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Quantum and classical phase-space dynamics of a free-electron laserCarmesin, C. M.; Peter, K.; Enno, G.; Sauerbrey, R.; Schleich, W. P.
In a quantum mechanical description of the free-electron laser (FEL), the electrons jump on discrete momentum ladders, while they follow continuous trajectories according to the classical description. In order to observe the transition from quantum to classical dynamics, it is not sufficient that many momentum levels are involved. Only if additionally the initial momentum spread of the electron beam is larger than the quantum mechanical recoil, caused by the emission and absorption of photons, the quantum dynamics in phase space resembles the classical one. Beyond these criteria, quantum signatures of averaged quantities like the FEL gain might be washed out.
Physical Review Research 2(2020), 023027
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