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Nonlinear THz spectroscopy in low-dimensional semiconductors using a free-electron laser

Winnerl, S.; Schmidt, J.; König-Otto, J.; Mittendorff, M.; Schneider, H.ORC; Helm, M.
Sources for intense THz pulses allow one to investigate interesting nonlinear effects in various solid-state systems in a time-resolved manner. Here we discuss perturbative and non-perturbative nonlinear effects in graphene-based systems and GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, respectively, which are excited by intense, tunable, narrowband THz pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL).
For the graphene-based samples we have pursued two strategies to resonantly enhance the linear and nonlinear response. One way is to apply a magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer.
This splits the linear band structure into a set of non-equidistant Landau levels. Four-wave mixing experiments on the lowest Landau levels reveal a strong nonlinearity and a rapid dephasing of the microscopic polarization on sub-ps timescales [1]. The second path for resonant enhancement is the fabrication of ribbons and discs of doped graphene that feature a strong plasmonic response [2]. The nonlinearity corresponding to the plasmonic response is based on a red-shift and broadening of the absorption line caused by carrier heating.
While the previously discussed phenomena are perturbative nonlinear effects, FEL pulses are also well suited to generate non-perturbative effects such as the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect and double dressing of polaritons in microcavities [3, 4]. Here we present novel results on the dressing of subbands in a single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well by THz photons. To this end, the transition between the second and third subband was resonantly pumped with the FEL. Broadband probing by THz time-domain spectroscopy using GaP crystals for optical rectification enabled us to observe the THz-dressing of the electronic states. Namely Autler-Townes splitting occurs at the transition between the first and second subband while the transition from the second to the third subband is split into a Mollow triplet.
We are grateful to our collaborators M. M. Jadidi, T. E. Murphy, A. Belyanin, and E. Malic.
1. König-Otto, J. C., Wang, Y., Belyanin, A., Berger, C. de Heer, W. A., Orlita, M., Pashkin, A., Schneider, H., Helm, M., Winnerl, S. "Four-wave mixing in Landau-quantized graphene," Nano Lett., Vol. 17, 2184-2188, 2017.
2. Jadidi, M. M., Daniels, K. M., Myers-Ward, R. L., Gaskill, D. K., Konig-Otto, J. C., Winnerl, S., Sushkov, A. B., Drew, H. D., Murphy, T. E., Mittendorff, M. "Optical control of plasmonic hot carriers in graphene," ACS Photonics, Vol. 6, 302307, 2019.
3. Wagner, M., Schneider, H., Stehr, D., Winnerl, S., Andrews, A. M., Schartner, S., Strasser, G., Helm, M. "Observation of the intraexciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs=AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 105, 167401, 2010.
4. Pietka, B., Bobrovska, N., Stephan, D., Teich, M., Krol, M., Winnerl, S., Pashkin, A., Mirek, R., Lekenta, K., Morier-Genoud, F., Schneider, H., Deveaud, B., Helm, M., Matuszewski, M., Szczytko, J. "Doubly dressed bosons: exciton polaritons in a strong terahertz field," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 119, 077403, 2017.
Keywords: Free-electron laser, terahertz, nonlinear spectroscopy, low-dimensional semiconductors
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS), 17.-20.06.2019, Rome, Italy

Publ.-Id: 30565