Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf1 Publication
The European project FLOMIX-R: Fluid mixing and flow distribution inthe reactor circuit - Final summary report
Rohde, U.; Höhne, T.; Kliem, S.; Scheuerer, M.; Hemström, B.; Toppila, T.; Dury, T.; Klepac, J.; Remis, J.; Mühlbauer, P.; Vyskocil, L.; Farkas, I.; Aszodi, A.; Boros, I.; Lycklama A. Nijeholt, J.-A.
The project was aimed at describing the mixing phenomena relevant for both safety analysis, particularly in steam line break and boron dilution scenarios, and mixing phenomena of interest for economical operation and the structural integrity. Measurement data from a set of mixing experiments, gained by using advanced measurement techniques with enhanced resolution in time and space help to improve the basic understanding of turbulent mixing and to provide data for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code validation. Slug mixing tests simulating the start-up of the first main circulation pump are performed with two 1:5 scaled facilities: The Rossendorf coolant mixing model ROCOM and the VATTENFALL test facility, modelling a German Konvoi type and a Westinghouse type three-loop PWR, respectively. Additional data on slug mixing in a VVER-1000 type reactor gained at a 1:5 scaled metal mock-up at EDO Gidropress are provided. Experimental results on mixing of fluids with density differences obtained at ROCOM and the FORTUM PTS test facility are made available.
Concerning mixing phenomena of interest for operational issues and thermal fatigue, flow distribution data available from commissioning tests (Sizewell-B for PWRs, Loviisa and Paks for VVERs) are used together with the data from the ROCOM facility as a basis for the flow distribution studies. The test matrix on flow distribution and steady state mixing performed at ROCOM comprises experiments with various combinations of running pumps and various mass flow rates in the working loops.
Computational fluid dynamics calculations are accomplished for selected experiments with two different CFD codes (CFX-5, FLUENT). Best practice guidelines (BPG) are applied in all CFD work when choosing computational grid, time step, turbulence models, modelling of internal geometry, boundary conditions, numerical schemes and convergence criteria. The BPG contain a set of systematic procedures for quantifying and reducing numerical errors. The knowledge of these numerical errors is a prerequisite for the proper judgement of model errors. The strategy of code validation based on the BPG and a matrix of CFD code validation calculations have been elaborated. Besides of the benchmark cases, additional experiments were calculated by new partners and observers, joining the project later.
Based on the best practice solutions, conclusions on the applicability of CFD for turbulent mixing problems in PWR were drawn and recommendations on CFD modelling were given. The high importance of proper grid generation was outlined. In general, second order discretization schemes should be used to minimise numerical diffusion. First order schemes can provide physically wrong results. With optimised production meshes reasonable results were obtained, but due to the complex geometry of the flow domains, no fully grid independent solutions were achieved. Therefore, with respect to turbulence models, no final conclusions can be given. However, first order turbulence models like K-e or SST K-w are suitable for momentum driven slug mixing. For buoyancy driven mixing (PTS scenarios), Reynolds stress models provide better results.
Keywords: turbulent mixing; flow distribution; nuclear reactors; experimental data base; computational fluid dynamics; best practice guidelines
Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZR-432 2005