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Electron Concentration Limit in Ge Doped by Ion Implantation and Flash Lamp AnnealingPrucnal, S.; Żuk, J.; Hübner, R.; Duan, J.; Wang, M.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Turek, M.; Zhou, S.
Controlled doping with an effective carrier concentration higher than 10^20 cm-3 is a key challenge for the full integration of Ge into silicon-based technology. Such a highly doped layer of both p- and n type is needed to provide ohmic contacts with low specific resistance. We have studied the effect of ion implantation parameters i.e., ion energy, fluence, ion type, and protective layer on the effective concentration of electrons. We have shown that the maximum electron concentration increases as the thickness of the doping layer decreases. The degradation of the implanted Ge surface can be minimized by performing ion implantation at temperatures that are below -100 C with ion flux less than 60 nAcm-2 and maximum ion energy less than 120 keV. The implanted layers are flash-lamp annealed for 20 ms in order to inhibit the diffusion of the implanted ions during the recrystallization process.
Keywords: Ge; ion implantation; flash lamp annealing; n-type doping; Raman spectroscopy
Materials 13(2020), 1408
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