Foto: Forschungsprogramm Energieeffizienz, Materialien und Ressourcen ©Copyright: BengsEnergy Efficient Processes

Energy > Energy Efficiency, Materials and Resources - All Topics

Foto: Flüssigmetall-Strömungen messen ©Copyright: HZDR/Frank BierstedtIndustrial processes contribute to the total German energy consumption in the form of electricity and heat with about 29 %. Within the industrial sector, the largest consumers are the chemical and petrochemical industries (38 %), as well as the metal producing industries (31 %).* Reference: AG Energiebilanzen e.V., Energy Balance 2000 to 2015 (2017).

Within the frame of German "Energiewende", higher efficiency as well as adaptivity to fluctuating energy and raw materials supply are a grand challenge for industry in terms of economy, sustainability, and competitiveness. HZDR contributes to these goals by conducting research with a strong focus on energy-intensive industrial processes. Research activities comprise the topics Multiphase and Thermal Processes and Liquid Metal Processes.

Experimental research is carried out at unique experimental facilities, such as TOPFLOW, DRESDYN, and LIMMCAST. These are operated at near-industrial conditions and equipped with proprietary measurement and imaging techniques (e.g. wire-mesh sensors, ultrafast X-ray tomography, gamma-ray tomography, contactless inductive flow tomography, ultrasound Doppler velocimetry).

Methods for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are developed for the device scale with own modelling concepts for polydisperse (iMUSIG) and separated (AIAD) two-phase flows, flow regime transitions (GENTOP) as well as multi-physics concepts.

On the micro-scale, research on transport processes at interfaces is performed. Findings contribute to the optimization of industrial processes such as extraction, absorption, distillation, electrochemistry, and minerals flotation.

Focusing on industrial applications, innovative industrial processing strategies and technologies are developed: magnetic actuation of melts, process intensification methods, and new sensor and process control strategies. Eventually, system analyses are meant to assess the efficacy of new methods.

The HZDR scientists cooperate closely with leading national and international academic and industrial partners in the fields of technical chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, and materials technology. The two Helmholtz Research Alliances "Energy Efficient Multiphase Processes" and "Liquid Metal Technologies" were successfully completed recently.


  • to gain an in-depth understanding of transport processes from the molecular and interface level to the device scale at industry-relevant process conditions
  • to derive validated physics-based models for flow, heat and mass transfer and to develop advanced computational methods and tools for supporting process design
  • to develop and implement methods of process instrumentation, intensification and control.

Press Releases

Involved HZDR institutes




  • Giesecke, A.; Vogt, T.; Gundrum, T. et al.
    Nonlinear large scale flow in a precessing cylinder and its ability to drive dynamo action
    Physical Review Letters 120(2018), 024502 (10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.024502)
  • Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F. et al.
    Current-driven flow instabilities in large-scale liquid metal batteries, and how to tame them
    Journal of Power Sources 265(2014), 166-173 (10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.03.055)
  • Rabha, S.; Schubert, M.; Grugel, F. et al.
    Visualization and quantitative analysis of dispersive mixing by a helical static mixer in upward co-current gas-liquid flow
    Chemical Engineering Journal 262(2015), 527-540 (10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.019)
  • Möller, F.; Seiler, T.; Lau, Y. M. et al.
    Performance comparison between different sparger plate orifice patterns: Hydrodynamic investigation using ultrafast X-ray tomography
    Chemical Engineering Journal 316(2017), 857-871 (10.1016/j.cej.2017.01.114)
  • Neumann-Heyme, H.; Shevchenko, N.; Lei, Z. et al.
    Coarsening evolution of dendritic sidearms: from synchrotron experiments to quantitative modeling
    Acta Materialia 146(2018), 176-186 (10.1016/j.actamat.2017.12.056)
  • Ding, W.; Krepper, E.; Hampel, U.
    Quantitative prediction of critical heat flux initiation in pool and flow boiling
    International Journal of Thermal Sciences 125(2018), 121-131 (10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2017.11.022)