Foto: Forschungsprogramm Energieeffizienz, Materialien und Ressourcen ©Copyright: BengsEnergy Efficient Processes

Energy > Energy Efficiency, Materials and Resources - All Topics

Foto: Measuring liquid metal flows ©Copyright: HZDR/Frank BierstedtIndustrial processes contribute to the total German energy consumption in the form of electricity and heat with about 29 %. Within the industrial sector, the largest consumers are the chemical and petrochemical industries (38 %), as well as the metal producing industries (31 %).* Reference: AG Energiebilanzen e.V., Energy Balance 2000 to 2015 (2017).

Within the frame of German "Energiewende", higher efficiency as well as adaptivity to fluctuating energy and raw materials supply are a grand challenge for industry in terms of economy, sustainability, and competitiveness. HZDR contributes to these goals by conducting research with a strong focus on energy-intensive industrial processes. Research activities comprise the topics Multiphase and Thermal Processes and Liquid Metal Processes.

Experimental research is carried out at unique experimental facilities, such as TOPFLOW, DRESDYN, and LIMMCAST. These are operated at near-industrial conditions and equipped with proprietary measurement and imaging techniques (e.g. wire-mesh sensors, ultrafast X-ray tomography, gamma-ray tomography, contactless inductive flow tomography, ultrasound Doppler velocimetry).

Methods for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are developed for the device scale with own modelling concepts for polydisperse (iMUSIG) and separated (AIAD) two-phase flows, flow regime transitions (GENTOP) as well as multi-physics concepts.

On the micro-scale, research on transport processes at interfaces is performed. Findings contribute to the optimization of industrial processes such as extraction, absorption, distillation, electrochemistry, and minerals flotation.

Focusing on industrial applications, innovative industrial processing strategies and technologies are developed: magnetic actuation of melts, process intensification methods, and new sensor and process control strategies. Eventually, system analyses are meant to assess the efficacy of new methods.

The HZDR scientists cooperate closely with leading national and international academic and industrial partners in the fields of technical chemistry, biochemistry, metallurgy, and materials technology. The two Helmholtz Research Alliances "Energy Efficient Multiphase Processes" and "Liquid Metal Technologies" were successfully completed recently.


  • to gain an in-depth understanding of transport processes from the molecular and interface level to the device scale at industry-relevant process conditions
  • to derive validated physics-based models for flow, heat and mass transfer and to develop advanced computational methods and tools for supporting process design
  • to develop and implement methods of process instrumentation, intensification and control.

Press Releases

Involved HZDR institutes




  • Mahmud Parvez, A.; Hafner, S.; Hornberger, M. et al.
    Sorption enhanced gasification (SEG) of biomass for tailored syngas production with in-situ CO2 capture: Current status, process scale-up experiences and outlook
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 141(2021), 110756 (10.1016/j.rser.2021.110756)
  • Talebi, H.; Peeters, L. J. M.; Otto, A. et al.
    A Truly Spatial Random Forests Algorithm for Geoscience Data Analysis and Modelling
    Matériaux & Techniques 54(2022)1, 1-22 (10.1007/s11004-021-09946-w)
  • Fröhlich, F.; Siikaluoma, J.; Osbahr, I. et al.
    Genesis of sulphide vein mineralization at the Sakkatti Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, Finland
    The Canadian Mineralogist 59(2021)6, 1485-1510 (10.3749/CANMIN.2100020)
  • Zelenski, M.; S. Kamenetsky, V.; Nekrylov, N. et al.
    High Sulfur in Primitive Arc Magmas, Its Origin and Implications
    Minerals 12(2022), 37 (10.3390/min12010037)
  • Kutyrev, A.; Zelenski, M.; Nekrylov, N. et al.
    Noble metals in arc basaltic magmas worldwide: A case study of modern and pre-historic lavas of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka
    Frontiers in Earth Science 9(2021), 791465 (10.3389/feart.2021.791465)
  • F. Chayka, I.; S. Kamenetsky, V.; V. Vladykin, N. et al.
    Origin of alkali-rich volcanic and alkali-poor intrusive carbonatites from a common parental magma
    Scientific Reports 11(2021), 17627 (10.1038/s41598-021-97014-y)
  • S. Scheingross, J.; N. Repasch, M.; Hovius, N. et al.
    The fate of fluvially-deposited organic carbon during transient floodplain storage
    Earth and Planetary Science Letters 561(2021), 116822 (10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116822)
  • Burisch-Hassel, M.; Frenzel, M.; Seibel, H. et al.
    Li‑Co–Ni‑Mn‑(REE) veins of the Western Erzgebirge, Germany—a potential source of battery raw materials
    Mineralium Deposita 56(2021), 1223-1238 (10.1007/s00126-021-01061-4)
  • Ghamisi, P.; Rafiezadeh Shahi, K.; Duan, P. et al.
    The Potential of Machine Learning for a More Responsible Sourcing of Critical Raw Materials
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 14(2021), 8971-8988 (10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3108049)
  • Rafiezadeh Shahi, K.; Ghamisi, P.; Rasti, B. et al.
    Unsupervised Data Fusion with Deeper Perspective: A Novel Multi-Sensor Deep Clustering Algorithm
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 15(2021), 284-296 (10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3132856)
  • Weber, C.; Knüpfer, P.; Buchmann, M. et al.
    A comparison between approaches for the calculation of van der Waals interactions in flotation systems
    Minerals Engineering 167(2021), 106804 (10.1016/j.mineng.2021.106804)
  • González-Poggini, S.; Luque Consuegra, G.; Kracht, W. et al.
    Electrochemical Characterization of Sulphide Minerals–Halophilic Bacteria Surface Interaction for Bioflotation Applications
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 52(2021)5, 3373-3382 (10.1007/s11663-021-02267-7)
  • Xu, M.; Li, C.; Zhang, H. et al.
    A contribution to exploring the importance of surface air nucleation in froth flotation – The effects of dissolved air on graphite flotation
    Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 633(2022), 127866 (10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.127866)
  • de La Rosa Ferna; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Tusa, L. et al.
    Mineral quantification at deposit scale using drill-core hyperspectral data: A case study in the Iberian Pyrite Belt
    Ore Geology Reviews 139(2021), 104514 (10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104514)
  • Kesselring, M.; Ruiz-Coupeau, S.; Kirsch, M. et al.
    Integrated Test Sites for Innovation Ecosystems
    Technology Innovation Management Review 11(2021)7/8, 20-32 (10.22215/timreview/1454)
  • Hoang, D. H.; Ebert, D.; Möckel, R. et al.
    Impact of Sodium Hexametaphosphate on the Flotation of Ultrafine Magnesite from Dolomite-Rich Desliming Tailings
    Minerals 11(2021)5, 499 (10.3390/min11050499)
  • Vanderbruggen, A.; Salces, A. M.; Ferreira, A. et al.
    Improving separation efficiency in end-of-life lithium-ion batteries flotation using attrition pre-treatment
    Minerals 12(2022)1, 72 (10.3390/min12010072)
  • Simon, P.; Pompe, W.; Gruner, D. et al.
    Nested Formation of Calcium Carbonate Polymorphs in a Bacterial Surface Membrane with a graded Nanoconfinement - An Evolutionary Strategy to Ensure Bacterial Survival
    ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering (2022) (10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c01280)
  • Machiels, L.; Frenzel, M.; Goldmann, D. et al.
    Preface to the Thematic Section: Mine tailings – Problem or opportunity? Towards a combined remediation and resource recovery approach
    Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 7(2021), 1440-1443 (10.1007/s40831-021-00468-7)
  • Haschke, S.; Gutzmer, J.; Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, C. C. et al.
    The Niederschlag fluorite-(barite) deposit, Erzgebirge/Germany—a fluid inclusion and trace element study
    Mineralium Deposita 56(2021), 1071-1086 (10.1007/s00126-020-01035-y)
  • Swinkels, L. J.; Burisch, M.; Rossberg, C. M. et al.
    Gold and silver deportment in sulphide ores - a case study of the Freiberg epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn district, Germany
    Minerals Engineering 174(2021), 107235 (10.1016/j.mineng.2021.107235)
  • Rasti, B.; Koirala, B.; Scheunders, P. et al.
    UnDIP: Hyperspectral Unmixing Using Deep Image Prior
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 60(2022), 5504615 (10.1109/TGRS.2021.3067802)
  • He, X.; Chen, Y.; Ghamisi, P.
    Dual Graph Convolutional Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification With Limited Training Samples
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 60(2021), 5502418 (10.1109/TGRS.2021.3061088)
  • Ghorbanzadeh, O.; Crivellari, A.; Ghamisi, P. et al.
    A comprehensive transferability evaluation of U-Net and ResU-Net for landslide detection from Sentinel-2 data (case study areas from Taiwan, China, and Japan)
    Scientific Reports 11(2021), 14629 (10.1038/s41598-021-94190-9)
  • Yokoya, N.; Ghamisi, P.; Hansch, R. et al.
    2021 Data Fusion Contest: Geospatial Artificial Intelligence for Social Good [Technical Committees]
    IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine 9(2021)1, 287 - C3 (10.1109/MGRS.2021.3055633)
  • Robinson, C.; Malkin, K.; Jojic, N. et al.
    Global Land-Cover Mapping With Weak Supervision: Outcome of the 2020 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 14(2021), 3185-3199 (10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3063849)
  • Yue, J.; Fang, L.; Rahmani, H. et al.
    Self-Supervised Learning With Adaptive Distillation for Hyperspectral Image Classification
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 60(2021), 5501813 (10.1109/TGRS.2021.3057768)
  • Shahabi, H.; Maryam, R.; Sepideh, T. P. et al.
    Unsupervised Deep Learning for Landslide Detection from Multispectral Sentinel-2 Imagery
    Remote Sensing 13(2021)22, 4698 (10.3390/rs13224698)
  • Xie, H.; Chen, Y.; Ghamisi, P.
    Remote Sensing Image Scene Classification via Label Augmentation and Intra-Class Constraint
    Remote Sensing 13(2021)13, 2566 (10.3390/rs13132566)
  • Skibińska, K.; Huang, M.; Mutschke, G. et al.
    On the electrodeposition of conically nano-structured Nickel layers assisted by a capping agent
    Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 904(2021), 115935 (10.1016/j.jelechem.2021.115935)
  • Thiele, S. T.; Bnoulkacem, Z.; Lorenz, S. et al.
    Mineralogical Mapping with Accurately Corrected Shortwave Infrared Hyperspectral Data Acquired Obliquely from UAVs
    Remote Sensing 14(2022)1, 5 (10.3390/rs14010005)
  • Ouimet, F.; Tolosana Delgado, R.
    Asymptotic properties of Dirichlet kernel density estimators
    Journal of Multivariate Analysis 187(2022), 104832 (10.1016/j.jmva.2021.104832)
  • Bartie, N.; Cobos-Becerra, L.; Froehling, M. et al.
    Process simulation for comprehensive sustainability assessment of the silicon photovoltaic life cycle
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 169(2021)11, 105516 (10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105516)
  • Bragg, A.; Liao, Y.; Fröhlich, J. et al.
    Assessment of the validity of a log-law for wall-bounded turbulent bubbly flows
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 91(2021), 108857 (10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2021.108857)
  • Heibeck, M.; Rudolph, M.; Modler, N. et al.
    Characterizing material liberation of multi-material lightweight structures from shredding experiments and finite element simulations
    Minerals Engineering 172(2021), 107142 (10.1016/j.mineng.2021.107142)
  • Hernandez, J. N. C.; Link, G.; Schubert, M. et al.
    Modeling of the effective permittivity of open-cell ceramic foams inspired by Platonic solids
    Materials 14(2021), 7446 (10.3390/ma14237446)
  • Liao, Y.; Ma, T.
    Study on bubble-induced turbulence in pipes and containers with Reynolds-stress models
    Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow (2022) (10.1007/s42757-021-0128-0)
  • Booysen, R.; Lorenz, S.; Thiele, S. T. et al.
    Accurate hyperspectral imaging of mineralised outcrops: An example from lithium-bearing pegmatites at Uis, Namibia
    Remote Sensing of Environment (2021), 112790 (10.1016/j.rse.2021.112790)
  • Xiao, J.; Yan, H.; Schubert, M. et al.
    Effect of Nozzle Geometry on Centerline Gas Holdup in Submerged Gas Injection
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B (2021) (10.1007/s11663-021-02315-2)
  • Parra Ramirez, M. A.; Reinecke, S.; Skouteris, G. et al.
    Energy Flexibility Chances for the Wastewater Treatment Plant of the Benchmark Simulation Model 1
    Processes 9(2021), 1854 (10.3390/pr9101854)
  • Boelens, P.; Lei, Z.; Drobot, B. et al.
    High-Gradient Magnetic Separation of Compact Fluorescent Lamp Phosphors: Elucidation of the Removal Dynamics in a Rotary Permanent Magnet Separator
    Minerals 11(2021)10, 1116 (10.3390/min11101116)
  • Shi, P.; Rzehak, R.; Lucas, D. et al.
    Drag and lift forces on a rigid sphere immersed in a wall-bounded linear shear flow
    Physical Review Fluids 6(2021), 104309 (10.1103/PhysRevFluids.6.104309)
  • Herrmann-Heber, R.; Ristau, F.; Mohseni, E. et al.
    Experimental Oxygen Mass Transfer Study of Micro-perforated Diffusers
    Energies 14(2021)21, 7268 (10.3390/en14217268)
  • Voudouris, P.; Repstock, A.; Spry, P. G. et al.
    Physicochemical constraints on indium-, tin-, germanium-, gallium-, gold-, and tellurium-bearing mineralizations in the Pefka and St Philippos polymetallic vein- and breccia-type deposits, Greece
    Ore Geology Reviews 140(2022), 104348 (10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104348)
  • Guilcher, M.; Albert, R.; Gerdes, A. et al.
    Timing of native metal-arsenide (Ag-Bi-Co-Ni-As±U) veins in continental rift zones – In situ U-Pb geochronology of carbonates from the Erzgebirge/Krušné Hory province
    Chemical Geology 584(2021), 120476 (10.1016/j.chemgeo.2021.120476)
  • Ma, T.; Ott, B.; Fröhlich, J. et al.
    Scale-dependent anisotropy, energy transfer and intermittency in bubble-laden turbulent flows
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics 927(2021), A16 (10.1017/jfm.2021.760)
  • Schmidt, A.; Montenegro, V.; Reuter, M. et al.
    CFD Study on the Physical Behavior of Flue Dust within an Industrial-Scale Copper Waste Heat Boiler
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B (2021) (10.1007/s11663-021-02389-y)
  • Schmidt, A.; Montenegro, V.; Reuter, M. et al.
    Development of a three-dimensional CFD Model for the Estimation of Accretion Formation in an Industrial-Scale Copper Waste Heat Boiler
    World of Metallurgy - Erzmetall 74(2021)5, 270-276
  • Banari, A.; Henry, C.; Fank Eidt, R. H. et al.
    Evidence of collision-induced resuspension of microscopic particles from a monolayer deposit
    Physical Review Fluids 6(2021)8, L082301 (10.1103/PhysRevFluids.6.L082301)
  • Kipping, R.; Wagner, M.; Hampel, U.
    On Inter-bubble Distances and Bubble Clustering in Bubbly Flows: An Experimental Study
    Chemical Engineering Journal 431(2022)4, 133486 (10.1016/j.cej.2021.133486)
  • Li, J.; Liao, Y.; Lucas, D. et al.
    Stability analysis of discrete population balance model for bubble growth and shrinkage
    International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 93(2021)12, 3338-3363 (10.1002/fld.5036)
  • Jiang, W.; Huang, M.; Lao, Y. et al.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of Ni–Co–SiO2 alloy films deposited by magnetic-field-assisted jet plating
    Surface & Coatings Technology 423(2021), 127583 (10.1016/j.surfcoat.2021.127583)
  • Sygusch, J.; Rudolph, M.
    A contribution to wettability and wetting characterisation of ultrafine particles with varying shape and degree of hydrophobization
    Applied Surface Science 566(2021), 150725 (10.1016/j.apsusc.2021.150725)
  • Höhne, T.; Farhikhteh Asl, V.; Ople Villacorte, L. et al.
    Numerical Investigation of Degasification in an Electrocoagulation Reactor
    Water 13(2021)19, 2670 (10.3390/w13192607)
  • Da Assuncao Godinho, J. R.; Danelon Grilo, B. L.; Hellmuth, F. et al.
    Mounted Single Particle Characterization for 3D Mineralogical Analysis - MSPaCMAn
    Minerals 11(2021)0, 947 (10.3390/min11090947)
  • Vanderbruggen, A.; Sygusch, J.; Rudolph, M. et al.
    A contribution to understanding the flotation behavior of lithium metal oxides and spheroidized graphite for lithium-ion battery recycling
    Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 626(2021), 127111 (10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.127111)
  • Setoodeh, H.; Moonesi Shabestary, A.; Ding, W. et al.
    CFD-Modelling of Boiling in a Heated Pipe Including Flow Pattern Transition
    Applied Thermal Engineering (2022), 117962 (10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.117962)
  • Vakhrushev, A.; Kharicha, A.; Karimi-Sibaki, E. et al.
    Generation of Reverse Meniscus Flow by Applying An Electromagnetic Brake
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 52(2021), 3193-3207 (10.1007/s11663-021-02247-x)
  • Contreras Acosta, I. C.; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Gloaguen, R.
    Resolution Enhancement for Drill-Core Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping
    Remote Sensing 13(2021), 2296 (10.3390/rs13122296)
  • Murakawa, H.; Tomoyuki, S.; Eckert, S.
    Development of a high-speed ultrasonic tomography system for measurements of rising bubbles in a horizontal cross-section
    Measurement 182(2021), 109654 (10.1016/j.measurement.2021.109654)
  • Schönig, J.; von Eynatten, H.; Tolosana Delgado, R. et al.
    Garnet major-element composition as an indicator of host-rock type: a machine learning approach using the random forest classifier
    Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 176(2022)12, 98 (10.1007/s00410-021-01854-w)
  • Eftekhari, M.; Schwarzenberger, K.; Heitkam, S. et al.
    Interfacial behavior of particle-laden bubbles under asymmetric shear flow
    Langmuir 37(2021)45, 13244-13254 (10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01814)
  • Vanderbruggen, A.; Gugala, E.; Blannin, R. et al.
    Automated mineralogy as a novel approach for the compositional and textural characterization of spent lithium-ion batteries
    Minerals Engineering 169(2021), 106924 (10.1016/j.mineng.2021.106924)
  • Reuter, M. A.; Röben, F. T. C.; Schöne, N. et al.
    Decarbonizing Copper Production by Power-to-Hydrogen: A Techno-Economic Analysis
    Journal of Cleaner Production 306(2021), 127191 (10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.127191)
  • Singh, K.; Li, G.; Zuilhof, H. et al.
    Divalent ion selectivity in capacitive deionization with vanadium hexacyanoferrate: Experiments and quantum-chemical computations
    Advanced Functional Materials 31(2021)41, 2105203 (10.1002/adfm.202105203)
  • de Assis Dias, F.; Wiedemann, P.; Da Silva, M. J. et al.
    Tuning capacitance wire-mesh sensor gains for measurement of conductive fluids
    Technisches Messen 88(2021)S1, S107-S113 (10.1515/teme-2021-0055)
  • Hayashi, K.; Lucas, D.; Legendre, D. et al.
    Critical Diameter for Lift Reversal of Bubbles in Linear Shear Flows
    Multiphase Science and Technology 33(2021), 69-85 (10.1615/MultScienTechn.2021039246)
  • Mohseni, E.; Ziegenhein, T.; Reinecke, S. et al.
    Bubble formation from sub-millimeter orifices under variable gas flow conditions
    Chemical Engineering Science 242(2021), 116698 (10.1016/j.ces.2021.116698)
  • Eftekhari, M.; Schwarzenberger, K.; Heitkam, S. et al.
    Interfacial flow of a surfactant-laden interface under asymmetric shear flow
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 599(2021), 837-848 (10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.126)
  • Hayashi, K.; Heßenkemper, H.; Lucas, D. et al.
    Scaling of Lift Reversal of Deformed Bubbles in Air-Water Systems
    International Journal of Multiphase Flow 142(2021), 103653 (10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2021.103653)
  • Schwaminger, S. P.; Schwarzenberger, K.; Gatzemeier, J. et al.
    Magnetically Induced Aggregation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Carrier Flotation Strategies
    ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 13(2021)17, 20830-20844 (10.1021/acsami.1c02919)
  • Mukhopadhyay, J.; Armstrong, R. A.; Gutzmer, J. et al.
    Stratigraphy, depositional setting, and Shrimp U-Pb geochronology of the banded iron formation–bearing Bailadila group in the Bacheli iron ore mining district, Bastar Craton, India
    Journal of Geology 129(2021)1, 115-130 (10.1086/713683)
  • Bashkatov, A.; Yang, X.; Mutschke, G. et al.
    Dynamics of Single Hydrogen Bubbles at Pt Microelectrodes in Microgravity
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 23(2021), 11818-11830 (10.1039/D1CP00978H)
  • Tschisgale, S.; Löhrer, B.; Meller, R. et al.
    Large eddy simulation of the fluid–structure interaction in an abstracted aquatic canopy consisting of flexible blades
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics 916(2021), A43 (10.1017/jfm.2020.858)
  • T. Thiele, S.; Lorenz, S.; Kirsch, M. et al.
    A novel and open-source illumination correction for hyperspectral digital outcrop models
    IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (2022) (10.1109/TGRS.2021.3098725)
  • Thiele, S. T.; Cruden, A. R.; Zhang, X. et al.
    Reactivation of magma pathways: Insights from field observations, geochronology, geomechanical tests and numerical models
    Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth 126(2021)5, e2020JB021477 (10.1029/2020JB021477)
  • Tas-Köhler, S.; Liao, Y.; Hampel, U.
    A critical analysis of drag force modelling for disperse gas-liquid flow in a pipe with an obstacle
    Chemical Engineering Science 246(2021), 117007 (10.1016/j.ces.2021.117007)
  • Emmerich, H.; Schaller, L.; Nauber, R. et al.
    Linear, spatio-temporally resolved ultrasound measurement of the liquid fraction distribution in froth
    Technisches Messen 88(2021)9, 562-570 (10.1515/teme-2021-0047)
  • Marinaro, G.; Huang, M.; Mutschke, G. et al.
    Oscillatory Copper Deposition on Conical Iron Electrodes in a Nonuniform Magnetic Field
    Magnetochemistry 7(2021), 46 (10.3390/magnetochemistry7040046)
  • Döß, A.; Schubert, M.; Wiedemann, P. et al.
    Flow morphologies in straight and bent horizontal pipes
    ACS Engineerung Au 1(2021), 39-49 (10.1021/acsengineeringau.1c00003)
  • de Assis Dias, F.; Wiedemann, P.; Da Silva, M. J. et al.
    Combined Finite Element and Electronic Circuit Model of a Wire-Mesh Sensor
    IEEE Access 9(2021), 66309-66322 (10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3076966)
  • Jagtap, S.; Skouteris, G.; Choudhari, V. et al.
    An Internet of Things Approach for Water Efficiency: A Case Study of the Beverage Factory
    Sustainability 13(2021)6, 3343 (10.3390/su13063343)
  • Heßenkemper, H.; Ziegenhein, T.; Lucas, D. et al.
    Influence of surfactant contaminations on the lift force of ellipsoidal bubbles in water
    International Journal of Multiphase Flow 145(2021), 103833 (10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2021.103833)
  • Liu, L.; Zhang, H.; Yan, H. et al.
    Experimental studies on bubble aspect ratio and corresponding correlations under bubble swarm condition
    Chemical Engineering Science 236(2021), 116551 (10.1016/j.ces.2021.116551)
  • Jiang, W.; Qiu, M.; Shen, L. et al.
    Effect of deposition current density on the Co–Ni/SiO2 alloy composite coatings Using Scanning Jet Electrodeposition
    Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties 9(2021)1, 015027 (10.1088/2051-672X/abe594)
  • Seidel, P.; Ebert, D.; Schinke, R. et al.
    Comparison of Elemental Analysis Techniques for the Characterization of Commercial Alloys
    Metals 11(2021)5, 736 (10.3390/met11050736)
  • Hänsch, S.; Evdokimov, I.; Schlegel, F. et al.
    A workflow for the sustainable development of closure models for bubbly flows
    Chemical Engineering Science 244(2021), 116807 (10.1016/j.ces.2021.116807)
  • Vishwakarma, V.; Abdul Haq, S.; Schleicher, E. et al.
    Experimental analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of an industrial-scale cross-flow sieve tray
    Chemical Engineering Research and Design 174(2021), 294-306 (10.1016/j.cherd.2021.07.026)
  • Taborda, M. A.; Kipping, R.; Hampel, U. et al.
    Advanced Analysis of Bubble Columns: Comparison of Euler/Lagrange Simulations and Experiments under CO2 chemisorption conditions
    Chemical Engineering Research and Design 170(2021), 389-405 (10.1016/j.cherd.2021.04.020)
  • Járóka, T.; Staude, S.; Seifert, T. et al.
    Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Sohland-Rožany Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide mineralization (Lausitz Block, Bohemian Massif, Germany/Czech Republic)
    Ore Geology Reviews 133(2021), 104055 (10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104055)
  • Guilcher, M.; Schmaucks, A.; Krause, J. et al.
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