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Experimental electronic stopping cross section of tungsten for light ions in a large energy interval
Electronic stopping cross section of tungsten for light ions was experimentally measured in a wide energy interval (20 to 6000 keV for protons and 50 to 9000 keV for helium) in backscattering and transmission geometries. The measurements were carried out in three laboratories (Austria, Germany and Sweden) using five different set-ups, the stopping data deduced from different data sets showed excellent agreement amongst each other, with total uncertainty varying within 1.5–3.8% for protons and 2.2–5.5% for helium, averaged over the respective energy range of each data set. The final data is compared to available data and to widely adopted semi-empirical and theoretical approaches, and found to be in good agreement with most adopted models at energies around and above the stopping maximum. Most importantly, our results extend the energy regime towards lower energies, and are thus of high technological relevance, e.g., in fusion research. At these low energies, our findings also revealed that tungsten – featured with fully and partially occupied f- and d-subshells, respectively – can be modeled as an electron gas for the energy loss process.
Keywords: Stopping power; Tungsten; Free electron gas; Bragg peak; Protons; Helium; Fusion
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 498(2021), 1-8