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Au incorporation into various ZnO crystallographic cuts realised by ion implantation – ZnO damage characterization
Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P.; Jagerova, A.; Miksova, R.; Nekvindova, P.; Cajzl, J.; Böttger, R.; Akhmadaliev, S.;
Non-polar surfaces, such as a-plane (11–20) and m-plane (10-10), for ZnO have become more attractive as numerous efforts have recently been made to grow non-polar ZnO facets for applications in nanoscale photonic devices. Noble-metal incorporation into transparent semiconductors such as ZnO has been investigated because of the non-linear optical response of such structures. This paper presents a study of defect evolution in various ZnO crystallographic cuts caused by Au implantation. The investigation has focused on ZnO structure characterisation, Au distribution and the interior morphology of the a-, m- and c-planes ZnO single crystals implanted with 400 keV Au+ ions at the ion fluences of 5 × 1014 and 1 × 1015 cm−2 and subsequently annealed at 600 °C in O2. The structure modification was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channelling mode (RBS/C) and Raman spectroscopy. After the ion-implantation process, low surface damage was observed in all ZnO orientations unlike deep structural damage. Deep structural damage grew with increased Au-ion fluence and Au did not exhibit strong out-diffusion from the depth to the surface during the post-implantation annealing. Small but noticeable differences were observed between different ZnO orientations. RBS measurements during ion implantation revealed more progressive deep-damage formation in the c- and m-planes than in the a-plane ZnO. Simultaneously, the smallest Zn sub-lattice disorder deduced from RBS/C measurements was observed in the a-plane ZnO. During post-implantation annealing, a slight structure recovery (about 4%) was observed in all orientations. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the increasing structure disorder with the enhanced ion fluence for all as-implanted ZnO orientations and a partial reconstruction of the ZnO structure during annealing, when the intensity of E2 phonons was increased and that of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons was suppressed because of the disorder recovery. E2 (high) and E1(LO) Raman phonon modes connected with oxygen sub-lattice ordering/disordering have been investigated in detail – they show a significant modification mainly in the m-plane. The cause of the different behaviour of ZnO planes as well as the differences in the incorporation and movement of Au and Er atoms in the ZnO structure are discussed in the work.

Publ.-Id: 29728 - Permalink