Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
In situ study of the effect of Sn doping on the electrical properties of indium oxide
Rogozin, A.; Vinnichenko, M.; Shevchenko, N.; Kreissig, U.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
Indium oxide (In2O3) and ITO (In2O3 :Sn) amorphous films grown by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering have been annealed in vacuum. The film structure and properties have been studied during annealing using in-situ diagnostics. The evolution of the film structure has been continuously monitored by synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. Four point probe measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and elastic recoil detection analysis have been undertaken to determine and correlate with the structure in real time the evolution of the film resistivity (ρ), the free electron density (Ne), and the film stoichiometry. At the start of annealing both the In2O3 and the ITO films show a fast decrease in ρ and an increase in Ne, which is explained by the formation of oxygen vacancies and reordering of the amorphous phase. Subsequent film crystallization does not influence the In2O3 film electrical properties, but causes a further decrease in ITO resistivity due to the Sn donor activation. The estimated efficiency of the Sn donor activation is 40%. All the films show during annealing a resistivity decrease which is caused not only by an increase in the free carrier density, but also by a rise in the electron mobility.
Keywords: Indium oxide; ITO; annealing; in-situ; electrical properties; Sn donor
14th International Conference on Thin Films & Reactive Sputter Deposition 2008, 17.-20.11.2008, Ghent, Belgium