Flash Lamp Annealing

Flash lamp annealing allows a fast heating up of solid surfaces with a single light flash between some hundred microseconds and some milliseconds. Thereby, the achievable final temperature of the layer could be more than 2000 °C depending on the intensity of the light flash and on the optical properties of the flash lamp annealed material. With the flash lamp equipment an unique technique was developed and utilized in the framework of an EU project which allows the specific thermal modification of surface layers with or without a reduced thermal exposure of the whole solid body.

Main technical parameters

Preheating system Flash lamp
  • electrical power 16 kW
  • maximum temperature 1100°C
  • temperature measurement by pyrometer
  • temperature control
  • pulse length t: 130µs < t < 20 ms
  • maximum electrical energy (t = 20 ms):250 kJ
  • maximum electrical power (t = 20 ms): 12.5 MW


  • activation of dopants and defect annealing in semiconductor surface layers (e.g. shallow junction in Silicon)
  • thermal treatment of transparent conducting oxide layers like ZnO or ITO on different substrates
  • thermal treatment of Si or Ge layers on different substrates
  • 3C-SiC/Si multi layers systems


  • W. Skorupa and H. Schmidt (Ed.), Subsecond annealing of advanced materials, Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2014
  • Smith, M.; McMahon, R. A.; Skorupa, W.; Voelskow, M.; Stoemenos, J., A thermal model for flash lamp annealing of 3C-SiC/Si multi-layer systems (i-FLASiC), Materials Science Forum (2005)483-487, 217
  • Skorupa, W.; Panknin, D.; Voelskow, M.; Anwand, W.; Gebel, T.; Yankov, R. A., Advanced thermal processing of materials in the msec range, Vacuum 78(2005), 673
  • Skorupa, W.; Gebel, T.; Yankov, Rossen A.; Paul, S.; Lerch, W.; Downey, Daniel F.; Arevalo, Edwin A., Advanced thermal processing of ultrashallow implanted junctionsusing flash lamp annealing, Journal Electrochemical Society 152 (6)2005, p. G436-G440
  • Pecz, B.; Dobos, L.; Panknin, D.; Skorupa, W.; Lioutas, C.; Vouroutzis, N., Crystallization of amorphous-Si films by flash lamp annealing, Applied Surface Science 242(2005)1-2, 185-191
  • Voelskow, M.; Smith, M.; Skorupa, W.; Mc Mahon, R., Homogenisation of the melting depth in SiC on Si structures during flash lamp irradiation, Applied Physics Letters 87(2005), 241901


Dr. Wolfgang Skorupa
Phone: +49 351 260 3612
Fax: +49 351 260 13612, +49 351 260 3411