Response of the pig lung to irradation with accelerated 12C-ions.

Response of the pig lung to irradation with accelerated 12C-ions.

Dörr, W.; Alheit, H.; Appold, S.; Enghardt, W.; Haase, M.; Haberer, T.; Hinz, R.; Jäkel, O.; Kellerer, A. M.; Krämer, M.; Kraft, G.; Kumpf, R.; Nitzsche, H.; Scholz, M.; Voigtmann, L.; Herrmann, T.

The response of pig lungs to irradiation with 12C-ions was assessed in two experiments to validate the procedures for heavy ion therapy planning at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) and to explore their range of applicability. In both experiments, the target volume (spread-out Bragg peak, SOBP) was planned to be a 4 cm long cylinder with a diameter of 4 cm. Doses in the SOBP were prescribed to be equivalent to 5x4 Gy, 5x5.5 Gy and 5x7 Gy of x-rays in the first experiment, and to 5 fractions of 7 Gy and 9 Gy in the second experiment. The lung response in the first experiment was less than exepted on the basis of earlier experiments with photons. Pneumonitis reaction and chronic fibrotic changes were observed outside the prescribed high-dose region. In the second experiment, the effects were more pronounced than had been expected on the basis of the first experiment. Changes were most intense in the high-dose region, but were also seen troughout the lung along the beam channel. Moreover, significant skin reactions were observed at the beam entrance site in all animals and - less pronounced - at the beam exit site in 3 of the 6 animals. In conclusion, the complex irradiation geometry of the pig lung, the changes of body weight between the two experiments, and in sufficient accounting for a change in the relative biological effectivness (RBE) computation led to substantial deviations of the observed reactions from expectations, the reasons for which could be identified in a subsequent analysis. The less pronounced lung reaction in the first experiment was due to an overestimation of RBE in a preliminary version of the algorithm for its determination. The extension of the fibrotic reaction resulted from the smear-out of the high-dose region due to density variations in tissue structures, respiratory movement, and limited positioning accuracy. The skin reactions at the entrance port reflect the different treatment geometry in the two experiments. The one unexplained observation is the mild skin reaction that was observed in the second experiment at the beam exit site.

Keywords: Normal tissue; Minipig; Lung; Heavy particles; Carbon ions

  • Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Vol. 38 (1999) 185-194

Publ.-Id: 5554