Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34800 Publications

Ansible GitLab Base Role

Hüser, C.; Ziegner, N.; Huste, T.

This Ansible Role provides a basic setup for services based on GitLab Omnibus.

Keywords: gitlab; ansible

  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Ansible
    System requirements: Centos, Ubuntu
    License: Apache-2.0 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on GitLab.com: Link to location

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32133
Publ.-Id: 32133


Ansible Role Redis

Hüser, C.; Ziegner, N.; Huste, T.

An Ansible role to set up multiple Redis instances to be used as caching servers in a High Availability and Scalability context.

Keywords: redis; ansible; cache; high availability

  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Ansible
    System requirements: Ubuntu
    License: Apache-2.0 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on GitLab.com: Link to location

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32132
Publ.-Id: 32132


Ansible Role HAProxy

Hüser, C.; Ziegner, N.; Huste, T.

An Ansible role to set up HAProxy to be used as a load balancer in a high availability and scalability context.

Keywords: haproxy; loadbalancer; networking; web; ansible

  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Ansible
    System requirements: Ubuntu
    License: Apache-2.0 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on GitLab.com: Link to location

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32131
Publ.-Id: 32131


Ansible Role GitLab

Hüser, C.; Huste, T.; Ziegner, N.

Ansible role to configure GitLab Omnibus installation.

Keywords: gitlab; ansible

  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Ansible
    System requirements: Ubuntu
    License: Apache-2.0 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on GitLab.com: Link to location

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32130
Publ.-Id: 32130


Proposal for the delineation of neoadjuvant target volumes in oesophageal cancer

Thomas, M.; Mortensen, H.; Hoffmann, L.; Møller, D.; Troost, E. G. C.; Muijs, C.; Berbee, M.; Bütof, R.; Nicholas, O.; Radhakrishna, G.; Defraene, G.; Nafteux, P.; Nordsmark, M.; Haustermans, K.

Purpose
To define instructions for delineation of target volumes in the neoadjuvant setting in oesophageal cancer.
Materials and methods
Radiation oncologists of five European centres participated in the following consensus process: [1] revision of published (MEDLINE) and national/institutional delineation guidelines; [2] first delineation round of five cases (patient 1–5) according to national/institutional guidelines; [3] consensus meeting to discuss the results of step 1 and 2, followed by a target volume delineation proposal; [4] circulation of proposed instructions for target volume delineation and atlas for feedback; [5] second delineation round of five new cases (patient 6–10) to peer review and validate (two additional centres) the agreed delineation guidelines and atlas; [6] final consensus on the delineation guidelines depicted in an atlas.
Target volumes of the delineation rounds were compared between centres by Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and maximum/mean undirected Hausdorff distances (Hmax/Hmean).
Results
In the first delineation round, the consistency between centres was moderate (CTVtotal: DSC = 0.59–0.88; Hmean = 0.2–0.4 cm). Delineations in the second round were much more consistent. Lowest variability was obtained between centres participating in the consensus meeting (CTVtotal: DSC: p < 0.050 between rounds for patients 6/7/8/10; Hmean: p < 0.050 for patients 7/8/10), compared to validation centres (CTVtotal: DSC: p < 0.050 between validation and consensus meeting centres for patients 6/7/8; Hmean: p < 0.050 for patients 7/10).
A proposal for delineation of target volumes and an atlas were generated.
Conclusion
We proposed instructions for target volume delineation and an atlas for the neoadjuvant radiation treatment in oesophageal cancer. These will enable a more uniform delineation of patients in clinical practice and clinical trials.

Keywords: Oesophageal cancer; Neoadjuvant chemoradiation; Proposal for delineation; Delineation atlas; Consensus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32127
Publ.-Id: 32127


Slice2Volume: Fusion of multimodal medical imaging and light microscopy data of irradiation-injured brain tissue in 3D.

Müller, J.; Suckert, T.; Beyreuther, E.; Schneider, M.; Boucsein, M.; Bodenstein, E.; Stolz-Kieslich, L.; Krause, M.; von Neubeck, C.; Haase, R.; Lühr, A.; Dietrich, A.

The dataset contains comprehensive image data for a total of nine mice, which underwent normal tissue brain irradiation with 90 MeV protons.             
In particular, the image data comprise cone-bem computed tomographies (CBCT), Monte Carlo beam transport simulations based on those CTs, regular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up (≥ 26 weeks), a co-aligned DSURQE mouse brain atlas and scanned whole-brain tissue sections with histochemical and immunofluorescent markers for morphology (H&E), cell nuclei (DAPI), astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (Iba1), the intermediate filament protein Nestin, proliferation (Ki67), neurons (NeuN) and oligodendrocytes (OSP).          
The volumetric image data (i.e. CBCT, MRI and brain atlas) were co-aligned using the ImageJ plugin Big Warp. The CBCT data was used as spatial reference to allow for mask-based, slice-wise alignment of CBCT and light microscopy image data in 3D with the scriptable registration tool Elastix.  

We provide the data in raw format and as aligned data sets, as well as their spatial transformations.

Keywords: Preclinical; Image fusion; Proton radiation; Medical imaging; Histology

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-20
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.557
    License: CC-BY-4.0

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32124
Publ.-Id: 32124


Teaching ML in Compact Courses

Fouilloux, A.; Steinbach, P.

This talk summarizes the experiences made with teaching Machine Learning within compact events that stretch over several days to a week maximum. Both speakers explain pitfalls they were caught in as well as solutions they found.

This talk was given at the Teaching Machine Learning workshop at ECML-PKDD 2020. For more details and information see https://teaching-ml.github.io/2020/

Keywords: teaching; compact courses; machine learning; artificial intelligence

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-09-08
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.752
    License: CC-BY-4.0

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32121
Publ.-Id: 32121


Study of effective parameters on generating submicron (nano)-bubbles using the hydrodynamic cavitation

Hassanzadeh, A. C.; Nazari, S. A.; Shafaei, S. Z. A.; Azizi, A. D.; Gharabaghi, M. A.; Ahmadi, R. E.; Shahbazi, B. F.

Although submicron (nano)-bubbles (NBs) have been broadly used in the laboratory flotation processes, the role of critical factors in their generation is not adequately explored in the literature. The present study investigates the effect of six key factors on generating submicron-sized bubbles and its application to coarse-sized quartz flotation. Interaction of influential factors is highlighted, which was generally overlooked in previous studies. These parameters i.e. frother type (MIBC and A65), frother dosage (50-130 mg/L), air flow rate (0.1-0.4 L/min), pressure in Venturi tube (250-400 kPa), liquid temperature (22-42 °C) and pH (6-10) were evaluated through software based statistical fractional factorial design. The size distribution of NBs produced by the principle of hydrodynamic cavitation was measured using a laser particle size analyzer (LPSA), and Sauter mean bubble diameter (d32) was considered as the experimental design response. Batch flotation experiments were performed with and without the A65 and MIBC-NBs. The results of experimental design showed that relative intensity of the main factors followed the order of air flow rate>temperature>frother type as the most effective parameters on the bubble size. It was revealed that the lowest air flow rate (0.1 L/min) produced the smallest bubbles. Meanwhile, the d32 decreased as the liquid temperature increased, and the bubble size strongly was related to the frother type and its concentration. Indeed, with changing frother from MIBC to A65, the reduction in mean bubble size was two-fold. Interaction of frother type with its dosage, air flow rate and pressure were statistically recognized significant on the mean bubble size, which was confirmed by p-values. Finally, flotation recovery of quartz particles improved ca. 22% in the presence of NBs compared to the conventional flotation. © Wroclaw University of Science and Technology.

Keywords: Bulk nanobubbles (NBs); Frother typeTemperatur; Fractional factorial design; Coarse quartz particles

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32119
Publ.-Id: 32119


Phase selection in Mn-Si alloys by fast solid-state reaction with enhanced skyrmion stability

Li, Z.; Xie, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Ji, Y.; Begeza, V.; Cao, L.; Hübner, R.; Rebohle, L.; Helm, M.; Kornelius, N.; Prucnal, S.; Zhou, S.

B20-type transition-metal silicides or germanides are noncentrosymmetric materials hosting magnetic skyrmions, which are promising information carriers in spintronic devices. The prerequisite is the preparation of thin films on technology-relevant substrates with magnetic skyrmions stabilized at a broad temperature and magnetic-field working window. The canonical example is the B20-MnSi film grown on Si substrates. However, the as-yet unavoidable contamination with MnSi1.7 occurs due to the lower nucleation temperature of this phase. In this work, we report a simple and efficient method to overcome this problem and prepare single-phase MnSi films on Si substrates. It is based on the millisecond reaction between metallic Mn and Si using flash lamp annealing (FLA). By controlling the FLA energy density, we can grow single-phase MnSi or MnSi1.7 or their mixture at will. Compared with bulk MnSi the prepared MnSi films show an increased Curie temperature of up to 41 K. In particular, the magnetic skyrmions are stable over a much wider temperature and magnetic-field range than reported previously. Our results constitute a novel phase selection approach for alloys and can help enhance specific functional properties such as enhancing the stability of magnetic skyrmions.

Keywords: B20-MnSi; Flash lamp annealing; Phase separation; Skyrmions

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32117
Publ.-Id: 32117


Development of Machine Learning Framework for Interfacial Force Closures Based on Bubble Tracking Data

Tai, C.-K.; Lucas, D.; Bolotnov, I.

This work aims to develop data-driven modeling framework with the aid of machine learning methods and high-fidelity dataset. To gain confidence on the methodology, a bubble drag regression task using artificial dataset is conducted. Result shows FNN’s capability performing non-linear fitting. On the other hand, the sample size test would give sense on model underfitting with same amount of knowledge. Inspired by the previous task, the focus then moved on to utilize DNS bubble tracking dataset for modeling interfacial momentum exchange terms. A novel way to approach interfacial momentum exchange is proposed. Preliminary result reveals the concern of model accuracy on unseen data points. Improvement on model generalization is suggested. Also, further refinement on label formation and data processing should be taken care of. Nonetheless, the potential using high fidelity data and NN to directly model interaction between phases in bubbly flow has been shown.

Keywords: DNS; bubbly flow; drag; machine learning

  • Contribution to proceedings
    2020 ANS Virtual Winter Meeting, 16.-19.11.2020, Online, USA
  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    2020 ANS Virtual Winter Meeting, 16.-19.11.2020, Online, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32111
Publ.-Id: 32111


Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17Нx (x = 0; 4.4)

Veselova, S. V.; Paukov, M. A.; Tereshina, I. S.; Verbetsky, V. N.; Zakharov, K. V.; Gorbunov, D.; Vasil`Ev, A. N.

Intermetallic compounds based on rare-earth metals and iron are by far the most promising materials for permanent magnets. In this work, the multicomponent compound Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17 was prepared by induction melting. The hydride Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17H4.4 with a high hydrogen content was obtained by direct hydrogenation of the intermetallic compound. The rhombohedral Th2Zn17-type of structure (space group R3m) is inherent to parent compound and hydride as well. The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties of Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17 was investigated. Curie temperature of the hydride Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17H4.4 is higher than that of parent compound by ΔTC = 138 K. The hydrogen embedded in Sm1.2Но0.8Fe17 crystal lattice increases the saturation magnetization (σS) at T = 300 K, but does not significantly affect σS at Т = 4.2 K. The ferrimagnetic structure is retained in magnetic fields up to 58 T in the parent compound, while, in the hydride, there is a spin-reorientation phase transition observed at 55 T. It is found that the parameter of the intersublattice exchange interaction decreases significantly in the hydride Sm1.2Ho0.8-Fe17H4.4 (and in the nitride Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17N2.4) which is associated with boosting of the unit-cell volume and distances between magnetic ions.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32109
Publ.-Id: 32109


Effect of power ultrasound on wettability and collector-less floatability of chalcopyrite, pyrite and quartz

Ahmad, H.; Hamed, G.; Safak, G. Ö.; Tomasz, N.; Agnieszka, S.

Numerous studies have addressed the role of ultrasonication on floatability of minerals macroscopically. However, the impact of acoustic waves on the mineral hydrophobicity and its physicochemical aspects were entirely overlooked in the literature. This paper mainly investigates the impact of ultrasonic power and its time on the wettability and floatability of chalcopyrite, pyrite and quartz. For this purpose, contact angle and collectorless microflotation tests were implemented on the ultrasonic-pretreated and non-treated chalcopyrite, pyrite and quartz minerals. The ultrasonic process was carried out by a probe-type ultrasound (Sonopuls, 20 kHz and 60 W) at various ultrasonication time (0.5–30 min) and power (0–180 W) while the dissolved oxygen (DO), liquid temperature, conductivity (CD) and pH were continuously monitored. Comparative assessment of wettabilities in the presence of a constant low-powered (60 W) acoustic pre-treatment uncovered that surface of all three minerals became relatively hydrophilic. Meanwhile, increasing sonication intensity enhanced their hydrophilicities to some extent except for quartz at the highest power-level. This was mainly related to generation of hydroxyl radicals, iron-deficient chalcopyrite and elemental sulfur (for chalcopyrite), formation of OH and H radicals together with H2O2 (for pyrite) and creation of SiOH (silanol) groups and hydrogen bond with water dipoles (for quartz). Finally, it was also found that increasing sonication time led to enhancement of liquid temperature and conductivity but diminished pH and degree of dissolved oxygen, which indirectly influenced the mineral wettabilities and floatabilities. Although quartz and pyrite ultrasound-treated micro-flotation recoveries were lower than that of conventional ones, an optimum power-level of 60–90 W was identified for maximizing chalcopyrite recovery.

Keywords: froth flotation; power ultrasound; ultrasonic treatment; chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz flotation system; hydrophobicity

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32107
Publ.-Id: 32107


Magnetic structure of the quantum magnet SrCuTe2O6

Chillal, S.; Isman, A. T. M. N.; Luetkens, H.; Canévet, E.; Scurschii, I.; Khalyavin, D.; Lake, B.

SrCuTe2O6 consists of a three-dimensional arrangement of spin-1/2 Cu2+ ions. The first-, second-, and third-neighbor interactions, respectively, couple Cu2+ moments into a network of isolated triangles, a highly frustrated hyperkagome lattice consisting of corner-sharing triangles and antiferromagnetic chains. Of these, the chain interaction dominates in SrCuTe2O62O6 using muon relaxation spectroscopy and neutron diffraction and present the low-temperature magnetic structure as well as the directional-dependent magnetic phase diagram as a function of field.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32105
Publ.-Id: 32105


Momentum distribution function and short-range correlations of the warm dense electron gas -- ab initio quantum Monte Carlo results

Hunger, K.; Schoof, T.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.; Filinov, A.

In a classical plasma the momentum distribution, n(k), decays exponentially, for large k, and the same is observed for an ideal Fermi gas. However, when quantum and correlation effects are relevant simultaneously, an algebraic decay, n∞(k)∼k−8 has been predicted. This is of relevance for cross sections and threshold processes in dense plasmas that depend on the number of energetic particles. Here we present the first \textit{ab initio} results for the momentum distribution of the nonideal uniform electron gas at warm dense matter conditions. Our results are based on first principle fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations and clearly confirm the k−8 asymptotic. This asymptotic behavior is directly linked to short-range correlations which are analyzed via the on-top pair distribution function (on-top PDF), i.e. the PDF of electrons with opposite spin. We present extensive results for the density and temperature dependence of the on-top PDF and for the momentum distribution in the entire momentum range.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32103
Publ.-Id: 32103


Suppression of Metastatic Melanoma Growth in Lung by Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia Monitored by a Minimally Invasive Heat Stress Testing Approach in Mice

Thomas, M. J.; Major, E.; Benedek, A.; Horvath, I.; Mathe, D.; Bergmann, R.; Szasz, A. M.; Krenacs, T.; Benyo, Z.

Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is a novel complementary therapy in oncology which is based on the higher conductivity and permittivity of cancerous tissues due to their enhanced glycolytic activity and ionic content compared to healthy normal tissues. We aimed to evaluate the potential of mEHT, inducing local hyperthermia, in the treatment of pulmonary metastatic melanoma. Our primary objective was the optimization of mEHT for targeted lung treatment as well as to identify the mechanism of its potential anti-tumor effect in the B16F10 mouse melanoma pulmonary metastases model while investigating the potential treatment-related side effects of mEHT on normal lung tissue. Repeated treatment of tumor-bearing lungs with mEHT induced significant anti-tumor effects as demonstrated by the lower number of tumor nodules and the downregulation of Ki67 expression in treated tumor cells. mEHT treatment provoked significant DNA double-strand breaks indicated by the increased expression of phosphorylated H2AX protein in treated tumors, although treatment-induced elevation of cleaved/activated caspase-3 expression was insignificant, suggesting the minimal role of apoptosis in this process. The mEHT-related significant increase in p21waf1 positive tumor cells suggested that p21waf1-mediated cell cycle arrest plays an important role in the anti-tumor effect of mEHT on melanoma metastases. Significantly increased CD3+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and F4/80+CD11b+ macrophage density in the whole lung and tumor of treated animals emphasizes the mobilizing capability of mEHT on immune cells. In conclusion, mEHT can reduce the growth potential of melanoma, thus offering itself as a complementary therapeutic option to chemo- and/or radiotherapy.

Keywords: B16F10 melanoma; DNA double-strand breaks; cell cycle arrest; immune cell mobilization; modulated electro-hyperthermia; pulmonary metastases

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32099
Publ.-Id: 32099


Magnetische Kühlung

Gottschall, T.

es hat keine aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Lecture (others)
    Seniorenakademie der TU Dresden, 15.09.2020, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32093
Publ.-Id: 32093


Advanced characterization of multicaloric materials in pulsed magnetic fields

Gottschall, T.

es hat kein aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    JEMS 2020, 07.12.2020, Lissabon, Portugal

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32092
Publ.-Id: 32092


Dynamics of Rising Bubbles in a Quiescent Slag Bath with Varying Thermo-Physical Properties

Reuter, M. A.; Obiso, D.; Schwittala, D. H.; Korobeinikov, I.; Meyer, B.; Richter, A.

The motion of bubbles in a liquid slag bath with temperature gradients is investigated by means of 3D fluid dynamic computations. The goal of the work is to describe the dynamics of the rising bubbles, taking into account the temperature dependency of the thermo-physical properties of the slag. Attention is paid to the modeling approach used for the slag properties and how this affects the simulation of the bubble motion. In particular, the usage of constant values is compared to the usage of temperature-dependent data, taken from models available in the literature and from in-house experimental measurements. Although the present study focuses on temperature gradients, the consideration of varying thermo-physical properties is greatly relevant for the fluid dynamic modeling of reactive slag baths, since the same effect is given by heterogeneous species and solid fraction distributions. CFD is applied to evaluate the bubble dynamics in terms of the rising path, terminal bubble shape, and velocity, the gas–liquid interface area, and the appearance of break-up phenomena. It is shown that the presence of a thermal gradient strongly acts on the gas–liquid interaction when the temperature-dependent properties are considered. Furthermore, the use of literature models and experimental data produces different results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling the slag’s thermo-physical properties.

Keywords: rising bubbles; liquid slag

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32091
Publ.-Id: 32091


Thermoelectric Performance of the Half-Heusler Phases RNiSb (R = Sc, Dy, Er, Tm, Lu): High Mobility Ratio between Majority and Minority Charge Carriers

Ciesielski, K.; Synoradzki, K.; Veremchuk, I.; Skokowski, P.; Szymanski, D.; Grin, Y.; Kaczorowski, D.

Deeper understanding of electrical and thermal transport is critical for further development of thermoelectric materials. Here we describe the thermoelectric performance of a group of rare-earth-bearing half-Heusler phases determined in a wide temperature range. Polycrystalline samples of ScNiSb, DyNiSb, ErNiSb, TmNiSb, and LuNiSb are synthesized by arc melting and densified by spark plasma sintering. They are characterized by powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The physical properties are studied by means of heat-capacity and Hall-effect measurements performed in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K, as well as electrical-resistivity, Seebeck-coefficient, and thermal-conductivity measurements performed in the temperature range from 2 to 950 K. All the materials except TmNiSb are found to be narrow-gap intrinsic p-type semiconductors with rather light charge carriers. In TmNiSb, the presence of heavy holes with large weighted mobility is evidenced by the highest power factor among the series (17 mu W K-²cm(-¹) at 700 K). The experimental electronic relaxation time calculated with the parabolic band formalism is found to range from 0.8 x 10(-¹⁴) to 2.8 x 10(-¹⁴) s. In all the materials studied, the thermal conductivity is between 3 and 6 W m(-¹) K-¹ near room temperature (i.e., smaller than in other pristine d-electron half-Heusler phases reported in the literature). The experimental observation of the reduced thermal conductivity appears fully consistent with the estimated low sound velocity as well as strong point-defect scattering revealed by Debye-Callaway modeling. Furthermore, analysis of the bipolar contribution to the measured thermal conductivity yields abnormally large differences between the mobilities of n-type and p-type carriers. The latter feature makes the compounds examined excellent candidates for further optimization of their thermoelectric performance via electron doping.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32088
Publ.-Id: 32088


Discovery of high-performance thermoelectric copper chalcogenide using modified diffusion-couple high-throughput synthesis and automated histogram analysis technique

Deng, T.; Xing, T.; Brod, M. K.; Sheng, Y.; Qiu, P.; Veremchuk, I.; Song, Q.; Wei, T.-R.; Yang, J.; Snyder, G. J.; Grin, Y.; Chen, L.; Shi, X.

Discovery of novel high-performance materials with earth-abundant and environmentally friendly elements is a key task for civil applications based on advanced thermoelectric technology. Advancements in this area are greatly limited by the traditional trial-and-error method, which is both time-consuming and expensive. The materials genome initiative can provide a powerful strategy to screen for potential novel materials using high-throughput calculations, materials characterization, and synthesis. In this study, we developed a modified diffusion-couple high-throughput synthesis method and an automated histogram analysis technique to quickly screen high-performance copper chalcogenide thermoelectric materials, which has been well demonstrated in the ternary Cu-Sn-S compounds. A new copper chalcogenide with the composition of Cu₇Sn₃S₁₀ was discovered. Studies on crystal structure, band gap, and electrical and thermal transport properties were performed to show that it is a promising thermoelectric material with ultralow lattice thermal conductivity, moderate band gap, and decent electrical conductivity. Via Cl doping, the thermoelectric dimensionless figure of merit zT reaches 0.8 at 750 K, being among the highest values reported in Cu-Sn-S ternary materials. The modified diffusion-couple high-throughput synthesis method and automated histogram analysis technique developed in this study also shed light on the development of other advanced thermoelectric and functional materials.

Keywords: ultralow thermal conductivity; ternary; scattering; sulfides; Cu₂SnS₃; model

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  • Secondary publication expected from 30.07.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32087
Publ.-Id: 32087


Robust Fermi-Surface Morphology of CeRhIn5 across the Putative Field-Induced Quantum Critical Point

Mishra, S.; Hornung, J.; Raba, M.; Klotz, J.; Förster, T.; Harima, H.; Aoki, D.; Wosnitza, J.; McCollam, A.; Sheikin, I.

We report a comprehensive de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) study of the heavy-fermion material CeRhIn5 in magnetic fields up to 70 T. Several dHvA frequencies gradually emerge at high fields as a result of magnetic breakdown. Among them is the thermodynamically important β1 branch, which has not been observed so far. Comparison of our angle-dependent dHvA spectra with those of the non-4f compound LaRhIn5 and with band-structure calculations evidences that the Ce 4f electrons in CeRhIn5 remain localized over the whole field range. This rules out any significant Fermi-surface reconstruction, either at the suggested nematic phase transition at B* ≈ 30 T or at the putative quantum critical point at Bc ≃ 50 T. Our results rather demonstrate the robustness of the Fermi surface and the localized nature of the 4f electrons inside and outside of the antiferromagnetic phase.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32086
Publ.-Id: 32086


Magnetoelastic study on the frustrated quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 magnet LiCuVO4

Miyata, A.; Hikihara, T.; Furukawa, S.; Kremer, R. K.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.

We investigated the magnetoelastic properties of the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 frustrated magnet LiCuVO4. Longitudinal-magnetostriction experiments were performed at 1.5 K in high magnetic fields of up to 60 T applied along the b axis, i.e., the spin-chain direction. The magnetostriction data qualitatively resemble the magnetization results, and saturate at Hsat ≈ 54 T, with a relative change in sample length of ΔL/L ≈ 1.8 × 10−4. Remarkably, both the magnetostriction and the magnetization evolve gradually between Hc3 ≈ 48 T and Hsat, indicating that the two quantities consistently detect the spin-nematic phase just below the saturation. Numerical analyses for a weakly coupled spin-chain model reveal that the observed magnetostriction can overall be understood within an exchange-striction mechanism. Small deviations found may indicate nontrivial changes in local correlations associated with the field-induced phase transitions.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32083
Publ.-Id: 32083


Tuning of ferromagnetic behavior of GaN films by N ion implantation: an experimental and first principle-based study

Singh, P.; Ghosh, S.; Mishra, V.; Barman, S.; Barman, S. R.; Singh, A.; Kumar, S.; Li, Z.; Kentsch, U.; Srivastava, P.

Magnetic properties of N-ion implanted GaN films (150 nm) have been reported. It is found that GaN films grown by the MOCVD technique show strong room temperature ferromagnetic behavior, which can be tuned by implanting N-ions at different fluences (1×10¹⁵ to 5×10¹⁶ ions- cm⁻²). Presence of implanted N at interstitial sites of the GaN host matrix is indicated from the strain observed in GaN by analysis of XRD data. PL spectra show presence of different types of defects in the as deposited film and engineering of defects after N-ion implantation. XPS spectra of Ga 3d-core level and valence band reveal the bonding of implanted N with the host Ga and/or N. The origin of ferromagnetic behavior is ascribed to unpaired electrons created at N sites due to Ga vacancies. First principle-based calculations also confirm ferromagnetism due to Ga vacancies and the reduction of magnetic behavior in Ga deficient GaN with N-ion implantation at interstitial site. The systematic reduction in the saturation magnetic moment value after N-ion implantation is explained on the basis of pairing of the unpaired electrons due to the bond formation of interstitial N with Ga and N present in the host matrix.

Keywords: ion implantation; defects; ferromagnetism; nitrogen interstitials; tuning

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32080
Publ.-Id: 32080


Magnetic Refrigeration: From material to application

Gottschall, T.

es hat kein aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    31. Edgar Lüscher Seminar, 09.02.2020, Klosters, Schweiz

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32079
Publ.-Id: 32079


Recent progress and future projects at HLD and LNCMI - Toulouse

Miyata, A.

es hat kein aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    The 16th Japanese High Magnetic Field Forum, 03.12.2020, Tuhoku, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32078
Publ.-Id: 32078


Magnetoelastic coupling in frustrated magnets: The cases of LiCuVO4 and MnCr2S4

Miyata, A.

es hat kein aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    ARHMF 2020 and KINKEN Materials Science School 2020 for Young Scientists, 02.12.2020, Tohoku, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32076
Publ.-Id: 32076


Pressure-tuned magnetic interactions in the triangular-lattice Quantum antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4

Zvyagin, S.

es hat kein aussagefähiges Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    ARHMF 2020 and KINKEN Materials Science School 2020 for Young Scientists, 01.-03.12.2020, Tohoku, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32075
Publ.-Id: 32075


Contactless generation of cavitation in high temperature liquid metals and its impact on particle dispersion in solidified iron and steel samples

Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Gerbeth, G.

A recently developed method for the contactless magnetic generation of cavitation is demonstrated for high-melting-point metals. The approach is based on the floating-zone technique, which is truly contactless and crucible-free as it uses electromagnetic forces. Using this method, ultra-high-temperature ceramic particles, such as TiN, TiB₂ and TiC, are admixed in liquid iron and 316L steel. The dispersion and particle refinement caused by cavitation treatment during melting and solidification are investigated. Magnetic fields up to 8 T that correspond to pressure oscillation amplitude of 0.83 MPa are used. The signal emitted by the collapsing bubbles is captured and visualized for iron melts. Samples with a higher number of cavitation nuclei exhibit a more stable cavitation response. Improved reinforcement refinement is demonstrated for increasing cavitation intensity – the size of precipitates is evidently reduced due to the cavitation
treatment.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 01.05.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32074
Publ.-Id: 32074


Spin dynamics in low-D spin systems: high-field ESR

Zvyagin, S.

es lag kein aussagefähiges Abstract vor

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    Workshop on Neutrons and Complementary Techniques for Quantum Materials, 18.-21.08.2020, Oak Ridge, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32073
Publ.-Id: 32073


Shaken and stirred: When Bond meets Suess-de Vries and Gnevyshev-Ohl

Stefani, F.; Stepanov, R.; Weier, T.

We argue that the most prominent temporal features of the solar dynamo, in particular the Hale cycle, the Suess de Vries cycle (associated with variations of the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule), Gleissberg-type cycles, and grand minima can be self-consistently explained by double synchronization with the 11.07-years periodic tidal forcing of the Venus-Earth-Jupiter system and the (mainly) 19.86-years periodic motion of the Sun around the barycenter of the solar system. In our numerical simulation, grand minima, and clusters thereof, emerge as intermittent and non periodic events on millennial time scales, very similar to the series of Bond events which were observed throughout the Holocene and the last glacial period. If confirmed, such an intermittent transition to chaos would prevent any long-term prediction of solar activity, notwithstanding the fact that the shorter-term Hale and Suess-de Vries cycles are clocked by planetary motion.

Keywords: solar cycle

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    Virtual Nordic Dynamo Seminar, 15.09.2020, Stockholm, Sweden

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32072
Publ.-Id: 32072


Schwabe, Gleissberg, Suess-de Vries: Towards a consistent model of planetary synchronization of solar cycles

Stefani, F.; Giesecke, A.; Seilmayer, M.; Stepanov, R.; Weier, T.

Aiming at a consistent planetary synchronization model of both short-term and long-term solar cycles, we start with an analysis of Schove’s historical data of cycle maxima. Their deviations (residuals) from the average cycle duration of 11.07 years show a high degree of regularity, comprising a dominant 200 year period (Suess-de Vries cycle), and a few periods around 100 years (Gleissberg cycle). Encouraged by their robustness, we support previous forecasts of an upcoming grand minimum in the 21st century. To explain the long-term cycles, we enhance our tidally synchronized solar dynamo model by a modulation of the field storage capacity of the tachocline with the orbital angular momentum of the Sun, which is dominated by the 19.86-year periodicity of the Jupiter–Saturn synodes. This modulation of the 22.14-year Hale cycle leads to a 193-year beat period of dynamo activity which is indeed close to the Suess-de Vries cycle. For stronger dynamo modulation, the model produces additional peaks at typical Gleissberg frequencies, which seem to be explainable by the non-linearities of the basic beat process, leading to a bi-modality of the Schwabe cycle. However, a complementary role of beat periods between the Schwabe cycle and the Jupiter–Uranus/Neptune synodic cycles cannot be completely excluded.

Keywords: solar cycle

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  • Secondary publication expected from 28.09.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32071
Publ.-Id: 32071


Evolution of a strong electrovortex flow in a cylindrical cell

Kolesnichenko, I.; Frick, P.; Eltishchev, V.; Mandrykin, S.; Stefani, F.

The mechanism of poloidal flow suppression in an electrovortex flow (EVF) is verified in a liquid metal experiment and supported by numerical simulations. Beyond a certain threshold of azimuthal forcing, a strong poloidal EVF flow develops only transiently, before the centrifugal forces of the slowly generated swirl compensate the EVF-driving forces. This result shows that EVFs can become of particular importance in large-scale liquid metal batteries, especially during the switch-on regime when the transient poloidal flows can be up to two orders of magnitude stronger than those expected in the saturated regime.

Keywords: electrovortex flow

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32070
Publ.-Id: 32070


Overview of mico- and millifluidic prototyping and sensing approaches

Schütt, J.; Makarov, D.

Kick-Off Präsentation des HZDRs im Zuge des Projektstarts. Angesprochene Themengebiete umfassen die aktuellen und zukünftigen Arbeitsgebiete der Arbeitsgruppe "Fluid Sensorics".

Keywords: Fluidic Sensorics; SiNW FETs; Nano-capacitors; Planar Hall Effect Sensors

  • Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    Initial Scientific Meeting, 12.11.2020, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32069
Publ.-Id: 32069


Using Diffuse Scattering to Observe X-Ray-Driven Nonthermal Melting

Hartley, N.; Grenzer, J.; Huang, L.; Inubushi, Y.; Kamimura, N.; Katagiri, K.; Kodama, R.; Kon, A.; Lu, W.; Makita, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakajima, S.; Ozaki, N.; Pikuz, T.; Rode, A. V.; Sagae, D.; Schuster, A.; Tono, K.; Voigt, K.; Vorberger, J.; Yabuuchi, T.; McBride, E. E.; Kraus, D.

We present results from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser facility, where we used a high intensity (∼10^20 W/cm2) x-ray pump x-ray probe scheme to observe changes in the ionic structure of silicon induced by x-ray heating of the electrons. By avoiding Laue spots in the scattering signal from a single crystalline sample, we observe a rapid rise in diffuse scattering and a transition to a disordered, liquidlike state with a structure significantly different from liquid silicon. The disordering occurs within 100 fs of irradiation, a timescale that agrees well with first principles simulations, and is faster than that predicted by purely inertial behavior, suggesting that both the phase change and disordered state reached are dominated by Coulomb forces. This method is capable of observing liquid scattering without masking
signal from the ambient solid, allowing the liquid structure to be measured throughout and beyond the phase change.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32068
Publ.-Id: 32068


Design and performance characterisation of the HAPG von Hámos Spectrometer at the High Energy Density Instrument of the European XFEL

Preston, T. R.; Göde, S.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Appel, K.; Brambrink, E.; Cerantola, V.; Höppner, H.; Makita, M.; Pelka, A.; Prescher, C.; Sukharnikov, K.; Schmidt, A.; Thorpe, I.; Toncian, T.; Amouretti, A.; Chekrygina, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Falk, K.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Hartley, N.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Heimann, P.; Huang, L.; Humphries, O. S.; Karnbach, O.; Kraus, D.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Ren, S.; Schuster, A.; Smid, M.; Voigt, K.; Zhang, M.; Zastrau, U.

The von Hámos spectrometer setup at the HED instrument of the European XFEL is described in detail. The spectrometer is designed to be operated primarily between 5 and 15 keV to complement the operating photon energy range of the HED instrument. Four Highly Annealed Pyrolitic Graphite (HAPG) crystals are characterised with thicknesses of 40 μm or 100 μm and radius-of-curvature 50 mm or 80 mm, in conjunction with either an ePix100 or Jungfrau detector. The achieved resolution with the 50 mm crystals, operated between 6.5 and 9 keV, matches that reported previously: ~8 eV for a thickness of 40 μm, whereas, with an 80 mm crystal of thickness 40 μm, the resolution exceeds that expected. Namely, a resolution of 2 eV is demonstrated between 5–6 keV implying a resolving power of 2800. Therefore, we posit that flatter HAPG crystals, with their high reflectivity and improved resolving power, are a powerful tool for hard x-ray scattering and emission experiments allowing unprecedented measurements of collective scattering in a single shot.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32067
Publ.-Id: 32067


A spectral library for laser-induced fluorescence analysis as a tool for rare earth element identification

Fuchs, M.; Beyer, J.; Lorenz, S.; Sharma, S.; Renno, A.; Heitmann, J.; Gloaguen, R.

With the recurring interest on rare-earth elements (REE), laser-induced fluorescence (LiF) may provide a powerful tool for their rapid and accurate identification at different stages along their value chain. Applications to natural materials such as rocks could complement the spectroscopy-based toolkit for innovative, non-invasive exploration technologies. However, the diagnostic assignment of detected emission lines to individual REE remains challenging, because of the complex composition of natural rocks in which they can be found. The resulting mixed spectra and the large amount of data generated demand for automated approaches of data evaluation, especially in mapping applications such as drill core scanning. LiF reference data provide the solution for robust REE identification, yet they usually remain in the form of tables of published emission lines. We show that a complete reference spectra library could open manifold options for innovative automated analysis.

We present a library of high-resolution LiF reference spectra using the Smithsonian rare-earth phosphate standards for electron microprobe analysis.We employ three standard laser wavelengths (325 nm, 442 nm, 532 nm) to record representative spectra in the UV-visible to near-infrared spectral range (340–1080 nm). Excitation at all three laser wavelengths yielded characteristic spectra with distinct REE-related emission lines for EuPO4, TbPO4, DyPO4 and YbPO4. In the other samples, the high-energy excitation at 325 nm caused unspecific, broadband defect emissions. Here, lower energy laser excitation showed successful for suppressing non-REE-related emission. At 442 nm excitation, REE-reference spectra depict the diagnostic emission lines of PrPO4, SmPO4 and ErPO4. For NdPO4 and HoPO4 most efficient excitation was achieved with 532 nm. Our results emphasise on the possibility of selective REE excitation by changing the excitation wavelength according to the suitable conditions for individual REEs. Our reference spectra provide a database for transparent and reproducible evaluation of REE-bearing rocks. The LiF spectral library is available at https://zenodo.org/ and the registered DOI: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4054606 (Fuchs et al., 2020). It gives access to traceable data for manifold further studies on comparison of emission line positions, emission line intensity ratios and splitting into emission line sub-levels or can be used as reference or training data for automated approaches of component assignment.

Keywords: Laser-induced fluorescence; rare earth elements; exploration; spectral library

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32066
Publ.-Id: 32066


alpaka-group/alpaka: alpaka 0.5.0: C++14

Worpitz, B.; Matthes, A.; Zenker, E.; Hübl, A.; Widera, R.; Bastrakov, S.; Ehrig, S.; Kelling, J.; Krude, J.; Stephan, J.; Werner, M.

The alpaka library is a header-only C++14 abstraction library for accelerator development.
The release 0.5.0 is providing support for AMD HIP and dropped support for C++11, CUDA 8, gcc 4.9 and boost < 1.65.1.

Keywords: CUDA; HPC; alpaka; OpenMP; HIP; C++; GPU; heterogeneous computing; performance portability

  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: C++
    System requirements: OS: Linux, Windows, or OSX requirements: C++14 compiler, boost 1.65.1+
    License: MPL-2.0
    Hosted on GitHub: Link to location
    DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3909421

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32062
Publ.-Id: 32062


αvβ3-Specific Gold Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis

Pretze, M.; von Kiedrowski, V.; Runge, R.; Freudenberg, R.; Hübner, R.; Davarci, G.; Schirrmacher, R.; Wängler, C.; Wängler, B.

This paper reports on the development of tumor-specific gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as theranostic tools intended for target accumulation and the detection of tumor angiogenesis via optical imaging (OI) before therapy is performed, being initiated via an external X-ray irradiation source. The AuNPs were decorated with a near-infrared dye, and RGD peptides as the tumor targeting vector for αvβ3-integrin, which is overexpressed in tissue with high tumor angiogenesis. The AuNPs were evaluated in an optical imaging setting in vitro and in vivo exhibiting favorable diagnostic properties with regards to tumor cell accumulation, biodistribution, and clearance. Furthermore, the therapeutic properties of the AuNPs were evaluated in vitro on pUC19 DNA and on A431 cells concerning acute and long-term toxicity, indicating that these AuNPs could be useful as radiosensitizers in therapeutic concepts in the future.

Keywords: gold nanoparticle; optical imaging; radiosensitizer; tumor angiogenesis; RGD peptide

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32061
Publ.-Id: 32061


Data for "Gold implanted germanium photoswitch for cavity dumping of a free-electron laser"

Rana, R.; Klopf, J. M.; Ciano, C.; Singh, A.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Pashkin, O.

Measurements were carried out in ELBE 113 c lab. Free electron laser (FEL) pulses with a wavelength ranging from 6 to 90 µm from the FELBE laser operating at its maximum power level were used. Photoswitching of Ge and Ge:Au samples were carried out using a 1 kHz Ti:Sapphire Amplifier system at 800 nm. The data used in the paper is arranged in subfolders 1, 2, and 3. The description is as follows
1. Scheme of the experiment (used in Figure 1 and shows the idea of the experiment)
2. FEL pulse picking traces from photoswitched Ge and Ge: Au samples were recorded using an oscilloscope with 1 GHz bandwidth (Keysight InfiniiVision DSOX4104A).
Relevance: This data is used in Figures 2 and 3. This measurement showed the photoswitching attributes in both reflection and transmission geometry for the Ge and Ge: Au samples and suitability of Ge:Au sample for efficient cavity dumping.
3. Photoinduced reflectivity measurements for the Ge: Au sample as a function of the time delay between FEL pulses and the pulses from a kHz amplifier system is recorded. The fluence required to couple out FEL wavelengths with an efficiency of at least 50 % reflectivity and Matlab scripts used for simulation of photoinduced reflectivity for the same FEL wavelengths.
Relevance: This data is used in Figure 4 and shows the fluence requirements of the Ge:Au photoswitch and also a faster recovery time of sub-ns, much shorter than the FEL pulsing period of 77ns.

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-07
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.726

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32060
Publ.-Id: 32060


Theory of three-magnon interaction in a vortex-state magnetic nanodot

Verba, R.; Körber, L.; Schultheiß, K.; Schultheiß, H.; Tiberkevich, V.; Slavin, A.

This repository contains the data used to determine the numerical threshold fields for three-magnon scattering in a vortex-state disk used in our paper "Theory of three-magnon interaction in a vortex-state magnetic nanodot" published in Physical Review B. 

For different excitation frequencies, we provide:

  • mumax3 simulation file and table containing the time-dependent magnetic energy for simulations where the microwave-field power is decreased over time
  • mumax3 file and resulting power spectrum for a continuous-wave excitation at a given microwave-field power above threshold
  • spatial mode profiles (magnitude/amplitude) to identify the modes taking part in the three-magnon splitting channel

Keywords: spin wave; theory; nonlinear; vortex; micromagnetic simulation

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-05-01
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.724
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32057
Publ.-Id: 32057


A Roadmap for 3D Metal Aerogels: Materials Design and Application Attempts

Jiang, X.; Du, R.; Hübner, R.; Hu, Y.; Eychmüller, A.

Armed with merits of the metals (e.g., electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, and plasmonic properties) and aerogels (e.g., monolithic structure, porous network, and large specific surface area), metal aerogels (MAs) have stood out as a new class of porous materials in the last decade. With unparalleled potential in electrocatalysis, plasmonics, and sensing, they are envisaged to revolutionize the energy- and detection-related application fields. However, MA development is severely retarded by the lack of a sufficient material basis. Suffering from the ambiguous understanding of formation mechanisms, big challenges remain for tailoring MAs for task-specific applications. By surveying state-of-the-art developments, this review strives to summarize design principles and arouse interest in broad scientific communities. Moreover, critical challenges and opportunities are highlighted to provide a research roadmap for this young yet promising field.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32053
Publ.-Id: 32053


Magnetic Field Assisted Electrodeposition of Metal on Conically Structured Electrodes

Huang, M.; Eckert, K.; Mutschke, G.

Conical structures towards nanometer length scales are attractive for numerous applications including super-hydrophobic and electrocatalytic materials. Among the various methods of synthesizing arrays of micro- and nano-cones, electrochemical deposition techniques have been widely applied. We aim at enhancing the conical growth during deposition by applying an external magnetic field. Most of the magnetic field effects can be attributed to the Lorentz force and the magnetic gradient force [1]. If the magnetic field imposed on the electrochemical cell is well designed, the magnetic forces can generate an electrolyte flow which brings fresh electrolyte towards the tip of a cone, so that the local mass transfer would be enhanced and the conical growth would be supported.

We first performed analytical and numerical studies of electrodeposition on diamagnetic (Cu) and ferromagnetic (Fe) cones of mm size under the influence of a homogeneous vertical magnetic field. The beneficial structuring effects of the Lorentz force has already been shown for the Cu cone case [2]. The magnetization of the Fe cones causes additionally a strong magnetic gradient force near the cone tips and gives rise to a flow that can bring enriched electrolyte to the conical cathode. As the cathodes are placed at the bottom of the electrochemical cell, solutal buoyancy tends to bring upwards lighter electrolyte from the conical cathode and thus counteract the downward flow caused by the magnetic forces. Our results show that for the Cu cones, the Lorentz force becomes smaller than the buoyancy force after the first few seconds of the deposition, while the magnetic gradient force in case of the Fe cones keeps surpassing the buoyancy during the deposition.

Next, scaling studies on cones of sizes ranging from millimeter to micrometer allow to deliver insights into the magnetic field assisted electrodeposition towards micro- and nano-cones. As the cone size shrinks, the geometrical inhomogeneity decreases, and the current density gets more uniformly distributed on the cone, which is making the conical growth more difficult. Furthermore, the beneficial flow forced by the magnetic field near smaller cones suffers from higher wall friction. But this can be partially compensated by the larger magnetic gradients existing at smaller Fe cones, and the flow caused by the magnetic gradient force was found to decrease more slowly than the flow caused by other forces with the decreasing cone size. Such scaling behavior of the flow velocity corresponds well with a theoretical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equation. For a Fe cone with a radius of 10 micron under study here, the magnetic gradient force generates a beneficial downward flow with a velocity of about 5 micron per second. But in general the structuring effects during the deposition is much weaker than at larger length scales.

This work shows the potential of using the magnetic gradient force for growing ferromagnetic conical structures during electrodeposition. Optimization possibilities for conical growth at smaller scales by e.g. enhancing the cell current, applying stronger magnetic fields and pulsed electrodeposition will also be discussed.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32049
Publ.-Id: 32049


How range residency and long-range perception change encounter rates

Martinez-Garcia, R.; Fleming, C. H.; Seppelt, R.; Fagan, W. F.; Calabrese, J.

Encounter rates link movement strategies to intra- and inter-specific interactions, and therefore translate individual movement behavior into higher-level ecological processes. Indeed, a large body of interacting population theory rests on the law of mass action, which can be derived from assumptions of Brownian motion in an enclosed container with exclusively local perception. These assumptions imply completely uniform space use, individual home ranges equivalent to the population range, and encounter dependent on movement paths actually crossing. Mounting empirical evidence, however, suggests that animals use space non-uniformly, occupy home ranges substantially smaller than the population range, and are of- ten capable of nonlocal perception. Here, we explore how these empirically supported behaviors change pairwise encounter rates. Specifically, we derive novel analytical expressions for encounter rates under Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, which features non-uniform space use and allows individual home ranges to differ from the population range. We compare OU-based encounter predictions to those of Reflected Brownian Motion, from which the law of mass action can be derived. For both models, we further explore how the interplay between the scale of perception and home-range size affects encounter rates. We find that neglecting realistic movement and perceptual behaviors can lead to systematic, non-negligible biases in encounter-rate predictions.

Keywords: Ecological theory; Encounter rates; Movement ecology; Home ranges

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32048
Publ.-Id: 32048


How optimal allocation of limited testing capacity changes epidemic dynamics

Calabrese, J.; Demers, J.

Insufficient testing capacity continues to be a critical bottleneck in the worldwide fight against COVID-19. Optimizing the deployment of limited testing resources has therefore emerged as a keystone problem in pandemic response planning. Here, we use a modified SEIR model to optimize testing strategies under a constraint of limited testing capacity. We define pre-symptomatic, asymptomatic, and symptomatic infected classes, and assume that positively tested individuals are immediately moved into quarantine. We further define two types of testing. Clinical testing focuses only on the symptomatic class. Non-clinical testing detects pre- and asymptomatic individuals from the general population, and an information parameter governs the degree to which such testing can be focused on high infection risk individuals. We then solve for the optimal mix of clinical and non-clinical testing as a function of both testing capacity and the information parameter. We find that purely clinical testing is optimal at very low testing capacities, supporting early guidance to ration tests for the sickest patients.
Additionally, we find that a mix of clinical and non-clinical testing becomes optimal as testing capacity increases. At high but empirically observed testing capacities, a mix of clinical testing and unfocused (information=0) non-clinical testing becomes optimal. We further highlight the dvantages of early implementation of testing programs, and of combining optimized testing with contact reduction interventions such as lockdowns, social distancing, and masking.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32047
Publ.-Id: 32047


Autonomous implementation of thermodynamic cycles at the nanoscale

Strasberg, P.; Wächtler, C. W.; Schaller, G.

There are two paradigms to study nanoscale engines in stochastic and quantum thermodynamics.
Autonomous models, which do not rely on any external time-dependence, and models that make use of time-dependent control fields, often combined with dividing the control protocol into idealized strokes of a thermodynamic cycle. While the latter paradigm offers theoretical simplifications, its utility in practice has been questioned due to the involved approximations. Here, we bridge the two paradigms by constructing an autonomous model, which implements a thermodynamic cycle in a certain parameter regime. This effect is made possible by self-oscillations, realized in our model by the well studied electron shuttling mechanism. Based on experimentally realistic values, we find that a thermodynamic cycle analysis for a single-electron working fluid is unrealistic, but already a few-electron working fluid could suffice to justify it. We also briefly discuss additional open challenges to autonomously implement the more studied Carnot and Otto cycles.

Keywords: thermodynamic cycle; self-oscillation; autonomous control; electron shuttle

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32044
Publ.-Id: 32044


Spin stress contribution to the lattice dynamics of FePt

von Reppert, A.; Willig, L.; Pudell, J.-E.; Zeuschner, S.; Sellge, G.; Ganss, F.; Hellwig, O.; Ander Arregi, J.; Uhlíř, V.; Crut, A.; Bargheer, M.

Invar-behavior occurring in many magnetic materials has long been of interest to materials science. Here, we show not only invar behavior of a continuous film of FePt but also even negative thermal expansion of FePt nanograins upon equilibrium heating. Yet, both samples exhibit pronounced transient expansion upon laser heating in femtosecond x-ray diffraction experiments. We show that the granular microstructure is essential to support the contractive out-of-plane stresses originating from in-plane expansion via the Poisson effect that add to the uniaxial contractive stress driven by spin disorder. We prove the spin contribution by saturating the magnetic excitations with a first laser pulse and then detecting the purely expansive response to a second pulse. The contractive spin stress is reestablished on the same 100-ps time scale that we observe for the recovery of the ferromagnetic order. Finite-element modeling of the mechanical response of FePt nanosystems confirms the morphology dependence of the dynamics.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32043
Publ.-Id: 32043


Theory of three-magnon interaction in a vortex-state magnetic nanodot

Verba, R.; Körber, L.; Schultheiß, K.; Schultheiß, H.; Tiberkevich, V.; Slavin, A.

We use vector Hamiltonian formalism (VHF) to study theoretically three-magnon parametric interaction (or three-wave splitting) in a magnetic disk existing in a magnetic vortex ground state. The three-wave splitting in a disk is found to obey two selection rules: (i) conservation of the total azimuthal number of the resultant spin-wave modes, and (ii) inequality for the radial numbers of interacting modes, if the mode directly excited by the driving field is radially symmetric (i.e. if the azimuthal number of the directly excited mode is m=0). The selection rule (ii), however, is relaxed in the "small" magnetic disks, due to the influence of the vortex core. We also found, that the efficiency of the three-wave interaction of the directly excited mode strongly depends on the azimuthal and radial mode numbers of the resultant modes, that becomes determinative in the case when several splitting channels (several pairs of resultant modes) simultaneously approximately satisfy the resonance condition for the splitting. The good agreement of the VHF analytic calculations with the experiment and micromagnetic simulations proves the capability of the VHF formalism to predict the actual splitting channels and the magnitudes of the driving field thresholds for the three-wave splitting.

Keywords: spin wave; nonlinear; three-magnon interaction; theory; micromagnetic simulation; vortex

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32042
Publ.-Id: 32042


Circular by Design (CbD) - Ressourcenwende über nachhaltiges Produktdesign am Fallbeispiel Kühl-/Gefriergeräte

Raatz, S.; Heibeck, M.; Bickel, M.; Liedtke, C.; Tochtrop, C.; Schliack, M.; Förster, S.; Wächter, M.; Irmer, J.

Das Ziel von „Circular by Design“ besteht in der Entwicklung eines kreislauffähigen Produktdesigns für Kühl-/Gefriergeräte, das neben Energieeffizienz auch auf Ressourceneffizienz hin optimiert ist. Mit dem durch das BMBF geförderten Projekt soll die tatsächlich machbare Umsetzung von zirkulärem Design, zum einen mit dem Fokus auf Repair/Reuse und zum anderen auf möglichst geschlossene Recyclingpfade, demonstriert werden.
Die Zusammenführung der Ressourceneffizienzanalyse mit dem technologieorientierten und simulationsbasierten „Design for Recycling“-Modell soll künftig die Vorhersage eines für eine vollständige Kreislaufführung geeigneten Produktdesigns erlauben. Es werden die derzeitigen Verluste beim Erfassen und Recycling eines Kühl-/Gefriergerätes auf verschiedenen Ebenen quantifiziert, Ressourceneffizienzpotentiale dargestellt und auf dieser Basis ein Produktdesign entwickelt, dessen Materialzusammensetzung ein möglichst vollständiges Recycling sowie Reuse erlaubt.

Keywords: Recyclingfähigkeit; zirkuläres Produktdesign; metallische Rohstoffe; Ressourceneffizienz; Kreislaufwirtschaft; Kühl-/Gefriergeräte; Nachhaltigkeit; Substitution; Sekundäre Rohstoffe

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Recy & DepoTech 2020, 18.-20.11.2020, Leoben, Österreich
    Circular by Design (CbD) - Ressourcenwende über nachhaltiges Produktdesign am Fallbeispiel Kühl-/Gefriergeräte, Wien: aVW Abfallverwertungstechnik & Abfallwirtschaft, 978-3-200-07190-2, 799-804

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32041
Publ.-Id: 32041


Strongly coupled electron liquid: Ab initio path integral Monte Carlo simulations and dielectric theories

Dornheim, T.; Sjostrom, T.; Tanaka, S.; Vorberger, J.

Data used in the paper

Strongly coupled electron liquid: Ab initio path integral Monte Carlo simulations and dielectric theories

Tobias Dornheim, Travis Sjostrom, Shigenori Tanaka, and Jan Vorberger

Phys. Rev. B 101, 045129 – Published 27 January 2020

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-05
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.709
    License: CC-BY-1.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32038
Publ.-Id: 32038


New instrumentation to enable novel imaging modalities using sub-50 keV transmitted helium ions

Mousley, M.; Eswara, S.; de Castro, O.; Bouton, O.; Serralta Hurtado De Menezes, E.; Klingner, N.; Koch, C.; Hlawacek, G.; Wirtz, T.

Helium ions offer an alternative imaging probe to electrons, with a smaller de Broglie wavelength at the same energy [1] [2][3]. Furthermore, the ability for neutralisation means that images can be formed by collecting only post-sample neutrals or both neutrals and transmitted ions. A comparison between the two can map where ions are more easily neutralised and offers an alternative contrast mechanism not possible with electrons. Transmission helium ion imaging is quite an understudied field and more experiments are required to fully assess the possibilities and benefits with this new microscopy. With this aim in mind, a prototype transmission helium ion microscope (THIM) has been constructed at the Luxembourg -Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) (Figure 1). The ion source is a duoplasmatron operated at 10-20 keV with a minimum beam spot size of 100 µm and a beam current of 0.1-2 nA . A microchannel plate (MCP) located behind the sample converts the transmitted ion signal to an electron shower which then hits a phosphor screen for direct transmission imaging with a stationary beam [4]. The detector is placed over 50 cm away from the sample. Imaging of crystalline powders showed unexpectedly large charging and deformation of the beam, producing collections of spots (Figure 2). Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) can also be conducted if the phosphor screen is replaced with a metal anode plate. As the beam is scanned over the sample surface, the current from the plate is measured and gives the intensity at each pixel in the STHIM image. A secondary electron detector in front of the sample is used to record secondary electron images at the same time as STIM imaging (Figure 1). Post sample deflectors blank all ions in transmission, such that only neutral atoms are imaged and the fraction of neutralised ions can be estimated. Electrostatic blanking and using the anode plate current as a stop signal allows one to determine the energy of transmitted particles by measuring their time of flight (TOF). In addition, a position sensitive delay line detector has recently been installed, to add position sensitivity to the TOF measurements. This allows both the trajectory and energy of and ion to be measured at the same time, providing a more complete record of the transmission through the sample.

On a separate prototype machine, the ‘NPScope’ instrument, which combines a gas field ion source with a transmission delay line detector, STIM can be performed with nanometre spot size. This enables parallel bright and dark field imaging using the same detector (Figure 3).

Keywords: helium ion imaging; Scanning transmission ion microscopy

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    Virtual Early Career European Microscopy Congress 2020, 24.-26.11.2020, København, Danmark

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32036
Publ.-Id: 32036


Gold implanted germanium photoswitch for cavity dumping of a free-electron laser

Rana, R.; Klopf, J. M.; Ciano, C.; Singh, A.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Pashkin, O.

We present a plasma switch based on gold implanted germanium (Ge:Au) as a potential candidate for efficient cavity dumping of a free-electron laser (FEL). Ge:Au has a sub-nanosecond carrier lifetime – much shorter than the FEL pulsing period of 77 ns – and demonstrates a high photoinduced reflectivity in a broad range of infrared wavelengths from 6 to 90 µm. The Ge:Au plasma switch exhibits negligible absorption of the FEL radiation in the ʻoff ʼ state and requires only moderate thermoelectric cooling for incident FEL power of several Watts. A reflectivity level of more than 50 % in the ‘on’ state is achieved over the entire spectral range of this study. The corresponding optical pump fluence exhibits a linear relationship with the FEL frequency. This scaling is corroborated by our simulations highlighting the role of a finite sub-µm thickness of the photoinduced reflecting plasma layer. The demonstrated device is promising for the realization of the FEL cavity dumping for experiments that simultaneously require higher pulse energy and lower average power.

Keywords: Intense Terahertz pulses; Free Electron Laser; Cavity dumping; Optical switch

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32035
Publ.-Id: 32035


Data for "Observation of strong magneto plasmonic nonlinearity in bilayer graphene discs"

Chin, M. L.; Matschy, S.; Stawitzki, F.; Poojali, J.; Hafez, H. A.; Turchinovich, D.; Winnerl, S.; Kumar, G.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Dejarld, M. T.; Daniels, K. M.; Drew, H. D.; Murphy, T. E.; Mittendorff, M.

Data, Labbook notes and some presentations to the pblication topic

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-04
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.703

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32034
Publ.-Id: 32034


Data for: Fusion of Dual Spatial Information for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Duan, P.; Ghamisi, P.; Kang, X.; Rasti, B.; Li, S.; Gloaguen, R.

The inclusion of spatial information into spectral classifiers for fine-resolution hyperspectral imagery has led to significant improvements in terms of classification performance. The task of spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification has remained challenging because of high intraclass spectrum variability and low interclass spectral variability. This fact has made the extraction of spatial information highly active. In this work, a novel hyperspectral image classification framework using the fusion of dual spatial information is proposed, in which the dual spatial information is built by both exploiting pre-processing feature extraction and post-processing spatial optimization. In the feature extraction stage, an adaptive texture smoothing method is proposed to construct the structural profile (SP), which makes it possible to precisely extract discriminative features from hyperspectral images. The SP extraction method is used here for the first time in the remote sensing community. Then, the extracted SP is fed into a spectral classifier. In the spatial optimization stage, a pixel-level classifier is used to obtain the class probability followed by an extended random walker-based spatial optimization technique. Finally, a decision fusion rule is utilized to fuse the class probabilities obtained by the two different stages. Experiments performed on three data sets from different scenes illustrate that the proposed method can outperform other state-of-the-art classification techniques. In addition, the proposed feature extraction method, i.e., SP, can effectively improve the discrimination between different land covers.

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-12-19
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.686

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32033
Publ.-Id: 32033


Data for: Remote Sensing Image Classification Using Subspace Sensor Fusion

Rasti, B.; Ghamisi, P.

The amount of remote sensing and ancillary datasets captured by diverse airborne and spaceborne sensors has been tremendously increased, which opens up the possibility of utilizing multimodal datasets to improve the performance of processing approaches with respect to the application at hand. However, developing a generic framework with high generalization capability that can effectively fuse diverse datasets is a challenging task since the current approaches are usually only applicable to two specific sensors for data fusion. In this paper, we propose an accurate fusion-based technique called SubFus with capability to integrate diverse remote sensing data for land cover classification. Here, we assume that a high dimensional multisensor dataset can be represented fused features that live in a lower-dimensional space. The proposed classification methodology includes three main stages. First, spatial information is extracted by using spatial filters (i.e., morphology filters). Then, a novel low- rank minimization problem is proposed to represent the multisensor datasets in subspaces using fused features. The fused features in the lower-dimensional subspace are estimated using a novel iterative algorithm based on the alternative direction method of multipliers. Third, the final classification map is produced by applying a supervised spectral classifier (i.e., random forest) on the fused features. In the experiments, the proposed method is applied to a three-sensor (RGB, multispectral LiDAR, and hyperspectral images) dataset captured over the area of the University of Houston, the USA, and a two-sensor (hyperspectral and LiDAR) dataset captured over the city of Trento, Italy. The land-cover maps generated using SubFus are evaluated based on classification accuracies. Experimental results obtained by SubFus confirm considerable improvements in terms of classification accuracies compared with the other methods used in the experiments. The proposed fusion approach obtains 85.32% and 99.25% in terms of overall classification accuracy on the Houston (the training portion of the dataset distributed for the data fusion contest of 2018) and trento datasets, respectively.

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-12-01
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.688

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32032
Publ.-Id: 32032


The Road to Exascale

Stephan, J.

Exascale is the next big step in the field of high-performance computing. However, the hardware configurations of supercomputers around the world are becoming increasingly heterogeneous. Programmers have to take into account varying processor architectures (x86, ARM, RISC-V, ...) as well as different accelerator types (multicore CPUs, GPUs, FPGAs, ...) and the accompanying tools. Our goal is a portable stack of C++ libraries and tools. Together they shall form an ecosystem which abstracts away the differences between hardware configurations without sacrificing performance.

Keywords: alpaka; C++; heterogeneous computing; heterogeneous programming; HPC; hardware abstraction

  • Open Access Logo Poster
    Polish delegation meeting, 29.09.2020, Görlitz, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32031
Publ.-Id: 32031


Four-Frequency Solution in a Magnetohydrodynamic Couette Flow as a Consequence of Azimuthal Symmetry Breaking

Garcia, F.; Seilmayer, M.; Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.

The occurrence of magnetohydrodynamic quasiperiodic flows with four fundamental frequencies in differentially rotating spherical geometry is understood in terms of a sequence of bifurcations breaking the azimuthal symmetry of the flow as the applied magnetic field strength is varied. These flows originate from unstable periodic and quasiperiodic states with broken equatorial symmetry, but having fourfold azimuthal symmetry. A posterior bifurcation gives rise to twofold symmetric quasiperiodic states, with three fundamental frequencies, and a further bifurcation to a four-frequency quasiperiodic state which has lost all the spatial symmetries. This bifurcation scenario may be favored when differential rotation is increased and periodic flows with m-fold azimuthal symmetry, m being a product of several prime numbers, emerge at sufficiently large magnetic field.

Keywords: Astrophysical fluid dynamics; Bifurcations; Chaos; Flow instability; Geophysical fluid dynamics; Magnetohydrodynamics

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32030
Publ.-Id: 32030


Laser produced electromagnetic pulses: generation, detection and mitigation

Consoli, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Bardon, M.; Bradford, P.; Carrol, D. C.; Cikhardt, J.; Cipriani, M.; Clarke, R. J.; Cowan, T. E.; Danson, C. N.; de Angelis, R.; de Marco, M.; Dubois, J.-L.; Etchessahar, B.; Laso Garcia, A.; Hillier, D. I.; Weiman, J.; Kmetik, V.; Krasa, J.; Li, Y.; Lubrano, F.; McKenna, P.; Metzkes-Ng, J.; Poye, A.; Prencipe, I.; Raczka, P.; Smith, R. A.; Vrana, R.; Woolsey, N. C.; Zemaityte, E.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zielbauer, B.; Neely, D.; Honsa, A.

This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Pulses; High-Power Lasers; Diagnostics; Mitigation Techniques

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32029
Publ.-Id: 32029


Deep model simulation of polar vortices in gas giant atmospheres

Garcia, Ferran; Chambers, Frank R. N.; Watts, Anna L.

The Cassini and Juno probes have revealed large coherent cyclonic vortices in the polar regions of Saturn and Jupiter, a dramatic contrast from the east–west banded jet structure seen at lower latitudes. Debate has centred on whether the jets are shallow, or extend to greater depths in the planetary envelope. Recent experiments and observations have demonstrated the relevance of deep convection models to a successful explanation of jet structure, and cyclonic coherent vortices away from the polar regions have been simulated recently including an additional stratified shallow layer. Here we present new convective models able to produce long-lived polar vortices. Using simulation parameters relevant for giant planet atmospheres we find flow regimes of geostrophic turbulence (GT) in agreement with rotating convection theory. The formation of large-scale coherent structures occurs via 3D upscale energy transfers. Our simulations generate polar characteristics qualitatively similar to those seen by Juno and Cassini: They match the structure of cyclonic vortices seen on Jupiter; or can account for the existence of a strong polar vortex extending downwards to lower latitudes with a marked spiral morphology, and the hexagonal pattern seen on Saturn. Our findings indicate that these vortices can be generated deep in the planetary interior. A transition differentiating these two polar flows regimes is described, interpreted in terms of force balances and compared with shallow atmospheric models characterizing polar vortex dynamics in giant planets. In addition, heat transport properties are investigated, confirming recent scaling laws obtained with reduced models of GT.

Keywords: convection; turbulence; software: simulations; planets and satellites: gaseous planets

  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 499(2020)4, 4
    Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa2962

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32028
Publ.-Id: 32028


Bremsstrahlung emission and plasma characterization driven by moderately relativistic laser-plasma interactions

Singh, S. K.; Armstrong, C.; Kang, N.; Ren, L.; Liu, H.; Hua, N.; Rusby, D. R.; Klimo, O.; Versaci, R.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, M.; Zhu, B.; Lei, A.; Ouyang, X.; Lancia, L.; Laso Garcia, A.; Wagner, A.; Cowan, T. E.; Schlegel, T.; Weber, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Kumar, D.; Zhu, J.

Relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of petawatt-class short laser pulses with solid targets can be used to generate bright X-rays via bremsstrahlung. The efficiency of laser energy transfer into these electrons depends on multiple parameters including focused intensity and pre-plasma level. This paper describes the experimental results from the interaction of a high intensity petawatt-class glass laser with solid targets at a maximum intensity of 10^19 W/cm^2. In-situ measurements of specularly reflected light were used to provide an upper bound of laser absorption and to characterize focused laser intensity, the pre-plasma level and the generation mechanism of second harmonic light. The measured spectrum of electrons and bremsstrahlung radiation provide information about the efficiency of laser energy transfer.

Keywords: Plasma Physics; Bremsstrahlung; High intensity laser

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32027
Publ.-Id: 32027


Chaotic wave dynamics in weakly magnetized spherical Couette flows

Garcia Gonzalez, F.; Seilmayer, M.; Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.

Direct numerical simulations of a liquid metal filling the gap between two concentric spheres are presented. The flow is governed by the interplay between the rotation of the inner sphere (measured by the Reynolds number Re) and a weak externally applied axial magnetic field (measured by the Hartmann number Ha). By varying the latter, a rich variety of flow features, both in terms of spatial symmetry and temporal dependence, is obtained. Flows with two or three independent frequencies describing their time evolution are found as a result of Hopf bifurcations. They are stable on a sufficiently large interval of Hartmann numbers where regions of multistability of two, three, and even four types of these different flows are detected. The temporal character of the solutions is analyzed by means of an accurate frequency analysis and Poincaré sections. An unstable branch of flows undergoing a period doubling cascade and frequency locking of three-frequency solutions is described as well.

  • Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science 30(2020), 043116
    Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1063/1.5140577

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32025
Publ.-Id: 32025


Untersuchungen zur Optimierung der Selektivität bei der Extraktion von Indium durch gezielte Komplexbildung

Göthel, J.

Indium kann sekundärmetallurgisch aus der Prozessierung von Schlacken, Flugstäuben und metallischen Zwischenprodukten aus der Zinkdarstellung gewonnen werden. Eine weitere Möglichkeit der Indiumgewinnung stellt sich in der Aufbereitung von Rückständen des Bergbaus durch Biolaugungsprozesse dar. Höhere Konzentrationen an Eisen und Zink sind in den gewinnbaren Laugen im Vergleich zu sehr niedrigen Indiumkonzentrationen häufig präsent. Ein Trenn- und Aufbereitungsverfahren für die Verarbeitung von hydro-metallurgischen Prozesslösungen und die Gewinnung von Einsatzstoffen aus diesen wird durch Ionenaustauscherharze realisiert. Sowohl kationische als auch anionische feste Ionenaustauscherharze zeigen für Indium in sauren wässrigen Lösungen eine Affinität für die Indiumadsorption. Hinsichtlich der selektiven Adsorption von Indium gegenüber Eisen und Zink mittels festen Anionenaustauschern wurde der Einfluss der selektiven Komplexbildung von Indium durch die Zugabe von Iod in der Form von Kaliumiodid auf die Adsorption untersucht. Als Referenzsystem wurde die Indiumadsorption an festen Kationen-austauscherharzen gewählt. Die selektive Adsorption für Indium wurde aus einer vereinfachten Modelllösung der Biolaugungslösung des „ReMining“-Projektes hinsichtlich der Faktorgrößen des pH-Wertes, der Kaliumiodid- und Indiumadsorption im kleineren Maßstab im Becherglas untersucht. Die bestimmten Optima wurden auf die Prozessierung der realen Biolaugungslösung in Ionenaustauschersäulen angewandt. Indium kann in vergleichbaren quantitativen Mengen sowohl als anionischer Komplex ([InI4]-) von den getesteten Anionenaustauscherharzen A 111 und A 500 als auch von dem Kationenaustauscherharz MTS 9300 als Kation In3+ durch Adsorption aus der Modell- und Biolaugungslösung extrahiert werden. Beide Ionenaustauscher zeigen höchste Selektivitäten gegenüber Eisen, Arsen und Aluminium. Der Vergleich der Konzentrationsverhältnisse von Feed und dem Eluat zeigt, dass Eisen zu ~ 700 Mal mehr wie Indium (Fe/In = ~ 700) im Feed vorhanden ist und nach dem Ionenaustausch ~ 0,7 Mal so viel wie Indium (Fe/In = ~ 0,7) im Eluat verbleibt. Kupfer und Cadmium konnten von dem Anionenaustauscherharz A 111 nicht mit destilliertem Wasser und 0,1 M Schwefelsäure eluiert werden. In der Gesamtbetrachtung der selektiven Adsorption und Eluation von Indium aus der realen Biolaugungslösung ist das Kationenaustauscherharz MTS 9300 dem Anionenaustauscherharz A 111 vorzuziehen.

  • Diploma thesis
    TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 2020
    Mentor: Toni Helbig/Arite Werner

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32023
Publ.-Id: 32023


A bimodal soft electronic skin for tactile and touchless interaction in real time

Ge, J.; Wang, X.; Drack, M.; Volkov, O.; Liang, M.; Canon Bermudez, G. S.; Wang, C.; Zhou, S.; Faßbender, J.; Kaltenbrunner, M.; Makarov, D.

The transformative emergence of smart electronics, human-friendly robotics and supplemented or virtual reality will revolutionize the interplay with our surrounding. The complexity that is involved in the manipulation of objects in these emerging technologies is dramatically increased, which calls for electronic skins (e-skin) that can conduct tactile and touchless sensing events in a simultaneous and unambiguous way. Integrating multiple functions in a single sensing unit offers the most promising path towards simple, scalable and intuitive-to-use e-skin architectures. However, by now, this path has always been hindered by the confusing overlap of signals from different stimuli.
Here, we put forward the field of soft, flexible electronics by developing a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical platform (m-MEMS), which is able to transduce both tactile (via mechanical pressure) and touchless (via magnetic field) stimulations simultaneously and discriminate them in real time [1]. For the first time, the electric signals from tactile and touchless interactions are intrinsically separated into two different regions, allowing the m-MEMS, a single sensor unit, to unambiguously distinguish the two modes without knowing the signal history.
Owing to its intrinsic magnetic functionality, our complaint m-MEMS platform is able to discriminate magnetic vs. non-magnetic objects already upon touchless interaction. With this intrinsic selectivity, we address the long-standing problem in the field of touchless interaction – namely, the issue of interference with objects, which are irrelevant or even disturbing the interaction process. In addition, the interaction process is programmable. The sensitivity of the two interaction modes could be tuned by adjusting the magnetic field of the objects able to meet the requirements of different interaction tasks.
By using tactile and touchless sensing functions simultaneously, our m-MEMS e-skins enable complex interactions with a magnetically functionalized physical object that is supplemented with content data appearing in the virtual reality. We demonstrated data selection and manipulation with our m-MEMS e-skins leading to the realization of a multi-choice for augmented reality through three dimensional (3D) touch. Beyond the field of augmented reality, our m-MEMS will bring great benefits for healthcare, e.g. to ease surgery operations and manipulation of medical equipment, as well as for humanoid robots to overcome the challenging task of grasping.

[1] J. Ge, X. Wang, M. Drack, O. Volkov, M. Liang, G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, R. Illing, C. Wang, S. Zhou, J. Fassbender, M. Kaltenbrunner, and D. Makarov. A bimodal soft electronic skin for tactile and touchless interaction in real time. Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).

Keywords: flexible electronics; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    2020 MRS Fall Meeting, 02.12.2020, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32022
Publ.-Id: 32022


Flexible highly compliant magnetoelectronics

Canon Bermudez, G. S.; Ge, J.; Faßbender, J.; Kaltenbrunner, M.; Makarov, D.

Mechanical flexibility and even stretchability of functional elements is a key enabler of numerous applications including wearable electronics, healthcare and medical appliances. The magnetism community developed the family of high-performance shapeable magnetoelectronics [1], which contain flexible [2-4], printable [5-7], stretchable [8-11] and even mechanically imperceptible [12-16] magnetic field sensorics. The technology relies on a smart combination of thin inorganic functional elements prepared directly on flexible or elastomeric supports. The concept of shapeable magnetoelectronics is explored for various applications ranging from automotive [17] through consumer electronics and point of care [2,18] to virtual and augmented reality [14-16] applications.
Here, we will focus on the use of compliant magnetosensitive skins [14-16] for augmented reality systems. We demonstrate that e-skin compasses [14] allow humans to orient with respect to earth’s magnetic field ubiquitously. The biomagnetic orientation enables the realization of a touchless control of virtual units in a game engine using omnidirectional magnetosensitive skins (Fig. 1).
This concept was further extended by demonstrating a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical platform (m-MEMS), which is able to transduce both tactile (via mechanical pressure) and touchless (via magnetic field) stimulations simultaneously and discriminate them in real time [16] (Fig. 2). We demonstrate data selection and manipulation with our m-MEMS e-skins leading to the realization of a multi-choice menu for augmented reality through three dimensional (3D) touch. Beyond the field of augmented reality, our m-MEMS will bring great benefits for healthcare, e.g. to ease surgery operations and manipulation of medical equipment, as well as for humanoid robots to overcome the challenging task of grasping.
[1] D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. (Review) 3, 011101 (2016).
[2] G. Lin, D. Makarov et al., Lab Chip 14, 4050 (2014).
[3] N. Münzenrieder, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Electron. Mater. 2, 1600188 (2016).
[4] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1274 (2015).
[5] D. Makarov et al., ChemPhysChem (Review) 14, 1771 (2013).
[6] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 24, 4518 (2012).
[7] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 880 (2015).
[8] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 53, 083002 (2020).
[9] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Nano Lett. 11, 2522 (2011).
[10] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 24, 6468 (2012).
[11] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1333 (2015).
[12] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 6080 (2015).
[13] P. N. Granell, D. Makarov et al., npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019).
[14] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, D. Makarov et al., Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018).
[15] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, D. Makarov et al., Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018).
[16] J. Ge, D. Makarov et al., Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).
[17] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1274 (2015).
[18] G. Lin, D. Makarov et al., Lab Chip (Review) 17, 1884 (2017).

Keywords: flexible electronics; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    65th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 03.11.2020, Palm Beach, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32021
Publ.-Id: 32021


Curvilinear magnetism: From curvature induced magnetochirality to shapeable magnetoelectronics

Makarov, D.

Non-collinear magnetic textures like spin spirals, chiral domain walls or skyrmions are typically stabilized by the intrinsic spin-orbit induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) [1]. Curvature effects emerged as a novel mean to design chiral magnetic responses relying on extrinsic parameters, i.e. geometrical curvature of thin films [2-4]. The lack of an inversion symmetry and the emergence of a curvature induced effective anisotropy and DMI are characteristic of curved surfaces, leading to curvature-driven magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning [5-7]. Vast majority of activities are dedicated to curved ferromagnets, where recent achievements include the development of the theory of curvilinear micromagnetism [3] and the first experimental confirmation of curvature-driven chiral effects stemming from the exchange interaction [4]. Only very recently, the focus was put also on curvilinear antiferromagnets. Pylypovskyi et al. [8] demonstrated that intrinsically achiral one-dimensional curvilinear antiferromagnets behave as a chiral helimagnet with geometrically tunable DMI and orientation of the Neel vector.
The application potential of 3D-shaped magnetic thin films is currently being explored as mechanically shapeable magnetic field sensors [9] for automotive applications, magnetoelectrics for memory devices, spin-wave filters, high-speed racetrack memory devices as well as on-skin interactive electronics [10-12].
The fundamentals as well as application relevant aspects of curvilinear ferro- and antiferromagnets will be covered in this presentation.

References

[1] D. Sander, DM et al., J. Phys. D 50, 363001 (2017)
[2] R. Streubel, DM et al., J. Phys. D 49, 363001 (2016)
[3] D. Sheka, DM et al., Communications Physics 3, 128 (2020)
[4] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 077201 (2019)
[5] V. Kravchuk, DM et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 067201 (2018)
[6] O. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., Phys. Rev. Appl. 10, 064057 (2018)
[7] O. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 197204 (2015)
[8] O.Pylypovskyi, DM et al., Nano Lett. (2020) doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03246
[9] D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 011101 (2016)
[10] S. Canon Bermudez, DM et al., Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018)
[11] S. Canon Bermudez, DM et al., Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018)
[12] J. Ge, DM et al., Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).

Keywords: curvilinear magnetism; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    736. WE-Heraeus-Seminar "Magnetism at the Nanoscale: Imaging ‐ Fabrication – Physics", 06.01.2021, Bad Honnef, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32012
Publ.-Id: 32012


Implantable Highly Compliant Devices for Heating of Internal Organs

Makarov, D.

Recent advances in the field of flexible electronics have opened the door for this technology to deeply impact the health care sector. The development of sensors and actuators which are lightweight and mechanically compliant enables them to be used for continuous health monitoring, on-site therapies or soft chirurgical ads. The key feature of these novel gadgets is their ability to provide targeted treatment and diagnosis without constraining the natural motion of the body or its internal organs.
Though many of these flexible diagnostic or therapeutic devices have been successfully demonstrated already, cancer treatment remains relatively unexplored in this field. In particular, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, liver cancer) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortalities worldwide with a constantly growing incidence. Numerous efforts have been devoted to the development of targeted cancer treatments which selectively destroy cancer cells and spare the healthy tissue.
We propose and develop an implantable, multifunctional and highly compliant device for targeted thermal treatment of cancerous tissues [1]. The device is fabricated on a 6-µm-thick polymeric foil, which seamlessly conforms to the soft liver tissue and allows for precisely controlled joule heating without on-site rigid parts. Its high mechanical compliance provides stable readings even upon severe mechanical deformations, enabling temperature accuracies of 0.1°C at bending radii of 2.5 mm, characteristic for mouse liver tissues. This heating device can treat tissue over the whole range of temperatures leading to fever, hyperthermia and ablation, while using a driving current as low as 10 mA. We demonstrate the electro-thermal and mechanical characterization of the devices and study various heat impact scenarios on normal and cancerous tissue using autochthonous murine HCC models.
Due to their high mechanical compliance, stability and thermal treatment versatility, the here developed devices can become a complement or alternative solution to radio frequency ablation (RFA) techniques for cancer treatment.

[1] G. S. Cãnón Bermudez, A. Kruv, T. Voitsekhivska, I. Hochnadel, A. Lebanov, A. Potthoff, J. Fassbender, T. Yevsa, and D. Makarov, “Implantable Highly Compliant Devices for Heating of Internal Organs: Toward Cancer Treatment”. Adv. Eng. Mater. 21, 1900407 (2019).

Keywords: flexible electronics; cancer treatment

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    International Conference on Advances in Biological Science and Technology (ICABST2020), 28.10.2020, Sanya, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32011
Publ.-Id: 32011


Flexible magnetic field sensors

Makarov, D.

Extending 2D structures into 3D space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring curvature and 3D shape. We study fundamentals of 3D curved magnetic thin films [1] and explore their application potential for flexible electronics, eMobility and health. We put forth the concept of shapeable magnetoelectronics [2] for various applications ranging from automotive [3-5] through consumer electronics to virtual and augmented reality [6-9] applications. These activities impact several emerging research fields of smart skins, soft robotics and human-machine interfaces. In this talk, recent fundamental and technological advancements in this research field will be reviewed.

[1] R. Streubel, D. Makarov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 49, 363001 (2016).
[2] D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. (Review) 3, 011101 (2016).
[3] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1274 (2015).
[4] I. J. Mönch, D. Makarov et al., IEEE Trans. Magn. 51, 4004004 (2015).
[5] D. Ernst, D. Makarov et al., IEEE Proceedings of the 37th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology (ISSE), pp. 125-129 (2014). doi:10.1109/ISSE.2014.6887577
[6] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, D. Makarov et al., Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018).
[7] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, D. Makarov et al., Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018).
[8] P. N. Granell, D. Makarov et al., npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019).
[9] J. Ge, D. Makarov et al., Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).

Keywords: flexible electronics; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    MSM2020: 15th International Conference Mechatronic Systems and Materials, 01.07.2020, Bialystok, Poland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32010
Publ.-Id: 32010


Mechanically compliant magnetic field sensor technologies

Makarov, D.

Extending 2D structures into 3D space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines including electronics, photonics, and magnetics. This approach provides means to enrich conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring curvature and 3D shape. We study 3D curved magnetic thin films and nanowires where new fundamental effects emerge from the interplay of the geometry of an object and topology of a magnetic sub-system [1-3]. On the other hand, we explore the application potential of 3D magnetic architectures for the realization of mechanically shapeable magnetoelectronics [4] for automotive but also virtual and augmented reality appliances [5-7]. In this respect, we will present technological platforms allowing to realize not only mechanically imperceptible electronic skins, which enable perception of the geomagnetic field (e-skin compasses) [6], but also enable sensitivities down to ultra-small fields of sub-200 nT [8]. We demonstrate that e-skin compasses allow humans to orient with respect to earth’s magnetic field ubiquitously. Furthermore, biomagnetic orientation enables novel interactive devices for virtual and augmented reality applications. We showcase this by realizing touchless control of virtual units in a game engine using omnidirectional magnetosensitive skins. This concept was further extended by demonstrating a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical platform (m-MEMS), which is able to transduce both tactile (via mechanical pressure) and touchless (via magnetic field) stimulations simultaneously and discriminate them in real time [7]. Those devices are crucial for interactive electronics, human-machine interfaces, but also for the realization of smart soft robotics with highly compliant integrated feedback system as well as in medicine for physicians and surgeons. In this talk, recent fundamental and technological advancements in this novel research field will be reviewed.

[1] R. Streubel, DM et al., Magnetism in curved geometries. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 49, 363001 (2016).
[2] D. Sander, DM et al., The 2017 magnetism roadmap. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 50, 363001 (2017).
[3] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., Experimental observation of exchange-driven chiral effects in curvilinear magnetism. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 077201 (2019).
[4] D. Makarov et al., Shapeable magnetoelectronics. Appl. Phys. Rev. (Review) 3, 011101 (2016).
[5] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, DM et al., Magnetosensitive e-skins with directional perception for augmented reality. Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018).
[6] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, DM et al., Electronic-skin compasses for geomagnetic field driven artificial magnetoception and interactive electronics. Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018).
[7] J. Ge, DM et al., A bimodal soft electronic skin for tactile and touchless interaction in real time. Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).
[8] P. Granell, DM et al., Highly compliant planar Hall effect sensor with sub 200 nT sensitivity. npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019).

Keywords: flexible electronics; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    Seminar at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 13.10.2020, Karlsruhe, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32009
Publ.-Id: 32009


From curvilinear magnetism to shapeable magnetoelectronics

Makarov, D.

Extending 2D structures into 3D space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines including electronics, photonics, and magnetics. This approach provides means to enrich conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring curvature and 3D shape. We study 3D curved magnetic thin films and nanowires where new fundamental effects emerge from the interplay of the geometry of an object and topology of a magnetic sub-system [1-4]. On the other hand, we explore the application potential of 3D magnetic architectures for the realization of mechanically shapeable magnetoelectronics [5] for automotive but also virtual and augmented reality appliances [6-8]. In this respect, we will present technological platforms allowing to realize not only mechanically imperceptible electronic skins, which enable perception of the geomagnetic field (e-skin compasses) [7], but also enable sensitivities down to ultra-small fields of sub-200 nT [9]. We demonstrate that e-skin compasses allow humans to orient with respect to earth’s magnetic field ubiquitously. Furthermore, biomagnetic orientation enables novel interactive devices for virtual and augmented reality applications. We showcase this by realizing touchless control of virtual units in a game engine using omnidirectional magnetosensitive skins. This concept was further extended by demonstrating a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical platform (m-MEMS), which is able to transduce both tactile (via mechanical pressure) and touchless (via magnetic field) stimulations simultaneously and discriminate them in real time [8]. Those devices are crucial for interactive electronics, human-machine interfaces, but also for the realization of smart soft robotics with highly compliant integrated feedback system as well as in medicine for physicians and surgeons. In this talk, recent fundamental and technological advancements in this novel research field will be reviewed.

[1] R. Streubel, DM et al., Magnetism in curved geometries. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 49, 363001 (2016).
[2] D. Sander, DM et al., The 2017 magnetism roadmap. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (Review) 50, 363001 (2017).
[3] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., Experimental observation of exchange-driven chiral effects in curvilinear magnetism. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 077201 (2019).
[4] V. P. Kravchuk, DM et al., Multiplet of Skyrmion states on a curvilinear defect: Reconfigurable Skyrmion lattices. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 067201 (2018).
[5] D. Makarov et al., Shapeable magnetoelectronics. Appl. Phys. Rev. (Review) 3, 011101 (2016).
[6] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, DM et al., Magnetosensitive e-skins with directional perception for augmented reality. Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018).
[7] G. S. Cañón Bermúdez, DM et al., Electronic-skin compasses for geomagnetic field driven artificial magnetoception and interactive electronics. Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018).
[8] J. Ge, DM et al., A bimodal soft electronic skin for tactile and touchless interaction in real time. Nature Communications 10, 4405 (2019).
[9] P. Granell, DM et al., Highly compliant planar Hall effect sensor with sub 200 nT sensitivity. npj Flexible Electronics 3, 3 (2019).

Keywords: curvilinear magnetism; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, 12.08.2020, Linz, Austria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32008
Publ.-Id: 32008


Curvilinear Magnetism: Fundamentals and Applications

Makarov, D.

There is one aspect, which is in common to the majority of fundamentally appealing and technologically relevant novel magnetic materials, namely their non-collinear magnetic textures like spin spirals, chiral domain walls or skyrmions [1]. These textures are typically driven by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Recently, curvature effects emerged as a novel mean to design chiral magnetic properties by relying on extrinsic parameters, e.g. geometry of thin films [2]. In particular, novel effects occur when the magnetization is modulated by curvature leading to new magnetization configurations and is implications on the spin dynamics due to topological constraints. Advances in this novel field solely rely on the understanding of the fundamentals behind the modifications of magnetic responses of 3D-curved magnetic thin films [3-5] and nanowires [6,7]. The lack of an inversion symmetry and the emergence of a curvature induced effective anisotropy and DMI are characteristic of curved surfaces, leading to curvature-driven magnetochiral effects and topologically induced magnetization patterning [8,9]. The application potential of 3D-shaped objects is currently being explored as mechanically reshapeable magnetic field sensorics [10] for flexible interactive electronics [11-13], magnetic field sensors [14-18], curvilinear magnetoelectrics for memory devices [19], spin-wave filters and high-speed racetrack memory devices [20]. To advance in this research field, novel theoretical methods and fabrication/characterization techniques [21-24]. The fundamentals as well as application relevant aspects of curvilinear nanomagnets will be covered in this presentation.

[1] D. Sander, DM et al., “The 2017 Magnetism Roadmap”, J. Phys. D 50, 363001 (2017).
[2] R. Streubel, DM et al., “Magnetism in curved geometries”, J. Phys. D 49, 363001 (2016).
[3] Y. Gaididei et al., “Curvature Effects in Thin Magnetic Shells”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 257203 (2014).
[4] V. Kravchuk, DM et al., “Multiplet of Skyrmion States on a Curvilinear Defect: Reconfigurable Skyrmion Lattices”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 067201 (2018).
[5] O. V. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., “Chiral Skyrmion and Skyrmionium States Engineered by the Gradient of Curvature”, Phys. Rev. Appl. 10, 064057 (2018).
[6] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., “Mesoscale Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction: geometrical tailoring of the magnetochirality”, Scientific Reports 8, 866 (2018).
[7] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., “Experimental observation of exchange-driven chiral effects in curvilinear magnetism”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 077201 (2019).
[8] O. V. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., “Coupling of Chiralities in Spin and Physical Spaces: The Möbius Ring as a Case Study”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 197204 (2015).
[9] J. A. Otalora et al., “Curvature-Induced Asymmetric Spin-Wave Dispersion”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 227203 (2016).
[10] D. Makarov et al., “Shapeable magnetoelectronics”, Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 011101 (2016).
[11] S. Canon Bermudez, DM et al., “Magnetosensitive e-skins with directional perception for augmented reality”, Science Advances 4, eaao2623 (2018).
[12] S. Canon Bermudez, DM et al., “Electronic-skin compasses for geomagnetic field driven artificial magnetoreception and interactive electronics”, Nature Electronics 1, 589 (2018).
[13] J. Ge, DM et al., “A bimodal soft electronic skin for tactile and touchless interaction in real time”, Nature Comm. 10, 4405 (2019).
[14] D. Karnaushenko, DM et al., “Self-assemled on-chip integrated giant magneto-impedance sensorics”, Adv. Mater. 27, 6582 (2015).
[15] G. Lin, DM et al., “A highly flexible and compact magnetoresistive analytic device”, Lab Chip 14, 4050 (2014).
[16] N. Münzenrieder, DM et al., “Entirely flexible on-site conditioned magnetic sensorics”, Adv. Electron. Mater. 2, 1600188 (2016).
[17] C. Becker et al., “Self-assembly of highly sensitive 3D magnetic field vector angular encoders”, Science Advances 5, eaay7459 (2019).
[18] M. Kondo et al., “Imperceptible magnetic sensor matrix system integrated with organic driver and amplifier circuits”, Science Advances 6, eaay6094 (2020)
[19] O. M. Volkov, DM et al., “Concept of artificial magnetoelectric materials via geometrically controlling curvilinear helimagnets”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52, 345001 (2019).
[20] M. Yan et al., “Beating the Walker Limit with Massless Domain Walls in Cylindrical Nanowires”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057201 (2010).
[21] R. Streubel, DM et al., “Retrieving spin textures on curved magnetic thin films with full-field soft X-ray microscopies”, Nature Comm. 6, 7612 (2015).
[22] T. Kosub, DM et al., “Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory”, Nature Comm. 8, 13985 (2017).
[23] M. Huth et al., “Focused electron beam induced deposition meets materials science”, Microelectron. Engineering 185-186, 9 (2018).
[24] M. Nord, DM et al., “Strain Anisotropy and Magnetic Domains in Embedded Nanomagnets”, Small 15, 1904738 (2019).

Keywords: curvilinear magnetism; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    The 2020 Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, 04.11.2020, Palm Beach, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32007
Publ.-Id: 32007


Overview of recent advances in flexible highly compliant magnetoelectronics

Makarov, D.

Recent rapid advances and eagerness of portable consumer electronics stimulate the development of functional elements towards being lightweight, flexible, and wearable. Next generation flexible appliances aim to become fully autonomous and will require ultra-thin and flexible navigation modules, body tracking and relative position monitoring systems. Key building blocks of navigation and position tracking devices are magnetic field sensors. In this presentation, recent developments in the emerging field of flexible magnetic field sensorics and its applications in printed electronics, eMobility, virtual and augmented reality settings will be reviewed.

Keywords: flexible electronics; shapeable magnetoelectronics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    2020 IEEE Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing Conference (EDTM), 06.04.2020, Penang, Malaysia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-32006
Publ.-Id: 32006


Coding and decoding stray magnetic fields for multiplexing kinetic bioassay platform

Liu, Y.; Lin, G.; Chen, Y.; Mönch, J. I.; Makarov, D.; Walsh, B. J.; Jin, D.

Polymer microspheres can be fluorescently-coded for multiplexing molecular analysis, but their usage has been limited by the fluorescent quenching and bleaching and crowded spectral domain with issues of cross-talks and background interference. Each bioassay step of mixing and separation of analytes and reagents require off-line particle handling procedures. Here, we report stray magnetic fields can code and decode a collection of hierarchically-assembled beads. By the microfluidic assembling of mesoscopic superparamagnetic cores, diverse and non-volatile stray magnetic field response can be built in the series of microscopic spheres, dumbbells, pears, chains and triangles. Remarkably, the set of stray magnetic field fingerprints are readily discerned by a compact giant magnetoresistance sensor for parallelised screening of multiple distinctive pathogenic DNAs. This opens up the magneto-multiplexing opportunity and could enable streamlined assays to incorporate magneto-mixing, washing, enrichment and separation of analytes.
This strategy therefore suggests a potential point-of-care testing solution for efficient kinetic assay.

Keywords: magnetic field sensor; microfluidics; bioassays

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31999
Publ.-Id: 31999


L10 Ordered Thin Films for Spintronic and Permanent Magnet Applications

Hafarov, A.; Prokopenko, O.; Sidorenko, S.; Makarov, D.; Vladymyrskyi, I.

Materials with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) are fundamentally appealing and also relevant for numerous applications especially reconsidering their practical relevance for the enhancement of the energy product for thin film based permanent magnets and realization of energy efficient and miniaturized spintronic devices. In contrast to materials exhibiting PMA due to surface anisotropy, these applications would benefit from thin films where PMA stems from a strong uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku). In this regard, magnetic thin films with chemically ordered L10 structure, representing alternation of A and B atomic planes along the c direction, are considered as most promising due to the high Ku values and finely tunable magnetic properties. Typical representatives of L10 structures are ordered binary phases, e.g. FePt, FePd, MnAl, MnGa, or NiFe, etc. phases. In the case when the c axes of the L10 structure is normal to the film plane, remarkably strong PMA could can be achieved. Another important property of L10 structures is their thermodynamic stability providing resistance of corresponding devices against thermal processing. Here, we will review the application prospects of L10 ordered magnetic thin films for spintronic and permanent magnet technologies.

Keywords: L10 alloys; perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

  • Book chapter
    A. Kaidatzis, S. Sidorenko, I. Vladymyrskyi, D. Niarchos: Modern Magnetic and Spintronic Materials. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics, Dordrecht: Springer, 2020, 978-94-024-2033-3
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-024-2034-0_4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31998
Publ.-Id: 31998


Influence of a low-Z thin substrate on a microwire hard x-ray source driven by a picosecond laser pulse for point-projection x-ray radiography

Meng-Ting, L.; Guang-Yue, H.; Huang, L.; Jian, Z.

In the point-projection hard x-ray radiography of dense matter, for example, an inertial confinement fusion implosion capsule at stagnation time, a picosecond laser driven gold microwire is used to produce a short pulse point, bremsstrahlung hard x-ray source. The microwire was held by a low-Z CH thin substrate commonly used to promote experimental performance. We explored the influence of the low-Z thin substrate on the microwire bremsstrahlung hard x-ray source via particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations. It was shown that both of the microwires, with or without the low-Z thin substrate, could emit more intense hard x-ray radiation than the radiator buried in the equal-density substrate, which benefited from efficient electron recirculation. The freestanding microwire exhibited further enhanced electron recirculation compared to that with the low-Z thin substrate, while the increased hot electrons were only present for the energetic electrons of >1 MeV. Thus, the freestanding microwire could produce significantly more intense MeV gamma x-ray emission with respect to that with the substrate, but an ignorable increment was exhibited at the softer x-ray emission of 10–200 keV. These results provided valuable insights into the design of backlighter targets in point-projection x-ray radiography, such as a freestanding microwire being preferred in MeV gamma-ray radiography, while the microwire with the CH thin substrate could be used in the 10–200 keV hard x-ray Compton radiography of an implosion capsule.

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 24.12.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31997
Publ.-Id: 31997


PIConGPU Performance and Scaling Results on Summit

Widera, R.; Bastrakov, S.; Debus, A.; Garten, M.; Pausch, R.; Steiniger, K.; Bussmann, M.; Hübl, A.

This talk present recent performance and scaling results of Particle-in-Cell code PIConGPU on the Summit supercomputer. PIConGPU is an open-source plasma simulation code for the Exascale era. It implements a wide range of core Particle-in-Cell numerical schemes and extensions, in-situ diagnostics, and high-performance I/O. Using single-source programming approach powered by alpaka library, PIConGPU runs on a variety of modern hardware, including both CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate that it scales from a single workstation up to the full Summit supercomputer.

Keywords: Large-scale computing; Scalability; GPGPU; Plasma simulation; Particle-in-Cell

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    Supercomputing Frontiers Europe 2020, 23.-25.03.2020, Warszawa, Polska

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31996
Publ.-Id: 31996


Pedal to the Metal: Designing a Scalable Particle-in-Cell Code PIConGPU

Bastrakov, S.; Widera, R.; Debus, A.; Garten, M.; Pausch, R.; Steiniger, K.; Hübl, A.; Bussmann, M.

PIConGPU is an open-source Particle-in-Cell simulation code for the Exascale era. It implements a wide range of core Particle-in-Cell numerical schemes and extensions, in-situ diagnostics, and high-performance I/O. With a single source code base, PIConGPU runs on a variety of modern hardware, including both CPUs and GPUs, and scales from a single workstation up to the largest supercomputers. Following up the two recent talks concerning physical and numerical features of PIConGPU, this talk will focus on the computer science and software design aspects of the code and the underlying software stack. The talk concerns PIConGPU core data structures, typical patterns of parallel processing, and software design approach to enable efficient and scalable single-source implementation. It also presents performance and scaling results on the Summit supercomputer.

Keywords: Particle-in-Cell; plasma simulation; scalable computing; single-source programming; PIConGPU; alpaka

  • Lecture (others)
    CASUS Seminar, 01.10.2020, Görlitz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31995
Publ.-Id: 31995


alpaka Parallel Programming - Online Tutorial

Stephan, J.; Bastrakov, S.; Widera, R.; Ehrig, S.; Bussmann, M.

Alpaka (Abstraction Library for Parallel Kernel Acceleration) provides a library and tools for programming compute accelerators on a device agnostic level. This online tutorial will give an introduction to Alpaka combined with online exercises.

Keywords: alpaka; parallel programming; accelerators; C++

  • Open Access Logo Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    alpaka Parallel Programming - Online Tutorial, 29.06.-03.07.2020, Genf, Schweiz

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31993
Publ.-Id: 31993


Lessons Learned Developing Frameworks with SYCL

Stephan, J.

alpaka is a header-only C++ library for developing portable high-performance programs. Much like SYCL, it aims to abstract away the differences between accelerator types and vendors. In 2019 an experimental SYCL backend was developed in order to target FPGAs. In my talk I will focus on the challenges I faced during the SYCL backend development as well as conceptual differences between SYCL and other heterogeneous programming platforms.

Keywords: SYCL; alpaka; parallel programming; C++

  • Open Access Logo Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    SYCL Summer Sessions 2020, 31.08.-04.09.2020, London, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31992
Publ.-Id: 31992


Mirror twin boundaries in MoSe₂ monolayers as one dimensional nanotemplates for selective water adsorption

Li, J.; Joseph, T.; Ghorbani Asl, M.; Kolekar, S.; Krasheninnikov, A.; Batzill, M.

Water adsorption on transition metal dichalcogenides and other 2D materials is generally governed by weak van der Waals interactions. This results in a hydrophobic character of the basal planes, and defects may play a significant role in water adsorption and water cluster nucleation. However, there is a lack of detailed experimental investigations on water adsorption on defective 2D materials. Here, by combining low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we study in that context the well-defined mirror twin boundary (MTB) networks separating mirror-grains in 2D MoSe2. These MTBs are dangling bond-free extended crystal modifications with metallic electronic states embedded in the 2D semiconducting matrix of MoSe2. Our DFT calculations indicate that molecular water also interacts similarly weak with these MTBs as with the defect-free basal plane of MoSe2. However, in low temperature STM experiments, nanoscopic water structures are observed that selectively decorate the MTB network. This localized adsorption of water is facilitated by functionalization of the MTBs by hydroxyls formed by dissociated water. Hydroxyls may form by dissociating of water at undercoordinated defects or adsorbing of radicals from the gas phase in the UHV chamber. Our DFT analysis indicates that the metallic MTBs adsorb these radicals much stronger than on the basal plane due to charge transfer from the metallic states into the molecular orbitals of the OH groups. Once the MTBs are functionalized with hydroxyls, molecular water can attach to them, forming water channels along the MTBs. This study demonstrates the role metallic defect states play in the adsorption of water even in the absence of unsaturated bonds that have been so far considered to be crucial for adsorption of hydroxyls or water.

Keywords: van der Waals materials; water adsorption; defect engineering; hydroxylation; metallic defect states; molecular scale adsorption template

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31988
Publ.-Id: 31988


Geological Remote Sensing

Booysen, R.; Gloaguen, R.; Lorenz, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Nex, P.

Remote sensing is commonly defined either as the data acquisition about an object or a process at a distance or the scanning of the Earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft. In the present article, we will consider all the relevant sensors and techniques that allow the imaging, measurement and monitoring of the Earth’s surface from a distance greater than 10 m.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31986
Publ.-Id: 31986


Crystallization of optically thick films of CoxFe80−xB20: Evolution of optical, magneto-optical, and structural properties

Sharma, A.; Hoffmann, M. A.; Matthes, P.; Hellwig, O.; Kowol, C.; Schulz, S. E.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Salvan, G.

CoFeB alloys are highly relevant materials for spintronic applications. In this work, the crystallization of CoFeB alloys triggered by thermal annealing was investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques and scanningelectron microscopy, as well as spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy forannealing temperatures ranging from 300 to 600◦C. The transformation of∼100-nm-thick CoxFe(80−x)B20filmsfrom amorphous to polycrystalline was revealed by the sharpening of spectral features observed in optical andmagneto-optical dielectric functions spectra. The influence of B on the dielectric function was assessed bothexperimentally and by optical modeling. By analyzing the Drude component of the optical dielectric function,a consistent trend between the charge-carrier scattering time/resistivity and the annealing temperature wasobserved, in agreement with the electrical investigations by means of the four-point-probe method.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31984
Publ.-Id: 31984


Manipulating the Energy Balance of Perpendicular-Anisotropy Synthetic Antiferromagnets by He+-Ion Irradiation

Koch, L.; Samad, F.; Lenz, M.; Hellwig, O.

He+-ion irradiation enables controlled postdeposition modification of layered magnetic thin-film sys-tems. The degree of modification and its depth profile can be tuned by the irradiation dose and energy.Here, we use magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy to explore the impact of gentle He+-ion irra-diation on synthetic antiferromagnets, consisting of ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicularmagnetic anisotropy, which are antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled via Ru interlayers. This system showsa rich variety of magnetic domain patterns due to the strong competition between different magnetic ener-gies. We show that AF interlayer exchange and perpendicular interface anisotropy energy are graduallyreduced by the ion irradiation while the demagnetization energy is mainly preserved, which thus results inmultiple successive magnetic-phase transitions.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31983
Publ.-Id: 31983


Algorithms for the Exploration of an Automated STM DAQ Hardware Development Process based on Continuous Integration for the Mu2e Experiment

Ufer, R.; Voigt, M.; Müller, S.; Knodel, O.

This project contains the source code for the evaluation of an automated process which converts algorithms written in C/C++ to Data Acquisition (DAQ) hardware cores on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) using Continuous Integration (CI). The cores are building blocks of the DAQ for the Stopping-Target-Monitor of the MU2E experiment currently in construction at FERMILAB (USA). The MU2E experiment will search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) looking for the direct decay of a muon into an electron.

Keywords: Data Management; DAQ; FPGA; Mu2e

  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-07
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.720
    License: BSD-3-Clause

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31982
Publ.-Id: 31982


Edge localization of spin waves in antidot multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

Pan, S.; Mondal, S.; Zelent, M.; Szwierz, R.; Pal, S.; Hellwig, O.; Krawczyk, M.; Barman, A.

We study the spin-wave dynamics in nanoscale antidot lattices based on Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicularmagnetic anisotropy. Using time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements we demonstrate that thevariation of the antidot shape introduces significant change in the spin-wave spectra, especially in the lowerfrequency range. By employing micromagnetic simulations we show that additional peaks observed in themeasured spectra are related to narrow shell regions around the antidots, where in-plane domain structures areformed. This is because the magnetic anisotropy in these regions is reduced due to the Ga(+)ion irradiation duringthe focused ion beam milling process of the antidot fabrication. The results point at possibilities for exploitationof localized spin waves in out-of-plane magnetized thin films, which are easily tunable and suitable for magnonicapplications.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31981
Publ.-Id: 31981


Numerical simulation of liquid metal batteries

Weber, N.

Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über die Simulation von Flüssigmetallbatterien.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    Seminarreihe “Liquid metal technologies”, 15.01.2021, Morelia, Mexiko

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31980
Publ.-Id: 31980


UAS-based hyperspectral and magnetic mineral exploration targeting Ni-PGE mineralization on Northern Disko Island, West Greenland

Jackisch, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Heincke, B.; Karinen, A.; Salmirinne, H.; Pirtijärvi, M.; Lorenz, S.; Madriz Diaz, Y. C.; Gloaguen, R.

Geologic mapping in arctic regions faces demanding challenges, from accessibility to weather, light and infrastructure conditions. Field expeditions need to cover substantial area, and mostly are supported by satellite and airborne data. While named methods offer large-scaled insights, they often lack the required resolution for precise ground investigations. The rise of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) as new state-of-the-art platform in geoscience provides the means needed to close that scale gap.

Fieldwork within the frame of the EIT project MULSEDRO focused on the Paleocene flood basalt province of Disko Island (West Greenland). On the example of the Qullissat area, we demonstrate how UAS can bring new insights into strategies for magmatic Ni-PGE exploration in the area. Mineralization is associated to basalt sills of the Asuk Member, emplaced locally in coal-bearing cretaceous sandstones. We conducted photogrammetric outcrop modelling, interpretation of orthoimagery, multi- and hyperspectral based lithological classification and analysis of magnetic data. While magnetics give the location, orientation and subsurface extension of the basaltic sills, spectral imaging, in particular with focus on the iron absorption feature, reveals mineral proxies due to sulphide weathering. A total of 216 line-km for magnetics and 18.5 km2 of multi- and hyperspectral data was covered.

First results show that integration of drone-borne spectroscopic and magnetic data highlights potential local mineralization. Based on our results, possible indications for mineralization are linear features in the first vertical derivative of the magnetic data and specific iron absorptions in the spectral data. Resulting maps are validated using handheld spectroscopy, ground magnetics, susceptibility measurements, combined with geochemistry and mineralogy of rock samples examined in the laboratory. Conclusively, the study solidifies UAS as highly valuable tool for exploration.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; magnetics; multispectral; hyperspectral; Greenland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31977
Publ.-Id: 31977


Science Blog: Game of drones – unmanned aerial vehicles in mineral exploration and geological mapping

Salmirinne, H.; Heincke, B.; Jackisch, R.; Saartenoja, A.

Over the last ten years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), commonly called drones, and related systems have rapidly developed. Everyman’s drones are available on store shelves to take photos and videos of holidays, one’s own house and garden, and for many other private reasons. With the general advances in robotics and digitalization, drones have also been increasingly utilized for various commercial applications. This trend can additionally be seen in geosciences. A key question arising for many geoscience applications is whether drones could be used as platforms to carry out more demanding surveys with remote sensing and geophysical sensors that have traditionally been mounted on aircraft or have been carried by workers on the ground. The answer is yes, drones can be used, although the integration of such sensors on drones is not straightforward. The methods themselves are typically well developed, but drones as an aspiring platform pose challenges for operating sensors and performing measurement procedures in proper ways. In particular, the need for small and lightweight sensors with a low power consumption for UAV platforms plays an important role, because they allow flexible low-cost measurements to be performed without a long preparation phase. Another aspect is that legislation, which varies from country to country, affects drone operations. Therefore, it is often difficult in practice for drone-operating companies to provide international services, and it is generally easier to obtain permission for small drones flying at low altitude only. To find a remedy for this, a common EU-wide regulation is currently in preparation. EU drone regulation (EU) 2019/947 defines the rules and procedures for different types of drone operations and is intended to be applied according to the transition period of the regulation on 31 December 2020.

In recent years, many groups all over the world – both in academia and industry – have worked on the integration of various sensor types on drones that are relevant for geological mapping and mineral exploration. Drone-borne survey systems are considered to be especially appropriate for small to medium-sized surveys that are smaller than those carried out with traditional aircraft, but larger than ground-based surveys. The goal of many companies is to offer drone-based services for this market niche.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; mineral mapping; hyperspectral imaging; magnetics

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31976
Publ.-Id: 31976


Component Decomposition-Based Hyperspectral Resolution Enhancement for Mineral Mapping

Duan, P.; Lai, J.; Ghamisi, P.; Kang, X.; Jackisch, R.; Kang, J.; Gloaguen, R.

Combining both spectral and spatial information with enhanced resolution provides not only elaborated qualitative information on surfacing mineralogy but also mineral interactions of abundance, mixture, and structure. This enhancement in the resolutions helps geomineralogic features such as small intrusions and mineralization become detectable. In this paper, we investigate the potential of the resolution enhancement of hyperspectral images (HSIs) with the guidance of RGB images for mineral mapping. In more detail, a novel resolution enhancement method is proposed based on component decomposition. Inspired by the principle of the intrinsic image decomposition (IID) model, the HSI is viewed as the combination of a reflectance component and an illumination component. Based on this idea, the proposed method is comprised of several steps. First, the RGB image is transformed into the luminance component, blue-difference and red-difference chroma components (YCbCr), and the luminance channel is considered as the illumination component of the HSI with an ideal high spatial resolution. Then, the reflectance component of the ideal HSI is estimated with the downsampled HSI image and the downsampled luminance channel. Finally, the HSI with high resolution can be reconstructed by utilizing the obtained illumination and the reflectance components. Experimental results verify that the fused results can successfully achieve mineral mapping, producing better results qualitatively and quantitatively over single sensor data.

Keywords: hyperspectral image; mineral mapping; resolution enhancement; intrinsic image decomposition

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31975
Publ.-Id: 31975


Thermal treatment of materials on short time scales

Rebohle, L.; Prucnal, S.; Cherkouk, C.; Berencen, Y.; Skorupa, I.

Important technological developments of our time such as the energy transition or digitalization require new materials and more efficient manufacturing processes. The processes of ultra-short time annealing such as flash lamp annealing (FLA) and laser annealing have the potential to make an important contribution. During such processes high temperatures are applied for very short times (nano- to milliseconds), so that only near surface regions of the material are exposed to the maximum temperature. Compared to conventional thermal treatments, ultra-short time annealing enables energy and process time savings, the use of temperature-sensitive substrates, and the synthesis of new materials in thermal non-equilibrium.
The talk is divided into two parts. After an introduction, the first part discusses the main features of FLA in comparison with other short time annealing techniques, namely rapid thermal annealing and laser annealing. Special focus is set on temperature and its determination, as this is a complex and challenging issue on short time scales. The second part deals with various examples of applying FLA to materials, ranging from semiconductor applications over printed electronics to energy materials for batteries.

Keywords: ultra-short time annealing; flash lamp annealing; ion implantation; energy materials; lithium ion battery

  • Lecture (others)
    Kooperationstreffen Universität Lublin, 08.10.2020, Lublin, Polen

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31974
Publ.-Id: 31974


BlitzLab – ein Helmholtz Innovation Lab

Rebohle, L.; Cherkouk, C.; Folgner, C.; Prucnal, S.; Schumann, T.; Krüger, S.

Der Vortrag stellt das Helmholtz Innovation Lab blitzlab vor und geht danach auf die Blitzlampenausheilung als ein innovatives Verfahren zur thermischen Behandlung von Materialien und Werkstoffen ein.

Keywords: Helmholtz Innovation Lab blitzlab; flash lamp annealing; ultra-short annealing

  • Lecture (others)
    Arbeitstreffen am IMWS, 30.09.2020, Halle, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31973
Publ.-Id: 31973


Data for: The structure in warm dense carbon

Vorberger, J.; Plageman, K.-U.; Redmer, R.

The structure of the fluid carbon phase in the pressure region of the graphite, diamond, and BC8 solid phases is investigated. We find increasing coordination numbers with an increase in density. From zero to 30 GPa, the liquid shows a decrease of packing efficiency with increasing temperature. However, for higher pressures, the coordination number increases with increasing temperature. Up to 1.5 eV and independent of the pressure up to 1500 GPa, a double-peak structure in the ion structure factors exists, indicating persisting covalent bonds. Over the whole pressure range from zero to 3000 GPa, the fluid structure and properties are strongly determined by such covalent bonds.

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2021-01-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.716
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31971
Publ.-Id: 31971


Nanosensor-Based Real-Time Monitoring of Stress Biomarkers in Human Saliva Using a Portable Measurement System

Klinghammer, S.; Voitsekhivska, T.; Licciardello, N.; Kim, K.; Baek, C.-K.; Cho, H.; Wolter, K.-J.; Kirschbaum, C.; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, G.

Small molecules with no or little charge are considered to have minimal impact on signals measured by field effect transistor (FET) sensors. This fact typically excludes steroids from the family of analytes, detected by FETs. We present a portable multiplexed platform based on an array of nanowire sensors for label-free monitoring of daytime levels of the stress hormone cortisol in saliva samples, obtained from multiple donors. To achieve an effective quantification of the cortisol with FETs, we rely on the specific DNA aptamer sequences as receptors, bringing the complex “target-receptor” closer to the nanowire surface. Upon binding, cortisol induces conformational changes of negatively charged aptamers, wrapping it into a close proximity to the silicon nanowires, to efficiently modulate their surface potential. Thus, the sensors allow for a real-time assessment of the steroid biomarkers at low nanomolar concentration. The measurement platform is designed in a building-block concept, consisting of a modular measuring unit and a customizable biochip board, and operates using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-integrated multiplexer. The platform is capable of continuous and simultaneous measurement of samples from multiple patients. Cortisol levels detected with the presented platform agreed well with the results obtained with a commercial high-sensitivity immunoassay

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  • Secondary publication expected from 03.12.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31970
Publ.-Id: 31970


Laser-driven ion accelerators for applications in radiobiology

Metzkes-Ng, J.

Laser-driven plasmas – generated in the interaction of a focused high power laser pulse with a solid surface – can sustain electrical field strengths of ~TV/m, allowing for compact and efficient particle acceleration of proton pulses with up to 100 MeV kinetic energies on ~µm spatial scales. The particle pulses feature a picosecond pulse duration at the source and extremely high pulse currents and dose, making them an ideal tool for laboratory-scale high dose-rate radiobiology research.
At the Draco Petawatt laser source, we have established and now successfully operate a source-to-sample just meter-scale setup for high dose-rate in vivo radiobiological studies based on a laser-driven proton source and a compact, versatile pulsed high-field magnetic beamline.
The setup development and preliminary experimental results will be presented, also intending to foster collaborations within HZDR for a wide range of high dose-rate applications.

Keywords: laser-driven proton acceleration; high dose-rate radiobiology

  • Lecture (others)
    HZDR Research Talk, 14.10.2020, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    3rd Laser-Plasma Summer School (LAPLASS_3), 14.-18.09.2020, Salamanca, Spanien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31969
Publ.-Id: 31969


Deep point embedding for urban classification using ALS point clouds: A new perspective from local to global

Huang, R.; Xu, Y.; Hong, D.; Yao, W.; Ghamisi, Pedram; Stilla, U.

Semantic interpretation of the 3D scene is one of the most challenging problems in point cloud processing, which also deems as an essential task in a wide variety of point cloud applications. The core task of semantic interpretation is semantic labeling, namely, obtaining a unique semantic label for each point in the point cloud. Despite several reported approaches, semantic labeling continues to be a challenge owing to the complexity of scenes, objects of various scales, and the non-homogeneity of unevenly distributed points. In this paper, we propose a novel method for obtaining semantic labels of airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds involving the embedding of local context information for each point with multi-scale deep learning, nonlinear manifold learning for feature dimension reduction, and global graph-based optimization for refining the classification results. Specifically, we address the tasks of learning discriminative features and global labeling smoothing. The key contribution of our study is threefold. First, a hierarchical data augmentation strategy is applied to enhance the learning of deep features based on the PointNet++ network and simultaneously eliminate the artifacts caused by division and sampling while dealing with large-scale datasets. Subsequently, the learned hierarchical deep features are globally optimized and embedded into a low-dimensional space with a nonlinear manifold-based joint learning method with the removal of redundant and disturbing information. Finally, a graph-structured optimization based on the Markov random fields algorithm is performed to achieve global optimization of the initial classification results that are obtained using the embedded deep features by constructing a weighted indirect graph and solving the optimization problem with graph-cuts. We conducted thorough experiments on ALS point cloud datasets to assess the performance of our framework. Results indicate that compared to other commonly used advanced classification methods, our method can achieve high classification accuracy. The overall accuracy (OA) of our approach on the ISPRS benchmark dataset can scale up to 83.2% for classifying nine semantic classes, thereby outperforming other compared point-based strategies. Additionally, we evaluated our framework on a selected portion of the AHN3 dataset, which provided OA up to 91.2%.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31968
Publ.-Id: 31968


Texture-Aware Total Variation-Based Sun Glint Removal of Hyperspectral Images

Duan, P.; Lai, J.; Kang, J.; Kang, X.; Ghamisi, Pedram; Li, S.

Sun glint in hyperspectral images (HSIs) leads to undesirable spectral interference, which severely affects subsequent image interpretation, such as environmental monitoring of coastal areas. Sun glint removal methods aim to recover a high quality image without sun glint from the original image. Most methods depend on an assumption that the near infrared band is strongly absorbed by water. However, this assumption is not always reliable because the infrared radiation in shallow or turbid water can be reflected back by the seabed or sediment, rather than being fully absorbed. Therefore, the reflected infrared radiation still contains sun glint and these methods cannot sufficiently remove sun glint from HSIs. To address this problem, a texture-aware total variation (TATV)-based method is proposed to remove sun glint from HSIs. The original HSI first is formulated as a desired clean image and a sun glint image. Then, in order to remove the sun glint, we propose a variational model where the different spectral characteristics of sun glint and other surrounding materials are considered. Specifically, we propose a texture-aware total variation regularized method to heavily penalize the variation of the sun glint areas. Experiments performed on simulated and real data sets demonstrate that our method can greatly outperform other state-of-the-art methods in removing sun glint.

  • ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 166(2020), 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.06.009

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  • Secondary publication expected from 08.07.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31967
Publ.-Id: 31967


Machine learning information fusion in Earth observation: A comprehensive review of methods, applications and data sources

Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Ghamisi, P.; Piles, M.; Werner, M.; Cuadra, L.; Moreno-Martínez, A.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Muñoz-Marí, J.; Amirhosein, M.; Camps-Valls, G.

This paper reviews the most important information fusion data-driven algorithms based on Machine Learning (ML) techniques for problems in Earth observation. Nowadays we observe and model the Earth with a wealth of observations, from a plethora of different sensors, measuring states, fluxes, processes and variables, at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Earth observation is well equipped with remote sensing systems, mounted on satellites and airborne platforms, but it also involves in-situ observations, numerical models and social media data streams, among other data sources. Data-driven approaches, and ML techniques in particular, are the natural choice to extract significant information from this data deluge. This paper produces a thorough review of the latest work on information fusion for Earth observation, with a practical intention, not only focusing on describing the most relevant previous works in the field, but also the most important Earth observation applications where ML information fusion has obtained significant results. We also review some of the most currently used data sets, models and sources for Earth observation problems, describing their importance and how to obtain the data when needed. Finally, we illustrate the application of ML data fusion with a representative set of case studies, as well as we discuss and outlook the near future of the field.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31966
Publ.-Id: 31966


Deep Metric Learning Based on Scalable Neighborhood Components for Remote Sensing Scene Characterization

Kang, J.; Fernandez-Beltran, R.; Ye, Z.; Tong, X.; Ghamisi, P.; Plaza, A.

With the development of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), the semantic understanding of remote sensing (RS) scenes has been significantly improved based on their prominent feature encoding capabilities. While many existing deep-learning models focus on designing different architectures, only a few works in the RS field have focused on investigating the performance of the learned feature embeddings and the associated metric space. In particular, two main loss functions have been exploited: the contrastive and the triplet loss. However, the straightforward application of these techniques to RS images may not be optimal in order to capture their neighborhood structures in the metric space due to the insufficient sampling of image pairs or triplets during the training stage and to the inherent semantic complexity of remotely sensed data. To solve these problems, we propose a new deep metric learning approach, which overcomes the limitation on the class discrimination by means of two different components: 1) scalable neighborhood component analysis (SNCA) that aims at discovering the neighborhood structure in the metric space and 2) the cross-entropy loss that aims at preserving the class discrimination capability based on the learned class prototypes. Moreover, in order to preserve feature consistency among all the minibatches during training, a novel optimization mechanism based on momentum update is introduced for minimizing the proposed loss. An extensive experimental comparison (using several state-of-the-art models and two different benchmark data sets) has been conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method from different perspectives, including: 1) classification; 2) clustering; and 3) image retrieval. The related codes of this article will be made publicly available for reproducible research by the community.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 12.12.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31965
Publ.-Id: 31965


An Efficient Deep Unsupervised Superresolution Model for Remote Sensing Images

Sheikholeslami, M. M.; Nadi, S.; Naeini, A. A.; Ghamisi, P.

Superresolution (SR) has provided an effective solution to the increasing need for high-resolution images in remote sensing applications. Among various SR methods, deep learning-based SR (DLSR) has made a significant breakthrough. However, supervised DLSR methods require a considerable amount of training data, which is hardly available in the remote sensing field. To address this issue, some research works have recently proposed and revealed the capability of deep learning in unsupervised SR. This article presents an efficient unsupervised SR (EUSR) deep learning model using dense skip connections, which boosts the reconstruction performance in parallel with the reduction of computational burden. To do this, several blocks containing densely connected convolutional layers are implemented to increase the depth of the model. Some skip connections also concatenate feature maps of different blocks to enable better SR performance. Moreover, a bottle-neck block abstracts the feature maps in fewer feature maps to remarkably reduce the computational burden. According to our experiments, the proposed EUSR leads to better results than the state-of-the-art DLSR method in terms of reconstruction quality with less computational burden. Furthermore, results indicate that the EUSR is more robust than its rival in dealing with images of different classes and larger sizes.

  • Open Access Logo IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 13(2020), 1937-1945
    DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2020.2984589

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31964
Publ.-Id: 31964


COVID-19 Outbreak Prediction with Machine Learning

Ardabili, S. F.; Mosavi, A.; Ghamisi, Pedram; Ferdinand, F.; Varkonyi-Koczy, A. R.; Reuter, U.; Rabczuk, T.; Atkinson, P. M.

Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and these models are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models need to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak as an alternative to susceptible–infected–recovered (SIR) and susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) models. Among a wide range of machine learning models investigated, two models showed promising results (i.e., multi-layered perceptron, MLP; and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, ANFIS). Based on the results reported here, and due to the highly complex nature of the COVID-19 outbreak and variation in its behavior across nations, this study suggests machine learning as an effective tool to model the outbreak. This paper provides an initial benchmarking to demonstrate the potential of machine learning for future research. This paper further suggests that a genuine novelty in outbreak prediction can be realized by integrating machine learning and SEIR models.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31963
Publ.-Id: 31963


COVID-19 Pandemic Prediction for Hungary; A Hybrid Machine Learning Approach

Pinter, G.; Felde, I.; Mosavi, A.; Ghamisi, Pedram; Gloaguen, R.

Several epidemiological models are being used around the world to project the number of infected individuals and the mortality rates of the COVID-19 outbreak. Advancing accurate prediction models is of utmost importance to take proper actions. Due to the lack of essential data and uncertainty, the epidemiological models have been challenged regarding the delivery of higher accuracy for long-term prediction. As an alternative to the susceptible-infected-resistant (SIR)-based models, this study proposes a hybrid machine learning approach to predict the COVID-19, and we exemplify its potential using data from Hungary. The hybrid machine learning methods of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multi-layered perceptron-imperialist competitive algorithm (MLP-ICA) are proposed to predict time series of infected individuals and mortality rate. The models predict that by late May, the outbreak and the total morality will drop substantially. The validation is performed for 9 days with promising results, which confirms the model accuracy. It is expected that the model maintains its accuracy as long as no significant interruption occurs. This paper provides an initial benchmarking to demonstrate the potential of machine learning for future research.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31962
Publ.-Id: 31962


Remote Sensing Image Classification Using Subspace Sensor Fusion

Rasti, B.; Ghamisi, P.

The amount of remote sensing and ancillary datasets captured by diverse airborne and spaceborne sensors has been tremendously increased, which opens up the possibility of utilizing multimodal datasets to improve the performance of processing approaches with respect to the application at hand. However, developing a generic framework with high generalization capability that can effectively fuse diverse datasets is a challenging task since the current approaches are usually only applicable to two specific sensors for data fusion. In this paper, we propose an accurate fusion-based technique called SubFus with capability to integrate diverse remote sensing data for land cover classification. Here, we assume that a high dimensional multisensor dataset can be represented fused features that live in a lower-dimensional space. The proposed classification methodology includes three main stages. First, spatial information is extracted by using spatial filters (i.e., morphology filters). Then, a novel low- rank minimization problem is proposed to represent the multisensor datasets in subspaces using fused features. The fused features in the lower-dimensional subspace are estimated using a novel iterative algorithm based on the alternative direction method of multipliers. Third, the final classification map is produced by applying a supervised spectral classifier (i.e., random forest) on the fused features. In the experiments, the proposed method is applied to a three-sensor (RGB, multispectral LiDAR, and hyperspectral images) dataset captured over the area of the University of Houston, the USA, and a two-sensor (hyperspectral and LiDAR) dataset captured over the city of Trento, Italy. The land-cover maps generated using SubFus are evaluated based on classification accuracies. Experimental results obtained by SubFus confirm considerable improvements in terms of classification accuracies compared with the other methods used in the experiments. The proposed fusion approach obtains 85.32% and 99.25% in terms of overall classification accuracy on the Houston (the training portion of the dataset distributed for the data fusion contest of 2018) and trento datasets, respectively.

Related publications

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  • Secondary publication expected from 01.12.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31961
Publ.-Id: 31961


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