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Umfassende Untersuchung und Bestimmung thermodynamischer Daten der Sorption von dreiwertigen Metallionen an K-Feldspat
Transport of contaminants, e.g. radionuclides, in the environment depends strongly on their interactions with mineral phases. In a repository for radioactive waste, crystalline rock (e.g. granite) as one potential host rock in Germany and many other countries, may affect the mobility of radionuclides. Main constituents of granite are feldspars. In spent nuclear fuel, trivalent actinides (Am, Cm, but also Pu) contribute strongly to the radiotoxicity. Therefore, this work studies the retention of Am and Cm, as well as their rare earths element analogues (Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Y) on K-feldspar. By combining batch sorption experiments and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), a generic surface complexation model (SCM) was obtained that is valid for all investigated M3+. Thermodynamic sorption data were obtained and an understanding of sorption mechanisms on the molecular level was achieved.
Batch sorption experiments were performed over a broad range of environmental conditions (pH 4 – 10, [M3+] = 52 nM – 10 µM, 3 – 50 g/L K-feldspar (dp < 21 µm; 63 – 200 µm)). Sorption is weak for pH < 5, strongly increases between pH 5 – 7 and reaches complete uptake at higher pH. By deconvolution of Cm emission spectra, an inner-sphere complex and its first two hydrolysis forms were found to be responsible for retention in this pH range.
For determination of the deprotonation constant pKa of K-feldspar, as one important input parameter of the model, column titration experiments were conducted. Batch sorption results of all studied M3+ were used to develop two alternative SCMs. The experimental sorption data were used to determine surface complexation parameters by coupling the parameter estimation code UCODE with PHREEQC (SCM-A). In a second approach, spectroscopic data were also considered (SCM-B). A generic approach was used to develop the geochemical models that satisfactorily describe all of the derived M3+/K feldspar sorption edges as well as TRLFS-derived speciation. The model delivered respective stability constants of the sorption complexes, which were added to the data base of the Smart Kd-concept. Therefore, this work improves the risk assessment of repositories for radioactive waste.
Figure 1: Experimental batch sorption data (symbols) and calculation results using the two developed SCMs for different experimental conditions.
 Neumann, J. et al., "A comprehensive study of the sorption mechanism and thermodynamics of f-element sorption onto K-feldspar", J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.11.041.
 Stockmann, M. et al., "Smart Kd-values, their uncertainties and sensitivities - Applying a new approach for realistic distribution coefficients in geochemical modeling of complex systems", Chemosphere., 187, 277–285 (2017).
Keywords: sorption; trivalent; lanthanides; actinides; K-feldspar; TRLFS; SCM
Tage der Standortauswahl, 11.-12.02.2021, Freiberg, Deutschland