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Dynamics of Competitive Adsorption of Lipase and Ionic Surfactants at the Water–Air Interface

Javadi, A.; Dowlati, S.; Miller, R.; Schneck, E.; Eckert, K.; Kraume, M.

Lipase is one of the most important enzymes playing a key role in many biological and chemical processes, in particular for fat hydrolysis in living systems and technological applications such as food production, medicine, and biodiesel production. As lipase is soluble in water, the major hydrolysis process occurs at the water–oil interface, where lipase can get in contact with the oil. To provide optimum conditions, the emulsification of the oil is essential to provide a large interfacial area which is generally done by adding surfactants. However, the presence of surfactants can influence the lipase activity and also cause competitive adsorption, resulting in a removal of lipase from the interface or its conformational changes in the solution bulk. Here we have studied the dynamics of competitive adsorption and interfacial elasticity of mixed solutions containing lipase and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), respectively, at the water–air interface. The experiments were performed with a special coaxial double capillary setup for drop bulk–interface exchange developed for the drop profile analysis tensiometer PAT with two protocols: sequential and simultaneous adsorption of single components and mixed systems. The results in terms of dynamic surface tension and dilational viscoelasticity illustrate fast and complete desorption of a preadsorbed CTAB and SDS layers via subphase exchange with a buffer solution. In contrast, the preadsorbed lipase layer cannot be removed either by SDS or CTAB from the interface during drop bulk exchange with a buffer solution due to the unfolding process and conformation evolution of the protein molecules at the interface. In the opposite case, lipase can remove preadsorbed SDS and CTAB. The dynamic surface tension and viscoelasticity data measured before and after subphase exchange show joint adsorption of lipase and CTAB in the form of complexes, while SDS is adsorbed in competition with lipase. The results are in good correlation with the determined surface charges of the lipase gained by computational simulations which show a dominant negatively charged surface for lipase that can interact with the cationic CTAB while partial positively charged regions are observed for the interaction with the anionic SDS.

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Publ.-Id: 32189