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The Theranostic PSMA Ligand PSMA-617 in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer by PET/CT: Biodistribution in Humans, Radiation Dosimetry, and First Evaluation of Tumor Lesions

Afshar-Oromieh, A.; Hetzheim, H.; Kratochwil, C.; Benesova, M.; Eder, M.; Neels, O.; Eisenhut, M.; Kübler, W.; Holland-Letz, T.; Giesel, F. L.; Mier, W.; Kopka, K.; Haberkorn, U.

PET imaging with the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)–targeted radioligand 68Ga-PSMA-11 is regarded as a significant step forward in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). More recently, a PSMA ligand was developed that can be labeled with 68Ga, 111In, 177Lu, and 90Y. This ligand, named PSMA-617, therefore enables both diagnosis and therapy of PCa. The aims of this evaluation were to clinically investigate the distribution of 68Ga-PSMA-617 in normal tissues and in PCa lesions as well as to evaluate the radiation exposure by the radioligand in PET imaging. Methods: Nineteen patients, most of them with recurrent PCa, were referred for 68Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT. The quantitative assessment of tracer uptake of several organs and of 53 representative tumor lesions was performed in 15 patients at 1 and 3 h after injection. In 4 additional patients, the same procedure was conducted at 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h after injection. On the basis of the data for these 4 patients (mean injected dose, 231 MBq), the radiation exposure of a 68Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT was identified. Results: Intense tracer uptake was observed in the kidneys and salivary glands. In 14 of 19 patients (73.7%), at least 1 lesion suspected of being a tumor was detected at 3 h after injection. Of 53 representative tumor lesions selected at 3 h after injection, 47 lesions were visible at 1 h after injection. The mean tumor-to-background ratio for maximum standardized uptake value was 20.4 ± 17.3 (range, 2.3–84.0) at 1 h after injection and 38.2 ± 38.6 (range, 3.6–154.3) at 3 h after injection. The average radiation exposure (effective dose) was approximately 0.021 mSv/MBq. Conclusion: Within healthy organs, the kidneys and salivary glands showed the highest 68Ga-PSMA-617 uptake. The radiation exposure was relatively low. 68Ga-PSMA-617 shows PCa lesions with high contrast. Images obtained between 2 and 3 h after injection seem to be the best option with regard to radiotracer uptake and tumor contrast. Later images can help to clarify unclear lesions.

Keywords: prostate cancer; PET/CT; positron emission tomography; PSMA; prostate-specific membrane antigen; dosimetry

Publ.-Id: 31233