Fluid dynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries
Fluid dynamic instabilities can be highly beneficial for liquid metal batteries. They may enhance mass transfer in the cell and increase their efficiency. On the other hand a fluid flow should not become too strong in order to ensure a safe operation of the cell. Specifically, we study the following flow phenomena experimentally and numerically with OpenFOAM in liquid metal batteries:
- Tayler instability
- Electro-vortex flow
- Thermal convection
- Solutal convection
- Interfacial instabilities
Instabilities, Simulations, Experiments
Thermal Effects in Liquid Metal Batteries
Thermal convection appears in liquid metal batteries mainly in the anode, but also in the electrolyte of the cell.
Electro-vortex flow may appear when an electric current diverges or converges inside a liquid conductor.
The Tayler Instability
The Tayler instability limits the up-scalability of liquid metal batteries and plays a major role in astrophysics.
The metal pad roll instability limits the possible electrolyte layer thickness as well as the electric current for aluminium reduction cells as well as liquid metal batteries.
Numerical Simulation of Liquid Metal Batteries
Numerical simulation allows a fast and easy study of the operating performance of liquid metal batteries.
Experimental Investigation of Orbitally Excited Interfacial Waves in Two- and Three-Layer Systems
Interfacial instabilities have a leading role in the wide field of Magnetohydrodynamics. This instability is driven by a complex interaction of strong currents with external magnetic fields.
Solutal convection appears when charging a liquid metal battery, and improves mass transfer substantially.