lecture (Conference)
    46th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT), 05.-07.05.2015, Berlin, Deutschland
Registration No. 22114

Untersuchung von Zweiphasenströmungen in einer Kreiselpumpe mittels tomographischer Bildgebungsverfahren
Schäfer, T.; Neumann, M.; Bieberle, A.; Hampel, U.
Abstract: Zentrifugalpumpen sind sehr weitverbreitet und werden in vielfältiger Weise unter anderem in der Prozessindustrie oder im Kraftwerksbereich eingesetzt. Beispielweise nutzt man Kreiselpumpen in Raffinerien als Speisepumpen oder in Kraftwerken als Umwälzpumpen in Kühlkreisläufen. Erfolgt der Einsatz auch in sicherheitsrelevanten Bereichen, wie z.B. in der Reaktornotkühlung von Kernkraftwerken, muss unbedingt ein störungsfreier und zuverlässiger Betrieb gewährleistet werden. Obwohl diese Pumpen einfach aufgebaut sind, bieten sie eine Reihe von Vorteilen, wie zum Beispiel hohe Effizienz bei geringem Energieverbrauch, ruhiger und kontinuierlicher Förderstrom und hohe Haltbarkeit und Beständigkeit. Es ist bekannt, dass sowohl Gaseintrag als auch Dampfbildung durch Kavitation schädlich und kritisch für den Betrieb von Kreiselpumpen sind, welche eigentlich für den einphasigen Betrieb ausgelegt sind. Gaseintrag kann beispielsweise in Situationen entstehen, wo Flüssigkeiten aus Reservoirs mit einem zu niedrigen Füllstand gefördert werden. Hier können sich als Konsequenz aus der unzureichenden Überdeckung des Pumpenansaugstutzens und der Anwesenheit von Initialwirbeln an der Flüssigkeitsoberfläche Hohlwirbel ausprägen. Derartige Situationen sind insbesondere in Kernkraftwerken, wo beispielsweise Notkühlmittel aus einem Reservoir wie der Kondensationskammer gefördert wird, unbedingt zu vermeiden. Der Gaseintrag führt zu einer verminderten Förderleistung der Pumpe, bis hin zum vollständigen Zusammenbruch der Förderrate. Außerdem kann vorhandenes Gas in Pumpen unter anderem zum Verlust der Kühlung der Lager und der Gleitringdichtung führen, was zu einer früheren Abnutzung bis hin zum Versagen der Pumpe führt. Auch starke Vibrationen welche ebenfalls zur Schädigung der Lager beitragen, sowie Abnutzungserscheinungen an den Laufradschaufeln können eintreten. Die vorgestellte Arbeit leistet mit quantitativen Messungen, Visualisierungen und Analysen der Gas-Flüssigkeits-Phasenverteilungen innerhalb des Laufrades und des umgebenden Pumpengehäuses einer fördernden Kreiselpumpe einen Beitrag zum fundamentalen Verständnis der Auswirkungen von Gaseintrag in Zentrifugalpumpen.
Keywords: Kreiselpumpe, Gaseintrag, Zweiphasenströmung, erweiterte Gammastrahlen-Computertomographie, Visualisierung der Phasenanteile centrifugal pump, gas entrainment, two-phase flow, advanced gamma-ray computed tomography, phase fraction visualization
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2. Projektstatusgespräch zur BMBF-geförderten Nuklearen Sicherheitsforschung, 25.-26.03.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 22113

Synthesis and First Evaluation of [18F]Fluorocyano- and [18F]Fluoronitroquinoxalinedione as Putative AMPA Receptor Antagonists
Olma, S.; Ermert, J.; Sihver, W.; Coenen, H.-H.
Abstract: Derivatives of quinoxalinedione (QX) were chosen as chemical lead for the development of new radioligands of the AMPA receptor, since there are several examples of QX-derivatives with high affinity. The radiosyntheses of the new compounds 6-[18F]fluoro-7-nitro-QX ([18F]FNQX) and 7-[18F]fluoro-6-cyano-QX ([18F]FCQX) with radiochemical yields of 8 ± 2 and 3 ± 2 %, respectively, as well as the evaluation of their binding properties to the AMPA-receptor were performed. A comparison of the Ki-values of the new QX-derivatives FCQX and FNQX with mono-substituted cyanoand nitro-QX shows negligibly small differences of affinity (within the range of 1.4 to 5 µM), but exhibits a tenfold lower affinity than derivatives with two electron withdrawing groups like the 7-cyano-6-nitro-compound CNQX and the 6,7- dinitro compound DNQX. Thus, with respect to the low affinity and a high non-specific binding with in vitro and ex vivo autoradiographic studies, the new compounds do not lend themselves for in vivo imaging.
Keywords: AMPA receptor, fluorine-18, glutamate receptor, positron emission tomography, quinoxalinedione, radiofluorination. Registration No. 22111

Nichtinvasive Zustandsüberwachung von Kernreaktoren zur Detektion von Füllstandsänderungen und Deformationen des Kerns
Hampel, U.; Brachem, C.; Lange, C.; Kratzsch, A.; Schmidt, S.; Fiß, D.; Härtel, S.; Konheiser, J.
Abstract: Der Vortrag stell das laufende BMBF-Vorhaben "Nichtinvasive Zustandsüberwachung von Kernreaktoren zur Detektion von Füllstandsänderungen und Deformationen des Kerns" vor. Berichtet wird über den Hintergrund des Vorhabens, Zielstellungen im Rahmen der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung und Nachwuchsförderung in der Kerntechnik sowie über aktuelle Projektergebnisse.
Keywords: Nuclear Safety, Reactor Safety, Reactor Monitoring, Monte-Carlo Simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Projektstatusgespräch zu BMBF-geförderten FuE-Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Nuklearen Sicherheits- und Entsorgungsforschung sowie Strahlenforschung, 25.03.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 22109

Toward polarized antiprotons: Machine development for spin-filtering experiments
Weidemann, C.; Rathmann, F.; Stein, H.; Lorentz, B.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Bertelli, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Goslawski, P.; Grigoriev, K.; Guidoboni, G.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Khoukaz, A.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Macharashvili, G.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Meyer, H.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Mikirtychiants, S.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N.; Oellers, D.; Papenbrock, M.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Retzlaff, M.; Schleichert, R.; Schroer, D.; Seyfarth, H.; Soltner, H.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Engblom, P.; Trusov, S.; Valdau, Y.; Vasiliev, A.; Wustner, P.
Abstract: The paper describes the commissioning of the experimental equipment and the machine studies required for the first spin-filtering experiment with protons at a beam kinetic energy of 49.3 MeV in COSY. The implementation of a low-β insertion made it possible to achieve beam lifetimes of τb=8000  s in the presence of a dense polarized hydrogen storage-cell target of areal density dt=(5.5±0.2)×1013  atoms/cm2. The developed techniques can be directly applied to antiproton machines and allow the determination of the spin-dependent p¯p cross sections via spin filtering.


Registration No. 22107

Analysing powers and spin correlations in deuteron–proton charge exchange at 726 MeV
Dymov, S.; Azaryan, T.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chiladze, D.; Engels, R.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Khoukaz, A.; Komarov, V.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Kurbatov, V.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Macharashvili, G.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Seyfarth, H.; Shmakova, V.; Stroeher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, C.; Wilkin, C.
Abstract: The charge exchange of vector polarised deuterons on a polarised hydrogen target has been studied in a high statistics experiment at the COSY-ANKE facility at a deuteron beam energy of Td=726 MeV. By selecting two fast protons at low relative energy Epp, the measured analysing powers and spin correlations are sensitive to interference terms between specific neutron–proton charge-exchange amplitudes at a neutron kinetic energy of Tn≈1/2 Td=363 MeV. An impulse approximation calculation, which takes into account corrections due to the angular distribution in the diproton, describes reasonably the dependence of the data on both Epp and the momentum transfer. This lends broad support to the current neutron–proton partial wave solution that was used in the estimation. Registration No. 22106

Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics (at p-process workshop)
Szücs, T.
Abstract: A very low background level is a key requirement for low-energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. A series of detailed high energy (E> 3 MeV) laboratory gamma-background study with escape-suppressed HPGe detectors has been performed at the surface of the Earth [1,2], at shallow underground (110 m w. e.) in the Felsenkeller laboratory in Dresden, Germany [2,3], at medium deep underground (400 m w. e.) in the Reiche Zeche mine in Freiberg, Germany [3], and at deep underground (3800 m w. e.) in LNGS in Gran Sasso, Italy [1]. The data show that already a shallow underground site has sufficiently low gamma-background for many nuclear astrophysics studies when an additional active shield is used to veto the remaining muon flux [2,3].
Benefiting from these low background conditions, a used 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator with external high-current sputter ion source for hydrogen and carbon beams is currently being refurbished for installation in Felsenkeller [4]. Installation of an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is under way. The ions will be injected into the acceleration tube by an electrostatic deflector, thus the tandem mode of operation will be kept. With the RF-source up to 100A alpha beam is foreseen. Similarly high proton current either from the external or the internal source will be available. In addition, also a large, well-shielded HPGe detector for offline counting will be included in the new laboratory, enabling activation experiments.

The Felsenkeller accelerator will be used in part for in-house research by HZDR and TU Dresden, aiming for complementarity with the LUNA-MV project and science program. In addition, external users from any field of science will be highly welcome at Felsenkeller. Users are to be selected based on the recommendations of an independent group of outside advisers judging the scientific merits of the proposals.
Owing to the high current of the 5 MV Pelletron and the low laboratory background, the Felsenkeller laboratory may be suited to study p-process related nuclear reactions.

In addition to the detailed introduction of the new Felsenkeller accelerator laboratory, the talk will flash the recent status of the KADoNiS-p database [5].

- Supported by the Helmholtz Association (HGF) through the Nuclear Astrophysics Virtual Institute (NAVI, HGF VH-VI-417)

[1] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 44, (2010) 513
[2] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 48, (2012) 8
[3] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 51, (2015) 33
[4] D. Bemmerer et al., Procc. of Sciences NIC XIII, (2015) 044
[5] T.Szücs et al., Nucl. Data Sheets 120, (2014) 191

Keywords: Felsenkeller, Underground, accelerator, nuclear astrophysics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    p-process workshop 2015: status and outlook, 10.-13.06.2015, Limassol, Cyprus
Registration No. 22103

Cysteine cathepsins: their role in tumor progression and recent trends in the development of imaging probes
Löser, R.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Papain-like cysteine proteases bear an enormous potential as drug discovery targets for both infectious and systemic human diseases. The considerable progress in this field over the last two decades has also raised interest in the visualization of these enzymes in their native context, especially with regard to tumor imaging.
After a short introduction to structure and general functions of human cysteine cathepsins, we highlight their importance for drug discovery and development and provide a critical update on the current state of knowledge towards their involvement in tumor progression, with a special emphasis on their role in therapy response. In accordance with a radiopharmaceutical point of view, the main focus of this review article will be the discussion of recently developed fluorescence and radiotracer-based imaging agents together with related molecular probes.

Keywords: Cancer, Carcinogenesis, extracellular enzymes, Fluorescence-based probes, Lysosomal cysteine proteases, metastasis, Molecular Imaging, radiotracers Registration No. 22101

Flexible Antigen-Specific Redirection of Human Regulatory T Cells Via a Novel Universal Chimeric Antigen Receptor System
Koristka, S.; Cartellieri, M.; Feldmann, A.; Arndt, C.; Loff, S.; Michalk, I.; Aliperta, R.; von Bonin, M.; Bornhäuser, M.; Ehninger, A.; Ehninger, G.; Bachmann, M. P.
Abstract: Based on compelling evidence from a vast number of in vitro and in vivostudies, Tregs have become an attractive cell population to treat or even prevent auto- and alloimmunity including Graft-versus-Host disease (GvHD). However, several safety concerns still exist as for example the risk of global immunosuppression using polyclonal Tregs. In fact, experiments in mice showed that adoptive transfer or induction of antigen-specific Tregs is more potent regarding suppression of pathogenic immune responses when compared to polyclonal Treg populations. Unfortunately, the isolation and expansion of naturally occurring antigen-specific Tregs is technically difficult, labour-intensive, and time-consuming. An attractive way to overcome these limitations and to endow polyclonal Treg populations with a desired antigen-specificity is their engraftment with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). In this context, CAR-modification represents a promising approach to redirect polyclonal Tregs in an antigen-specific manner to suppress ongoing self-destructive immune responses at the site of inflammation.

Nevertheless, until now redirection of CAR-engineered T cells is limited to a single target antigen, restricting this approach to an unflexible monospecific therapy. Therefore, we developed a more flexible universal CAR (UCAR) platform that allows redirection of T cells to an in principal unrestricted number of surface antigens. T cells are engrafted with UCARs that bind to a small peptide epitope derived from a human nuclear protein. Cross-linkage to target cells is mediated by independent target modules that provide antigen-specificity and comprise the peptide epitope recognized by the UCAR. In order to target different tissue antigens, the target modules can easily be exchanged. Thereby, once established, the treatment strategy can easily be applied to various auto- and alloimmune diseases.

At present, the CD45RA+ population is the Treg subset of choice for a clinical application as these cells have the highest capacity to maintain phenotypic and functional Treg properties upon prolonged ex vivo expansion. Here we show that highly pure, sorted CD4+CD25+CD127lowCD45RA+ Tregs can be genetically manipulated using lentiviral gene transfer, resulting in approximately 70 % of UCAR-expressing Treg cells. The transduction procedure itself did not affect the phenotype of UCAR-engineered Tregs as it was similar to non-transduced wildtype cells. Both Treg populations presevered FOXP3 expression even after prolonged in vitro cultivation (> 95 % FOXP3+). Upon incubation with antigen-positive target cells and a respective target module UCAR-engineered Tregs upregulate the activation markers CD69 and LAP demonstrating that the cells can be restimulated antigen-specifically. Most importantly, UCAR-engrafted Tregs were functionally activated upon antigen encounter, demonstrated by suppression of proliferation and expansion of cocultured autologous T effector cells.

Taken together, our results pave the way towards an application of UCAR technology for a site-specific recruitment of CAR-modified Tregs into inflamed tissues aiming at re-establishing immune homeostasis. Due to its high flexibility UCAR-engrafted Tregs can easily and universally be used for treatment of various autoimmune diseases or GvHD just by exchanging the tissue-specific target modules.

Disclosures Cartellieri: Cellex Patient Treatment GmbH: Employment. Ehninger: GEMoaB GmbH: Employment, Patents & Royalties. Ehninger: GEMoaB GmbH: Consultancy, Patents & Royalties. Bachmann: GEMoaB GmbH: Consultancy, Patents & Royalties.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    BLOOD 124(2014)21, 3494
  • Poster
    56th ASH Annual Meeting, 06.-09.12.2014, San Francisco, USA
Registration No. 22099

Novel indole-based sigma-2 receptor ligands: synthesis, structure–affinity relationship and antiproliferative activity
Xie, F.; Kniess, T.; Neuber, C.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Mamat, C.; Liebermann, Brain P.; Liu, B.; Mach, Robert H.; Brust, P.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Jia, H.
Abstract: We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of indole-based σ2 receptor ligands derived from siramesine. In vitro competition binding assays showed that these analogues possessed high to moderate affinity and selectivity for σ2 receptors. Structure–affinity relationship analyses of these indole-based σ2 receptor ligands were performed. In the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 1a and 1b displayed significant and comparable antiproliferative activity in DU145, MCF7 and C6 cells to siramesine. In cell cycle analyses, compounds 1a, 1b and siramesine were found to induce a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in DU145 cells using flow cytometry. The combination of 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline scaffold and N-(4-fluorophenyl)indole moiety was identified as a new σ2 receptor ligand deserving further investigation as an antitumor agent. Registration No. 22096

Melanoma targeting with [99mTcN(PNP3)]-labeled α-MSH peptide analogs: Preliminary studies
Gao, F.; Carta, D.; Salvarese, N.; Sihver, W.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Biondi, B.; Ruzza, P.; Refosco, F.; Bolzati, C.
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cyclization on the biological profiles of [99mTcN(PNP3)]-labeled α-MSH analogs.
Methods: The linear peptide H-Cys-Ahx-bAla-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-NH2 (NAP-NS1) (1) and a corresponding lactam bridge-cyclized peptide, H-Cys-Ahx-bAla3-c[Lys4-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu10]-Arg11-Pro-Val-NH2 (NAP-NS2) (2), were synthesized, characterized by ESI-MS, and their melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) binding affinity was determined in B16F10 melanoma cells. In vitro stability and pharmacological parameters of [99mTc(N)(NAP-NS1)(PNP3)]+ (1a) and [99mTc(N)(NAP-NS2)(PNP3)]+ (2a) were assessed. Challenges with an excess of glutathione and cysteine and LogD values were also investigated. Furthermore, 1a and 2a were applied to study in vivo stability and the pharmacokinetic profiles on healthy rats.
Results: 1a and 2a were obtained in high yield (RCY > 90%). LogD values demonstrated the hydrophilic nature of the radiolabeled peptides: -1.43 for 1a; - 2.09 for 2a. No significant variations in RCPs of both the complexes were
observed. Both complexes showed high stability after incubation in human and rat sera as well as in rat liver homogenate. A fast degradation of 2a was detected in kidneys homogenate. 1a retained a high receptor affinity (Kd: 7.1±0.5 nM). Biodistribution of 1a displayed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with fast blood clearance and elimination from normal tissues. Rapid renal excretion of 1a was observed due to the high hydrophilic
character. The pharmacokinetic profile of 2a was reflected in reduction of the blood clearance and the elimination from the other organs; especially the kidneys showed restraint elimination.
Conclusions: Compared with the linear peptide 1, cyclization affected the pharmacological properties of 2 negatively by reducing its stability, its binding affinity to MC1Rs (Ki: 0.9±0.3 nM for 1; 7.1±2.4 nM for 2) and decreasing the overall excretion rate of the corresponding [99mTcN(PNP3)]-labeled peptide from the body. Thus, only the linear labeled peptide 1a will be considered for further investigations in tumor bearing mice.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S359
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22091

(Radio)pharmacological characterization of novel α-MSH derivatives
Gao, F.; Sihver, W.; Bergmann, R.; Haase-Kohn, C.; Steinbach, J.; Carta, D.; Bolzati, C.; Calderan, A.; Pietzsch, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.
Abstract: Objectives: Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is well known to be overexpressed in melanoma. Thus, it has been a great interest in targeting this receptor for diagnosis of human metastasized melanoma. We aimed at investigating
(radio)pharmacological properties of novel derivatives of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and selecting most promising candidates for further studies in melanoma models in vivo.
Methods: Linear and cyclic α-MSH derivatives (NAP-NS1(1), NOTA-NAP-NS1(2), natCu-NOTA-NAP-NS1(3), NAP-NS2(4), NOTA-NAP-NS2(5), natCu-NOTA-NAP-NS2(6), DPA-NAP-NS1(7) and Re-tricarbonyl-DPA-NAPNS1(8)) were investigated in competition assays in both murine B16F10 and human MeWo cells. In vitro stabilities of [64Cu]Cu-2, [64Cu]Cu-5 and 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 were tested in phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) and human serum at 37°C for 1h and 24h. Transchelation and octanol/water partition coefficients of radiolabeled peptides were also investigated. Additionally, [64Cu]Cu-2, [64Cu]Cu-5 and 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 with high radiochemical purities and specific activities were applied in saturation assays and kinetic studies.
Results: Linear α-MSH derivatives (1, 2, 3, 7 and 8) showed higher affinities on both murine and human cells than cyclic α-MSH derivatives (4, 5, 6). Linking the chelator to the peptide and coordinating the chelator-peptide with
natCu or Re were accompanied by some loss of affinity. [64Cu]Cu-2, [64Cu]Cu-5 and 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 were stable in phosphate buffer and serum at 37°C after incubation for 1h and 24h. No transchelation of radiolabeled peptides was observed in cysteine and histidine challenge experiments. LogD values suggested that [64Cu]Cu-2 (-2.30±0.01) and [64Cu]Cu-5 (-3.39±0.04) had higher hydrophilicity than 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 (-0.43±0.01). Saturation studies in both cell lines resulted in Kd values (nM) in the lower nanomolar ranges for [64Cu]Cu-2 (B16F10: 1.7±0.2; MeWo: 2.6±0.5) and 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 (B16F10: 6.0±0.5; MeWo: 4.5±0.8). But Bmax (fmol/mg protein) of [64Cu]Cu-2 on murine and human cells (B16F10: 46.6±3.9; MeWo: 16.6±1.6) was notably lower than that of 99mTc-tricarbonyl-7 (B16F10: 403.5±46.1; MeWo: 50.3±6.4). Kinetic study of [64Cu]Cu-2 in murine cells showed rapid cellular association and dissociation in vitro.
Conclusions: [64Cu]Cu-2 showed high stability, hydrophilicity, binding affinities and rapid cellular association and dissociation in vitro, which made it promising for further investigations in melanoma models.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S345
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22090

Synthesis, 18F-labeling and radiopharmacological characterization of a claudin-targeting peptide
Löser, R.; Bader, M.; Kuchar, M.; Wodtke, R.; Bergmann, R.; Lenk, J.; Haase-Kohn, C.; Pufe, J.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Objectives: The cell surface receptor claudin-4 (Cld-4) is upregulated in various tumors and represents a promising target for both diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors of epithelial origin [1]. A suitable ligand to address Cld-4 in
vivo seems to be the C-terminal fragment of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin cCPE(290-319) (1; Figure 1)
Methods: 1 and N-terminally modified (fluorobenzoylated and FITC-conjugated) as well as other analogs were synthesized by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Their affinity to a protein construct containing both extracellular loops of Cld-4 was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Labeling of 1 with fluorine-18 was achieved on solid phase using [18F]SFB and 4-[18F]fluorobenzoyl chloride as 18F-acylating agents [3]. The stability of the resulting radiotracer was evaluated in different physiological media. Its cell binding was investigated using the HT29, A375 and A431 tumor cell lines. The in vivo behavior of 18F-labeled 1 was studied in NMRI nu/nu mice and Wistar rats by dynamic PET imaging and radiometabolite analyses, respectively. Furthermore, the binding of FITC-conjugated 1 was investigated by fluorescence microscopy.
Results: Among several approaches tried, sequential SPPS using three pseudoproline-dipeptide building blocks revealed as the most efficient one to afford 1 and its derivatives. Their affinities to the Cld-4 mimicking construct are in the low micromolar range. 18F-labeling was most advantageous when [18F]SFB was reacted with resin-bound 1 containing an N-terminal aminohexanoic spacer. The resulting radiotracer was sufficiently stable in cell supernatants and plasma. Its cell binding was time-dependent and higher to the Cld-4-positive A375 and A431 compared to the negative HT29 line. Results of confocal microscopy using FITC-1 and A431 cells are in
accordance with these findings. 18F-labeled 1 is subject to substantial liver uptake and rapid metabolic degradation in vivo.
Conclusions: The synthesis and 18F-labeling of 1 was successfully established. Its binding to Cld-4 in vitro and in cellulo has been demonstrated. Initial radiopharmacological studies suggest the limited suitability of this peptide in its current form to target Cld-4 in vivo.
[1] Neese A, et al (2012) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 524, 64–70.
[2] Ling J, et al (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 30585–30595.
[3] Kuchar M, et al (2012) Amino Acids 43, 1431-1443.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S205
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22089

Targeting lysyl oxidase for molecular imaging in breast cancer
Wuest, M.; Kuchar, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Richter, S.; Wankg, M.; Vos, L.; Mackey, John R.; Wuest, F.; Löser, R.
Abstract: Objectives: Lysyl oxidase (LOX, EC and its family members LOX-like 1-4 are copper-dependent matrixmodifying enzymes [1]. The expression of LOX is elevated in many human cancers, including breast cancer and
correlates with tissue hypoxia. The enzyme plays a critical role in breast cancer metastasis [2]. The goal of the current study was to target LOX with fluorescent and radiolabeled oligopeptides to visualize LOX in preclinical
models of breast cancer.
Methods: mRNA expression of all 5 LOX family members was analyzed by gene expression microarray analysis on samples from 176 breast cancer patients. The peptidic substrate GGGDPKGGGGG was selected to target LOX
[3]. The peptide was labeled with either FITC for confocal microscopy experiments or with the positron emitter fluorine-18 for molecular imaging in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) (Figure 1). The preclinical
breast cancer models utilized were the murine breast cancer cell line EMT-6 and xenografts of MCF-7 and MDAMB-231.
Results: Immunofluorescence with a LOX-specific antibody confirmed that LOX protein expression is enhanced in hypoxic EMT-6 cells. FITC-labeled oligopeptide binds to several cell compartments of EMT6 cells under hypoxic
conditions. After injection of 18F-labeled oligopeptide, radioactivity uptake was visible in all three breast cancer models in vivo with SUV5min values of: 0.70±0.07 (n=3) in EMT-6, 0.57±0.01 (n=3) in MCF-7 and 0.68 (n=2) in MDA-MB-231. The following continuous washout of radioactivity led to SUV60min values of: 0.18±0.03 (n=3) in EMT-6, 0.14±0.02 (n=3) in MCF-7 and 0.13 (n=2) in MDA-MB-231. Tumor uptake was reduced by pre-dosing with the irreversible LOX inhibitor BAPN 4 h and 24 h prior to injection of the radiotracer.
Conclusions: These data support further investigations towards the development of LOX-binding peptides as molecular probes for imaging of LOX expression in breast cancer.
Acknowledgements: The access to the Alberta Cancer Foundation-supported CBCF Tumor Bank is well appreciated.
[1] Payne SL, et al (2007) J. Cell. Biochem.101, 1338-54.
[2] Erler JT, et al (2006) Nature 440, 1222-6.
[3] Nagan N and Kagan HM (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 22366-71.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S204
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22088

Fast 18F-fluoroethylation without azeotropic drying in the radiosynthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors
Kniess, T.; Laube, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.
Abstract: Objectives: 18F-Fluoroethylation is a basic approach in PET labeling chemistry and 2-[18F]fluoroethyl tosylate ([18F]FETs) is one of the mostly used agents. Usual protocols with [18F]FETs are covering the azeotropic drying of [18F]fluoride, nucleophilic substitution, purification and 18F-fluoroethylation within 60-90 min synthesis time. We developed a fast 18F-fluoroethylation avoiding azeotropic drying to yield e.g. 18F-fluoroethylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors within 25 min.
Methods: Our approach is based on the finding that [18F]fluoride trapped on SAX cartridges can be completely eluted by a mixture of K222/K2CO3/acetonitrile/2% water and is bsufficiently reactive for 18F-labeling. [1,2] [18F]Fluoride, trapped on the SAX cartridge is eluted with 0.7 mL K222/K2CO3/acetonitrile/H2O into a vial containing 20 μmol bis-tosylate precursor. The vial is heated 10 min at 100°C, than 20 μmol hydroxyl precursor and 40 μmol Cs2CO3 dissolved in 0.5 mL DMF are added. Additional heating for 10 min at 110°C yields the 18Ffluoroethylated COX-2 radiotracers, by almost complete consumption of [18F]FETs. We used three different precursors to build COX-2 inhibitors (Fig) as model compounds to elucidate 18F-fluoroethylation.
Results: By elution of the SAX cartridge (46 mg) with K222/K2CO3/acetonitrile/H2O (42 μmol, 21 μmol, 679 μL, 21 μL) the adsorbed activity could be tranferred nearly quantitatively (93-95%). [18F]FETs was formed in 79-88% rcy as confirmed by radio-TLC. Subsequent 18F-fluoroethylation of the corresponding hydroxyl precursors resulted in yields of 77-92% (n=7) in case of the cyclopentene (1), 54-65% (n=3) for the pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine (2), and 44-70% (n=3) for the indomethacine (3).
Conclusions: The [18F]KF/K222/K2CO3/H2O complex, formed without azeotropic drying is highly reactive to form [18F]FETs in yields up to 88%. Hence the reaction time can be shortened resulting in fast 18F-fluoethylations with total radiochemical yields up to 92% as exemplified for three radiolabeled COX-2 inhibitors.
[1] Wessmann S.H. et al., Nuklearmedizin, 2012, 51, 1-8
[2] Kolb H.C. et al., J.Label.Compd.Radiopharm.,2011, 54, S518
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S169
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22087

18F-Radiolabeling of Second Generation EphB4 Inhibitors Based on Bis-anilinopyrimidines
Mamat, C.; Wiemer, J.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.
Abstract: Objectives: Ephrins and its Eph receptors are dysregulated in several human tumor entities including malignant melanoma. In this regard, the EphB4/ephrinB2 system seems to play a major role in melanoma angiogenesis [1].
Thus,we developed a fluorine-18-containing peptide [2] extracellularly binding to EphB4 and a small 18F-labeled molecule which intracellularly binds to the EphB4 kinase domain with high affinity [3] in the past. However, the results showed low binding/uptake in A375EphB4 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Therfore, a “second generation” lead structure based on bis-anilinopyrimidines (IC50 = 1.3 nM) [4] was chosen for novel EphB4-targeted radioligands.
Methods: The lead compound is based on two substructures (part A and B) which were synthesized independently. Two positions of the original inhibitor for the best position of the radiolabel were figured out using docking studies. Based on this, references 2 and 4 as well as precursors 1 and 3 were obtained. In order to introduce [18F]fluoride by ring opening, precursors 1 and 3 were prepared as azetidinium mesylates and lead to high RCYs.
The radiolabeling was done in anhydrous acetonitrile for 30 min at 100°C. Afterwards, the EOE protecting group, which is mandatory for the successful introduction, was cleaved under acidic conditions. The subsequent purification should be easy done by cartridges due to the ionic nature of the precursors [5].
Results: Interestingly, radiofluorination of the first precursor 1 did not lead to the desired tracer [18F]2. The delocalization of the positive charge over both aromatic rings might be the reason for this result. On the other hand, radiofluorination of diazaspirononane precursor 3 was successful and gives the desired [18F]4 in a radiochemical yield of 34% (n.d.c.) and high purity (>95%).
Conclusions: [18F]4 as novel potential EphB4-targeted radioligand based on the bis-anilinopyrimidine scaffold has been successfully synthesized and radiolabeled. Ongoing work is focused on the alternative preparation of radiotracer [18F]2 and on the biological evaluation of both radiotracers to be a suitable target for diagnostic applications.
[1] Mosch, B. et al. (2010), J. Oncol., DOI: 10.1155/2010/135285,
[2] Pretze, M., et al. (2013) ChemMedChem, 8, 935–945,
[3] Mamat, C., et al. (2012) ChemMedChem, 7, 1991–3002,
[4] Bardelle, C., et al. (2010) Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 20, 6242–6245,
[5] Grosse-Gehling, P., et al. (2011) Radiochim. Acta 99, 365–373
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S166
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22086

18F-Labeling and Radiopharmacological Evaluation of Novel Purinedione Multi-Eph Inhibitors
Mamat, C.; Pretze, M.; Neuber, C.; Mosch, B.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.
Abstract: Objectives: The overexpression of various Eph receptors in tumors provokes the recent interest in highly affine inhibitors as attractive leads for the development of new targeted radioligands to image cancer [1]. Selective Ephtyrosine
kinase inhibitors based on the purinedione skeleton have been explored in the past as potential probes for imaging of EphB4 [2] and a SNEW peptide for EphB2 [3]. However up to now, there is still no optimal radiotracer
available. Herein, we report the synthesis, radiofluorination and biological evaluation of two novel purinedione derivatives as potential multi Eph inhibitor radioligands.
Methods: Based on known positions for affinity-related interactions of the lead structure with the receptor [4] two positions are favorable for the labeling with fluorine-18. Two precursors 1 and 3 as well as their reference compounds 2 and 4 were prepared. The radiolabeling was done in dry ACN at 100°C for 30 min. First cell association studies were performed using various Eph expressing melanoma cells (A375wt/mock, A375EphB4,
A375EphB6, A375EphB4) and Eph-negative controls (HL-60).
Results: After labeling, both tracers [18F]2 and [18F]4 were obtained in 10 – 15 % RCY (n.d.c.) after HPLC separation (RCP: > 95%). Cell experiments in vitro revealed a substantial cell association of both [18F]2 and [18F]4 ranging from 40 to 50 %ID/mg protein at 120 min in all cell lines used. The lack of any significant difference between wild type, recombinant and control cells is indicative for cell association of, as expected, low selectivity, but also of low specificity. The latter is consistent with the observation that preincubation with 100 μM of nonradioactive compound did not result in substantial inhibition of cell association.
Conclusions: [18F]2 and [18F]4 were synthesized successfully and first in vitro experiments were accomplished showing substantial cell association for both tracers in various melanoma cells. However, the cell experiments revealed data on specificity of purinedione derivatives that are contradictory to data from literature [4]. These observations will be elucidated in ongoing studies.
[1] Mosch, B. et al. (2010), J. Oncol., DOI: 10.1155/2010/135285;
[2] Mamat, C. et al. (2012), ChemMedChem, 7, 1991–2003;
[3] Pretze, M., et al. (2013) ChemMedChem, 8, 935–945; [4] Lafleur, K. et al.
(2009) J. Med. Chem., 52, 6433–6446.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S165
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22085

First-in-human PET quantification study of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using the novel specific radioligand (−)-[18F]Flubatine
Sabri, O.; Becker, G.-A.; Meyer, P. M.; Hesse, S.; Wilke, S.; Graef, S.; Patt, M.; Luthardt, J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Hoepping, A.; Smits, R.; Franke, A.; Sattler, B.; Habermann, B.; Neuhaus, P.; Fischer, S.; Tiepolt, S.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Barthel, H.; Schönknecht, P.; Brust, P.
Abstract: α4β2* nicotinic receptors (α4β2* nAChRs) could provide a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, depressive disorders, and nicotine addiction). However, there is a lack of α4β2* nAChR specific PET radioligands with kinetics fast enough to enable quantification of nAChR within a reasonable time frame. Following on from promising preclinical results, the aim of the present study was to evaluate for the first time in humans the novel PET radioligand (−)-[18F]Flubatine, formerly known as (−)-[18F]NCFHEB, as a tool for α4β2* nAChR imaging and in vivo quantification.
Dynamic PET emission recordings lasting 270 min were acquired on an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner in 12 healthy male non-smoking subjects (71.0 ± 5.0 years) following the intravenous injection of 353.7 ± 9.4 MBq of (−)-[18F]Flubatine. Individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for co-registration. PET frames were motion-corrected, before the kinetics in 29 brain regions were characterized using 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TCM, 2TCM). Given the low amounts of metabolite present in plasma, we tested arterial input functions with and without metabolite corrections. In addition, pixel-based graphical analysis (Logan plot) was used. The model's goodness of fit, with and without metabolite correction was assessed by Akaike's information criterion. Model parameters of interest were the total distribution volume VT (mL/cm3), and the binding potential BPND relative to the corpus callosum, which served as a reference region.
The tracer proved to have high stability in vivo,with 90% of the plasma radioactivity remaining as untransformed parent compound at 90 min, fast brain kinetics with rapid uptake and equilibration between free and receptor bound tracer. Adequate fits of brain TACs were obtained with the 1TCM. VT could be reliably estimated within 90 min for all regions investigated, and within 30 min for low-binding regions such as the cerebral cortex.
The rank order of VT by region corresponded well with the known distribution of α4β2* receptors (VT [thalamus] 27.4±3.8, VT [putamen] 12.7±0.9, VT [frontal cortex] 10.0±0.8, and VT [corpus callosum] 6.3±0.8). The BPND, which is a parameter of α4β2* nAChR availability, was 3.41±0.79 for the thalamus, 1.04±0.25 for the putamen and 0.61 ± 0.23 for the frontal cortex, indicating high specific tracer binding. Use of the arterial input function without metabolite correction resulted in a 10% underestimation in VT, and was without important biasing effects on BPND.

Keywords: (−)-[18F]Flubatine [(−)-[18F]NCFHEB] PET α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Human brain Kinetic modeling Registration No. 22084

Radiosynthesis of [18F]cabozantinib and [18F]fluoroethyl-sunitinib: two RTK-inhibitors of VEGFR-2
Schwebe, M.; Bergmann, R.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Kniess, T.
Abstract: Objectives: Radiolabeled inhibitors of the angiokinase VEGFR-2 might be suitable probes for monitoring induction of angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy response in vivo with PET. [1,2]. We selected two VEGFR-2
inhibitors, cabozantinib (IC50, 0.03 nM) and sunitinib (IC50, 9.0 nM), both bearing a fluorine substituent, as lead
structures for 18F-radiolabeled PET tracers.
Methods: [18F]Cabozantinib is synthesized by a 3-step radiosynthesis with final condensation of 4-[18F]fluoroaniline with an acyl chloride precursor. 4-[18F]Fluoroaniline is formed by substitution of 1,4-dinitrobenzene with [18F]fluoride, subsequent reduction of the intermediate 4-[18F]fluoro-nitrobenzene with Pd/C and NaBH4. Since [18F]sunitinib is not accessible via direct nucleophilic 18F-substitution, we developed the 5-fluoroethylated derivative (IC50, 9 nM) as well the corresponding radiolabeled analogue.
Results: 4-[18F]fluoroaniline was obtained in >60% rcy starting from [18F]fluoride after SPE purification. [18F]Cabozantinib was formed by reaction of 4-[18F]fluoroaniline with 10 mg of acyl precursor in THF at rt in >90% rcy. HPLC purification delivered [18F]cabozantinib in 95% purity and specific activity >20 GBq/μmol. Reaction of the methanesulfonyl-substituted sunitinib precursor with [18F]fluoride resulted in 8% 18F-incorporation. HPLC purification yielded [18F]fluoroethyl-sunitinib in 100 MBq scale. First in vitro investigations on VEGFR-2 expressing human A 2058 melanoma cell line showed cellular uptake of [18F]cabozantinib up to 790±100 %ID/mg protein at 60 min that could be significantly blocked by 46±3% by its non-radioactive counterpart (10 μM). For
[18F]fluoroethyl-sunitinib the uptake reached 340±48 %ID/mg protein at 60 min. Stability tests in rat blood over 60 min revealed almost no metabolism for both radiotracers.
Conclusions: With the reliable radiosynthesis of [18F]cabozantinib and [18F]fluoroethyl-sunitinib two radiolabeled VEGFR-2 inhibitors with nano- and sub-nanomolar affinity and high in vivo stability are available.
References [1] Slobbe P. et al (2012) Drug Discov. Today, 17, 1175-1187
[2] Kniess T. (2012) Curr Pharm Des, 18, 2867-2874
  • Poster
    21st Internation Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S159
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22083

An attractive method for radiolabeling antibodies with Tc-99m
Wunderlich, G.; Naumann, A.; Schubert, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.
Abstract: Objectives: Radiolabeled Cetuximab (C225, Ab) is an attractive tool for tumor targeting and delivering of particles for therapy or imaging applications of EGFR positive tumors. The labeling of Ab with radionuclides requires
suitable chelating agents for a stable binding of the radionuclides. Well known is the Ab labeling with In-111 (imaging) and Y-90 (therapy). The aim of the present study was to develop a sufficient radiolabeling technique of
this Ab with Tc-99m for SPECT imaging. A second label with a fluorescent dye (Alexa 488) enables to track the uptake of the compound with fluorescent microscopy.
Methods: NOTA (2,2',2''-(1,4,7-triazonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic-acid) was linked to C225 and labeled with the [Tc-99m]Tc(H2O)3(CO)3 complex that was made by a standard tricarbonylkit preparation [1]. For preparation of [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)3-NOTA-C225-Alexa(488) (figure 1) and [Tc-99m]Tc(CO)3-NOTA-C225 1 nM of the modified antibody was incubated with up to 1 GBq [Tc-99m]Tc(H2O)3(CO)3 complex and was shaken for 2 h at 40°C. The product was isolated by gelfiltration and tested for yield and stability with ITLC (Silica gel impregnated glass fiber
sheets, Varian) in 5% acetic acid. The cell membrane binding and cell uptake of the compound was detected with Cetuximab receptor positive A431 cells and Cetuximab negative MDA cells. For comparison the pure NOTA
ligand and unmodified Cetuximab were labeled with [Tc-99m]Tc(H2O)3(CO)3.
Results: NOTA-C225-Alexa(488), NOTA-C225 and NOTA ligand were successfully labeled with [Tc-99m]Tc(H2O)3(CO)3. Sufficient radiolabeling of Cetuximab was achieved and determined by ITLC. Yields: [Tc-99m]Tc-NOTA-C225-Alexa(488) 25-30% and [Tc-99m]Tc-NOTA-C225 50-60%. After purification the labeled compound is stable in cell culture medium and phosphate buffered saline to 24 h with a release of about 20%. Maximum membrane uptake at A431cells is determined after 1 h followed by a partly internalization into the cells. The affinity constant was found Kd = 3.71 nM and Bmax = 35 nM. Already after 1 h the localisation of NOTAC225-Alexa(488) is visualized with fluorescence microscope at cell membrane.
Conclusions: NOTA-Cetuximab can be radiolabeled with Tc-99m which is an interesting approach for SPECT studies in Nuclear Medicine besides the Ab labeling with Ga-68 or Cu-64.
References [1] Alberto, R. et al. (1998) J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120, 7987-7988.
  • Poster
    21st Internatioonal Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S105
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22082

Potential labeling strategies with NCA 197(m)Hg
Walther, M.; Wang, C.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.
Abstract: Objectives: The decay properties of both nuclear isomers, like convenient half life 197mHg (T1/2 = 23.8 h, Eγ 133.98 keV, 33.5%) and 197Hg (T1/2 = 64.14 h, Eγ 77.4 keV, 18.7%), low energy gamma radiations for imaging and numerous Auger- and conversion electrons useful for therapy combined with unique chemical and physical properties of mercury and its compounds represent the motivation for this project. The no carrier added (NCA) radionuclide 197(m)Hg is accessible in sufficient quantity and quality for radiopharmaceutical research by irradiation of gold with protons using a cyclotron [1]. As the following logical step after examination of the production feasibility, the search for a suitable labeling tool was intensified.
Methods: Three different approaches to prepare a stable labeling unit at NCA level with 197(m)Hg were studied. The reactivity of the mercury(II) ions towards sulfur containing ligands (a), solvomercuration of alkenes (b) and electrophilic aromatic substitution (c) were investigated in this context. Prepared characteristic representatives of all three groups are shown in Figure 1.
Results: For all studied reactions the desired 197(m)Hg labeled compounds were detected. The mercury thiolate complexe (a) and the product of solvomercuration (b) show low stability in the presence of competing thiol ligands and therefore the suitability for radiopharmaceutical applications is not given. In contrast, diphenylmercury (c) as the simplest representative for symmetric diarylmercury compounds shows high stability against competing
Conclusions: As a basis for the development of a convenient labeling method different kinds of mercury compounds were prepared and characterized at NCA level. After nuclide production this was the required succeeding part of the evaluation of the cyclotron-based NCA 197(m)Hg regarding their suitability for diagnostics and therapy of tumors. First promising results of investigations concerning the development of mercury compounds stable in vivo will be reported.

References: [1] Walther, M., Preusche, S., Bartel, S., Wunderlich, G., Freudenberg, R., Steinbach, J., Pietzsch, H.-J., Theranostic mercury: 197(m)Hg with high specific activity for imaging and therapy (2014) Appl. Radiat. Isot. submitted
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S99
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22081

68Ga-DATATOC: Synthesis, radiolabeling and first in vivo studies
Waldron, B.; Seemann, J.; Sinnes, J.-P.; Bergmann, R.; Nagel, J.; Rösch, F.
Abstract: Objectives: 68 Ga-DOTATOC is currently used as standard for diagnostic imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and its metastases. Radiolabeling can be performed manually and automated at 95 °C. In order to approach application of 68 Ga following a kit-type procedure, a DATA-based chelator (6-Amino-1,4-diazepine-triacetate) was used as it has shown to radiolabel under very mild conditions. Conjugation with TOC may enable radiolabeling of the peptide at room temperature.
Methods: DATATOC was synthesized in a seven step synthesis. Radiolabeling with 68 Ga was performed manually at room temperature and stability was assessed in human serum. An automated setup was also examined, using the Modular-Lab eazy (Eckert & Ziegler, Berlin, Germany). First in vivo studies using MPC-mCherry tumor bearing mice were performed and compared with 68 Ga-DOTATATE.
Results: Radiolabeling was performed at room temperature using N2 solution, NaOAc-buffer and 14 nmol DATATOC. Within 3 min a RCY of 96.3 ± 1.2 % was obtained. Stability was tested in human serum over a period
of 2 h (Δ = 1.3 %). Automated labeling with 23 nmol precursor achieved quantitative complexation of 68 Ga (> 99 %). In vivo PET/CT-studies with 68Ga-DATATOC indicate a high specific uptake in the tumor region after 10 min (SUV of 3.73 ± 1.49). In a blocking study with OC, the SUV in the tumor was reduced to 0.45 ± 0.15. In addition, 68 Ga-DATATOC showed high stability in mouse plasma with 93.7 % of the tracer remaining intact after 120 min. Compared to 68 Ga-DOTATATE a faster renal excretion of the tracer was observed.
Conclusions: DATATOC can be labeled with 68 Ga in a manual or automated setup rapidly at room temperature, offering significant advantages over similar DOTA-based derivatives. Because of quantitative labeling yields, product purification is unnecessary. Furthermore, first in vivo studies confirm excellent targeting and excretion characteristics for the novel tracer. With the perspective towards a kit-type formulation, the superior characteristics
of this new compound pave the way for a new generation of 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S15
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_1
Registration No. 22080

A novel pretargeting system based on complementary L-oligonucleotides
Schubert, M.; Foerster, C.; Bergmann, R.; Sihver, W.; Vonhoff, S.; Klussmann, S.; Bethge, L.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.
Abstract: Objectives: High metabolic stability, low immunogenicity and negligible specificity for naturally binding partners are predominant characteristics of L-configured oligonucleotides. These advantages predestine this substance class
for its use in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy as in vivo recognition system between a tumor-specific antibody and a radiolabeled chelate. We evaluated this new pretargeting system consisting of 64Cu labeled NOTA-L-DNA-10kDa-PEG and c-L-DNA modified Cetuximab (C225) in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: C225 was functionalized with NOTA, maleimide moieties and thiol-bearing c-L-DNA. Competition studies were carried out against 64Cu labeled standard NOTA3-C225 in FaDu and A431-cell lysates. In vitro pretargeting studies were done in intact FaDu and A431 cells. PET and biodistribution studies were performed both in FaDu and A431 tumor bearing mice by intravenous injection of 4 nmol NOTA3-C225-(c-L-DNA)1,5 and 1 nmol [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-L-DNA-10kDa-PEG 24 h later.
Results: We synthesized two Cetuximab derivatives with 1.5 and respective 5 c-L-DNA molecules per antibody. Competition assays showed that affinities are not affected as a result of conjugation with NOTA and c-L-DNA.
PET studies injecting only [64Cu]Cu-NOTA3-C225-(c-L-DNA)1.5 revealed that a pretargeting interval of 24 h is the best compromise between tumor accumulation, blood background as well as liver uptake. Biodistribution in pretargeted A431 tumor mice is characterized by decreased tumor uptake (see figure). Internalization of antibody within waiting period is the obvious reason and could be confirmed by cellular uptake studies. After 24 h over 2/3 of surface bound antibody was internalized.
Conclusions: The present pretargeting concept shows high potential for further preclinical studies. Use of a noninternalizing antibody is necessary to enhance both tumor uptake and tumor to background ratios.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S14
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_1
Registration No. 22079

Evidence of a distinct Permian thermal event by EMP-Th-Pb-monazite ages in metapelites of the polymetamorphic Austroalpine basement
Schulz, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Krenn, E.
Abstract: During the Alpine orogeny, the Austroalpine basement complex of the Eastern Alps was thrusted upon the Penninic ophiolites and the European basement, now exposed in the Tauern and Engadine tectonic windows. The Austroalpine basement underwent a polymetamor- phic evolution since the Early Paleozoic. An Ordovi- cian-Silurian event, the Devonian-Carboniferous Var- iscan orogeny, as well as the Cretaceous and Tertiary Alpine orogenic periods have been recognised in many parts. Although a wealth of radiometric data on these events exist, a distinct Permian metamorphic episode has not yet been established. Corresponding mica cool- ing ages were considered as Variscan-to-Alpine “mixed ages” in this polymetamorphic frame. However, the intrusion of Permian pegmatites between 270-250 Ma is an important marker of the tectonic and magmatic activity (Schuster et al. 2001).

The Permian pegmatites can be traced from the Ortler- Campo basement through the basement to the south of the Tauern Window toward the East into the Saualpe and Koralpe units. The electron microprobe (EMP) Th-U-Pb monazite dating method (Montel et al. 1996) has been applied to the garnet-bearing metapelitic host rocks of these Permian pegmatites. In the Saualpe, the Permian pegmatites were strongly deformed during the eclogite-facies Cretaceous event. In the metapelitic host rocks, the Permian monazites have the largest grain sizes and abundance. They are often character- ised by spectacular coronas of apatite and allanite of a partial decomposition.

In the Schobergruppe and the Defereggen Alps to the south of the Tauern Window, the Permian monazites are a less prominent population, but clearly distinct from the Carboniferous monazites (Krenn et al. 2012). The characteristic coronas around the Permian mona- zites are lacking. Permian monazites occur mainly in a zone with fibrolitic sillimanite and andalusite in the vicinity of the pegmatites.

The Oetztal-Stubai basement to the W of the Tauern Window is characterised by a Cretaceous metamor- phic overprint. Permian pegmatites have not yet been reported. The monazite Th-U-Pb EMP ages in the Sellrain area and in the central Oetztal valley (Umhau- sen, Sölden) in the northern vicinity of the Cretaceous metamorphic zone are mostly Carboniferous. They are interpreted to be related to a Variscan amphibolite- to-eclogite-facies garnet crystallisation (Rode et al. 2012). Recent investigations in the Stubai valley re- vealed garnet metapelites with exclusively Permian monazites. These monazites are often surrounded and partly replaced by coronas of apatite and allanite. The mineral-chemical properties and the special character of the dating method allow the conclusion that the Permian monazites represent a distinct crystallisation event at low pressures, apparently in an occasional association to the pegmatites.


Krenn, E., Schulz, B. & Finger, F. (2012): Three generations of monazite in Austroalpine basement rocks to the south of the Tauern Window – evidences for Variscan, Permian and Alpine metamorphism. – Swiss Journal of Geosci- ences, 105, DOI 10.1007/s00015-012-0104-6.

Montel, J.-M., Foret, S., Veschambre, M., Nicollet, C. & Provost, A. (1996): A fast, reliable, inexpensive in-situ dating technique: Electron microprobe ages on monazite. – Chem. Geol., 131: 37-53.

Rode, S., Rösel, D. & Schulz, B. (2012): Constraints on the Variscan P-T evolution by EMP Th-U-Pb monazite dat- ing in the polymetamorphic Austroalpine Oetztal-Stubai basement (Eastern Alps). – Z. Dt. Ges. Geowiss. 163: 43- 67; Stuttgart.

Schuster, R., Scharbert, S., Abart, R. & Frank, W. (2001): Permo-Triassic extension and related HT/LP metamor- phism in the Austroalpine - Southalpine realm. – Mitt. Ges. Geol. Bergbaustud. Österr., 45: 111-141; Wien.
  • Poster
    GeoFrankfurt 2014, 21.-24.09.2014, Frankfurt/Main, Deutschland
Registration No. 22077

Simulation of the Gamma Radiation Distribution Emitted from a PWR Core under Severe Accident-Like Conditions
Brachem, C.; Schmidt, S.; Konheiser, J.; Hampel, U.
Abstract: Using a generic model of a pressurized water reactor, we have defined a set of severe accident-like reactor states depicting various degrees of coolant level decrease and core degradation. We then computed the gamma radiation distribution which would occur outside the reactor pressure vessel in each of the previously defined states using stationary Monte Carlo simulations. This is done in an effort to understand if it is possible to detect the occurrence of certain phenomena from outside the RPV and to eventually develop a system for state detection.
Keywords: accident, Monte Carlo simulation, gamma radiation,
  • Lecture (Conference)
    46th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology, 05.-07.05.2015, Berlin, Germany
Registration No. 22075

Combined PET/MR: The Real Work Has Just Started. Summary Report of the Third International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 17-21, 2014, Tubingen, Germany
Bailey, D. L.; Antoch, G.; Bartenstein, P.; Barthel, H.; Beer, A. J.; Bisdas, S.; Bluemke, D. A.; Boellaard, R.; Claussen, C. D.; Franzius, C.; Hacker, M.; Hricak, H.; La Fougere, C.; Guckel, B.; Nekolla, S. G.; Pichler, B. J.; Purz, S.; Quick, H. H.; Sabri, O.; Sattler, B.; Schafer, J.; Schmidt, H.; van den Hoff, J.; Voss, S.; Weber, W.; Wehrl, H. F.; Beyer, T.
Abstract: This paper summarises the proceedings and discussions at the third annual workshop held in Tubingen, Germany, dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined PET/MRI systems in humans. Two days of basic scientific and technical instructions with "hands-on" tutorials were followed by 3 days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round-table discussions and dialogue boards with specific themes. These included the use of PET/MRI in paediatric oncology and in adult neurology, oncology and cardiology, the development of multi-parametric analyses, and efforts to standardise PET/MRI examinations to allow pooling of data for evaluating the technology. A poll taken on the final day demonstrated that over 50 % of those present felt that while PET/MRI technology underwent an inevitable slump after its much-anticipated initial launch, it was now entering a period of slow, progressive development, with new key applications emerging. In particular, researchers are focusing on exploiting the complementary nature of the physiological (PET) and biochemical (MRI/MRS) data within the morphological framework (MRI) that these devices can provide. Much of the discussion was summed up on the final day when one speaker commented on the state of PET/MRI: "the real work has just started".
Keywords: Hybrid imaging, Molecular imaging, PET/CT, PET/MRI, PET, MRI, Quantification, Attenuation correction, Oncology, Paediatric oncology, Neurology, Cardiology Registration No. 22071

The association of tumor-to-background ratios and SUVmax deviations related to point spread function and time-of-flight F18-FDG-PET/CT reconstruction in colorectal liver metastases
Rogasch, Julian M. M.; Steffen, Ingo G.; Hofheinz, F.; Großer, O. S.; Furth, C.; Mohnike, K.; Hass, P.; Walke, M.; Apostolova, I.; Amthauer, Holger W.
Abstract: Methods: Fifteen patients (f, 6; m, 9; median age, 59 years; range, 32 to 72 years) with 28 liver metastases were included retrospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging (median activity, 237 MBq; range, 231 to 252 MBq; median uptake, 61 min; range, 55 to 67 min) was performed on a Siemens Biograph mCT 64 followed by image reconstruction using 3D-ordered subset expectation maximization (3D-OSEM) or 3D-OSEM with PSF modeling - both with and without TOF information. Differences in SUVmax were analyzed using the Friedman test and Wilcoxon test for paired non-parametric data. The correlation of inter-method differences with the lesions’ TBR was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rho). Differences between lesions with low (<4.8) and high (>4.8) TBR were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (TBR measured with 3D-OSEM; binarized by its median).
Background: The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a common clinical parameter for quantification in F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), but it is influenced by image reconstruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of SUVmax deviations related to point spread function (PSF) and time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction with tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).
Results: There was a significant correlation of the lesions’ TBR with relative SUVmax differences related to PSF (PSF + TOF vs. 3D-OSEM + TOF, rho = 0.61; PSF vs. 3D-OSEM, rho = 0.52) or TOF (PSF + TOF vs. PSF, rho = −0.58; 3D-OSEM + TOF vs. 3D-OSEM, rho = −0.61). Accordingly, PSF algorithms only showed higher SUVmax than non-PSF algorithms in lesions with a high TBR (median differences at low/high TBR, +2.6%/+9.1% [PSF + TOF vs. 3D-OSEM + TOF]; +0.7%/+6.4% [PSF vs. 3D-OSEM]). TOF integration also led to higher SUVmax but mainly at low TBR (low/high TBR, +10.4%/+1.8% [PSF + TOF vs. PSF]; +8.6%/−0.1% [3D-OSEM + TOF vs. 3D-OSEM]).
Conclusions: Both PSF and TOF reconstruction resulted in a substantial alteration of SUVmax in CRLM. TOF provided the highest SUVmax increase in low-contrast lesions while - vice versa - PSF showed the most relevant increase in high-contrast lesions. Thus, one should be aware that quantitative analyses of lesions with varying TBR, e.g., in radiotherapy or follow-up studies, may be mainly affected by either PSF or TOF reconstruction, respectively.

Keywords: Colorectal liver metastases; F18-FDG-PET/CT; PSF; Reconstruction algorithm; SUVmax; Target volume definition; TOF; Tumor-to-background ratio


Registration No. 22070

Photon emission rates near the critical point in the linear sigma model
Wunderlich, F.; Kämpfer, B.
Abstract: Employing the linear sigma model, the effective masses of quasi-particle excitations are found to exhibit significant variations within the phase diagram, which has a critical point at non-zero chemical potential, where a first-order phase transition sets in.
Soft-photon emission rates in lowest order display, for selected channels, a sensible dependence on the effective masses of the involved excitations and let us argue that they could map out the phase diagram.

Keywords: linear sigma model, QCD, phase diagram, photon emission, effective theory, critical point
  • Contribution to proceedings
    9th International Workshop on Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement, 17.-21.11.2014, Bielefeld, Deutschland
    Proceedings of Science (CPOD2014) 027: Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati


Registration No. 22066

Nature and distribution of PGE mineralisation in gabbroic rocks of the Lusatian Block, Saxony, Germany
Sandmann, D.; Gutzmer, J.
Abstract: We have employed quantitative automated mineralogy using a mineral liberation analyser to assess samples of gabbroic dykes of the Lusatian Block. These mafic dykes contain platinum-group elements - locally enriched with Cu and Ni sulphides up to subeconomic concentrations of 0.4 ppm (4PGE+Au). In this study we analysed about 100 polished thin sections and polished blocks with both a mapping method and a search mode for bright phases in BSE images (sparse phase liberation analysis).
The aim of the study was to obtain information regarding the occurrence of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and their relationship to base metal sulphides (BMS). Mineral groups found by sparse phase liberation analysis include several PGE-bearing and non-PGE-bearing tellurides, Pd bismuthides and antimonides, Pt arsenide as well as native gold and native bismuth. Mineral grain sizes of these trace minerals are in general below 10 mu m. The results of the mineral association evaluation show that pyrrhotite is the main host for tellurides, native metals and platinum-group minerals. However, several other minerals show also a high degree of association with the PGM, most notably Ni-Co sulpharsenides, chalcopyrite, hydrothermal feldspar and chlorite. By using quantitative automated mineralogy we can clearly demonstrate that low-alteration, low-BMS gabbroic dyke samples contain no or only small amounts of PGM, whereas intense-alteration, high-BMS gabbroic dyke samples have elevated PGM contents. Furthermore, we show that for PGE concentrations <1 ppm MLA analyses of just one polished thin section per sample show limitations with respect to the representativity of results for calculated element concentration, due to a combination of different limiting factors. Mineral liberation analysis reveals that PGM are much more widespread and abundant in the studied area compared to the results of previous careful light microscopic investigations and single grain electron probe microanalysis that resulted only in very few and isolated PGM grains to be identified.

Keywords: gabbroic dykes of the Lusatian Block, PGM, BMS Registration No. 22058

Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors prepared by the combination of ion implantation with pulse laser melting
Zhou, S.
Abstract: Combining semiconducting and ferromagnetic properties, dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFS) have been under intensive investigation for more than two decades. Mn doped III–V compound semiconductors have been regarded as the prototype of DFS from both experimental and theoretic investigations. The magnetic properties of III–V:Mn can be controlled by manipulating free carriers via electrical gating, as for controlling the electrical properties in conventional semiconductors. However, the preparation of DFS presents a big challenge due to the low solubility of Mn in semiconductors. Ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (II-PLM) provides an alternative to the widely used low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (LT-MBE) approach. Both ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting occur far enough from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Ion implantation introduces enough dopants and the subsequent laser pulse deposit energy in the near-surface region to drive a rapid liquid-phase epitaxial growth. Here, we review the experimental study on preparation of III–V:Mn using II-PLM. We start with a brief description about the development of DFS and the physics behind II-PLM. Then we show that ferromagnetic GaMnAs and InMnAs films can be prepared by II-PLM and they show the same characteristics of LT-MBE grown samples. Going beyond LT-MBE, II-PLM is successful to bring two new members, GaMnP and InMnP, into the family of III–V:Mn DFS. Both GaMnP and InMnP films show the signature of DFS and an insulating behavior. At the end, we summarize the work done for Ge:Mn and Si:Mn using II-PLM and present suggestions for future investigations. The remarkable advantage of II-PLM approach is its versatility. In general, II-PLM can be utilized to prepare supersaturated alloys with mismatched components.
Keywords: Magnetic semiconductors; Ion implantation Registration No. 22055

Flow Phenomena in Liquid Metal Batteries
Weier, T.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.
Abstract: Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are high temperature systems consisting of liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt ionic conductor. The densities are chosen in such a way that a stable density stratification of the inmiscible layers results. LMBs were considered mainly as part of energy conversion systems in the 1960s \ and have only recently received renewed interest for economic large-scale storage. Our work concentrates on the fluid dynamic aspects of this cell type with a special focus on the effects and properties of the Tayler instability (TI).
Due to the completely liquid interior of LMBs, fluid flow is an important aspect of their operation. It can be beneficial, when enhancing mass transfer in the cathode, or it might have harmful consequences, if the integrity of the electrolyte layer is disrupted.
The latter case can result form the action of the current-driven TI. We therefore studied the characteristics of the TI depending on the cell's aspect ratio using an integro-differential approach implemented in the open source library OpenFOAM. The TI occurs if a critical value of a dimensionless parameter Ha is exceeded. Ha, the Hartmann number, is in our case solely determined by the total current I and the material properties density, kinematic viscosity, and electrical conductivity. The critical Ha is lowest for an infinitely high cuboid and corresponds to a total current of approx. 1 kA in the case of Na. Decreasing the aspect ratio increases Hacrit since the wavelength selection for the TI becomes more and more restricted.
Current densities in LMBs are typically very high. A current density of 10 kA/m2 is a characteristic value for a Na|NI-NaCl-NaF|Bi-system and results in an approximately 10 mm thick sodium layer transferred per hour from the anodic to the cathodic compartment. Depending on the design capacity and cell area, aspect ratios of the anodic compartment up to one seem imaginable.

Keywords: liquid metal batteries, Tayler instability
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Energy, Science and Technology Conference 2015 (EST 2015), 20.-22.05.2015, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
Registration No. 22053

Synthesis and Molecular Structure of 2-(Diphenylphosphano) phenyl Benzoate Borane Adduct
Mamat, C.; Köckerling, M.
Abstract: The crystal and molecular structure of 2-(diphenylphosphano) phenyl benzoate borane adduct are reported. The title compound crystallizes from a petroleum ether/ethyl acetate mixture in the triclinic space group P (1) over bar with two molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 8.67(1) angstrom, b = 9.202(1) angstrom, c = 14.224(2) angstrom; a = 72.600(7)degrees, beta = 73.577(7)degrees, gamma = 84.349(7)degrees and V = 1039.5(2) angstrom(3). Bond lengths and angles are typical for this phosphane borane adduct.


Registration No. 22050

DAP12-Based Activating Chimeric Antigen Receptor for NK Cell Tumor Immunotherapy
Toepfer, K.; Cartellieri, M.; Michen, S.; Wiedemuth, R.; Mueller, N.; Lindemann, D.; Bachmann, M.; Fuessel, M.; Schackert, G.; Temme, A.
Abstract: NK cells are emerging as new effectors for immunotherapy of cancer. In particular, the genetic engraftment of chimeric Ag receptors (CARs) in NK cells is a promising strategy to redirect NK cells to otherwise NK cell-resistant tumor cells. On the basis of DNAX-activation protein 12 (DAP12), a signaling adaptor molecule involved in signal transduction of activating NK cell receptors, we generated a new type of CAR targeting the prostate stem cell Ag (PSCA). We demonstrate in this article that this CAR, designated anti-PSCA-DAP12, consisting of DAP12 fused to the anti-PSCA single-chain Ab fragment scFv(AM1) confers improved cytotoxicity to the NK cell line YTS against PSCA-positive tumor cells when compared with a CAR containing the CD3ζ signaling chain. Further analyses revealed phosphorylation of the DAP12-associated ZAP-70 kinase and IFN-γ release of CAR-engineered cells after contact with PSCA-positive target cells. YTS cells modified with DAP12 alone or with a CAR bearing a phosphorylation-defective ITAM were not activated. Notably, infused YTS cells armed with anti-PSCA-DAP12 caused delayed tumor xenograft growth and resulted in complete tumor eradication in a significant fraction of treated mice. The feasibility of the DAP12-based CAR was further tested in human primary NK cells and confers specific cytotoxicity against KIR/HLA-matched PSCA-positive tumor cells, which was further enhanced by KIR-HLA mismatches. We conclude that NK cells engineered with DAP12-based CARs are a promising tool for adoptive tumor immunotherapy. Registration No. 22049

Re–Os geochronology on sulfides from the Tudun Cu–Ni sulfide deposit, Eastern Tianshan, and its geological significance
Gutzmer, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, W.; Liu, K.; Li, C.; Przemyslaw, P. M.; Xia, Q.; Guo, X.
Abstract: The Tudun deposit is a medium-sized Cu–Ni sulfide deposit, located at the westernmost edge of the Huangshan–Jing’erquan Belt in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan, NW China. Sulfide separates including pentlandite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite from the Tudun deposit, contain Re, common Os and 187Os ranging from 40.46 to 201.2, 0.8048 to 6.246 and 0.1709 to 0.9977 ppb, respectively. They have very low 187Os/188Os ratios of 1.224–2.352. The sulfides yield a Re–Os isochron age of 270.0 ± 7.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), consistent within uncertainty with the SHRIMP zircon U–Pb age for the Tudun mafic intrusion (gabbro) of 280.0 ± 3.0 Ma. The calculated initial 187Os/188Os ratio is 0.533 ± 0.022, and γOs values range from 283 to 307, with a mean of 297, indicating significant crustal contamination of the parent melt prior to sulfide saturation. The Tudun deposit shares the same age and Re–Os isotopic compositions with other orthomagmatic Cu–Ni sulfide deposits in Huangshan–Jing’erquan Belt, suggesting that they have formed in Early Permian.
Keywords: Tudun Cu–Ni deposit · Re–Os geochronology · Early Permian · Eastern Tianshan Registration No. 22047

Sputter yield of curved surfaces
Urbassek, H. M.; Bradley, R. M.; Nietiadi, M. L.; Möller, W.
Abstract: The mean sputter yield produced by the impact of a single ion depends on the radii of curvature of the target surface at the point of impact. Using the Sigmund model of ion sputtering, we develop analytical formulas for this dependence for the case in which the radii of curvature are large compared to the size of the ion-induced collision cascade; both locally perpendicular and oblique ion impact are considered. The sputter yield is increased for impact on convex surfaces. The influence of surface curvature along the incident-ion azimuth and perpendicular to it are discussed separately. Our analytical results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations for the specific case of 20 keV Ar ion impact on a cylindrical nanowire consisting of amorphous silicon. We also extend the results for this case to small radii of curvature using both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

CuII-selective bispidine–dye conjugates
Bronx, D.; Comba, P.; Herten, D.-P.; Kimmle, E.; Morgen, M.; Rühl, Carmen L.; Rybina, A.; Stephan, H.; Storch, G.; Wadepohl, H.
Abstract: The substitution of tetradentate bispidine ligands with rhodamine and cyanine dye molecules, coupled to an amine donor, forming an amide as potential fifth donor, is described. Bispidines are known to lead to very stable CuII complexes, and the coordination to CuII was expected toefficiently quench the fluorescence of dyemolecules. However, at physiological pH the amide is not coordinated, as shown by titration experiments and crystallographic structural data of three possible isomers of these complexes. This may be due to the specific cavity shape of bispidines and the Jahn–Teller lability of the CuII center. While CuII coordination in aqueous solution leads to efficient fluorescence quenching, experiments show that the complex stabilities are not large enough for CuII sensing in biological media, and possibilities are discussed, how this may be achieved by optimized bispidine–dye conjugates. Registration No. 22045

Phenol degradation by environmental bacteria entrapped in cryogels
Satchanska, G.; Topalova, Y.; Dimkov, R.; Groudeva, V.; Petrov, P.; Tsvetanov, C.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Golovinsky, E.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the capability of bacterial isolates immobilized on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) cryogels to degrade and utilize phenol as a sole source of carbon and energy. Two xenobiotic-degrading bacteria were isolated from industrial areas polluted with heavy metals and aromatics. Sequencing of their 16S rDNA classified them as Pseudomonas rhodesiae (denoted as KCM R-5) and Bacillus subtilis (denoted as KCM RG(5)). The following operation parameters were used: sequencing batch process, 24 h cycle of feeding, increasing phenol concentrations from 300 to 1000 mg center dot L-1, volume of inflow - 250 mL, volume of outflow - from 212 to 7 mL and temperature of 28 degrees C. The PEO-KCM R-5 biofilter was found to remove phenol at a concentration of 1000 mg center dot L-1, while the PEO-KCM RG(5) system was unable to degrade phenol at a concentration of about 600 mg center dot L-1. After four weeks of biodegradation, the PEO biofilms remained compact, porous and elastic, while containing compact microbial biofilm as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the cryogels. Taken together, our results demonstrate that our novel bacterial entrapment system in PEO cryogels is highly effective and sustainable for phenol degradation and can be relevant for application in the detoxification technologies of industrially polluted waters.
Keywords: polluted environment; bacteria; 16S rDNA gene; phenol biodegradation; immobilization; cryogel Registration No. 22043

Synthesis and optical characterization of Gd-neso-borate single crystals
Reuther, C.; Möckel, R.; Götze, J.; Hengst, M.; Heide, G.
Abstract: Single crystals of Ca4GdO[BO3]3 and Sr3Gd2[BO3]4 were synthesized using the Czochralski method, both in different crystallographic directions. Best result were obtained for View the MathML source010 orientated seeds and growth rates of 1 mmh−1. The morphology of the as-grown crystals reflects the symmetry and for Ca4GdO[BO3]3-crystals a typical rhombohedral and for Sr3Gd2[BO3]4-crystals almost circular cross section are formed. UV–VIS and IR measurements show a wide range of transmission of light. Between 350–1100 and 1600–2500 nm no absorption was observed. Below 350 nm the crystals show distinct absorption peaks caused by electron transitions of Gd. In the IR region most vibration modes can be assigned to [BO3]3−-groups and Gd/Ca-O or Gd/Sr-O-polyhedra.
Keywords: Crystal growth; Sr3Gd2[BO3]4; Ca4GdO[BO3]3; Spectroscopy; Optics; SGB; GdCOB; Borate Registration No. 22042

The interaction of Eu(III) with organoborates – a further approach to understand the complexation in the An/Ln(III)–borate system
Schott, J.; Kretzschmar, J.; Tsushima, S.; Drobot, B.; Acker, M.; Barkleit, A.; Taut, S.; Brendler, V.; Stumpf, T.
Abstract: The formation equilibria of salicylatoborate, lactatoborate and 3-hydroxybutyratoborate were studied by means of 11B NMR spectroscopy. The smaller the pKa of the respective organic acid, the higher is the formation constant of the organoborate. The complexation of Eu(III) with salicylatoborate and lactatoborate was investigated by means of TRLFS (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy) and 11B NMR spectroscopy, yielding complexation constants lg β0(11) = 2.6–3.2. A Eu(III)–3-hydroxybutyrate complex was characterized by TRLFS and 1H NMR spectroscopy (lg β0(11) = 2.89). DFT calculations of the investigated Eu(III)–organoborates and inorganic Eu(III)–(poly)borates provided information about the Eu(III) coordination (most likely chelate). They support the hypothesis that the complexation of Eu(III) with organic as well as inorganic borate structures containing the binding site “B(OR)4−” (R = H, threefold coordinated boron center(s), organic moiety) is comparable.


Registration No. 22041

Contactless inductive bubble detection in a liquid metal column
Gundrum, T.; Büttern, P.; Dekdouk, B.; Peyton, Anthony J.; Wondrak, T.; Galindo, V.; Eckert, S.
Abstract: The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications like for continuous casting and for liquid metal cooled reactors. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. Exploiting the high electrical conductivity contactless electromagnetic methods can be used. For instance, Mutual Inductance Tomography is able to visualize the distribution of gas and liquid metal in one cross section of a pipe using a sensor array of 8 induction coils.
Keywords: bubble detection, two phase flow, liquid metal, inductive contactless measurement, void fraction
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2015), 15.-17.04.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 22038

Hyperspectral remote sensing exploration of carbonatite – an example from Epembe, Kunene region, Namibia
Zimmermann, R.; Brandmeier, M.; Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.
Abstract: Remote sensing data can provide valuable information about ore deposits and their alteration zones at surface level. High spectral and spatial resolution of the data is essential for detailed mapping of mineral abundances and related structures.

Carbonatites are well known for hosting economic enrichments in REE, Ta, Nb and P (Jones et al. 2013). These make them a preferential target for exploration for those critical elements. In this study we show how combining geomorphic, textural and spectral data improves classification result. We selected a site with a well-known occurrence in northern Namibia: the Epembe dyke. For analysis LANDSAT 8, SRTM and airborne hyperspectral (HyMap) data were chosen. The overlapping data allows a multi-scale and multi-resolution approach. Results from data analysis were validated during fieldwork in 2014.

Data was corrected for atmospherical and geometrical effects. Image classification, mineral mapping and tectonic geomorphology allow a refinement of the geological map by lithological mapping in a second step. Detailed mineral abundance maps were computed using spectral unmixing techniques. These techniques are well suited to map abundances of carbonate minerals, but not to discriminate the carbonatite itself from surrounding rocks with similar spectral signatures. Thus, geometric indices were calculated using tectonic geomorphology and textures. For this purpose the TecDEM-toolbox (SHAHZAD & GLOAGUEN 2011) was applied to the SRTM-data for geomorphic analysis. Textural indices (e.g. uniformity, entropy, angular second moment) were derived from HyMap and SRTM by a grey-level co-occurrence matrix (CLAUSI 2002). The carbonatite in the study area is ridge-forming and shows a narrow linear feature in the textural bands.

Spectral and geometric information were combined using kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) for unsupervised clustering. The resulting class spectra were visually compared and interpreted. Classes with similar signatures were merged according to geological context.

The major conclusions are:
1. Carbonate minerals can be mapped using spectral unmixing techniques.
2. Carbonatites are associated with specific geometric pattern
3. The combination of spectral and geometric information improves classification result and reduces misclassification.

Clausi, D. A. (2002): An analysis of co-occurrence texture statistics as a function of grey-level quantization. - Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 28 (1), 45-62
Jones, A. P., Genge, M. and Carmody, L (2013): Carbonate Melts and Carbonatites. - Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry, 75, 289–322
Shahzad, F. & Gloaguen, R. (2011): TecDEM: A MATLAB based toolbox for tectonic geomorphology, Part 2: Surface dynamics and basin analysis. - Computers & Geosciences, 37 (2), 261-271
  • Poster
    EGU General Assembly 2015, 14.04.2015, Wien, Österreich
Registration No. 22034

Application of the ultrasound Doppler velocimetry in model experiments for casting and solidification
Räbiger, D.; Vogt, T.; Timmel, K.; Franke, S.; Willers, B.; Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.
Abstract: The optimisation of methods and facilities for material processing technologies such as melting, refining or casting of metals or alloys has to be considered as an enduring challenge. Key issues are an improvement of the final product quality, an enhancement of the process efficiency and an economical consumption of resources and energy. Further advancement often requires a better knowledge with respect to the details of the flow structure, the heat and mass transfer properties of the flow especially during phase transitions like melting or solidification. Experimental studies on industrial scale with hot metallic melts (T > 600°C) may require formidable effort and expense. Cost-saving model experiments using low melting point metallic melts permit detailed investigations of the flow structure and related problems with a high grade of flexibility. Experiments at room temperature are possible using the ternary alloy GaInSn. The ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) became an accepted method for flow investigations in various liquid metals. In this presentation various applications of UDV in liquid metal flows will be shown to demonstrate the capabilities and current restrictions of this technique. For instance, we consider single- and multi-transducer arrangements for flow mapping or present velocity measurements obtained during the solidification of a metallic melt. Besides the determination of velocity profiles in the liquid phase the UDV data allow for an assessment of the current position of the solidification front, too. Specific problems arising in the context of UDV measurements in liquid metal experiments will be discussed. The following examples have been selected to demonstrate the benefit of using UDV for flow measurements in cold model experiments, namely the electromagnetic stirring of a metallic melt in a pool, the directional solidification of Pb-Sn alloys under the influence of an electromagnetically driven flow and the
behaviour of the mould flow in continuous casting under the effect of a DC magnetic field.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2015), 15.-17.04.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 22031

Modular Ultrasound Array Doppler Velocimeter with FPGA-based Signal Processing for Flow Mapping in Liquid Metals
Nauber, R.; Thieme, N.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Eckert, S.; Czarske, J.
Abstract: Investigating the complex interaction of conductive fluids and magnetic fields is relevant for a variety of applications from basic research in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to modeling industrial processes involving metal melts, such as the crystal growth process in the photovoltaic industry. This enables targeted optimizations of the melt flow and allows to significantly increase the yield and energy efficiency of an industrial process. However, experimental studies in this field are often limited by the performance of flow instrumentation for opaque liquids. We present an ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter (UADV) for flow mapping in opaque liquids at room temperature. It is modular and flexible regarding its measurement configuration, for instance it allows capturing two velocity components in two planes (2d-2c). It uses up to 9 linear arrays with a total element count of 225, driven in a parallelized time division multiplex (TDM) scheme. A FPGA-based signal pre-processing allows to handle the massive data bandwidth of typ. 1.2 GB/s and enables a continuous and near-realtime operation of the measurement system. Combining the velocity information of multiple arrays necessitates precise knowledge of their relative geometric position. We present a novel method for spatial self-calibration by a mutual time of flight measurement that significantly reduces the alignment errors.
The capabilities of the UADV system are demonstrated in an experiment for basic MHD research. A cubic plexiglas container (67mm3) is filled with a metal melt (GaInSn, melting point 10°C). The flow induced by time-varying rotating magnetic fields is captured with a temporal resolution of 250ms and an uncertainty of approx. 1% for the horizontal and vertical central cross-section of the cube (2d- 2c).

Keywords: Flow-Mapping, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, Liquid Metals, Magnetohydrodynamics, Flow Control, Spatial Self-Calibration, FPGA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2015), 15.-17.04.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 22030

Qualification of CFD for multiphase flows in industrial applications
Lucas, D.
Abstract: Multiphase flows are frequently applied in industrial processes as e.g. in chemical engineering, oil industries or power plants. Reliable predictions of the flow characteristics such as local concentration of species, interfacial area density or heat transfer in gas-liquid flows can contribute to an optimization of the design of corresponding apparatuses and processes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in principle allows the simulation of such flows and provides local flow characteristics. While it is frequently used for industrial problems in case of single phase flows it is not yet mature for two-phase flows. The reason is the complex gas-liquid interface. For medium and large scale flow domains it is not feasible to resolve all details of this interface. Averaging procedures have to be applied and in most cases the so-called two- or multi-fluid approach is used. It assumes interpenetrating phases and the information on the interface gets lost by these averaging procedures. This information has to be added to the basic balance equations by so-called closure models. The development and validation of such models is done at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf (HZDR) to obtain tools for reliable predictions of multiphase flow characteristics in medium and large industrial scales.
One difficulty for the model development and validation results from the fact that we still have a lack of knowledge on local phenomena which determine the two-phase flow characteristics and which should be considered in the closure models. Experimental data with high resolution in space and time are required. To get such information on the gas-liquid interface new innovative measuring techniques as wire-mesh sensors and ultrafast X-ray tomography were developed at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf (HZDR) and extensively used to establish comprehensive databases. The corresponding experiments were conducted at the TOPFLOW-facility of HZDR. It can be operated for air-water and steam-water flows with a pressure up to 7 MPa and the corresponding saturation temperature of 286 °C. An electrical steam generator with a power of 4 MW is able provide up to 1.5 kg steam per second.
In this keynote lecture the strategy of the CFD-model development and validation for multiphase flows is presented. This includes the corresponding experimental work and development of innovative measuring techniques.

Keywords: CFD, multiphase flows, experiments
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    IFOST 2015 : The 10th International Forum on Strategic Technology 2015, 03.-05.06.2015, Denpasar, Indonesien
Registration No. 22026

Qualification of CFD-models for multiphase flows
Lucas, D.
Abstract: In this talk an overview on the CFD activities at HZDR is given. The general strategy to qualify CFD for multiphase flows is presented. Examples for specific topics related to nuclear safety research are discussed.
Keywords: CFD, multiphase flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Sino-German Symposium on Fundamentals of Advanced Nuclear Safety Technology, 08.-12.03.2015, Shanghai, China
Registration No. 22024

A strategy for the CFD-qualification for two-phase flows
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Ziegenhein, Th.; Rzehak, R.; Liao, Y.; Apanasevich, P.
Abstract: In this presentation the requirement to consolidate the CFD modelling for two-phase flows in frame of the Euler-Euler approach is discussed. To do that a baseline model strategy is proposed and illustrated by the HZDR baseline model for poly-dispersed bubbly flows.
Keywords: CFD, closure models, poly-dsiperse bubbly flows
  • Lecture (Conference)
    26th Meeting of the German CFD Network of Competence, 04.-05.03.2015, Otterfing, Deutschland
Registration No. 22022

Code intercomparison and benchmark for muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by an 18 GeV electron beam after massive iron shielding
Fass`O, A.; Ferrari, A.; Mokhov, N. V.; Müller, S. E.; Nelson, W. R.; Roesler, S.; Sanami, T.; Striganov, S. I.; Versaci, R.
Abstract: In 1974, Nelson, Kase, and Svenson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding using the SLAC high energy LINAC. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by a 18 GeV electron beam hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at the time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results will then be compared between the codes, and with the SLAC data.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    FLUKA collaboration meeting, 15.-16.12.2014, Pavia, Italy
Registration No. 22020

Background studies in the 148 m deep Reiche Zeche mine in Freiberg and in the 45 m deep Felsenkeller in Dresden
Szücs, T.; Agramunt, J.; Bemmerer, D.; Degering, D.; Dillmann, I.; Fraile, L. M.; Grieger, M.; Marta, M.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Schmidt, K.; Tain, J. L.; Takács, M. P.; Wagner, L.
Abstract: A very low background level is a key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments.
A detailed gamma-background study with two escape-suppressed HPGe detectors has been performed at a medium deep underground site, namely the Reiche Zeche mine (148m) in Freiberg, Germany [1]. The new data complement a data set with the same detector at other underground sites [2,3].
Now, detailed background data are available at the Earth’s surface and at underground sites with depths of 45m, 148m, 1400m from one and the same escape-suppressed HPGe detector. This allows to investigate the effect of the active and passive shielding on the high energy (E_g > 3 MeV) laboratory background.
A detailed interpretation of the behaviour of different background components as a function of the underground depth will be presented.

In addition to this work with gamma-ray detectors, the neutron background has been studied by 3He counters from the BELEN neutron detector, equipped with polyethylene moderators of various thicknesses in the Felsenkeller laboratory (45m). By mean of the varied moderation, spectral information of the neutron flux is derived. The same detectors and same method were used previously deep underground in Canfranc/Spain (850m) to measure the neutron flux and spectrum [4]. This allows a direct comparison of the two sites.

- Supported by the Helmholtz Association (HGF) through the Nuclear Astrophysics Virtual Institute (HGF VH-VI-417), and via the Helmholtz Young Investigators Group LISA (VH-NG 627).

[1] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 51, (2015) 33
[2] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 44, (2010) 513
[3] T. Szücs et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 48, (2012) 8
[4] D. Jordan et al., Astropart. Phys. 42, (2013) 1

Keywords: Underground, gamma background, neutron background, HPGe, 3He counter
  • Poster
    Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics Conference (NPA VII), 18.-22.05.2015, York, United Kingdom
Registration No. 22019

Code intercomparison and benchmark for muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by an 18 GeV electron beam after massive iron shielding
Müller, S. E.
Abstract: In 1974, Nelson, Kase, and Svenson published an experimental investigation on muon shielding using the SLAC high energy LINAC. They measured muon fluence and absorbed dose induced by a 18 GeV electron beam hitting a copper/water beamdump and attenuated in a thick steel shielding. In their paper, they compared the results with the theoretical models available at the time. In order to compare their experimental results with present model calculations, we use the modern transport Monte Carlo codes to model the experimental setup and run simulations. The results will then be compared between the codes, and with the SLAC data.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    FLUKA Advanced Course and Workshop, 01.-05.12.2014, Frascati, Italy
Registration No. 22018

Status of the Task 11.1 from HZDR: Part 1
Ferrari, A.; Konheiser, J.; Müller, S. E.
Abstract: Results on activation calculation for the CHANDA project are presented.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CHANDA Work Package 11 Meeting, 20.02.2015, Dresden, Germany
Registration No. 22017

He+ ions damage on optical coatings for solar missions
Bacco, D.; Corso, A. J.; Zuppella, P.; Gerlin, F.; Böttger, R.; Napolitani, E.; Tessarolo, E.; Nardello, M.; Zuccon, S.; Pelizzo, M. G.
Abstract: Single layer thin films have been exposed to low energy alpha particles (4keV). Implanted doses are equivalent to those accumulated in 1, 2, 4 and 6 years of ESA Solar Orbiter mission operation. Two ions fluences have been considered. In order to change the total dose accumulated, for each ion flux the time of exposure was varied. Reflectance in the visible spectral range has been measured prior and after implantation. Results show no significant change in performances in gold and palladium, while a small decrease in performances is observed in iridium. The implantation rate does not seem to affect the experiment.
Keywords: Optical coatings; Ions; Iridium; Gold; Palladium; Particles; Reflectivity; Thin films Registration No. 22016

Defect-induced ferromagnetism in silicon
Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, Q.; Han, J.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Song, B.
Defect-induced ferromagnetism provides an alternative for organic and semiconductor spintronics. Though it is weak, it can be stable above room temperature. Till now it has been confirmed at least in oxides [1, 2] and carbon based materials [3, 4]. Interestingly, the relation between magnetism and defects in Silicon was demonstrated decades ago [5]. Since then, some progresses were made [6-9] and push forward the research of magnetic Mn doped Si a lot but it is drawn little attention itself. Here, with the latest growth purifying technique and sensitive measurements, we investigated the magnetism in Silicon after neutron irradiation and try to correlate the observed magnetism to particular defects in Si.

Commercially available p-type Si wafer (Hefei Ke Jing) is cut into pieces for performing neutron irradiations. The magnetic impurities are ruled out as they can not be detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The concentration of the main impurity Boron is around 4 × 1014 cm-3. Pieces are irradiated for varying durations, corresponding doses in the ranges of 1.91 × 1017 - 2.29 × 1018 n/cm2. Each piece is irradiated only once and pristine pieces are kept for the purpose of comparison.
Raman spectra show the patterns of Si crystals irradiated similar to that of the pristine one. The relative intensity variation confirms the slight damage induced by irradiation. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is performed to investigate the defect types. All the measured spectra are fit into an exponential function of three components. The lifetime τ2, usually corresponding to defects, takes value of 375 ps, independent of irradiation dose. This positron trapping center is assigned to a kind of stable vacancy clusters of hexagonal rings (V6) [10]. The fraction of the longer lifetime (τ2) component I2 is closely correlated with irradiation dose, which means the concentration of V6 is enhanced by increasing neutron doses.
After irradiation, the samples still show strong diamagnetism. Only weak paramagnetism can be found in zero-field-cooled / field-cooled magnetization. The ferromagnetic signal in Silicon after irradiation enhances and then weakens with increasing irradiation doses as shown in Fig. 1. The saturation magnetization can reach 6 × 10-5 emu/g at 5 K. At room temperature it still remains as much as 5 × 10-5 emu/g. In such a transition metal free system, the ferromagnetism in neutron irradiated Si is closely associated with V6 defects. A Silicon 2 × 2 × 2 supercell with a defect of V6 is built to understand the magnetism in neutron irradiated Silicon. Unfortunately, the V6 shows no spin-polarized state. The change of charge state or Boron doping can not make it spin-polarized, either. At this end, more efforts are needed to comprehend this phenomenon.

1) M. Venkatesan, C. B. Fitzgerald, and J. M. D. Coey, "Thin films: unexpected magnetism in a dielectric oxide", Nature, 430 630 (2004).
2) J. B. Yi, C. C. Lim, G. Z. Xing, H. M. Fan, L. H. Van, S. L. Huang, K. S. Yang, X. L. Huang, X. B. Qin, B. Y. Wang, T. Wu, L. Wang, H. T. Zhang, X. Y. Gao, T. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, Y. P. Feng, and J. Ding, "Ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors through defect engineering: Li-doped ZnO", Phys. Rev. Lett., 104 137201 (2010).
3) P. Esquinazi, D. Spemann, R. Höhne, A. Setzer, K. H. Han, and T. Butz, "Induced magnetic ordering by proton irradiation in graphite", Phys. Rev. Lett., 91 227201 (2003).
4) Y. Liu, G. Wang, S. C. Wang, J. H. Yang, L. Chen, X. B. Qin, B. Song, B. Y. Wang, and X. L. Chen, "Defect-induced magnetism in neutron irradiated 6H-SiC single crystals", Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 087205 (2011).
5) A. F. Khokhlov and P. V. Pavlov, "Ferromagnetism induced in silicon by radiation defects", JETP Lett., 24(4) 211–213 (1976).
6) R. Laiho, E. Lähderanta, L. Vlasenko, M. Viasenko, and M. Afanasiev, "Magnetic properties of light-emitting porous silicon", J. Lumin., 57 197–200 (1993).
7) T. Dubroca, J. Hack, R. E. Hummel, and A. Angerhofer, "Quasiferromagnetism in semiconductors", Appl. Phys. Lett., 88 182504 (2006).
8) S. V. Adashkevich, N. M. Lapchuk, V. F. Stel’makh, G. G. Fedoruk, and E. N. Shumskaya, "Local magnetic order in silicon implanted with high-energy ions", JETP Lett., 84(10) 547–550 (2006).
9) L. Chow, J. C. Gonzalez-Pons, E. del Barco, R. Vanfleet, A. Misiuk, A. Barcz, E. S. Choi, and G. Chai, "Structures and magnetization of defect-associated sites in Silicon", AIP Conf. Proc., 1003 248 (2008).
10) T. E. M. Staab, A. Sieck, M. Haugk, M. J. Puska, Th. Frauenheim, and H. S. Leipner, "Stability of large vacancy clusters in silicon", Phys. Rev. B, 65 115210 (2002).

Keywords: defect-induced ferromagnetism, silicon, neutron irradiation, semiconductors
  • Lecture (Conference)
    INTERMAG 2015, 11.-15.05.2015, Beijing, China
Registration No. 22014

Construction and Test of a Large NeuLAND Prototype Array
Boretzky, K.; Agrawal, B.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez Pol, H.; Andreev, V. A.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Basu, P.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Bertini, D.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Blanco, A.; Bonilla, J.; Caesar, C.; Cartegni, L.; Chakraborty, S.; Charpy, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Ciobanu, M.; Cowan, T.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Elekes, Z.; Endres, J.; Fetisov, A. A.; Fiori, E.; Fonte, P.; Galaviz, D.; Gasparic, I.; Gerbig, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golotsov, V. L.; Haiduc, M.; Heftrich, T.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ickert, G.; Isaak, J.; Ivanov, E. A.; Jährling, S.; Johansen, J.; Johansson, H.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kiselev, O.; Körper, D.; Kresan, D.; Krivshich, A. G.; Kumar Das, P.; Lebleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Leifels, Y.; Lindberg, S.; Lopes, L.; Löher, B.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Netterdon, L.; Nilsson, T.; Panin, V.; Panja, J.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Pietras, B.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Potlog, M.; Rahaman, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Ray, A.; Reifarth, R.; Reinhardt, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Röder, M.; Rossi, D.; Sanchez Del Rio, J.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schrock, P.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Sinha, T.; Sobiella, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Tengblad, O.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Uvarov, L. N.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Volkov, S. S.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weigand, M.; Winkel, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yakorev, D.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.
Abstract: NeuLAND (new Large-Area Neutron Detector) is the next-generation neutron detector integrated into the R3B experiment, and is a key instrument for a major part of the physics program. NeuLAND features a high detection effciency, a high resolution, and a large multi-neutronhit resolving power, achieved by a highly granular design with a total of 3000 plastic scintillator bars [1]. In January 2013 the Technical Design Report [2] has been approved by FAIR, following the recommendation by the Expert Committee Experiments (ECE) at its first meeting in November 2012.
Here we report about the progress of the NeuLAND project, which was dominated in 2012 by the transition from prototypes to mass production. During the previous year 200 NeuLAND modules and their readout were purchased and brought into operation.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Katrin Große: GSI Scientific Report 2012, GSI Report 2013-1, Darmstadt: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 2013


Registration No. 22013

Decomposition of Silicon rich oxide films by Diode Laser processing to fabricate Sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposites for photovoltaics
Schumann, E.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Carcelen, V.; Krause, M.
Abstract: Absorber layers consisting of nanostructured Si are candidates for next generation thin film Si solar cells. For this aim, Si-SiO2 nanocomposites with crystalline sponge-like Si are promising materials since their band gap is increased by quantum confinement and since they provide electrical interconnectivity. Such nanosilicon has recently been fabricated by annealing of non-reactively sputter deposited SiOx films (x< 1). It is formed by solid state phase separation into a percolated network of Si nanowires. The phase separation is usually accompanied by crystallization of Si. Here, SiOx layers have been grown by ion beam sputter (IBS) as well as by reactive magnetron sputter (RMS) deposition. Phase separation into Si-SiO2 nanocomposites has been achieved by scanning a diode laser line source with dwell times in the ms range and compared to a furnace treatment lasting ~106 times longer. Furnace annealing of IBS and RMS deposited layers result in sponge-like and filament-like silicon nanostructures, respectively. Laser processing of IBS layers leads to morphologies self-similar to furnace annealed samples, but scaled up by a factor of ~10. This indicates that the faster phase separation mechanism occurs in the liquid state. It is expected that laser processing of RMS layers will result in sponge-like morphologies too, and not filament like ones due to the liquid state phase separation.
Keywords: silicon nanostructure, sponge-like Si-SiO2, nanocomposite, silicon, silicon oxide, photovoltaic, Energy Filtered TEM
  • Poster
    2015 E-MRS Spring Meeting, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 22012

Diode laser array used for decomposition of SiOx into sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposites
Schumann, E.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Carcelen, V.; Hauschild, D.; Krause, M.
Abstract: Line-shaped light beams from diode laser arrays permit homogeneous and long-term stable processing of surface layers. Here we report on thermally activated decomposition of SiOx using a commercial diode laser of the LIMO GmbH, with cw-operation at a wavelength of 808nm, a maximum power density of 30 kW/cm², a minimum line focus < 100 µm, and a variable scan speed. Dwell times from < 1ms to 100ms can be realized by adjusting the scan speed and focus width, which allows very Rapid Thermal Processing (vRTP) of surfaces layers. SiOx layers of < 1µm thickness have been grown on quartz by sputter deposition. Two different modes of thermal treatment have been used: Furnace annealing at 950°C for 90 minutes and vRTP with 17ms dwell time. Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM) reveals that in both cases the homogeneous SiOx has been transformed into a sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the crystallinity of spongy Si is higher for the laser treated sample. Whereas the characteristic structure size of the spongy Si of the furnace annealed sample amounts to a few nm only, it is a few tens of nm for vRTP. It will be shown that in the furnace the phase separation proceeds in the solid state, whereas the more complete phase separation by laser treatment can only be understood by liquid state processes. The laser-synthesized Si nanosponge can be applied as new material in next generation solar cells.
Keywords: silicon nanostructure, sponge-like Si-SiO2, nanocomposite, silicon, silicon oxide, photovoltaic, Energy Filtered TEM , diode laser annealing
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2015 E-MRS Spring Meeting, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 22011

R&D for NeuLAND development for R3B, FAIR at SINP, Kolkata
Datta Pramanik, U.; Aumann, T.; Boretzky, K.; Basu, P.; Basu, J.; Bhattachaya, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, P. K.; Elekes, Z.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Kempe, M.; Panja, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ray, J.; Simon, H.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D.
Abstract: In the upcoming R3B-FAIR facility, to achieve the design goal for high resolution neutron time-of-flight [1,2], various types of prototypes have been explored at several places [3,4,5,6]. The possible candidates for active material of such a spectrometer can be either Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) or conventional plastic scintillators. At initial stage of NeuLAND development, at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, MRPC design feasibility was studied extensively[3,5].
  • Contribution to external collection
    Katrin Große: GSI Scientific Report 2012, GSI Report 2013-1, Darmstadt: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 2013


Registration No. 22010

Shielding and activation analysis status for the MYRRHA research reactor
Ferrari, A.; Konheiser, J.; Müller, S. E.
Abstract: Shielding and activation analysis status of the MYRRHA research reactor is presented.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MAXSIMA Work Package 2 - Technical Meeting, 20.04.2015, Mol, Belgien
Registration No. 22009

Tests of Silicon Photomultipliers for NeuLAND
Reinhardt, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T.; Heidel, K.; Kempe, M.; Röder, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Zuber, K.
Abstract: NeuLAND, the successor of the LAND time-of-flight neutron spectrometer is planned to be constructed of 5 × 5 × 250 cm3 scintillator bars of RP-408 [1] or equivalent. Light readout will be performed by 1" photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A demonstration prototype of the detector concept was recently tested at GSI [2]. During the operation of the complete detector with 6,000 channels a significant number of photomultiplier tubes may have to be replaced each year. Recent developments in the field of semiconductor based photon readout systems [2, e.g.] raise the possibility of using Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) for this task.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Katrin Große: GSI Scientific Report 2012, GSI Report 2013-1, Darmstadt: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 2013


Registration No. 22008

Sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposite as photovoltaic absorber –phase separation in the liquid and the solid state
Schumann, E.; Heinig, K.-H.; Hübner, R.; Carcelen, V.; Krause, M.
Abstract: Absorber layers consisting of nanostructured Si are candidates for next generation thin film Si solar cells. For this aim, Si-SiO2 nanocomposites with crystalline sponge-like Si are promising materials since their band gap is increased by quantum confinement and since they provide electrical interconnectivity. Such nanosilicon has recently been fabricated by annealing of non-reactively sputter deposited SiOx films (x< 1). It is formed by solid state phase separation into a percolated network of Si nanowires. The phase separation is usually accompanied by crystallization of Si. Here, SiOx layers have been grown by ion beam sputter (IBS) as well as by reactive magnetron sputter (RMS) deposition. Formation of sponge-like Si-SiO2 nanocomposites has been achieved for the IBS deposited layers by scanning with a diode laser line source (LIMO GmbH) and furnace treatment. Laser processing leads to morphologies self-similar to furnace annealed samples, but scaled up by a factor of ~10. Moreover, the laser process proceeds approximately 106 times faster. The larger mean structure size for the shorter process is explained by a phase separation in the liquid state in contrast to a solid state process which has been observed for furnace annealing. Furthermore, filament-like morphologies produced by RMS deposition and furnace annealing are compared to those of the IBS deposited layers.
Keywords: silicon nanostructure, sponge-like Si-SiO2, nanocomposite, silicon, silicon oxide, photovoltaic, Energy Filtered TEM
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2015 E-MRS Spring Meeting, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 22007

Tests of timing silicon photomultipliers for NeuLAND
Gohl, S.; Reinhardt, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Heidel, K.; Röder, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Weinberger, D.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zuber, K.
Abstract: It is investigated whether NeuLAND may be reinstrumented with semiconductor based photosensors. Tests with an 11cm long slab of RP-408 plastic scintillator and a PiLas 45 ps laser diode system show time resolutions of σ = 100 ps.
The NeuLAND time-of flight detector for 1GeV neutrons will consist in its final configuration of 30 double planes of 100 scintillator bars (RP-408) each. Each bar of 270×5×5cm3 must be read out at each end. Thus altogether 6000 timing photomultipliers of 1” diameter are needed [1]. In order to limit their cost impact, it is being investigated whether parts of NeuLAND may be (re-)instrumented with semiconductor-based photosensors, socalled Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). Previous experiments using the one-electron-per-bunch mode of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE have shown that nearly full efficiency can be reached even when instrumenting one NeuLAND bar with just one 3×3mm2 SiPM [2]. However, in those first tests the charge resolution did not allow to separate single photons, and the time resolution did not fulfill the required σ ≤ 150 ps.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Katrin Große: GSI Scientific Report 2013, GSI Report 2014-1, Darmstadt: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 2014


Registration No. 22006

Low-aspect ratio nanopatterns on bioinert alumina influence the response and morphology of osteoblast-like cells
Wittenbrink, I.; Hausmann, A.; Schickle, K.; Lauria, I.; Davtalab, R.; Foss, M.; Keller, A.; Fischer, H.
Abstract: Topographical features on the nanometer scale are known to influence cellular behavior. The response of specific cell types to various types of surface structures is currently still being investigated. Alumina ceramics play an important role as biomaterials, e.g., in medical and dental applications. In this study, we investigated the influence of nanoscale surface features with low aspect ratio (< 0.1) on the response of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. To this end, low-energy ion irradiation was employed to produce shallow nanoscale ripple patterns on Al2O3(0001) surfaces with lateral periodicities of 24 nm and 179 nm and heights of only 0.7 and 11.5 nm, respectively. The nanopatterning was found to increase the proliferation of MG-63 cells and may lead to pseudopodia alignment along the ripples. Furthermore, focal adhesion behavior and cell morphology were analyzed. We found that MG-63 cells are able to recognize surface nanopatterns with extremely low vertical variations of less than 1 nm. In conclusion, it is shown that surface topography in the sub-nm range significantly influences the response of osteoblast-like cells.
Keywords: Alumina, Nanotopography, Ion beam, Osteoblast Registration No. 22005

Hyperdoping silicon with chalcogen: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy
Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Khalid, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
Abstract: Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in silicon, these materials were previously realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted silicon or bare silicon in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the silicon surface leads to a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping of chalcogen into the silicon matrix. However, this method encounters the problem of surface segregation. In this paper, we propose a solid phase processing by flash-lamp annealing in the millisecond range, which is in between the conventional rapid thermal annealing and pulsed laser annealing. Flash lamp annealed selenium-implanted silicon shows a substitutional fraction of ≈ 70% with an implanted concentration up to 2.3%. The resistivity is lower and the carrier mobility is higher than those of nanosecond pulsed laser annealed samples. Our results show that flash-lamp annealing is superior to laser annealing in preventing surface segregation and in allowing scalability.
Keywords: Ion implantation, flash lamp annealing
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2015 Spring meeting, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 22004

NeuLAND - from prototypes to double-planes
Boretzky, K.; Agrawal, B.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez Pol, H.; Andreev, V. A.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Babic, V.; Basu, P.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Bertini, D.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Blanco, A.; Bonilla, J.; Caesar, C.; Cartegni, L.; Chakraborty, S.; Charpy, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Ciobanu, M.; Cowan, T.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Dentinger, G.; Elekes, Z.; Fetisov, A. A.; Fiori, E.; Fonte, P.; Galaviz, D.; Gasparic, I.; Gerbig, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golotsov, V. L.; Haiduc, M.; Heftrich, T.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ickert, G.; Isaak, J.; Ivanov, E. A.; Jährling, S.; Johansen, J.; Johansson, H.; Kahlbow, J.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kissel, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Körper, D.; Kresan, D.; Krivshich, A. G.; Kumar Das, P.; Lebleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Leifels, Y.; Lindberg, S.; Lopes, L.; Löher, B.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Netterdon, L.; Nilsson, T.; Panin, V.; Panja, J.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Pickstone, S. G.; Pietras, B.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Potlog, M.; Rahaman, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Ray, A.; Reifarth, R.; Reinhardt, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Röder, M.; Rossi, D.; Sanchez Del Rio, J.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Schindler, F.; Schmidt, S.; Schrock, P.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Sinha, T.; Sobiella, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Tengblad, O.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Uvarov, L. N.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Volkov, S. S.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weigand, M.; Winkel, M.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yakorev, D.; Zhdanov, A. A.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.
Abstract: During 2013 the NeuLAND (new Large-Area Neutron Detector) project passed the important step from prototype tests to series production. Being one of the key instruments of the R3B experiment [1] the NeuLAND demonstrator will be utilized in the 2014 beam times together with demonstrators of other major R3B components. NeuLAND is a highly granular detector composed of 3000 scintillator bars with a total volume of 250x250x300 cm3. It enables the detection of fast neutrons with high efficiency, high time and spatial resolution and a high resolving power for multi-neutron events [2]. Despite the compact cubical arrangement of the NeuLAND components, the detector is built up from individual subgroups with an independent functionality, the so-called NeuLAND double-planes. This modular design facilitates maintenance and it allows upon experimental needs to split the detector in subdetectors being located at different positions with respect to the target area.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Katrin Große: GSI Scientific Report 2013, GSI Report 2014-1, Darmstadt: GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 2014


Registration No. 22003

Bispidines as versatile bifunctional chelators for 64Cu PET imaging
Stephan, H.
Abstract: Objectives: Ligands based on 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (bispidine) form very stable coordination compounds, particularly with CuII. Due to the formation of thermodynamically and kinetically very stable 64CuII complexes, pentadentate I, hexadentate II and macrocyclic bispidines III are well suited for in vivo application. The bispidine scaffold has a number of options for derivatization that permit the introduction of additional functions such as biological vectors and fluorescent molecules. This allows the adjustment of defined features of solubility and of selective binding properties for in vivo applications with controllable targeting.

Methods: Bispidine ligands I and II were synthesized by two consecutive Mannich reactions. The bispidine dioxotetraaza macrocycle III was synthesized by cyclization of 5,7-dimethyl-1,3-diazabicyclononane with the bis(α-chloroacetamide) of o-phenylendiamine. 64Cu was produced following an established protocol with high specific activities of 150-250 GBq/µmol. 64Cu-labeling of bispidine ligands and peptide conjugates were performed using [64Cu]CuCl2 dissolved in 0.05 M 2-[N-morpholino]ethansulfonic acid (MES)-NaOH buffer (pH 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5). The stability of the 64CuII-labeled bispidine ligands I – III was studied in the presence of an excess of human superoxide dismutase (SOD) and human serum using standard gel electrophoresis techniques. Biodistribution and PET studies were conducted in male Wistar rats. Small animal PET studies were performed in tumor (PC3, MPC#) bearing mice.

Results: Bispidine ligands I and II form highly stable metal complexes with 64CuII under mild conditions (ambient temperature, aqueous solution). 64Cu-labeling of bispidine dioxotetraaza macrocycles III shows relatively rapid complex formation at 50°C. Challenge experiments with SOD and human serum indicate a high in vitro stability of 64CuII complexes with bispidine ligands I – III. Biodistribution studies, showing rapid blood and tissue clearance, support the high complex stability in vivo. 64Cu-labeled bispidine bioconjugates, incorporating specific vector molecules, such as bombesin and TATE peptides, permit clear tumor visualization with high target-to-background ratio.
Conclusions: Bifunctional bispidine ligands I - III represent a versatile platform for the development of new copper radiopharmaceuticals. The bispidine scaffold holds promising potential to tune the charge and lipophilicity of the radiocopper complexes and consequently to influence the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties. Moreover, bispidine ligands can be readily modified with appropriate vector molecules and fluorescence tags.
Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Helmholtz Virtual Institute NanoTracking (Agreement Number VH-VI-421) is gratefully acknowledged.
[1] Comba, P., et al. (2007) Progr. Inorg. Chem. 46, 458-464.
[2] Juran S., et al. (2009) Bioconjugate Chem. 20, 347-359.
[3] Comba P., et al. (2013) Inorg. Chem. 52, 8131-8143.
[4] Comba, P., et al. (2014) Inorg. Chem. 53, 6698-6707.
[5] Stephan, H., et al. (2014) Chem. Eur. J. 20, 17011-17018.
[6] Zarschler K., et al. (2013), RSC Adv. 4, 10157-10164.
[7] Thieme S., et al. (2012) Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 602-608.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S64
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_1
Registration No. 22002

1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands as versatile platform for radiocopper-labeled agents
Pant, K.; Stephan, H.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.; Graham, B.; Spiccia, L.
Abstract: Objectives: Pyridine containing bifunctional chelating agents (BFCA) based on 1, 4, 7 – triazacyclononane backbones (DMPTACN) are suitable platforms for copper (II) complexes. These ligands rapidly form highly stable, inert square pyramidal complexes that are resistant to metal leaching.1 The ligand structure enables convenient introduction of additional conjugatable functional groups like -COOH end groups to allow a regioselective coupling to various biomolecules for e.g. bombesin.2 Since Cu-64 is a highly useful PET (positron emission tomography) radioisotope because of its intermediate half-life (64Cu, t1/2 -12.7 h) and a high resolution image, these conjugatable DMPTACN chelators can be coupled with various vectors for e.g., proteins, dendritic polymers in order to understand their detailed in vivo pharmacokinetic properties with respect to their ADME behavior. The current objective of the work was to synthesize new maleimide and -SCN derivatives of DMPTACN ligands which could be employed to be conjugated to anti-inflammatory dendritic polyglcerol sulfate (dPGS) & neutral dPG derivatives under mild conditions in order to study the metabolic fate of these potentially therapeutic polymers using positron emission tomography.
Methods: DMPTACN was synthesized by a 10-step process using an established protocol.1 Two coupling groups such as maleimide (1) or isothiocyanate (2) have been attached for further conjugation. These ligands were then conjugated to the thiolated dPGS via Michael addition of 1 and also via direct labeling of 2 to dPGS amine to yield highly stable conjugates. 64Cu was produced following an already established protocol with high specific activities of 150-250 GBq/µmol.3 64Cu-labeling of the conjugates were performed using [64Cu]CuCl2 at ambient temperature in aqueous buffer solution (0.1 M MES/NaOH) and resulted in a radiochemical purity of ≥99% within a few minutes. Challenge experiments were conducted in presence of EDTA or copper seeking superoxide dismutase (SOD) for evaluation of in vitro stability.4 Biodistribution and PET studies were conducted in male Wistar rats.
Results: DMPTACN-dPG/S conjugates form highly stable metal complexes with 64Cu under mild conditions (ambient temperature, aqueous solution) showing resistance to demetalation in vitro and high in vivo stability. Biodistribution data and PET experiments show a charge dependant excretion of the dPGS and dPG macromolecules.
Conclusions: DMPTACN ligands are a versatile platform which can be applied for labeling small molecules, proteins as well as polymers for detailed insight on their biodistribution profiles using 64Cu that allows studying relatively long biochemical processes and thus, prove to be an attractive candidate for PET imaging.
Acknowledgements: This study is part of a research initiative “Technologie und Medizin – Multimodale Bildgebung zur Aufklärung des in-vivo Verhaltens von polymeren Biomaterialien” of the Helmholtz-Portfoliothema.
[1] Gasser G., et al. (2008) Bioconjugate Chem. 19, 719-730.
[2] Bergmann R., et al. (2013) Eur. J. Med. Chem. 70, 434-446.
[3] Thieme S., et al. (2012) Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 602-608.
[4] Zarschler K., et al. (2013) RSC Adv. 4, 10157-10164.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia/Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015), S92
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 22001

A novel cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl 99mTc complex containing 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline motif - synthesis and evaluation of a radiotracer for imaging of sigma-2 receptors in cancer
Chen, Y.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Steinbach, J.; Brust, P.; Liu, B.; Jia, H.
  • Poster
    21st International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences - ISRS2015, 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia, Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015)1, 098-098
Registration No. 21997

Evaluation of the novel radiotracer 18F-DBT-10 for imaging the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in non-human primates
Zheng, M.-Q.; Hillmer, A.; Scheunemann, M.; Holden, D.; Li, S.; Lin, S.; Labaree, D.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Teodoro, R.; Carson, R. E.; Brust, P.; Huang, H.
Abstract: Objectives: The α7nAChR is involved in cognition and a potential drug target for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. 18F-DBT-10 is a candidate radioligand for α7nAChR imaging (Kranz et al. J Nucl Med 2014; 55 (Suppl. 1):1143). We performed PET experiments in rhesus monkeys to assess its kinetic and imaging characteristics.

Methods: 18F-DBT-10 was prepared from its nitrophenyl precursor by nucleophilic substitution. The affinity of DBT-10 on human nAChRs was determined by radioligand binding studies. Dynamic PET imaging of two monkeys (each control and blockade) was performed using a Focus-220 scanner. Brain and plasma metabolites were analysed by HPLC. Regional volumes of distribution (VT) were estimated from brain and plasma time-activity data.

Results: DBT-10 has high binding affinity to α7nAChR (Ki = 0.60 nM) and excellent selectivity over other nicotinic receptor subtypes. 18F-DBT-10 was prepared in 14.5±4.6% radiochemical yield and >99% radiochemical purity (n=5). Free plasma fraction of 18F-DBT-10 was 18±2 % (n=4). Plasma metabolism varied considerable between the two animals. Brain uptake was high and tissue kinetics fairly fast, with peak uptake at 10-50 min (Figure 1). No radioactive metabolites were found in brain tissue (thalamus, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum) taken from one monkey at 120 min p.i. Time-activity curves were fitted well with the 2-tissue kinetic model. Mean VT values were 58.0, 57.5, 54.9, 54.5, 52.0, 48.4, 39.9, and 34.8 cm3/mL, respectively, for the thalamus, insular, frontal and cingulate cortices, striatum, temporal cortex, hippocampus, occipital cortex, and cerebellum (n=2). Pre-treatment with the selective α7 ligand ASEM (0.69 & 1.24 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced binding of 18F-DBT-10 in all regions by 30% and 64%, respectively.

Conclusions: 18F-DBT-10 is a novel PET radiotracer with high affinity and selectivity for the α7nAChR. In rhesus monkeys it displays high uptake, appropriate kinetics and high specific binding in brain and thus is a promising agent for PET imaging of α7nAChR in humans.

Figure 1. MR and PET VT images (left) and tissue TACs (right) from a baseline scan with 18F-DBT-10.

This version: 2686 characters (previous version: 2831)
  • Poster
    ISRS2015, 26.-31.05.2015, Columbia, Missouri, USA
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 58(2015)1, 226-226
    DOI-Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3302_2
Registration No. 21996

C++11/14 features relevant in GPGPU APIs
Kelling, J.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    GPU Day 2015 - The Future of Many-Core Computing in Science, 20.05.2015, Budapest, Hungary
Registration No. 21995

Blue shift in absorption edge and widening of band gap of ZnO by Al doping and Al–N co-doping
You, Q.; Cai, H.; Hu, Z.; Liang, P.; Prucnal, S.; Zhou, S.; Sun, J.; Xu, N.; Wu, J.
Abstract: Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) and Al–N co-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al–N) films were synthesized based on plasma assisted reactive deposition of ZnO matrix and in-situ doping of Al or co-doping of Al and N. Similar with undoped ZnO, the synthesized ZnO:Al and ZnO:Al–N films are hexagonal wurtzite in structure and exhibit high optical transparency in a wide spectral region. Al doping and Al–N co-doping in ZnO result in a significant variation of the optical properties in the ultraviolet (UV) region and an UV extension of the transparent range. Compared with undoped ZnO, the doped films show blue-shifted absorption edge of 320 nm and widened band gap of 3.69 eV after annealing in H2/N2 mixed gas because of the incorporation of dopants and the improvement in the crystal structure. The ZnO:Al film exhibits declined transparency in the near infrared (IR) region, while the ZnO film co-doped with Al and N preserves high transparency from near UV to medium IR in addition to the UV extension of the transparent range. The annealed ZnO:Al and ZnO:Al–N films show better electrical properties than those of the undoped ZnO film and the as-deposited doped ZnO films.
Keywords: Absorption edge; Band gap; Al doped ZnO; Al–N co-doped ZnO; In-situ doping Registration No. 21991

Mobility Investigations on Strained 30-nm High-k Metal Gate MOSFETs by Geometrical Magnetoresistance Effect
Beister, J.; Wachowiak, A.; Boschke, R.; Herrmann, T.; Uhlarz, M.; Mikolajick, T.
Abstract: In this paper, we present mobility investigations of strained nMOS and pMOS short-channel transistors with dimensions down to 30-nm gate length. Using the geometrical magnetoresistance (MR) effect, carrier mobility of electrons and holes in the inversion channel of a recent state-of-the-art CMOS technology is presented from linear to saturation operation conditions. The MR effect allows for a more direct access to the carrier mobility compared with the conventional current/voltage and capacitance/voltage mobility derivation methods, in which series resistance, inversion charge density, and effective channel length are necessary to extract the mobility values of the short-channel devices. In another way, the MR effect can help to disentangle the performance gain of the strained state-of-the art devices to changes in channel mobility or device connection, e.g., series resistance effects. Registration No. 21987

Visualization of liquid metal bubbly flows using the X-ray radioscopy
Roshchupkina, O.; Shevchenko, N.; Strumpf, E.; Timmel, K.; Eckert, S.
Abstract: The quality of continuous cast steel is significantly affected by the flow pattern in the mould and submerged entry nozzle (SEN). The flow in continuous casting machines is often a two-phase one because argon is injected to avoid clogging inside the casting nozzle. Moreover, the argon bubbles are supposed to drag alumina particles and transport them towards the slag layer at the free surface. On the other hand, the gas injection leads to highly turbulent and complex two-phase flows, which are difficult to predict by numerical simulations. The injected bubbles have a distinct influence on the flow pattern and may trigger instabilities in the mold, for instance, observations made on real casters showed correlations between gas pressure variations in the SEN and mould meniscus perturbations.

Despite of the considerable number of previous studies mainly performed as numerical simulations and water models the understanding of liquid metal two phase flows remains fragmentary. Many open questions require further investigations, as concerns the formation process of gas bubbles, their distribution and flow regime in the SEN, the size of bubbles entering the mould, the flotation of the gas in the mould, the gas entrapment in the solidifying strand, etc. This situation motivated us to construct a specific model experiment where liquid metal two-phase flows can be investigated under flow conditions which are similar to those in the real continuous casting process.

We present an experimental study in a mockup of the continuous casting process. The two-phase flows in the mould and the SEN were visualized by means of X-ray radioscopy. The argon gas is injected through the tip of the stopper rod into the liquid metal flow. The system operates continuously with the low melting, eutectic alloy GaInSn under isothermal conditions. Experimental results will be presented and discussed accompanied by statistical analysis.

Keywords: X-ray radioscopy, two-phase flows, continuous casting
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows, 15.-17.04.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21985

Multi Group Geometrical Correction for Coupled Monte Carlo Codes: Multi-Regional Thermal System
Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E.
Abstract: This paper focuses on generating accurate 1-g cross section values that are necessary for evaluation of nuclide densities as a function of burnup for coupled Monte Carlo codes. The proposed method is an alternative to the conventional direct reaction rate tally approach, which requires extensive computational efforts. The method presented here is based on the multi-group (MG) approach, in which pre-generated MG sets are collapsed with MC calculated flux. In our previous studies we showed that generating accurate 1-g cross sections requires their tabulation against the background cross-section (σ0) to account for the self-shielding effect. However, in previous studies, the model that was used to calculate σ0 was simplified by fixing Bell and Dancoff factors. This work demonstrates that 1-g values calculated under the previous simplified model may not agree with the tallied values. Therefore, the original background cross section model was extended by implicitly accounting for the Dancoff and Bell factors. The method developed here reconstructs the correct value of σ0 by utilizing statistical data generated within the MC transport calculation by default. The method does not carry any additional computational burden and it is universally applicable to the analysis of thermal as well as fast reactor systems.
Keywords: Monte Carlo; BGCore; Multi group; one-group cross sections
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation, Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications and the Monte Carlo Method 2015, 19.-23.04.2015, Nashville, TN, USA
    Multi Group Geometrical Correction for Coupled Monte Carlo Codes: Multi-Regional Thermal System
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation, Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications and the Monte Carlo Method 2015, 19.-23.04.2015, Nashville, TN, USA
Registration No. 21983

X-ray observations showing the effect of fluid flow on dendritic solidification in Ga-In alloys
Shevchenko, N.; Roshchupkina, O.; Eckert, S.
Abstract: The directional solidification of Ga–25wt%In alloys within a Hele-Shaw cell has been studied by X-ray radioscopy. The investigations have focused on the influence of melt convection on the dendritic growth. Natural convection occurs during a bottom up solidification because a lighter solute is rejected during crystallization. Forced convection has been produced by a specific electromagnetic pump. The direction of forced melt flow is almost horizontal at the solidification front. Melt flow induces various effects on grain morphology caused primarily by convective transport of solute, such as facilitation of the growth of primary trunks or lateral branches, dendrite remelting, fragmentation or freckle formation depending on the dendrite orientation, the flow direction and intensity. Forced flow eliminates solutal plumes and damps local fluctuations of solute. A preferential growth of the secondary arms occurs at the upstream side of the dendrites, whereas high solute concentration at the downstream side inhibits the formation of secondary branches.
Keywords: Fluid flow, solidification, convection, X-ray radiography, in situ observation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Advances in the Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification: An MPMD Symposium Honoring Doru Michael Stefanescu; 2015 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 15.-19.03.2015, Orlando, Florida, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Advances in the Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification: An MPMD Symposium Honoring Doru Michael Stefanescu; 2015 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 15.-19.03.2015, Orlando, Florida, USA
Registration No. 21980

Modular Ultrasound Array Doppler Velocimeter with FPGA-based Signal Processing for Real-time Flow Mapping in Liquid Metal
Nauber, R.; Thieme, N.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Räbiger, D.; Eckert, S.; Czarske, J.
Abstract: Investigating the complex interaction of conductive fluids and magnetic fields is relevant for a variety of applications from basic research in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to modeling industrial processes involving metal melts, such as the crystal growth process in the photovoltaic industry. This enables targeted optimizations of the melt flow and allows to significantly increase the yield and energy effciency of industrial processes. However, experimental studies in this field are often limited by the performance of flow instrumentation for opaque liquids. We present an ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter (UADV) for flow mapping in opaque liquids at room temperature. It is modular and flexible regarding its measurement configuration, for instance it allows capturing two velocity components in two planes (2d - 2c). It uses up to 9 linear arrays with a total element count of 225, driven in a parallelized time division multiplex (TDM) scheme. A FPGA-based signal pre-processing allows to handle the massive data bandwidth of typ. 1.2 GB/s and enables a continuous and near-realtime operation of the measurement system. The capabilities of the UADV system are demonstrated in a basic MHD research experiment with a metal melt (GaInSn) in a cubic container of (67 mm)³. The flow induced by a rotating magnetic field is captured with a temporal resolution of 250 ms for the horizontal and vertical central cross-section of the cube.
Keywords: Flow-Mapping, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, Liquid Metals, Magnetohydrodynamics, Flow Control, FPGA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Congress on Ultrasonic, 10.-14.05.2015, Metz, Frankreich
Registration No. 21979

Realizing Optical Free-Electron Lasers with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering
Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Röser, F.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.
Abstract: Optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) from the EUV to X-ray range can be realized in Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS)[1,2] by utilizing pulse-front tilted high-power laser pulses as optical undulators.
The interaction distances required to induce microbunching to the electron beam for coherent radiation emission are realized in TWTS with a combination of side-scattering and a tilt of the laser pulse-front, as depicted in fig. 1. In the side-scattering geometry the electron beam and laser pulse directions of motion enclose the interaction angle. The tilt of the laser pulse-front by half of the interaction angle then ensures continuous overlap of electrons and laser while both are propagating in different directions. In this way, the interaction distances realized in TWTS are only limited by the transverse size of the laser and thus by the available laser power and size of available optics.
Our fully analytic theory of TWTS OFELs provides scaling laws for the electron and laser pulse quality requirements for OFEL operation. We show that TWTS OFELs can be realized with state-of-the-art technology in electron accelerators and laser systems if the presented scheme for dispersion control is applied. Thereby the variability of TWTS with respect to the interaction angle is used to control the electron and laser beam quality requirements. Especially the sub-μm transv. emittance beams from laser wakefield accelerators with energy spreads in the percent level can be used for the realization of all-optical FELs with acceleration and interaction distances in the centimeter range. An outlook on 3D simulations of TWTS OFELs using the particle in cell code PIConGPU is given.

Keywords: Thomson-scattering, X-ray, FEL, PIConGPU
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Laser Plasma Acceleration Workshop 2015, 11.-15.05.2015, Guadeloupe, France
Registration No. 21978

Realizing all optical free-electron lasers with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering
Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Roeser, F.; Schramm, U.
Abstract: Optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) from the ultra violet to x-ray range can be realized with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS). This becomes possible in TWTS by increasing the photon scattering efficiency of standard Thomson scattering geometries more than one order of magnitude by changing the interaction geometry. In TWTS a side-scattering geometry is used where the laser and electron propagation directions enclose the interaction angle $\phi$. Together with a tilt of the laser pulse front the interaction distance is increased in TWTS beyond the limits of head-on Thomson scattering. TWTS implements dispersion control of the laser pulse to compensate for variations of the optical undulator period originating from the pulse-front tilt. Altogether, the combination of side-scattering, pulse-front tilt and dispersion control in TWTS allows for meter-scale interaction distances in which the electron beam becomes microbunched and OFEL operation is achieved. These TWTS OFELs provide transverse coherence as well as brilliances an order of magnitude enhanced over standard head-on Thomson scattering geometries.
We present the scaling laws of TWTS OFELs derived from a fully analytic theory of the electron laser interaction in TWTS scattering geometries. TWTS OFELs can be realized in an all-optical setup with a meter-scale footprint using laser wakefield accelerated electrons featuring both ultralow transverse emittances and large energy spreads.

Keywords: Traveling-Wave, Thomson scattering, X-ray, FEL
  • Poster
    Novel Light Sources from Laser-Plasma Interactions, 20.-24.04.2015, Dresden, Deutschland
Registration No. 21977

Realizable Optical Free-Electron Lasers with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering
Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Röser, F.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.
Abstract: In Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS) a high-power laser pulse is scattered off a relativistic electron pulse to realize optical free-electron lasers (OFELs) with a wavelength range from ultraviolet to Angstrom. TWTS employs a side-scattering geometry where laser and electron beam propagation direction enclose an interaction angle to become independent of the Rayleigh length limit for the maximum interaction distance inherent to standard head-on Thomson scattering geometries. For optimum spatial overlap between electrons and laser pulse in TWTS geometries the laser pulse features a pulse-front tilt. In this way, the electrons interact with all parts of the laser pulse and the brilliance of a TWTS light source become by orders of magnitude larger than in standard head-on geometries where spatial overlap between electrons and laser pulse is lost due to defocusing of the laser pulse. OFELs can be operated with TWTS using multi-hundred to petawatt class laser systems with beam diameters in the centimeter range since the interaction distance in TWTS can be controlled with the laser beam diameter in the interaction plane.
We show that interaction distances achieved in TWTS are long enough for microbunching of the electron beam and coherent amplification of the radiation from our 1.5D FEL theory for the interaction of electrons with laser fields in side-scattering geometries.
We give the scaling laws for the design of TWTS OFELs derived from this 1.5D theory and present possible experimental setups for TWTS OFELs using electrons from conventional and laser wakefield accelerators. We put emphasize on how the ultra-low emittance of a laser wakefield accelerator can be exploited to compensate for the one percent level energy spread and how laser pulse dispersion introduced with the pulse-front tilt in TWTS setups can be compensated with an additional pair of gratings in the laser pulse path before the interaction.

Keywords: Traveling-Wave, Thomson scattering, X-ray, FEL
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics 2015, 13.-16.04.2015, Prague, Czech Republic
Registration No. 21976

Experimental design of optical free-electron lasers in the Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering geometry
Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Röser, F.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.
Abstract: Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS) realizes optical free-electron lasers (OFEL) from the extreme ultraviolet to the X-ray range with existing electron accelerators and high-power laser systems. In TWTS ultrashort laser pulses and relativistic electron bunches are utilized in a side-scattering geometry where laser pulse and electron bunch direction of motion enclose an interaction angle. The laser electric field thereby is the undulator field in which the electrons oscillate and emit radiation during the interaction. When the electrons traverse the laser beam cross-section, TWTS provides continuous overlap of electron bunch and laser pulse by employing a laser pulse-front tilt which compensates the spatial separation of electrons and laser at the beginning and end of the interaction originating from their different propagation directions. The combination of laser pulse-front tilt and side-scattering in TWTS enables interaction lengths long enough to induce microbunching of the electron beam leading to coherent amplification of the emitted radiation and the realization of TWTS OFELs.
We present the scaling laws for the electron beam and laser pulse requirements to operate TWTS OFELs and show with example scenarios that TWTS OFELs can be realized with existing radio-frequency accelerated electrons such as ELBE at HZDR as well as laser-wakefield accelerated electrons. We detail the necessary equipment in a TWTS OFEL experiment and discuss how current experimental limitations affect the design of TWTS OFEL setups.

Keywords: Traveling-wave, Thomson scattering, X-ray, FEL
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung Wuppertal 2015, 09.-13.03.2015, Wuppertal, Deutschland
Registration No. 21975

From Optical Undulators to Optical FELs with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering
Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Pausch, R.; Röser, F.; Schramm, U.; Sauerbrey, R.
Abstract: No abstract needed
Keywords: Traveling-Wave, Thomson scattering, X-ray, FEL
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Materie und Technologie Kick-Off Meeting, 24.-26.02.2015, Hamburg, Deutschland
Registration No. 21974

Magnetization and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn implanted Ge after flashlamp annealing
Zhou, S.; Wang, Y.; Prucnal, S.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, W.; Wu, C.; Weschke, E.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.
Abstract: Ge-based diluted magnetic semiconductors have drawn extensive attention over the past decades due to their potential to be applied in spintronic devices and to be integrated with the mainstream Si microelectronics as well. The hole-mediated effect in diluted magnetic semiconductors provides the possibility to realize the control of magnetic properties by the electrical control of free carriers. In this contribution, we will present the magnetic properties and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn implanted Ge annealed by flashlamp.
Keywords: Magnetic thin films and nanostructures
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Conference on Magnetics 2015, 11.-15.05.2015, Beijing, China
Registration No. 21972

Composition and bandgap control of AlxGa1−xN films synthesized by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition
Cai, H.; Liang, P.; Hübner, R.; Zhou, S.; Li, Y.; Sun, J.; Xu, N.; Wu, J.
Abstract: Ternary AlxGa1−xN films with different Al compositions were synthesized on sapphire and Si substrates by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in nitrogen plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance discharge of N2 gas. Spectroscopy was used to characterize the synthesis process for the mechanisms responsible for AlxGa1−xN synthesis and film deposition. The synthesized AlxGa1−xN films were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and optical transmission measurements. The AlxGa1−xN films have hexagonal wurtzite structure, which degenerates as the Al composition increases, and show high optical transparency with the absorption edge blue shifted and the bandgap widened with the increasing Al composition. A comparison of the synthesized AlxGa1−xN films with the binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by a similar method reveals their similarity in the structure and the optical properties.
Keywords: AlGaN, PLD Registration No. 21971

lll-V nanocrystal formation in ion-implanted Ge and Si via liquid phase epitaxy during short-time flash lamp annealing
Wutzler, R.; Rebohle, L.; Prucnal, S.; Böttger, R.; Hübner, R.; Facsko, S.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.
Abstract: The integration of III-V compound semiconductors into existing semiconductor technology is a milestone in future development of micro- and opto-electronics. III-V compound semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) were fabricated in Ge and Si substrates by high-fluence ion implantation and short-time flash lamp annealing (FLA). The III-V NC formation takes place after amorphization due to implantation, followed by recrystallization via millisecond liquid phase epitaxy. Using this approach, GaAs and InAs NCs were fabricated. Whereas this formation process was recently investigated for Si, the case of Ge has not been reported yet but shows remarkable differences. In order to get III-V/Ge and III-V/Si heterojunctions in the form of free-standing III-V NCs on Ge and Si nanocolumns an additional selective etching of Ge and Si was performed using H2O2 and KOH solution, respectively.
Raman spectroscopy measurements confirmed the formation of III-V NCs within the particular, recrystallized matrices. The microstructural properties of the III-V NCs and the distribution of implanted species were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). SEM and TEM images show distinct, crystalline NCs. Conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) was performed to investigate the electrical behavior of the fabricated heterojunctions.

Keywords: Ion implantation, Flash lamp annealing, III-V integration, Liquid phase epitaxy, Silicon, Germanium
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting 2015, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 21970

Wechselwirkung von Actiniden/Lanthaniden mit Ton, Tonorganika und Mikroorganismen
Schmeide, K.; Fritsch, K.; Lippold, H.; Poetsch, M.; Kulenkampff, J.; Jordan, N.; Moll, H.; Cherkouk, A.
Abstract: In the talk, the most important results obtained in the project for the system radionuclide/clay organics/clay rock are presented. The influence of salinity and temperature on complexation, sorption as well as diffusion/transport of radionuclides is discussed.
Keywords: Uranium, plutonium, europium, terbium, fulvic acid, propionic acid, microorganisms, montmorillonite, Opalinus Clay, PET
  • Lecture (others)
    Abschlussworkshop des Verbundprojekts "Rückhaltung endlagerrelevanter Radionuklide im natürlichen Tongestein und in salinaren Systemen", 12.-13.05.2015, Mainz, Deutschland
Registration No. 21969

Sustainable solutions for restoration & conservation of pipe organs by using Plasma Ion based surface engineering vs. EMA copolymer surface treatment techniques.
Pelic, B.; Skorupa, W.
Abstract: Pipe organs with their unique sound and beautiful housing are important objects of the cultural heritage. The instrument consists of a number of pipes (flute and reed), which are prone to heavy corrosion attack, resulting in a loss of voice. The atmospheric corrosion of reed (CuZn alloys) and flute pipes (PbSn alloys) is strongly enhanced by traces of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the alloy’s instability.
Experiments have been undertaken to explore the improvement of an aqueous corrosion with the high acetic acid concentration (2–5 v/v%) of CuZn and PbSn alloys, by deposition of protective films (Al2O3 and Al) in nano scale using Pulsed laser deposition and Magnetron sputtering. Afterwards, the samples were implanted with N+ ions using plasma immersion ion implantation. Such coating is then able to withstand stresses and vibrations due to sound generation in organ pipes, and it produces a barrier to VOCs and water vapor. Furthermore, for the treatments of new or slightly corroded flute pipes, solution of 4% Paraloid B-72 in toluene has been applied as corrosion inhibitor. The complete and overall application of the PB-72 improved significantly the corrosion resistance of flute pipes. The laboratory corrosion tests were combined with field studies at affected church organs.

Keywords: Plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3), Pulsed laser deposition (PLD), Magnetron sputtering (MS), EMA copolymer (Paraloid B-72), corrosion of organ pipes
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting 2015, 11.-15.05.2015, Lille, France
Registration No. 21968

SEM-based automated mineralogy: A fast and effective method for in-situ particle analysis
Osbahr, I.; Heinig, T.; Krause, J.
Abstract: Scanning electron microscope-based automated mineralogy such as the Mineral Liberation Analyser (MLA) allows several automated procedures based on backscattered electron (BSE) image acquisition and the collection of energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of particles with a specified contrast in the BSE image. The collected spectra are classified with a standard mineral spectra list which has been collected and specified for the samples. Samples should be solid with a polished surface. Different measurement modes are available on the MLA which can deliver extensive sets of information as modal mineralogy, particle- and grain size/shape distribution, liberation, mineral association or intergrowth. SEM-based automated mineralogy is a well-established tool in applied mineralogy and mineral- and metallurgic processing. The features of this method can also be applied in wide areas of research fields including material sciences, geology or environmental sciences.
Keywords: SEM, MLA, automated mineralogy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ANAKON 2015, 23.-26.03.2015, Graz, Österreich
Registration No. 21963
Pages: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197]