Numerical simulation of liquid metal batteries
Experiments on liquid metal batteries are challenging: high temperature, an inert atmosphere and the reactive cell components make (velocity) measurement difficult. We therefore conduct numerical simulation to complement the experiments. The numerical models are developed at HZDR and are implemented in the open source CFD library OpenFOAM. All solvers are continously improved and kept under version control using git. New models are validated with experimental data, theoretical models or other numerical models. Currently, the following set of single phase solvers is available at HZDR:
- Solver for magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (Tayler instability)
- Solver for double-diffusive convection (solutal convection)
- Multi-region solver for magnetohydrodynamics (electro-vortex flow)
The multiphase solvers include:
- Solver for magnetohydrodynamic instabilities (metal pad roll instability)
- Solver for thermal convection (Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation)
Meshes are typically generated using the OpenFOAM tool snappyHexMesh, using Autodesk Inventor and Salomé. In-house meshing tools include improved mesh generators for a better resolution of the boundary layers as well as a decomposition method for multi-region simulation. Moreover, in-house equation solvers, as e.g. a PCG solver with improved regularisation technique, are developed at HZDR.
Post processing software developed at HZDR include tools for a modal decomposition, for interface reconstruction, ultrasonic beam models as well as different averaging and fitting techniques.
Thermal Effects in Liquid Metal Batteries
The Tayler Instability
- Personnettaz, P.; Beckstein, P.; Landgraf, S.; Köllner, T.; Nimtz, M.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.
Thermally driven convection in Li||Bi liquid metal batteries
Journal of Power Sources 401(2018) 362-374
- Weber, N.; Nimtz, M.; Personnettaz, P.; Salas, A.; Weier, T.
Electromagnetically driven convection suitable for mass transfer enhancement in liquid metal batteries
Applied Thermal Engineering 143(2018) 293-301
- Horstmann, G.M.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.
Coupling and stability of interfacial waves in liquid metal batteries
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 845(2018) 1-35
- Ashour, R.; Kelley, D.; Salas, A.; Starace, M.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.
Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries
Journal of Power Sources 378(2018) 301-310
- Kelley, D.; Weier, T.
Fluid mechanics of liquid metal batteries
Applied Mechanics Reviews 70(2018) 020801
- Weber, N.; Beckstein, P.; Galindo, V.; Starace, M.; Weier, T.
Electro-vortex flow simulation using coupled meshes
Computers and Fluids 168(2018) 101-109
- Weber, N.; Beckstein, P.; Herreman, W.; Horstmann, G.M.; Nore, C.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.
Sloshing instability and electrolyte layer rupture in liquid metal batteries
Physics of Fluids 29(2017), 044101
- Weber, N.; Beckstein, P.; Galindo, V.; Herreman, W.; Nore, C.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.
Metal pad roll instability in liquid metal batteries
Magnetohydrodynamics 53(2017), 129-140
- Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Priede, J.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.
The influence of current collectors on Tayler instability and electro-vortex flows in liquid metal batteries
Physics of Fluids 27(2015), 014103
- Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.; Wondrak, T.
Numerical simulation of the Tayler instability in liquid metals
New Journal of Physics 15(2013), 043034