Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34877 Publications

Darstellung und Charakterisierung von Glycoclustern auf der Basis von PAMAM-Dendrimeren mit Cyclam-Core

Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.

  • Lecture (others)
    Institutsseminar, Universität Bonn, 01.12.2004, Bonn, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6864

The Surface Layer Protein of the Bacillus sphaericus Isolate JG A-12 from a Uranium Waste Pile

Raff, J.; Kirsch, R.; Kutschke, S.; Mertig, M.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Bernhard, G.; Pompe, W.

Many bacteria possess a crystalline protein or glycoprotein surface layer (S-layer) as the outermost component of their cell wall. The interest in bacterial S-layers increased in the last time. This protein might be applied as biomolecular template for making nanostructures, e.g. for the development of biosensors. The surface layer of a natural Bacillus sphaericus isolate JG A-12, recovered from a uranium waste pile, was analyzed and compared to the surface layer
of a reference strain (Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602). The molecular weights of the S-layer proteins of both, the reference strain NCTC 9602 and the strain JG A-12, were examined with a denaturating polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis and were estimated to be approximately 135 kDa. In addition to that, the first 20 amino acids at the N-termini of the 135 kDa proteins of the strains 9602 and JG A-12 were identical. However, no similarity to the S-layer proteins of
the Bacillus sphaericus strains 2362 and P-1 was found. Interestingly, in the case of the uranium waste isolate, in addition to the S-layer protein a second, smaller protein with a size of 30 kDa was copurified. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the 30 kDa protein was significantly different from those of the S-layer proteins. This small protein possesses a similarity to many flagellins of different bacteria. The S-layer of the reference strain Bacillus
sphaericus NCTC 9602 and of the uranium waste isolate JG A-12 were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy after negative staining. Both S-layers have a p4 symmetry with lattice constants of 12,9 nm (S-layer of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602) and 12,5 nm (S-layer of JG A-12). It seems, that the reference strain Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 and the isolate JG A-12 possess the S-layer protein with same structure.

  • Poster
    99TH General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), May 30 - June 3, 1999, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Publ.-Id: 6863

Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Sol-Gel Immobilized Bacillus sphaericus Cells, Spores and S-Layers

Soltmann, U.; Raff, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Matys, S.; Pompe, W.; Böttcher, H.

Different types of biocers were prepared by dispersing vegetative cells, spores and surface layer proteins (S-layers) of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 in aqueous silica nanosols, gelling or coating on glass, and drying. The enzymatic activity of embedded B. sphaericus cells depends noticeably on the water content of the biocer. The cells are destroyed by drying and shrinkage of the silica network whereas embedded spores retain their ability for germination. The biosorption
of uranium and copper of these biocomposites was investigated. Biocers with cells possess the highest metal binding capacity compared to matrices with spores or S-layers. An additional increasement of the metal binding capacity is achieved by using penetration reagents like sorbitol. For renewed use biosorpted uranium and copper can be completely removed from the biocers by using aqueous citric acid. The use of spores as biocomponent offers new interesting possibilities for the preparation of storage-stable bioactive biocers.

  • Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 26: 1209-1212 (2003)

Publ.-Id: 6862

Impact of FDG Positron Emission Tomography in addition to conventional staging procedures in patients with Hodgkin´s lymphoma

Naumann, R.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Reiss, A.; Kühnel, G.; Schulze, J.; Haenel, A.; Bredow, J.; Kropp, J.; Haenel, M.; Laniado, M.; Ehninger, G.

  • Poster
    45th Meeting of the American Society of Haematology; San Diego, 06.-09.12.2003

Publ.-Id: 6861

Novel Re and 99mTc ‘3+1’ oxocomplexes with high affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor.

Fernandes, C.; Bergmann, R.; Correia, J. D. G.; Gano, L.; Santos, I.; Spies, H.; Seifert, S.

  • Poster
    7th FIGIPS Meeting in Inorganic Chemistry, Lisbon, Portugal, 11.-15.06.2003

Publ.-Id: 6860

Síntese, Caracterizaçăo e Avaliaçăo Biológica de Complexos Lipofílicos de 99mTc

Fernandes, C.; Kniess, T.; Seifert, S.; Spies, H.; Gano, L.; Santos, I.

  • Poster
    Contendo Grupos Siloxo Hidrolisáveis, 1ş Congresso da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cięncias Farmacęuticas, Lisbon, Portugal, 04.-16.04.2003

Publ.-Id: 6859

Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Fundamentals and the potential role in drug research and development

Wüst, F.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    PET-Tagung der BAYER AG; Wuppertal, 16.06.2003

Publ.-Id: 6858

Linearisations in compartment modelling

van den Hoff, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XV Annual PET Pharmacokinetic Course; Montreal, 25.-30.06.2003

Publ.-Id: 6857

Untersuchungen zum in vivo-Metabolismus nativer und oxidierter Lipoproteine am Tiermodell mittels PET

Pietzsch, J.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11. Jahrestagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie; Leipzig-Brehna, 18.09.2003

Publ.-Id: 6856

Synthetische Arbeiten in der medizinischen Chemie und der Re/Tc-Chemie

Heinrich, T.

  • Lecture (others)
    Dies Academicus 2003; Zittau, 04.06.2003

Publ.-Id: 6855

Erfahrungen bei der Verwendung von kommerziellen Ausrüstungen für die PET-Radiopharmakaherstellung

Füchtner, F.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11. Jahrestagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie; Leipzig-Brehna, 18.09.2003

Publ.-Id: 6854

Status and perspectives in neurotensin receptor PET imaging

Bergmann, R.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Workshop “Radiolabelled peptides in tumour research”; Leipzig, 26.05.2003

Publ.-Id: 6853

Experience with neurotensin and bombesin labelled with fluorine-18

Bergmann, R.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Association of Nuclear Medicine Annual Congress 2003; Amsterdam, 23.-27.08.2003

Publ.-Id: 6852

[N-methyl(11)C]meta-Hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

Berding, G.; Schrader, C. H.; Peschel, T.; van den Hoff, J.; Kolbe, H.; Meyer, G. J.; Dengler, R.; Knapp, W. H.

Publ.-Id: 6851

Spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Wechselwirkung von Actiniden mit Huminsäuren unter Einsatz von spezifischen Huminsäure-Modellverbindungen

Sachs, S.

Keywords: Huminsäuren; Komplexierung; Actinide; Neptunium; Uran; Huminsäure-Modellverbindungen; EXAFS; NIR; LIPAS

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4. Mainzer Symposium über Spurenanalytik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 26.11.2004, Mainz, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6850

Enzymatischer Test potentieller Substrate der Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Thymidinkinase zum Monitoring der Genexpression

Grote, M.; Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Knieß, T.; Johannsen, B.

  • Poster
    GDCh Jahrestagung in Würzburg, 23.09.-29.09.2001

Publ.-Id: 6848

Study of the Redox Stability of Uranium(VI) in Presence of Humic Substances

Sachs, S.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

We studied the stability of the oxidation state of U(VI) in the presence of natural humic acid from Aldrich and synthetic acids Hyd-Glu and Cat-Gly representing humic acid model substances with pronounced redox functionalities. Using laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy we obtained the first spectroscopic proof for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by the applied synthetic humic acids. In contrast to that, no spectroscopic indications for an Aldrich humic acid-mediated reduction of U(VI) were found. From that we concluded that both humic acid-like products show higher U(VI) redox capacities than Aldrich humic acid.

Keywords: Uranium; U(VI); U(IV); Humic Acids; Synthetic Humic Acids; Redox Processes; LIPAS

  • Contribution to external collection
    Humic Substances in Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Actinide and Iodine Migration in the Far-Field. Third Technical Progress Report (G. Buckau, ed.), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Wissenschaftliche Berichte, FZKA 7070, Karlsruhe 2005, 9-18.

Publ.-Id: 6847

Magnetic domain structure of micro-patterned PtMn/NiFe exchange bias bilayers

Potzger, K.; Bischoff, L.; Liedke, M. O.; Hillebrands, B.; Rickart, M.; Freitas, P.; McCord, J.; Fassbender, J.

The local modification of magnetic properties by means of ion irradiation has been demonstrated for perpendicularly magnetized Co/Pt [1], for amorphous soft magnetic alloys [2] and for exchange-bias systems [3-5]. In all cases the magnetic features are not determined by the patterning itself, but by the micromagnetic feature sizes. Therefore, if the pattern sizes are close to the intrinsic length scales of the system under investigation a change in the overall magnetic behaviour is expected. For an exchange bias system this intrinsic length scale is in the range between 100 – 1000 nm [5].
The aim of the present study is to investigate the domain structure of a micro-patterned exchange bias system during magnetization reversal. Special attention is paid to the interaction between adjacent features changing the overall magnetic behaviour of the system. As a test system we chose a bottom pinned exchange bias bilayer consisting of 20 nm PtMn and 6 nm NiFe, capped with 5 nm of Ta, prepared by ion beam and physical vapour deposition. PtMn is chosen as the antiferromagnetic material due to its technological relevance and due to the chemically ordered L10-phase which is required in order to obtain a large exchange bias field. This phase can easily be disordered by means of ion irradiation leading to a very low ion fluence required to suppress the exchange bias effectively [6]. Thus sputtering effects are minimized. Using a 25 keV Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) a stripe array consisting of 1 µm wide lines exposed to a fluence 21014 Ga/cm2 separated by 1 µm spacing is created. The long axes of the lines are oriented parallel to the exchange bias direction.
The global magnetic properties of the stripe array were analyzed by means of magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry (MOKE) and Kerr microscopy. It was found, that the overall loop shift in the patterned region is reduced to ~30 Oe compared to an exchange bias field of 180 Oe in the unpatterned area. After saturation in an applied field of +800 Oe there is no domain pattern observed in remanence by Kerr microscopy. With increasing negative field first the magnetization in the irradiated stripes reverse. This leads to an alignment of the soft magnetic (irradiated) stripes parallel to the applied field direction while the magnetization of the non-irradiated stripes remains antiparallel. After saturation at -500 Oe and increase of the applied field a hysteretic behaviour was observed that is consistent with the MOKE-measurements leading to a remaining domain contrast in remanence.
At an applied field between -12 Oe and -80 Oe a sharp contrast originating from Néel walls between irradiated and non-irradiated regions is observed by magnetic force microscopy. Moreover, a successive increase of the domain width in the irradiated areas at the expense of those in the non-irradiated areas is observed. At an applied magnetic field of about -100 Oe the magnetization in the non-irradiated area is nearly completely reversed due to the influence of the adjacent soft magnetic areas which are reversed at lower field values already. A magnetization ripple as a remainder of the non-irradiated stripes persists up to large negative field values consistent with the large exchange bias field in the completely unpatterned region.

[1]J. Lohau, A. Moser, C. T. Rettner, M. E. Best, B. D. Terris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 990 (2001).
[2]J. McCord, J. Fassbender, M. Frommberger, M.O. Liedke, E. Quandt, L. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett., submitted.
[3]A. Mougin, S. Poppe, J. Fassbender, B. Hillebrands, G. Faini, U. Ebels, M. Jung, D. Engel, A. Ehresmann, H. Schmoranzer, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6606 (2001).
[4]J. McCord, R. Schäfer, K. Theis-Bröhl, H. Zabel, J. Schmalhorst, V. Höink, H. Brückl, T. Weis, D. Engel, A. Ehresmann, J. Appl. Phys. accepted.
[5]S. Blomeier, D. McGrouther, S. McVitie, R. O’Neill, J. N. Chapman, M. C. Weber, B. Hillebrands, J. Fassbender, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. accepted.

Keywords: magnetism; exchange-bias; magnetic patterning; MFM; ion irradiation; Kerr microscopy; patterning

  • Poster
    Intermag 2005, Nagoya

Publ.-Id: 6846

Spectroscopic Characterization of Synthetic Becquerelite, Ca[(UO2)6O4(OH)6]•8H2O, AND SWARTZITE, CaMg[UO2(CO3)3]•12H2O

Amayri, S.; Arnold, T.; Foerstendorf, H.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

Becquerelite, Ca[(UO2)6O4(OH)6]•8H2O, and swartzite, CaMg[UO2(CO3)3]•12H2O, have been synthesized and identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Chemical compositions were verified by ICP–MS and AAS. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the first time to characterize these phases. In becquerelite, there are four fluorescence emission bands, at 518.9, 535.6, 553.4, and 578.9 nm, and a characteristic fluorescence lifetime of 3.1 ± 0.2 s. Swartzite shows six characteristic fluorescence emission bands, at 472.3, 488.9, 509.0, 531.1, 554.7, and 578.9 nm, and a fluorescence lifetime of 59.4 ± 0.1 s. The FTIR spectra of becquerelite are characterized by an intense asymmetric stretching vibration (v3 UO2 2+ mode) band at 946 cm-1, with shoulders at approximately 925 and 902 cm-1. Swartzite shows its characteristic v3 UO2 2+ mode of the uranyl cation at 898 cm-1. As natural U6+-bearing samples commonly form thin coatings on rock or mineral surfaces or as a component mixed with other solids, it is generally difficult to identify small quantities of these secondary phases. Spectroscopic methods like TRLFS and FTIR spectroscopy are found to be promising methods to identify such secondary phases.

Keywords: uranium; synthesis; TRLFS spectroscopy; FTIR; spectroscopy

  • The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2004)4, 953 – 962

Publ.-Id: 6845

Target mass number dependence of subthreshold antiproton production in proton-, deuteron- and alpha-particle-induced reactions

Müller, H.; Komarov, V. I.

Data from KEK on subthreshold antiproton as well as on π± and K± production in proton-, deuteron- and alpha-particle-induced reactions at energies between 2.0 and 12.0 AGeV for C, Cu and Pb targets are described within a unified approach. We use a model which considers a nuclear reaction as an incoherent sum over collisions of varying numbers of projectile and target nucleons. It samples complete events and thus allows for the simultaneous consideration of all final particles including the decay products of the nuclear residues. The enormous enhancement of the antiproton cross section, as well as the moderate increase of meson production in deuteron and alpha induced compared to proton-induced reactions, is well reproduced. In our approach, the observed enhancement near the production threshold is mainly due to the contributions from the interactions of few-nucleon groups.

  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 31 (2005) 285-293

Publ.-Id: 6844

Increased magnetic damping of permalloy upon Cr implantation

Fassbender, J.; McCord, J.; Weisheit, M.; Mattheis, R.

The understanding and the modification of the magnetic damping processes in thin ferromagnetic films has gained considerable interest in recent years. In addition to applied research on ultrafast magnetization reversal [1-3] also studies concerning the basic damping phenomena [4,5] and their modification by means of adjacent non-magnetic layers [6] or alloying [7] have been reported. Also the use of ion implantation to modify magnetic properties on a local scale has been addressed [8].

Here we report on investigations of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of 20 nm thick permalloy films as prepared and after 30 keV Cr implantation with different Cr fluences. Due to the doping the Curie temperature of the permalloy film decreases with the implantation fluence. At an averaged Cr concentration of about 7% (≈ 1.4·10^16 Cr/cm^2) the Curie temperature drops below room temperature. The uniaxial anisotropy, induced by a magnetic field during deposition, decreases but persists with increasing Cr fluence as indicated by the 2-fold symmetry of the magnetic remanence as a function of in-plane angle measured by magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry.

In order to investigate the magnetization damping pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM) has been performed for various applied magnetic fields. In Fig. 3 the magnetization traces for the as-deposited permalloy film as well as the Cr-implanted samples are shown for an applied field of 10 Oe. Upon Cr implantation the PIMM amplitude is decreased consistent with a decrease in the uniaxial anisotropy AND a reduction in saturation magnetization. This results in a decrease of the precession frequency which is easily observed. However, the magnetic damping, i. e. the relaxation of the precession, is also altered by the Cr implantation. A detailed analysis of the damping parameter leads to 7-fold increase of the damping for only 4% of Cr doping. In order to clarify the basic mechanism for the enhancement the chemical and structural contributions to the magnetic damping parameter are separated.

[1] T. Gerrits, H. A. M. van den Berg, J. Hohlfeld, O. Gielkens, L. Bär, Th. Rasing, Nature 418, 509 (2002).
[2] S. Kaka, S. Russek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1958 (2002).
[3] H. W. Schumacher, C. Chappert, P. Crozat, R. C. Sousa, P. P. Freitas, J. Miltat, J. Fassbender, B. Hillebrands, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 017201 (2003).
[4] D. L. Mills, S. M. Rezende, Topics in Applied Physics 87, 27 (2003).
[5] B. Heinrich, in Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III, IV, edited by B. Heinrich and J. A. C. Bland (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[6] S. Mizukami, Y. Ando, T. Miyazaki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 580 (2001).
[7] S. G. Reidy, L. Cheng, W. E. Bailey, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1254 (2003).
[8] L. Folks, R. E. Fontana, B. A. Gurney, J. R. Childress, S. Maat, J. A. Katine, J. E. E. Baglin, A. J. Kellock, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2601 (2003).

Keywords: magnetism; ion implantation; doping; magnetic damping; Curie temperature; PIMM; magnetization dynamics

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Intermag 2005, Nagoya, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6843

Structural phase transformation of FePt nanoparticles by ion irradiation

Rellinghaus, B.; Dmitrieva, O.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.

Owing to its large magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy, L10 ordered tetragonal FePt is among the most intensively discussed materials when it comes to pushing the superparamagnetic limit towards minimum particle sizes for future ultra-high density magnetic data storage media [1]. Depending on the preparation technique, however, the formation of the L10 thermodynamic equilibrium phase is often impeded by either a lack of thermodynamic driving forces or a lack of diffusivity.
Recently it has been shown [2,3] that gas phase prepared FePt nanoparticles can exhibit a very narrow size distribution with a mean diameter of roughly 6 nm. Together with a packing density of 2.8 × 10^12 particles /cm^2 a potential data storage density of 18 Tbit/inch^2 could be achieved. Unfortunately these particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature due to their multiply twinned icosahedral structure. Therefore it is of essential importance to transform these nanoparticles into the favourable L10 phase in a post-deposition treatment. Since annealing usually results in sintering of adjacent particles, a possible alternative is the use of ion irradiation techniques to create vacancies within the particles and thereby enhance the bulk diffusion of the constituents which has been successfully demonstrated to promote the L10 ordering in the case of FePd films [4].
In the present study, post-deposition 5 keV He irradiation has been performed on such gas phase prepared FePt nanoparticles. Structural characterization of the samples was carried out by means of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Fig. 1 shows the HRTEM micrographs of two typical Fe42Pt58 particles with a mean diameterof dP = 6.2 nm. The power spectra as obtained by Fourier transform of the original images (see insets in Fig 1) clearly evidence that the particles are multiply twinned and of icosahedral structure. In Fig. 2, two typical HRTEM micrographs of particles are presented which had been subjected to irradiation with 5 keV He ions at a fluence of f = 3×10^17 ions/cm2. The particles are no longer multiply twinned but rather single crystal fcc, and their mean diameter is reduced to dP_irr = 5.2 nm. This size reduction is ascribed to irradiation induced sputtering of the particles. Although the defect concentration apparently increases the atomic diffusivity temporarily to an extent that allows for structural transformations in the FePt nanoparticles at RT, no L10 ordered particles have been observed. This observation is in contrast to the bulk phase diagram [5], theoretical calculations [6], and thermodynamic investigations in thin films [7], based on which the L10 phase is expected to be energetically favoured over the fcc phase by some 0.1 eV/atom.
There are two possible origins for the experimental findings. Either the particles investigated are already smaller than a critical particle size below which the L10 phase is no longer the thermodynamic equilibrium phase in FePt, or kinetic aspects may be of increasing importance at these length scales. Since the sputtering process that comes along with the ion irradiation is element specific and tends to remove more iron than platinum atoms, the He ion irradiation results in a shift of the elemental composition of the FePt nanoparticles towards a more Pt-rich concentration. As a consequence, the remaining alloy approaches the borderline of the L10
stability region in the phase diagram. Concurrently, the thermodynamic ordering temperature is reduced and the chemical driving force for the L10 ordering will be significantly reduced.

[1] D. Weller, A. Moser, L. Folks, M.E. Best, W. Lee, M.F. Toney, M. Schwickert, J.-U. Thiele, and M.F. Doerner, IEEE Trans. Mag. 36, 10 (2000).
[2] S. Stappert, B. Rellinghaus, M. Acet, and E.F. Wassermann, J. Cryst. Growth 252, 440 (2003).
[3] B. Rellinghaus, S. Stappert, M. Acet, and E.F. Wassermann, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 266, 142 (2003).
[4] H. Bernas, J.-Ph. ...

Keywords: magnetism; structure; phase transformation; nanoparticles; L10-structure; HRTEM; binary alloys

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Intermag 2005, Nagoya, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6842

Small and large angle precession in exchange biased bilayers

Weber, M.; Nembach, H.; Hillebrands, B.; Fassbender, J.

Small and large angle excitations in exchange bias systems have been investigated in real time by means of all-optical pump-probe experiments. Time resolved magneto-optics has been employed as a probe of the transient magnetic phenomena upon laser excitation. Due to an increased spin temperature upon photoexcitation, an unpinning of the interfacial exchange coupling takes place resulting in a collapse of the unidirectional anisotropy. An effective internal anisotropy pulse field with a rise time of the order of the pump laser pulse duration (τ =8.3 ps) is launched which governs the time evolution of the effective field acting on the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer of the bilayer system. The time evolution of the exchange bias shift field and the zero-field susceptibility reveal a fingerprint of the internal field pulse and can be understood taking ultrafast thermal activation into account [1]. The excess energy of the spin system - upon a sudden increase of the interfacial spin temperature – can lead to the excitation of a high frequency precessional response of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer for both the easy and the hard axis geometry [2,3]. Even, the initial deflection direction of the magnetization of the ferromagnet away from the initial equilibrium orientation can be controlled on the picosecond timescale in the hard axis geometry. The magnitude of the internal pulse field, and thus the torque acting on the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layer, can be controlled by the absorbed photons [3]. Hence, the precessional motion depending on the magnitude of the anisotropy pulse field, i.e., the precession angle can
be investigated. Moreover, by comparing the measured real time precessional motion with solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz and Gilbert equation the dependence of the effective Gilbert parameter α on the precession angle can be studied. The extracted Gilbert parameter depends not or only rather weakly on the magnitude of the internal pulse field. There are no non-linear effects present for this material system. Both small and large angle precession of the ferromagnetic layer upon photoexcitation can be modeled with reasonable values of the Gilbert parameter within the Landau-Lifshitz and Gilbert framework.
Employing the known antiferromagnetic thickness dependence of the exchange bias field Heb, the exchange bias field dependence of the Gilbert parameter α was investigated. For this purpose a wedge shaped exchange bias bilayer with a fixed thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and a varying thickness of the antiferromagnetic layer along the sample was prepared and measured.
The extracted Gilbert parameter from the time-resolved Kerr traces and thus, the dissipation rate increases linearly with the exchange bias field magnitude. Local fluctuations of the interfacial exchange coupling, due to interface roughness, can increase the two-magnon relaxation probability, which in terms of an additional dissipation channel finally leads to an increased Gilbert damping parameter [4,5].
The work is supported by the Graduiertenkolleg 792 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Communities Human Potential programs HPRN-CT-2002-00318

[1] M.C. Weber, H. Nembach, and J. Fassbender, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6613 (2004).
[2] G. Ju, A. V. Nurmikko, R.F.C. Farrow, R.F. Marks, M.J. Carey, and B.A. Gurney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3705 (1999).
[3] M.C. Weber, H. Nembach, B. Hillebrands, and J. Fassbender, Phys. Rev. B, submitted for publication.
[4] S.M. Rezende, A. Azevedo, M.A. Lucena, and F.M. de Aguiar, Phys. Rev. B 63, 214418 (2001).
[5] M.C. Weber, H. Nembach, B. Hillebrands, and J. Fassbender, J. Appl. Phys, in press.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Intermag 2005,4.-8.4.2005, Nagoya, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6841

Magnetic anisotropy patterning of amorphous films by He-ion irradiation

McCord, J.; Gemming, T.; Schultz, L.; Fassbender, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Frommberger, M.; Quandt, E.

The magnetic anisotropy in amorphous soft magnetic CoFeSiB films is modified by He-ion irradiation. A rotation of uniaxial anisotropy depending on the applied field direction in the irradiated areas is observed by magnetometry and complementary domain observation by Kerr microscopy. No significant degradation in magnetic properties relative to the as-deposited state is found from the magnetization loops on non-patterned films. Using irradiation together with photolithography the films were treated locally, resulting in ‘anisotropy patterned’ structures. Complicated periodic domain patterns form due to the locally varying anisotropy distribution. Overall magnetic properties and domain patterns can be adjusted.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; magnetic anisotropy; patterning; amorphous alloys; Kerr microscopy; magnetic domains

  • Applied Physics Letters 86(2005), 162502

Publ.-Id: 6840

Spectroscopic Characterization of Pd Nanoclusters Formed by S-Layer of B. sphaericus JG-A12 and Biocers

Merroun, M.

  • Lecture (others)
    BIO-CAT Project Meeting, 05.11.2004, Paris, France

Publ.-Id: 6838

Damping in thin ferromagnetic films

Nembach, H.; Martin-Pimentell, P.; Weber, M.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

The understanding of the damping processes of the magnetization dynamics is an important issue. Several different damping channels are proposed. Here the importance of magnon-magnon processes for the damping is investigated with a magneto-optical method. This method allows to determine the length of the magnetization vector and therefore gives an indication for magnon-magnon processes. Higher order magneto-optic effects are also taken into account, which allows the determination of the quadratic magneto-optic constant.
This work was supported by the DFG-Graduiertenkolleg 792 and the EU-RTN ULTRASWITCH network (HPRN-CT-2002-00318).

Keywords: magnetism; magnetic damping; damping processes; time-resolved techniques

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin

Publ.-Id: 6835

The modelling of positron emitter production and PET imaging during carbon ion therapy

Pönisch, F.; Parodi, K.; Hasch, B. G.; Enghardt, W.

At the carbon ion therapy facility of GSI Darmstadt in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is used for imaging the ß+-activity distributions which are produced via nuclear fragmentation reactions between the carbon ions and the atomic nuclei of the irradiated tissue. On the basis of these PET images the quality of the irradiation, i.e. the position of the field, the particle range in vivo and even local deviations between the planned and the applied dose distribution, can be evaluated. However, for such an evaluation the measured ß+-activity distributions have to be compared with those predicted from the treatment plan. The predictions are calculated as follows: a Monte Carlo event generator produces list mode data files of the same format as the PET scanner in order to be processed like the measured ones for tomographic reconstruction. The event generator models the whole chain from the interaction of the projectiles with the target, i.e. their stopping and nuclear reactions, the production and the decay of positron emitters, the motion of the positrons as well as the propagation and the detection of the annihilation photons. The steps of the modelling, the experimental validation and clinical implementation are presented.

Publ.-Id: 6834

Hydrophile 99mTc/188Re-Komplexe zur Kopplung an Biomoleküle

Schiller, E.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Bergmann, R.; Kraus, W.; Spies, H.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11. Jahrestagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, Leipzig, 18.-20.09.2003
  • Poster
    GDCh-Jahrestagung 2003, München 07.-10.10.2003

Publ.-Id: 6833

CoSi2 nanowires synthesized by FIB

Bischoff, L.; Schmidt, B.; Akhmadaliev, C.

Nanowires and chains of nanoparticles are of emerging interest in nanoelectronics, nano-optics and plasmonics as well as for their monolithic integration into microelectronic devices. CoSi2 is a promising material due to its CMOS-compatibility microelectronics technology. Two fabrication methods of CoSi2 -nanowires by using ion beam synthesis (IBS) with Focused Ion Beams (FIB) technique are presented. In a first approach, an oxide layer, structured by sputtering with a focused Ga+ ion beam, have been used as an implantation mask for large area homogeneous Co+ implantation. Alternatively, a mass separated FIB of cobalt ions, emitted from a Co36Nd64 alloy liquid metal ion source, is applied for a direct writing IBS process. Implantation into Si with doubly charged Co+ ions emitted from the Co source allows ion energies up to 60 keV, which result in CoSi2 nanostructures buried in silicon. The processes of damaging and annealing of the substrate due to extremely high current density of the FIB were investigated. The fabrication of nanowires down to 30 nm diameter has been demonstrated.

Keywords: nano-wire; Focused Ion Beam; cobaltdisilicide

  • Poster
    Tagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 03. - 09. 03. 2005 Berlin

Publ.-Id: 6832

Modifikation der strukturellen und magnetischen Eigenschaften von Permalloy-Schichten bei Cr-Implantation

Fassbender, J.; von Borany, J.; Potzger, K.; Grötzschel, R.; Mücklich, A.

Die magnetischen und strukturellen Eigenschaften von Permalloy-Schichten lassen sich gezielt durch Cr-Implantation modifizieren. Dazu
wurde ein 20 nm Permalloy/5 nm Tantal/SiOx/Si Schichtsystem mit 30 keV Cr-Ionen im Dosisbereich zwischen 2×10^15 und 2×10^16 Ionen/cm^2
implantiert. Daraus resultiert ein Implantationsprofil mit einer mittleren Konzentration an Cr innerhalb der Permalloy-Schicht von 1 bis 10
%. Die Änderungen in der Schichtstruktur wurden mit Röntgenbeugung, Auger-Tiefenprofilanalyse, Rutherford-Backscattering und Querschnitts-
Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie untersucht. Neben der eigentlichen Implantation wird schon bei relativ kleinen Ionendosen eine Durchmischung
der Grenzfläche zwischen Permalloy und Tantal beobachtet. Mit steigender Ionendosis diffundiert Tantal zunehmend an die Oberfläche des Schichtstapels. Diese experimentellen Ergebnisse werden gut durch TRIDYN-Simulationen beschrieben [1].
[1] Transport and Range of Ions (Dynamic): W. Möller, W. Eckstein, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 2, 814 (1984).

Keywords: magnetism; permalloy; ion implantation; TRIDYN; XRD; RBS; TEM

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin, 4.-9.3.2005

Publ.-Id: 6831

Magnetic domain structure of micro-patterned PtMn/NiFe exchange bias bilayers

Potzger, K.; Bischoff, L.; Liedke, M. O.; Hillebrands, B.; Rickart, M.; Freitas, P.; McCord, J.; Fassbender, J.

A bottom pinned exchange bias bilayer system consisting of 20 nm PtMn and 6 nm NiFe (produced using ion beam deposition (IBD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD, magnetron sputtering)) was laterally magnetic patterned by means of focused ion beam irradiation (FIB) on a micrometer scale. 25 keV ion irradiation with a fluence of
2×1014Ga+·cm−2 leads to a disordering of the as prepared chemically ordered PtMn-phase with only minor changes in sample topography. Thus the exchange bias field as well as the coercive field was reduced to a large extent on a local scale. The magnetic properties of FIB written 1µm wide stripes and their interaction with the non-irradiated spacing were analyzed by means of magneto-optic Kerr effect, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy. The application of a magnetic field between -12
Oe and -80 Oe with respect to the exchange bias field direction leads to an antiparallel alignment of irradiated and non-irradiated stripes forming pronounced domain walls. A parallel alignment was found below -100 Oe and in the positive field region.

Keywords: magnetism; exchange bias; chemically ordered alloys; MFM; patterning

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin, 4.-9.3.2005

Publ.-Id: 6830

Modifikation der magnetischen Dämpfung in Permalloy-Schichten durch Cr-Implantation

Fassbender, J.; McCord, J.; Weisheit, M.; Mattheis, R.

Das magnetische Dämpfungsverhalten, die Curie-Temperatur und die uniaxiale magnetische Anisotropie von 20 nm dicken Permalloy-Schichten wurde mittels Cr-Implantation modifiziert. Die Implantation wurde bei 30 keV Beschleunigungsspannung im Dosisbereich zwischen 2×10^15 und 2 × 10^16 Ionen/cm2 durchgeführt. Daraus resultiert ein Implantationsprofil mit einer mittleren Konzentration an Cr innerhalb der Permalloy-Schicht von 1 bis 10 %. Bei einer mittleren Konzentration von ca. 7% wird die Curie- Temperatur der Permalloy-Schicht auf Raumtemperatur abgesenkt. Damit einher geht eine leichte Verringerung der uniaxialen magnetischen Anisotropie. PIMM-Messungen (”pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry”) zeigen jedoch eine starke Vergrösserung des magnetischen Dämpfungsverhaltens durch die Cr-Implantation. Die möglichen Ursachen dieser Erhöhung werden diskutiert.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; ion implantation; magnetic damping; magnetic anisotropy; permalloy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2005, 4.-9.3.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 6829

Anisotropy patterning of amorphous CoFeSiB films by Heion irradiation

McCord, J.; Fassbender, J.; Frommberger, M.; Liedke, M. O.; Quandt, E.; Schultz, L.

The alteration of magnetic properties in magnetic thin films by ion radiation has gained increasing attention in recent years. Here, we present data on the local alteration of the magnetic anisotropy axis in amorphous soft magnetic FeCoBSi films by He-ion irradiation in an applied magnetic in-plane field. Sputtered CoFeSiB (thickness 30 nm) were irradiated with 5 keV He-ions. A magnetic field of 600 Oe was applied during irradiation aligned orthogonal to the initial easy axis of anisotropy. Above a critical fluence an alignment of anisotropy in the applied field direction is observed by MOKE magnetometry and complementary domain observation by Kerr microscopy. Using irradiation together with photolithography the films were irradiated locally, thus resulting in anisotropypatterned structures. Domain patterns in different elements with varying angles of anisotropy and edge orientation, separating regions of different anisotropy alignment, are shown. The influence of the patterning on the (still) full film reversal is discussed in detail.

Keywords: magnetism; amorphous films; magnetic anisotropy; He ion irradiation; patterning

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2005, 4.-9.3.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 6828

Real-time evolution of the ITO film properties and structure during annealing in vacuum

Rogozin, A.; Shevchenko, N.; Vinnichenko, M.; Prokert, F.; Cantelli, V.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

Keywords: Indium Tin Oxide; annealing; structure; in-situ studies

  • Other report
    ESRF Highlights 2004

Publ.-Id: 6827

X-ray and Neutron Scattering studies of NiMn-CoFe exchange bias systems

Solina, D.; Lott, D.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.; Fassbender, J.; Tietze, U.; Schreyer, A.

Preliminary results are presented on the structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial antiferromganetic NiMn and their correlation to the Exchange Bias Effect. Included are x-ray diffraction, reflection and rocking curves of pertinent diffraction peaks. The rocking curves have a FWHM of less than 3 indicating good epitaxial growth of the film. Polarized neutron reflectivity and high angle scattering measurements have been made in order to assess the magnetic properties of the system.

Keywords: magnetism; exchange bias; XRD; neutron diffraction

  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin, 4.-9.3.2005

Publ.-Id: 6826

Magnetic domain structure of micro-patterned PtMn/CoFe exchange bias bilayers

Liedke, M. O.; Potzger, K.; Hillebrands, B.; Rickart, M.; Freitas, P.; Fassbender, J.

Using magnetron sputtering deposition a number of high exchange bias field samples were prepared for magnetic pattering investigations. The system prepared is as follow: glass/Ta 70 °A/PtMn 200 °A/ tCoFe = 20 - 60 °A/Ta 40 °A. One of such bottom pinned samples with 40 °A of CoFe was used for optical lithography. Several patterns have been etched physically with decreasing lateral sizes of either the edges or the spacing between the elements. The largest square is 50 × 50 µm and the smallest only 1 µm2. The separating lines are ranging from 10 µm to 2 µm width. The magnetic characterization of the samples have been done by VSM and MOKE. All samples exhibit well defined exchange bias field. A series of MFM images were taken from the structures. All images show a monodomain magnetization state in zero magnetic field. The shape
of the structure itself dose not influence stray field direction. The shape anisotropy contribution is thus smaller than the unidirectional anisotropy
given by the exchange bias. MFM investigation in an applied magnetic field have been done to get a deeper understanding of the domain pattern.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetic patterning; exchange bias; MFM

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin, 4.-9.3.2005

Publ.-Id: 6825

Ionenstrahlinduzierte StrukturÄanderungen in FePt Nanopartikeln

Rellinghaus, B.; Dmitrieva, O.; Liedke, M. O.; Schultz, L.; Fassbender, J.

Monodisperse, vielfach verzwillingte FePt Nanopartikel mit ikosaedrischer Struktur und Konzentrationen im Bereich der stÄochiometrischen Zusammensetzung wurden durch DC-Sputtern in der Gasphase hergestellt. Die ikosaedrische Struktur der Partikel hat sich dabei als Äau¼erst stabil erwiesen, und weder thermisches Anlassen im Fluge noch nach der Deposition fÄuhrt zur Einstellung der magnetisch hochanisotropen, chemisch geordneten tetragonalen L10-Gleichgewichtsstruktur [1]. Eine Bestrahlung dieser Teilchen durch 5 keV He-Ionen bei Fluenzen von f > 10^17 Ionen/cm2 hingegen fÄuhrt zur Umwandlung in die kfz Struktur. Obwohl die Ionenbestrahlung die Versinterung benachbart liegender Partikel initiiert und somit eine erhÄohte Di®usion aufgrund einer temporär erhöhten Defektkonzentration belegt, wird die Einstellung der L10-Phase nicht beobachtet. Die Ergebnisse werden durch kinetisch bedingte Modifikationen der thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtsphasen erklärt.
[1] S. Stappert, B. Rellinghaus, M. Acet, and E.F. Wassermann, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. Vol. 704, 73 (2002); S. Stappert, B. Rellinghaus, M. Acet, and E.F. Wassermann, J. Cryst. Growth 252, 440 (2003).
Gefördert durch die DFG im Rahmen des SFB 445.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetic particles; clusters; FePt; L10-phase; hard magnetic; ion irradiation; phase transformation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, 4.-9.3.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 6824

All-optical probe of magnetization dynamics in exchange bias systems

Weber, M.; Nembach, H.; Schultheiss, H.; Bayer, C.; Blomeier, S.; Kaltofen, R.; Schumann, J.; Carey, M.; Hillebrands, B.; Fassbender, J.

The picosecond optical control of the exchange bias anisotropy was investigated in real time for different exchange bias bilayers (NiFe/FeMn, CoFe/NiMn, CoFe/IrMn) using time-resolved magneto-optics. Upon photoexcitation the spin temperature is increased leading to a collapse of the interfacial exchange coupling. Both the shift fields and the easy axis coercivities are reduced within the first 10 ps. The unpinning is followed by a slower spin-lattice relaxation process. The deduced relaxation times turn out to be quite comparable (< 205 ps) for all bilayers. The thermal decoupling of the bilayers can lead to a high frequency precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers. The precessional response of the CoFe/IrMn system reveals a Kittel type field dependence of the precession frequency. Brillouin light scattering measurements of the field dependence of the FMR frequency are in good agreement with the real time measurements, further supporting the homogeneous mode character of the optically excited precession.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; pump-probe techniques; time-resolved; damping; exchange-bias

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, Berlin, 4.-9.3.2005

Publ.-Id: 6823

Small and large angle precession in exchange biased bilayers

Weber, M.; Nembach, H.; Hillebrands, B.; Fassbender, J.

Small and large angle excitations in exchange bias systems have beeninvestigated in real time by means of all-optical pump-probe experiments. Due to an increased spin temperature upon photoexcitation, an unpinning of the interfacial exchange coupling takes place resulting in a collapse of the unidirectional anisotropy. In terms of an internal pulse field the excess energy of the spin system leads to the excitation of a high frequency precessional response. The magnitude of the internal pulse field can be controlled by the absorbed photons [1]. Hence, the precessional motion depending on the precession angle can be investigated. The extracted Gilbert parameter does not depend on the magnitude of the internal pulse field. Both small and large angle precession can be modeled within the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert framework. Employing the antiferromagnetic thickness dependence of the exchange bias field, the exchange bias field dependence of the Gilbert parameter was investigated. The dissipation
rate increases linearly with the exchange bias field magnitude which can be understood taking local fluctuations of the interfacial exchange coupling as an additional dissipation mechanism into account [2].
[1] M. C. Weber et al., Phys. Rev. B, submitted. [2] M.C. Weber et al., J. Appl. Phys., in press.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; pump-probe techniques; time-resolved damping

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung 2005, 4.-9.3.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 6822

Boundary-integral method for calculating poloidal axisymmetric AC magnetic fields

Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.

This paper presents a novel boundary-integral equation (BIE) method for the calculation of poloidal axisymmetric magnetic fields applicable in a wide range of AC frequencies. The method is based on the vector potential formulation and it uses the Green's functions of Laplace and Helmholtz equations for the exterior and interior of conductors, respectively. In such a way, a coupled system of two complex surface-boundary equations is obtained that reduces the problem of finding the field distribution in the whole space to the determination of the vector potential and its normal derivative on the surface only. This reduction comes at the price of an increased complexity of the Green's function for the axisymmetric Helmholtz equation whose calculation is discussed in detail. The method is verified by comparing with the analytical solution for a sphere in a uniform external AC field. Application of the method is demonstrated for a simple model inductor.

  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 42(2006)2,Part 2, 301-308

Publ.-Id: 6821

Post mortem investigations of Greifswald VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel: Recent progress in dosimetry and material investigations

Konheiser, J.; Rindelhardt, U.; Viehrig, H.-W.

Pressure vessel integrity assessment after long-term service irradiation is commonly based on surveillance program results. Radiation loading, metallurgical and environmental histories, however, can differ between surveillance and RPV materials. Therefore, the investigation of RPV material from decommissioned NPPs offers the unique opportunity to evaluate the real toughness response. A chance is given now through the investigation of material from the decommissioned Greifswald NPP (VVER-440/230) to evaluate the state of a standard RPV design and to assess the quality of prediction rules and assessment tools.

Some years ago first fluence calculations were done for the four Greifswald units in the frame of a TACIS project [1]. Neutron fluence integrals E>0.5MeV, E>1MeV and dpa-values at the inner and outer pressure vessel walls were obtained with the help of a Green’s functions method. New improved results will be presented based on new calculations of pin-wise time dependent neutron sources and an updated nuclear data base. The Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and gamma fluence spectra for different time intervals were done at all positions throughout the RPV wall, where the material specimens will be taken. The statistical error was estimated to be smaller than 1%. A comparison between the calculated fluences and experimental values (12th cycle of unit 1) shows a good agreement, the differences were smaller than 5 %.

The fluence at the inner wall of the RPV for E > 0.5 MeV for the critical weld was 4.64* 10^18 n/cm2. The maximum fluence at the RPV is larger by a factor 1.5. In addition, it could be shown that the fluence at the designated reference positions can be neglected (3 orders of magnitude smaller).

Because of changes in the dismantling procedure a new technology was developed to extract trepans from the interesting RPV positions. A special drilling machine is under development, which will be positioned at the ring water tank near the main coolant loops. The RPV will be moved by crane in the wanted positions (height and azimuth). The remotely controlled trepanning will start in 2005 at unit 1.

The testing and investigation program is focussed on the characterization of the material state as received. It comprises chemical analysis, microstructure investigations (by means of metallography, electron microscopy and SANS), and mechanical testing (hardness measurements, tensile, Charpy-V and fracture mechanics testing). The key part of the testing will be focussed on the determination of the reference temperature T0 following the ASTM test standard E1921-03. Trepans from 4 height positions (welds 3 and 4, base material from the maximum load position and from reference position) will be investigated..

[1] TACIS-Project NUCRUS 96601, Final Report, Brussels 2000

Keywords: reactor pressure vessel; neutron dosimetry; neutron embrittlement; VVER-440

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference on: Safety assurance of nuclear power plants with WWER, 23.-25.05.2005, Podolsk, Russia
  • Contribution to proceedings
    4th International Conference on Safety Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants with WWER, 23.-25.05.2005, Podolsk, Russia
    CD-ROM, Podolsk

Publ.-Id: 6820

Experimental investigation on bubble turbulent diffusion in a vertical large-diameter pipe by wire-mesh sensors and correlation techniques

Manera, A.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.

Experiments with air-water flows have been carried out in a vertical pipe of ~194-mm diameter and 9-m length, and a wide range of superficial liquid and gas velocities has been covered. At a distance of 7.6 m from the air injection, two wire-mesh sensors are installed, located at a distance of 63.3 mm from each other. The wire-mesh sensors measure sequences of instantaneous two-dimensional gas-fraction distributions in the cross section in which they are mounted, with a spatial resolution of 3 mm and a frequency of 2500 Hz. The spatial cross-correlations of the gas-fraction signals have been evaluated, and on their basis turbulent diffusion coefficients have been estimated.
It is found that for a given liquid superficial velocity, a sudden increase of the diffusion coefficient takes place when the superficial gas velocity is increased above a certain value. The abrupt increase of the diffusion coefficient occurs in correspondence of the transition from mono- to bimodal bubble size distributions.
The experimental diffusion coefficients are compared with the prediction of the Sato model (experimental gas-fraction profiles and bubble size distributions are given as input). Even though this model has been developed for bubbly flow, the general trends are well captured also in the churn-turbulent regime.

Keywords: Two-phase flow; eddy diffusivity; cross-correlation; bubble-induced turbulence

  • Nuclear Technology 158 (2007) 275-290

Publ.-Id: 6819

Three-dimensional flow pattern visualization and bubble size distributions in stationary and transient upward flashing flow

Manera, A.; Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.

An experimental three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of stationary and transient flashing flow in a vertical pipe (47 mm diameter) is presented. The measurements have been performed by means of wire-mesh sensors. This type of sensor delivers two-dimensional void fraction distributions in the pipe cross-section where it is mounted with a maximum sampling rate of 10,000 frames per second. A sampling rate of 1200 frames per second has been used in this work. Steam bubbles have been identified from the wire-mesh data and their complete three-dimensional reconstruction has been performed by taking into account the steam bubble velocity. For the estimation of the bubble velocity, two wire-mesh sensors positioned at a small axial distance from each other have been used. The velocity has been determined by cross-correlation of the two wire-mesh signals, by direct identification of the traveling time of the steam bubbles between the two sensors and by means of a drift-flux model. A comparison between the three methods of bubbles velocity measurement is reported. Stationary and time-dependent bubble size distributions have been derived. The stationary radial void-fraction profiles have been decomposed according to bubble size classes and compared with the results obtained with an equilibrium model.

Keywords: Flashing; two-phase flow; three-dimensional visualization; bubble size

  • International Journal of Multiphase Flow 32(2006), 996-1016

Publ.-Id: 6818

Bubble size distributions and three dimensional flow pattern visualization in stationary and transient upward flashing flow

Manera, A.; Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.

An experimental three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of stationary and transient flashing flow in a vertical pipe (47 mm diameter) is presented. The measurements have been performed by means of wire-mesh sensors. This type of sensor delivers two-dimensional void fraction distributions in the pipe cross-section where it is mounted with a maximum sampling rate of 10,000 frames per second. A sampling rate of 1200 frames per second has been used in this work. Steam bubbles have been identified from the wire-mesh data and their complete three-dimensional reconstruction has been performed by taking into account the steam bubble velocity. For the estimation of the bubble velocity, two wire-mesh sensors positioned at a small axial distance from each other have been used. The velocity has been determined by cross-correlation of the two wire-mesh signals and by direct identification of the travelling time of the steam bubbles between the two sensors. A comparison between the two methods of bubbles velocity measurement is reported. Stationary and time-dependent bubble size distributions have been derived. The stationary radial void-fraction profiles have been decomposed according to bubble size classes and compared with the results obtained with an equilibrium model.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    3rd International Symposium on Two-phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation, 22.-24.09.2004, Pisa, Italy, Proceedings on CD-ROM, paper CVG10.

Publ.-Id: 6817

Modeling of flashing-induced instabilities in the start-up phase of natural-circulation BWRs using the code FLOCAL

Manera, A.; Rohde, U.; Prasser, H.-M.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.

This paper reports on the modeling and simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems, with special emphasis on natural circulation Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). For the modeling the 4-equation two-phase model FLOCAL (Rohde, 1986), developed at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR, Germany), has been used. The model allows for the liquid and vapor to be in thermal non-equilibrium and, via drift-flux models, to have different velocities.
The phenomenology of the instability has been studied and the dominating physical effects have been determined. The results of the simulations have been compared qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments (Manera and van der Hagen, 2002) that have been carried out within the framework of a European project (NACUSP) on the CIRCUS facility. The facility, built at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, is a water/steam 1:1 height-scaled loop of a typical natural-circulation-cooled BWR.

Keywords: Flashing; instabilities; experimental; numerical

  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 235(2005)14, 1517-1535

Publ.-Id: 6816

Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale

Cavalleri, A.; Dekorsy, T.; Chon, H. H. W.; Kiefer, J. C.; Schoenlein, R. W.

We apply ultrafast spectroscopy to establish a time-domain hierarchy between structural and electronic effects in a strongly correlated electron system. We discuss the case of the model system VO2, a prototypical nonmagnetic compound that exhibits cell doubling, charge localization, and a metal-insulator transition below 340 K. We initiate the formation of the metallic phase by prompt hole photo-doping into the valence band of the low-T insulator. The insulator-to-metal transition is, however, delayed with respect to hole injection, exhibiting a bottleneck time scale, associated with the phonon connecting the two crystallographic phases. This structural bottleneck is observed despite faster depletion of the d bands and is indicative of important bandlike character for this controversial insulator.

Keywords: femtosecond; ultrafast; phase transition; Mott-insulator transition; vanadiumdioxide; coherent phonons; bottleneck

Publ.-Id: 6814

Well-width dependence of coupled Bloch-phonon oscillations in biased InGaAs/InAlAs superlattices

Först, M.; Kurz, H.; Dekorsy, T.; Leavitt, R.

The coupling between Bloch oscillations and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons is investigated in ternary In0.53Ga0.47As / In0.52Al0.48As superlattices of different well widths. In femtosecond time-resolved studies, a strong increase of the coherent LO phonon amplitudes is observed when the Bloch oscillations are subsequently tuned into resonance with the different optical phonon modes of the ternary semiconductor materials. In a narrow-well superlattice where electronic minibands are energetically shifted close to the confining barrier potential, the phonon amplitudes are asymmetrically enhanced on the high-frequen cy edge
of the resonance. Here, at high electric fields, field induced tunneling into above-barrier continuum states leads to a rapid dephasing of Bloch oscillations. The associated polarization change provides an additional excitation process for coherent LO phonons.

Keywords: Bloch oscillations; quantum coherence; ultrafast; femtosecond; superlattice; coherent phonons; minibands; field dynamics; optoelectronic

Publ.-Id: 6813

Grazing-Incidence Diffraction Strain Analysis of a Laterally patterned Si wafer treated by Focused Ge and Au Ion Beam Implantation

Grenzer, J.; Bischoff, L.; Pietsch, U.

Strain analysis of a laterally patterned Si-wafer was carried out utilizing X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction performed at the ID10B at the ESRF. The lateral patterning was done by focused ion beam implantation using a AuGeSi alloy liquid metal ion source. Samples were prepared by either a 35 keV Au+ ion beam (dose: 0.3, 2 ·10E14cm−2) or by a 70 keV Ge++ ion beam (dose: 8 · 10E14cm−2). It was shown that a periodical defect structure consisting of both implanted and not implanted stripes is created due to ion beam implantation. The induced strain distribution induced, however, shows no periodicity. This can be only explained by an overlap of the strain fields created in each implanted stripe. We found a maximum strain for the Au implanted samples in a depth of about 20 nm (da/a = −1,−3 · 10E−4 for the Au samples); for the Ge sample in a depth of 100nm (da/a = −1.2 · 10E−4). At depths 500nm below the sample surface the strain of the Ge sample becomes smaller than the detection limit (da/a < 2 · 10E−5). Using this technique we were able to create a buried Ge layer with a thickness of about 200 nm and an averaged Ge content of about 1%.

Keywords: Ion beam implantation; Grazing incidence diffraction

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2005, 04.03. bis 09.03.2005, Berlin, Deutschland
  • Physica Status Solidi (A) 202(2005)6, 1009-1016
    DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200420005

Publ.-Id: 6812

Actinide, lanthanide, fission product speciation and electrochemistry

Bhatt, A.; Kinoshita, H.; Koster, A. L.; May, I.; Sharrad, C. A.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vox, O. D.; Jones, C. J.; Lewin, B. G.; Charnock, J. M.; Hennig, C.

There is currently a great deal of research interest in the development of molten salt technology, both classical high temperature melts and low temperature ionic liquids, for the electrochemical separation of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel. We are interested in gaining a better understanding of actinide and key fission product speciation and electrochemical properties in a range of melts. Our studies in high temperature alkali metal melts (including LiCl and LiCl-KCl and CsCl-NaCl eutectics) have focussed on in-situ species of U, Th, Tc & Ru using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, both EXAFS and XANES) electronic absorption spectroscopy (EAS) and Raman spectroscopy. We report unusual actinide speciation in high temperature melts and an evaluation of the likelihood of Ru or Tc volatilisation during plant operation. Our studies in lower temperature melts (ionic liquids) have focussed on salts containing tertiary alkyl group 15 cations and the bis(trifluormethyl)sulfonyl)limide anion, melts which we have shown to have exceptionally wide electrochemical windows. We report Ln, Th, U, Np and Pu speciation (XAS, EAS and vibrational spectroscopy) and electrochemistry in these melts and relate the solution studies to crystallographic characterised benchmark species.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    227th ACS National Meeting, 31.03.2004, Anaheim, CA, United States

Publ.-Id: 6811

Speciation of U4+ in high concentrated [Cl-] solutions with a spectro-electrochemical cell

Hennig, C.

The coordination of the U(IV) and U(VI) ions as a function of the chloride concentration in aqueous solution has been studied by U LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The oxidation state of uranium was changed in situ using a gas-tight spectro-electrochemical cell, specifically designed for the safe use with radioactive solutions. For U(IV) the complexes U(H2O)8Cl3+, U(H2O)6-7Cl2 2+ and U(H2O)5Cl+.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ACTINET Coordination Meeting "Electrochemistry of Ionic Liquids" 8.11.2004, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 6810

Comparative EXAFS investigation of Uranium(VI) and -(IV) aquo chloro complexes in solution using a newly developed spectroelectrochemical cell

Hennig, C.; Tutschku, J.; Rossberg, A.; Bernhard, G.; Scheinost, A.

The coordination of the U(IV) and U(VI) ions as a function of the chloride concentration in aqueous solution has been studied by U LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The oxidation state of uranium was changed in situ using a gas-tight spectro-electrochemical cell, specifically designed for the safe use with radioactive solutions. For U(VI) we observed the complexes UO2(H2O)4Cl+, UO2(H2O)3Cl20 and UO2(H2O)2Cl3 with [Cl] increasing from 3 to 9 M, and for U(IV) the complexes U(H2O)8Cl3+, U(H2O)6-7Cl22+ and U(H2O)5Cl3+. In the uranium coordination sphere U-O distances are 2.41-0.02 Å and U-Cl distances are 2.71-0.02 Å, independent of oxidation state and chloride concentration.

  • Inorganic Chemistry 44(2005), 6655-6661

Publ.-Id: 6809

Beitrag zur Modellierung der Schmelzerückhaltung im RDB nach Verlagerung von Corium in das untere Plenum: Berechnung des Temperaturfeldes und der viskoplastischen Verformung der Behälterwand

Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.

Bezüglich eines hypothetischen Kernschmelzeszenarios in einem Leichtwasserreak-tor (LWR) ist es notwendig, mögliche Versagensformen des Reaktordruckbehälters sowie Versagenszeiträume zu untersuchen, um die Belastung für das Containment bestimmen zu können. Es wurden bereits eine Reihe von Experimenten durchge-führt, welche Erkenntnisse hierüber liefern sollen.
Vom Institut für Sicherheitsforschung des FZR wurde ein Finite-Elemente-Modell er-stellt, das sowohl die Temperaturfeldberechnung für die Wand als auch die elasto-plastische Mechanik der Behälterwand beschreibt. Dabei wurde ein fortgeschrittenes Modell für das Kriechen und für die Materialschädigung entwickelt und an Hand von experimentellen Daten validiert. Die thermischen und mechanischen Berechnungen sind rekursiv und sequentiell gekoppelt. Das Modell ist in der Lage, Versagenszeit und Versagensposition eines Behälters mit beheiztem Schmelzepool zu berechnen.
Das Modell wurde für Voraus- und Nachrechnungen der FOREVER-Experimente, die den RDB eines LWR im Maßstab 1:10 nachbilden, angewendet. Diese Experimente wurden an der KTH Stockholm durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Berechnungen sind qualitativ und quantitativ sehr zufriedenstellend.
Erste Rechnungen für eine LWR-Geometrie wurden durchgeführt, um Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen prototypischen Szenarien und skalierten Experi-menten herauszuarbeiten.

Keywords: Schmelzerückhaltung; Finite-Elemente-Modell; Kriechen; Schädigung; Schmelzepool; Leichtwasserreaktor

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZR-412 2005
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 6808

Suppression of Random Coincidences during In-Beam PET Measurements at Ion Beam Radiotherapy Facilities

Crespo, P.; Barthel, T.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Heidel, K.; Parodi, K.; Pawelke, J.; Enghardt, W.

In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is currently the only method for an in-situ monitoring of charged hadron therapy.
However, in-beam PET data, measured at beams with a sub-microsecond-microstructure due to the accelerator radiofrequency (RF), are highly corrupted by random coincidences arising from prompt gamma-rays following nuclear reactions as the projectiles penetrate the tissue. Since random-correction techniques from conventional PET cannot be applied, the clinical in-beam PET at the therapy facility at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt merely reconstructs events registered in the
pauses (~ 2 - 4 s) between the beam macropulses (< 2 s). We have successfully tested at GSI two methods for suppressing
the micropulse-induced random coincidences during beam extraction. Image statistics increased by about 90 %. Both methods rely on the synchronization of the gamma-gamma-coincidences measured by the positron camera with the time microstructure of the beam, either by using the RF-signal from the accelerator or the signal of a thin diamond detector placed in the beam path in front of the target. Energy and triple-coincidence time correlated spectra first-measured during beam extraction, combined with the corresponding tomographic images of the beta+ activity induced by the beam in a plastic phantom, clearly confirm the feasibility of the proposed random suppression methods. These methods provide the solution for applying in-beam PET at synchrotron and cyclotron radiotherapy facilities with optimal utilization of the annihilation photon flux.

Keywords: PET; charged hadron therapy; LSO; APD

  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 52(2005)4, 980-987


Publ.-Id: 6806

Electron Beam Diagnostic at the ELBE Free Electron Laser

Evtushenko, P.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-413 2004
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 6805

High brightness electron guns for next-generation light sources and accelerators

Bluem, H. P.; Todd, A. M. M.; Cole, M. D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Lewellen, J.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Neil, G. R.; Colestock, P.; Nguyen, D. C.; Wood, R. L.; Young, L.; Janssen, D.

Next-generation light sources and accelerators are being proposed that set unique requirements for the electron source parameters. No single source is suitable for the diverse applications, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with our various partners, is developing a variety of electron gun concepts for these important applications.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 05.-09.07.2004, Lucerne, Switzerland
    Contributions to the Proceedings, 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 92-9083-232-0, 899-901
  • Contribution to WWW
    EPAC 2004 Contributions to the Proceedings, 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 899-901, MOPLT156, 05.07. – 09.07.2004, Lucerne, Switzerland ISBN 92-9083-231-2 (Web version), ISBN 92-9083-232-0 (CD-ROM):

Publ.-Id: 6804

The influence of the main coupler field on the traverse emittance of a superconducting RF gun

Janssen, D.; Dohlus, M.

The field disturbance in the RF coupler plane increases the transverse emittance of RF electron guns. This effect has been calculated for the Rossendorf superconducting RF gun. For 10 kW beam power the increasing is smaller than 5 %.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 05.-09.07.2004, Lucerne, Switzerland
    EPAC 2004 Contributions to the Proceedings, 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 92-9083-232-0, 327-329
  • Contribution to WWW
    EPAC 2004 Contributions to the Proceedings, 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 327-329, MOPKF013, 05.07. – 09.07.2004, Lucerne, Switzerland, ISBN 92-9083-231-2 (Web version):
  • Poster
    9th European Particle Accelerator Conference EPAC 2004, 05.-09.07.2004, Lucerne, Switzerland

Publ.-Id: 6802

Tc and Re labelling of biomolecules according to the "4+1" mixed-ligand approach: Switching from Diagnostic to Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

Pietzsch, H.-J.; Schiller, E.; Seifert, S.; Künstler, J.-U.; Spies, H.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2nd Research Co-ordination Meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Project on "Development of 99mTc based Small Bio Molecules Using Novel 99mTc Cores", 5.-13.02.2004, Wien, Austria

Publ.-Id: 6801

Spectator detection for the measurement of proton-neutron interactions at ANKE

Lehmann, I.; Barsov, S.; Schleichert, R.; Wilkin, C.; Drochner, M.; Hartmann, M.; Hejny, V.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtychiante, S.; Mussgiller, M.; Protic, D.; Stroher, H.; Trusov, S.; Wustner, P.

A telescope of three silicon detectors has been installed close to the internal target position of the ANKE spectrometer, which is situated inside the ultra-high vacuum of the COSYJulich light-ion storage ring. The detection and identification of slow protons and deuterons emerging from a deuterium cluster-jet target thus becomes feasible. A good measurement of the energy and angle of such a spectator proton (p(sp)) allows one to identify a reaction as having taken place on the neutron in the target and then to determine the kinematical variables of the ion-neutron system on an event-by-event basis over a range of c.m. energies.The system has been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. By measuring the spectator proton in the pd-->p(sp)dpi(0) reaction in coincidence with a fast deuteron in the ANKE Forward Detector, values of the pn-->dpi(0) total cross-section have been deduced. Further applications of the telescope include the determination of the luminosity and ! beam polarisation which are required for several experiments.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 530(2004)3, 275-285

Publ.-Id: 6798

ρ-ω splitting and mixing in nuclear matter

Zschocke, S.; Kämpfer, B.

We investigate the splitting and mixing of ρ and ω mesons in nuclear matter. The calculations were performed on the basis of QCD sum rules and include all operators up to mass dimension-6 twist-4 and up to first order in the coupling constants. Special attention is devoted to the impact of the scalar four-quark condensates on both effects. In nuclear matter the Landau damping governs the ρ-ω mass splitting while the scalar four-quark condensates govern the strength of individual mass shifts. A strong in-medium mass splitting causes the disappearance of the ρ-ω mixing.

  • Physical Review C 70(2004), 035207

Publ.-Id: 6797

Quadrupole moments and g factors for high-spin neutron isomers in Pb-193

Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Chmel, S.; Neyens, G.; Baldsiefen, G.; Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Bucurescu, D.; Danchev, M.; de Poli, M.; Georgiev, G.; Grogen, A.; Haas, H.; Hubel, H.; Ilie, G.; Marginean, N.; Menegazzo, R.; Pavan, P.; Rainovski, G.; Ribas, R. V.; Alvarez, C. R.; Ur, C. A.; Vyvey, K.; Frauendorf, S.

The g factors and quadrupole moments of the 21/2(-) and 33/2(+) isomers in Pb-193 have been measured by the time-differential perturbed gamma-ray angular distribution method as g(21/2(-))=-0.059(11), \Q(21/2(-))\=0.22(2) eb and g(33/2(+))=-0.171(9), parallel toQ(33/2(+))\=0.45(4) eb. The results support the three-neutron configurations (1i(13/2))(12)(+2)x3p(3/2) and (1i(13/2))(3) for the 21/2(-) and 33/2(+) states, respectively. The quadrupole moment of the 12(+) isomer in Pb-194 described by the two-neutron (1i(13/2))(2) configuration has been remeasured as \Q(12(+))\=0.48(3) eb in perfect agreement with the previous data. The experimental results are discussed within a microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approach in a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticle neutron space, and in the frame of the pairing plus quadrupole tilted-axis cranking model.

  • Physical Review C 7003(2004), 4305

Publ.-Id: 6796

Simulationsrechnungen zur Validierung des Monte Carlo Codes FLUKA für de Vorhersage der bei Tumorbestrahlungen mit Ionen erzeugten β+-Aktivität

Sommerer, F.; Enghardt, W.; Parodi, K.; Poljanc, K.; Aiginger, H.

Contribution to 54. Jahrestagung der Österreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Contribution to 54. Jahrestagung der Österreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Linz, Austria, 28-30

Publ.-Id: 6795

Positronenemissionstomographie in der Therapie mit Kohlenstoffionen und Validierung des FLUKA Monte Carlo Codes für die Vorhersage der bei Tumorbestrahlungen mit Ionen erzeugten β+-Aktivität

Poljanc, K.; Sommerer, F.; Parodi, K.; Aiginger, H.; Enghardt, W.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    ÖGMP Annual Meeting, Wiener Neustadt, 04.-05.06.2004, Wiener Neustadt, Austria
    Abstract of the ÖGMP Annual Meeting

Publ.-Id: 6794

The FLUKA code: new developments and application to 1 GeV/n Iron beams

Aiginger, H.; Andersen, V.; Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A. C.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lee, K. S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Parodi, K.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Sacannicchio, D.; Smirnov, G.; Sommerer, F.; Wilson, T.; Zapp, N.

The modelling of ion transport and interactions in matter is a subject of growing interest, driven by the multiplication of applicaton fields. These include hadron therapy, dosimetry, and space missions, but there are also several fundamental research, accelerator physics, and cosmic ray physics issues where a reliable description of heavy ion induced cascades is important. In the present work, the capabilities of the FLUKA code for ion beams will be briefly recalled and some recent developments presented. Applications of the code to the simulation of therapeutic carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ion beams, and of iron beams, which are of direct interest for space mission related experiments, will be also presented, together with interesting consideration about the evaluation of dosimetric quantities. Both applications involve ion beams in the AGeV range.

  • Advances in Space Research 35(2005)2, 214-222

Publ.-Id: 6793

Investigation of acoustic waves generated in an elastic solid by a pulsed ion beam and their application in a FIB based scanning ion acoustic microscope

Akhmadaliev, C.

The rapid growth of the microelectronics industry in the last decades made it possible to produce structures in the sub-micrometer scale on silicon chips and to reach an integration scale under 100 nm. Decreasing the size and increasing the complexity of these structures make a control of quality and defects investigation more difficult. During a long time ultrasound devices are being used for nondestructive investigation of materials, like ultrasound microscopes, scanning photo-acoustic microscopes or scanning electron-acoustic microscopes, where acoustic waves are generated by acoustic transducers, focused laser or electron beams, respectively.
The aim of this work is to investigate more precisely the acoustic wave generation by pulsed and periodically modulated ion beams in different solid materials depending on the beam parameters and to demonstrate the possibility to apply an intensity modulated focused ion beam (FIB) for acoustic emission and for nondestructive investigation of the internal structure of materials on a microscopic scale. The combination of a FIB and an ultrasound microscope in one device can provide the opportunity of nondestructive investigation, production and modification of micro- and nanostructures simultaneously. The FIB spot size in modern systems is comparable with that of a focused electron beam and the penetration depth of ions with energy of 20-60 keV is lower than 100 nm. This makes it possible to reach a sub-micrometer resolution of a scanning ion acoustic microscope. On the other hand side a FIB with energy of 20-60 keV is a good tool which can be used for the fabrication of nanostructures using ion milling, implantation or ion beam assisted deposition techniques.
The bulk ultrasound emission in a solid was investigated using a pulsed high energy ion beam focused on aluminum, copper, iron and silicon samples. Oxygen, silicon and gold ion beams were applied in charge states from 1+ to 4+ with the pulse duration of 0.5 - 4 µs and an energy of 1.5 - 10 MeV. Intensity of the detected acoustic waves shows a linear dependence on the energy of the incident ions, on the ion flux as well as on the pulse duration. No influence of the ion charge and ion mass to the emission of acoustic waves was observed.
The ion acoustic effect was applied for a nondestructive material inspection using intensity modulated FIB providing by the IMSA-100 FIB system with an accelerating potential of 30-35 kV. The achieved lateral resolution of this scanning ion acoustic microscope is in the micrometer range depending on the sample material and the beam modulation frequency. The resolution can be improved by increasing the frequency. The maximal modulation frequency which was obtained at IMSA-100 is about 2 MHz corresponding to lateral resolution of 4-5 µm on silicon. Using this microscope, some images of integrated microstructures on a silicon chip were obtained using the lock-in technique for filtering of the signal from the noise and increasing of the total imaging time. The possibility to visualize near sub-surface structure was demonstrated. Due to the strong sputtering effect and the long time of irradiation the imaged structures were significantly damaged. Si2+, Ge2+, Ga+ and Au+ ions were used. All these ions are quite heavy and have high sputtering coefficients. Long-time imaging improves the quality of acoustic images, i. e. the signal-to-noise ratio is reduced with the square root from the pixel time, but leads to significant erosion of the imaged structure.

Keywords: acoustic microscopy; nondestructive investigation; scanning ion acoustic microscope; focused ion beam; ion acoustic effect in solids

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-416 2004
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 6791

Gold and Palladium Nanoclusters Formed by Cells and S-Layer of Bacillus Spaericus JG-A12 Spectroscopic Studies

Merroun, M.

  • Lecture (others)
    SMWK Projekttreffen an der Technischen Universität Dresden, 21.10.2004, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6788

Abtrennung von Uran aus wässriger Lösung durch Calix[6]arene mittels Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion sowie Festphasen-Extraktion

Schmeide, K.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

Die Uranspeziation in ausgewählten Sicker- und Grubenwässern des ehemaligen Uranbergbaus wurde mittels spektroskopischer Methoden (TRLFS, LIPAS) untersucht. Deren Kenntnis in Abhängigkeit vom pH-Wert ermöglicht die Optimierung der Uranabtrennung mittels uranophiler Calixarene. Mittels Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion wurde gezeigt, dass COOH-derivatisierte Calix[6]arene als effektive Extraktionsmittel für die selektive Uranylabtrennung aus umweltrelevanten Wässern bei pH-Werten größer 4 geeignet sind und für Praxisanwendungen eingesetzt werden können. Extraktionskonstanten wurden bestimmt. Die durch Fixierung dieser Calixarenderivate auf Polyester dargestellten calixarenmodifizierten Vliese sind in der Lage Uranylionen aus synthetischen Grubenwässern in Anwesenheit von Konkurrenzionen abzutrennen. Die Untersuchungen zur Reversibilität der Uranbindung an calixarenausgerüsteten Polyestervliesen haben gezeigt, dass eine fast vollständige Regenerierung der calixarenmodifizierten Vliese mittels verdünnter Mineralsäuren möglich ist. Die regenerierten textilen Filtermaterialien können für weitere Uranabtrennungszyklen eingesetzt werden. Nach Auswahl geeigneter Calixarenderivate ist eine Übertragung des entwickelten Abtrennungsprinzipes auf weitere Actinide (z.B. Np, Pu) bzw. Schwermetall-Kontaminanten (z.B. As, Cd, Pb) möglich.

Keywords: Uran; Calixarene; Extraktion; Textile Filter; Komplexierung; Sanierung; Abwasser

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, FZR-414 2004
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 6786

Level scheme of Mo-94 at high angular momentum

Zhang, Y. H.; Liu, M. L.; de Angelis, G.; Podolyàk, Z.; Guo, W. T.; Gadea, A.; Ur, C.; Marginean, N.; Rusu, C.; Schwengner, R.; Napoli, D. R.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Bazzacco, D.; Martinez, T.; Axiotis, M.; Gargano, A.; Lenzi, S.; Brandolini, F.; von Oertzen, W.

High-spin level structure of Mo-94 has been re-investigated using the modem multidetector array of GASP via the O-16(Se-82, 4ngamma)Mo-94 reaction at E(Se-82) = 459 MeV. The previously reported level scheme has been largely modified up to similar to 10 MeV in excitation energy due to identifications of some important linking transitions. The level structure of Mo-94 has been compared with the shell model calculations. It is suggested that the valence neutron excitation within d(5/2), g(7/2), and h(11/2) orbitals should be taken into account in order to adequately describe the high-spin level structure of Mo-94 above I-pi = 14(+).

  • High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics - Chinese Edition 28(2004)9, 941-946

Publ.-Id: 6784

Experimental Study on the Feasibility of In-Beam PET for Accurate Monitoring of Proton Therapy

Parodi, K.; Pönisch, F.; Enghardt, W.

Positron emission tomography is currently the only feasible method for in-situ and non-invasive 3D monitoring of the precision of the treatment in highly conformal ion therapy. Its positive clinical impact has been proven for fractionated carbon ion therapy of head and neck tumours at the experimental facility at the Gesellschaft f"ur Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany. Following previous promising experiments, the possible extension of the method to the monitoring of proton therapy has been investigated further in extensive in-beam measurements at GSI. Millimetre accuracy for verification of the lateral field position and for the most challenging issue of range monitoring has been demonstrated in mono-energetic and spread-out Bragg-peak proton irradiation of PMMA targets. The irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom with tissue equivalent inserts in combination with further dynamic analysis has supported the extension of such millimetre precision to real clinical cases, at least in regions of interest for low perfused tissues. All the experimental investigations have been reproduced by the developed modeling rather well. This indicates the possible extraction of valuable clinical information as particle range in-vivo, irradiation field position and even local deviations from the dose prescription on the basis of the comparison between measured and predicted activity distributions. Hence, the clinical feasibility of in-beam PET for proton therapy monitoring is strongly supported.

  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 52(2005)3, 778-786

Publ.-Id: 6783

The QCD equation of state near T_0 within a quasi-particle model

Bluhm, M.; Kampfer, B.; Soff, G.

We present a description of the equation of state of strongly interacting matter within a quasi-particle model.
The model is adjusted to lattice QCD data near T0 at non-vanishing baryon density. We compare in detail the excess pressure and its expansion coefficients available from two-flavor lattice QCD calculations and outline prospects of the extrapolation to large baryon density.

Keywords: Equation of state; Strongly interacting matter; Lattice QCD

  • Physics Letters B 620(2005),131-136

Publ.-Id: 6782

Berührungslose Messung von Phasen- und Konzentrationsverteilungen in Blasensäulen mit positronenemittierenden Radionukliden

Zippe, C.; Hoppe, D.; Fietz, J.; Hampel, U.; Hensel, F.; Mäding, P.; Prasser, H.-M.; Zippe, W.

Die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) ist eine etablierte Untersuchungsmethode in der Medizin. Das vorgestellte Projekt beschäftigt sich mit einer nichtmedizinischen Anwendung dieses bildgebenden Verfahrens – dem Aufbau und der Anwendung eines PET-Tomographen zur Untersuchung des Verhaltens von Schaum in Blasensäulen. Am Beispiel von Natriumcapronat als schwaches Tensid, das einen feuchten, instabiler Schaum erzeugt, wird gezeigt, dass sich die Anreicherung eines Tensids in einer Schaumschicht mit der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie nachweisen lässt.

Keywords: PET; Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie; Blasensäule; Schaum; Chemiereaktor; Tensid; Anreicherung

  • Poster
    2. DECHEMA/GVC VDI-Symposium "Schäume - Grundlagen und Anwendungen", 16.-17.11.2004, Baden-Baden

Publ.-Id: 6781

High-fluence Si-implanted diamond: optimum implantation temperature for SiC formation

Weishart, H.; Eichhorn, F.; Heera, V.; Pécz, B.; Barna, Á.; Skorupa, W.

In this paper we investigate the effect of implantation temperature on the structural properties of diamond implanted with high fluences of Si between 5.3 ´ 1017 Si cm-2 and 1 ´ 1018 Si cm-2. In order to reduce radiation-induced damage and to enhance SiC formation the implantations were performed at elevated temperatures in the range from 900 °C to 1200 °C. Subsequently, all samples were annealed for 10 minutes at 1500 °C in an rf-heated furnace. X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of cubic SiC nanocrystallites in a buried layer inside the implanted diamond. The implantation-induced damage was assessed by analyzing graphitization of the surface-near layer using Raman spectroscopy. With increasing Si fluence the implantation-induced damage rises and the nearly perfect alignment of the formed SiC crystallites within the host diamond lattice deteriorates. However, rising the implantation temperature from 900 °C to 1000 °C reduces the damage in the diamond and increases amount, size and epitaxial alignment of the crystalline SiC precipitates. Further increase of the implantation temperature gives no improvement in the quality of the SiC rich layer. Instead, the damaged diamond converts into graphite and the formation of SiC crystallites is obstructed.

Keywords: Ion implantation; thin films; Heterostructures; structure and nonelectronic properties; Ion radiation effects

  • Journal of Applied Physics 98(2005), 043503.

Publ.-Id: 6780

Positronen Emissions Tomographie zur in vivo Charakterisierung neuer Substanzen

Bergmann, R.

  • Lecture (others)
    Institutskolloquium, Max-Bergmann- Zentrum, 22.10.2004, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6779

In vivo Biochemie mit PET

Bergmann, R.

  • Lecture (others)
    Institutsseminar, Technische Universität Dresden, 26.10.2004, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6778

Angular distribution and azimuthal asymmetry for pentaquark production in proton-proton collisions

Barz, H.-W.; Zetenyi, M.

Angular distributions for production of the Theta+ pentaquark are calculated for the collisions of polarized protons with polarized target protons. We compare calculations based on different assumptions concerning spin and parity (J=1/2+/-,3/2+/-) of the Theta+ state.
For a wide class of interactions the spin correlation parameters describing the asymmetric angular distributions are calculated up to 250 MeV above production threshold. The deviations from the near threshold behavior are investigated.

  • Physical Review C 71(2005), 065207

Publ.-Id: 6777

High-spin states and band terminations in 69As

Stefanescu, I.; Eberth, J.; Gersch, G.; Steinhardt, T.; Thelen, O.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Carlsson, B. G.; Ragnarsson, I.; de Angelis, G.; Martinez, T.; Jungclaus, A.; Schwengner, R.; Lieb, K. P.; Stefanova, E.; Curien, D.

Excited levels in 69As were studied using the 40Ca(32S, 3p)69 As reaction at 95 and 105 MeV beam energy. Gamma rays were detected with the EUROBALL spectrometer operated in conjunction with the Neutron Wall and the charged-particle detector array EUCLIDES. New level sequences with positive and negative paity were identified from 3p-γγ and γγγ coincidences. Spins were assigned to many of the levels on the basis of directional correlations of oriented states measurements. The previously observed positive-parity band was extended to spin 45/2+ and it was found to exhibit a crossing with another configuration identified up to spin 53/2+. Three negative-parity bands were observed for the first time up to spins (43/2-), 39/2-, and (41/2-). The previously known band was extended to spin (49/2-). No evidence for superdeformation was found, despite very high counting statistics. Configurations were assigned to each of the observed bands through comparisons to the cranked Nilsson-Strutunsky calculations.

Publ.-Id: 6775

Phase composition and properties of iron nanocrystals and clusters embedded in MgO matrix

Schneeweiss, O.; Pizurova, N.; Jiraskova, Y.; Zak, T.; Bezdicka, P.; Reuther, H.

Phase composition of the Mg-Fe powder prepared by spark erosion is investigated using Mossbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results are compared with the phase analysis of MgO single crystal wafer implanted by Fe-57.

  • Hyperfine Interactions 156(2004), 81-87

Publ.-Id: 6774

Mixed-Ligand Rhenium-188 Complexes with Tetradentate/Monodentate NS3/P (‘4+1’) Coordination: Relation of structure with antioxidation stability

Schiller, E.; Seifert, S.; Tisato, F.; Refosco, F.; Bolzati, C.; Kraus, W.; Spies, H.; Pietzsch, H.-J.

Development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on rhenium-188 depends on finding appropriate ligands able to give complexes with high in vivo stability. Rhenium(III) mixed-ligand complexes with tetradentate/monodentate (‘4 + 1’) coordination of the general formula [Re(NS3)(PRR’R’’)] (NS3 = tris-(2-mercaptoethyl)amine and derivatives thereof, PRR’R’’ = phosphorus(III) ligands) appear to be among the promising tools to achieve this goal. According to this approach, we synthesized and characterized series of rhenium model complexes. In vitro stabilities of the corresponding rhenium-188 complexes were determined by incubating 2-3 MBq or alternatively 37 MBq of the complexes in phosphate buffer, human plasma and rat plasma, respectively, at 22 °C or 37 °C, followed by checking the amount of 188ReO4 - formed after 1 h , 24 h and 48 h by thin-layer chromatography. The rate of perrhenate formation varied over a wide range, depending primarily on the nature of the phosphorus(III) ligand. Physicochemical parameters of the corresponding nonradioactive rhenium complexes were analyzed in detail to find out the factors influencing their different stability and furthermore to design new substitution-inert ‘4 + 1’ complexes. Tolman’s cone angle of phosphorus(III) ligands and the lipophilic character of the inner coordination sphere were found to be crucial factors to build up stable rhenium ‘4 + 1’ complexes. Additional information useful to describe electronic and steric properties of these compounds were selected from electronic spectra (wavelength of the Re→S charge-transfer band), cyclovoltammetric measurements (E° of the ReIII/ReIV couple), and NMR investigations (31P chemical shift of coordinated P(III) ligands).

  • Bioconjugate Chemistry 16(2005), 634-643

Publ.-Id: 6773

Design and performance of a high-resolution gamma tomography device

Bieberle, A.; Hampel, U.; Schleicher, E.; Hoppe, D.; Prasser, H.-M.; Sühnel, T.; Zippe, C.

We introduce and discuss the design and performance of a new high-resolution gamma ray tomography device that has been built for the measurement and visualisation of quasi-stationary flow structures in hydrodynamic machines and of gas fraction distributions in thermohydraulic facilities. The gamma tomography system can be operated either with a Cs-137 or a Co-60 source, which allows measurements in radiologically dense enclosures, such as pressure vessels, chemical reactors, or hydrodynamic machines. The detector arc is made of 320 small scintillation detector elements comprising LYSO scintillation crystals with an active area of 2 mm x 8 mm and large area avalanche photodiodes coupled to the crystals. For the photodiode read-out we developed a special charge sensitive pre-amplifier electronics based on a monolithic IC amplifier. This preamplifier stage is followed by pulse shaping and energy discrimination electronics. Data is acquired by fully parallel pulse counting with energy discrimination. For tomographic image reconstruction we implemented a set of analytic and iterative image reconstruction algorithms including filtered backprojection, ART, MART, and SIRT. In the presentation we will especially discuss the performance of the system with regard to density resolution and spatial resolution.

Keywords: high-resolution gamma ray tomography device; measurement; scintillator; avalanche photodiode; visualisation of quasi-stationary flow structures; tomographic sensor design

  • Contribution to proceedings
    4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 05.09.-08.09.2005, Aizu, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6772

Structural studies on ion implanted semiconductors using x-ray synchrotron radiation: strain evolution and growth of nanocrystals

Eichhorn, F.; Gaca, J.; Heera, V.; Schell, N.; Turos, A.; Weishart, H.; Wojcik, M.

X-ray synchrotron radiation is a very powerful tool in structural analysis of solids. Due to its extremely high intensity and low angular divergence synchrotron radiation allows the study of structures that otherwise are impossible. Here the typical studies on different semiconductor materials using various methods of synchrotron x-ray scattering are presented.
Ion implantation in compound semiconductors is a quite complicated process leading to some usually detrimental effects like buildup of damage and strain. In the case of InP produced strain is rather low and is hardly accessible by the conventional x-ray analysis. InP single crystals implanted with different doses of 1.2 MeV As+ ions were studied. It was found that implanted layers are under tensile stress, which relaxes upon prolonged storage at RT.
Another important issue is the analysis of nanocrystals. Diamond-SiC heterostructures produced by ion beam synthesis are considered as a promising technique for production of novel devices for high power applications. Synthesized by ion bombardment nanocrystals that grow in the single crystalline matrix are highly oriented. As revealed by x-ray scattering size and shape of nanocrystals, as well as incorporated strain depend on the ion implantation parameters.

Keywords: ion bombardment; compound semiconductors; diamond; HRXRD; RBS; ion beam synthesis

  • Proceedings of the Vth International Conference "Ion Implantation and Other Applications of Ions and Electrons" - ION2004, June 14 - 17, 2004, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland, Vacuum 78(2005), 303-309

Publ.-Id: 6771

Two-phase flow simulations in the FZ Rossendorf using CFX-5

Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.; Shi, J.-M.; Rohde, U.

To qualify CFD codes for gas-liquid two-phase flows, they have to be equipped with constitutive models standing for the interaction between the gaseous and the liquid phases. In case of bubbly flow this particularly concerns the forces acting on the bubbles as well as bubble coalescence and break-up. Besides the drag forces describing the momentum exchange in flow direction, the non drag forces acting perpendicular to the flow direction play an important role for the development of the flow structure. The presentation describes the two phase flow test facilities in the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, the applied measurement technique and the modelling efforts simulating the momentum exchange between the phases by means of a two-fluid model. The simulation of a rectangular bubble column and a hot channel in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly are presented as application examples.

Keywords: two-phase flow measurements; two-phase flow CFD calculations; Euler/Euler two fluid approach; momentum exchange non drag forces; wall boiling

  • Contribution to proceedings
    22nd CAD-FEM User's Meeting 2004 and ANSYS CFX & ICEM CFD Conference, 10.-12.11.2004, Dresden, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    22nd CAD-FEM User's Meeting 2004 and ANSYS CFX & ICEM CFD Conference, 10.-12.11.2004, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6766

Two-Phase Boundary Layer Prediction In Upward Boiling Flow

Končar, B.; Mavko, B.; Krepper, E.; Hassan, Y. A.

In the present work, the numerical modelling of the two-phase turbulent boundary layer in upward boiling flow was investigated. First, non-dimensional liquid velocity and temperature profiles in the two-phase boundary layer were validated on the one-dimensional section of a pipe with prescribed radial void fraction profiles. Simulations were performed on a fine grid with a commercial code CFX-5 using the k-w turbulence model. A significant deviation of results from the analytical single-phase and two-phase wall functions from the literature was observed. Second, a wall boiling model in a vertical heated pipe was simulated (CFX-5) on the coarse grid. Here the prediction of the two-phase thermal boudary layer was compared to the experimental data, k-w calculation on the fine grid and against the single-phase analytical wall function. Again a major deviation against single-phase temperature wall function was obtained. Presented analyses suggest that the existing analytical velocity and temperature wall functions cannot be valid for the boiling boundary layer with the high void fraction on the wall.

Keywords: Computatioal fluid dynamics; two-phase flow; subcooled boiling; boundary layer

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2004", 06.-09.09.2004, Portorož, Slovenia

Publ.-Id: 6763

A limited-angle CT approach for a fast scanned electron-beam X-ray tomography with application to multi-phase flow measurements

Speck, M.; Hampel, U.; Koch, D.; Mayer, H.-G.; Menz, H.-J.; Prasser, H.-M.; Schleicher, E.

We devised and tested a computed tomography approach that utilises a scanned electron beam X-ray source to produce multiple projections of an object at scan rates of 1000 frames per second and at an in-plane resolution of 1 mm. The measurement setup consists of an electron beam unit, a cylindrical tungsten target, and a detector line array which are operated inside a vacuum enclosure. By means of fast periodic electron beam deflection we produce a linearly moving focal X-ray spot on the tungsten target. The X-ray detector is read out in synchronisation with the beam deflection signal such that a set of consecutive tomographic projections from an object that is placed between target and detector can be obtained. This approach has some attractive features: it gives the highest achievable axial resolution, which is necessary to image fast moving flow structures and it is comparatively moderate in effort and costs. However, these advantages are compromised by the fact, that the projection data is incomplete with regard to the projection angle. The arising limited-angle problem may be solved by iterative image reconstruction algorithms. We will show, that this approach is suitable for a certain class of flow problems which are characterised by less complex object distributions and a high degree of available a-priori information, such as two-phase flows and particle tracking problems. In the presentation we will give an overview on the method, present first experimental results and discuss the image reconstruction process in some more detail.

Keywords: limited-angle tomography; high-speed tomography; algebraic reconstruction

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 05.-08.09.2005, Aizu, Japan
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 05.-08.09.2005, Aizu, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6762

Gamma tomography with application to two-phase flow imaging in hydrodynamic machines

Hampel, U.; Baldauf, D.; Christen, M.; Diele, K.-H.; Fietz, J.; Höller, H.; Hoppe, D.; Kernchen, R.; Prasser, H.-M.; Will, G.; Zippe, C.; Zschau, J.; (Editors)

We discuss the application of gamma tomography to the fully three-dimensional measurement of gas and fluid distributions inside rotating hydrodynamic machines. For such investigations we use a gamma tomography setup that currently employs a Cs-137 source of 180 GBq activity and approximately 5 mm focal spot together with a detector arc made of 64 scintillation crystals (BGO) with photomultiplier read-out. The detector is operated in pulse counting mode with energy discrimination. In the presentation we will introduce the principle of phase-correlated projection acquisition. Thus, projection data of a rotating object is acquired by a fast detector read-out and subsequent integration of the data for a set of equal angular intervals which are recorded by an angle sensor at the rotating object. As a first example we demonstrate the measurement of gas fractions in an axial pump that is in two-phase flow operation. In this study we were able to visualise the gas profiles at 10% gas fraction within the impeller of the pump at different axial measurement planes. The results directly provided an understanding of the interrelation between the hydraulic conveyance characteristics of the pump in two-phase flow operation and the flow structure in the impeller. In a second example we introduce the measurement of fluid distributions in a hydrodynamic coupling. In this study we successfully applied gamma tomography to visualise flow patterns inside the coupling for varying filling levels and slips. These results now find application in the optimisation of coupling designs and in the validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations for such devices.

Keywords: gamma tomography; two-Phase flow imaging

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Process Tomography, 05.-08.09.2005, Aizu, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6761

Characterization of Er : LiNbO3 and APE : Er : LiNbO3 by RBS-channeling and XRD techniques

Mackova, A.; Groetzschel, R.; Eichhorn, F.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.

The samples of erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) were prepared by the standard Czochralski method and treated by the annealed proton exchange (APE) procedure to create a planar waveguide for further optical application. The positions of Er atoms in the crystal lattice of pristine and APE treated Er:LiNbO3 samples were studied by the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)-channeling method. The Er3+ ion positions in the pristine and the APE treated Er:LiNbO3 samples are compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the damage to the crystal structure caused by the APE treatment. It was found that the APE treatment leads to significant crystal structure damage and to shifts of the Er3+ ions from their positions in the pristine crystal.

Keywords: Er:LiNbO3; RBS-channeling; APE treatment; optical waveguides

  • Surface and Interface Analysis 36(2004)8, 949-951

Publ.-Id: 6759

Optical and electronic properties of CrOxNy films, deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2/O2(N2O) atmospheres

Mientus, R.; Grötzschel, R.; Ellmer, K.

Chromium oxynitride films CrOxNy were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a chromium target in Ar/O-2(N2O)/N-2 gas mixtures. The argon-to-nitrogen partial pressure ratio and the DC discharge power were kept constant in the experiments. By changing the gas composition the film stoichiometry can be continuously varied from CrN to Cr2O3. The film composition has been determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). From an XRD analysis it was concluded that the films consist of CrN nanocrystals in an amorphous oxide matrix. Depending on the oxygen content [O], the electronic behaviour of the films changes, accompanied by the evolution of an optical band gap, which was determined by spectral transmission and reflection measurements. The (negative) temperature coefficient at approximate to 300 K of the resistivity of the films is in the range of 0.5 (CrN) to 2% K-1 (CrO0.5N0.7). This film property can be used for temperature-dependent resistors, for instance in thermal radiation detectors.

Keywords: chromium oxid; chromium nitride; reactive magnetron sputtering; ion beam analysis electronic properties

  • Surface & Coatings Technology 200(2005)(1-4), 341-345

Publ.-Id: 6758

A study of the dechanneling of protons in SiC polytype crystals in the energy range E-p=400-650 keV

Kokkoris, M.; Perdikakis, G.; Kossionides, S.; Petrovic, S.; Vlastou, R.; Grötzschel, R.

In the present work, the energy spectra of protons channeled along the (0 0 0 1) axis of SiC polytype crystals (namely 4H and 6H) in the energy range E-P = 400-650 keV, in the backscattering geometry, were taken and analyzed. Computer simulations are in very good agreement with the measured spectra. The accurate reproduction of the experimental channeling spectra in the backscattering geometry is strongly based on the investigation of the correct dechanneling function and a, the ratio of the stopping powers in the aligned and random mode. In the present work, the applicability of a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, with two parameters, k and x(c), which represent characteristic dechanneling rate and range, respectively, is examined, and the results are compared to the ones obtained in the past, concerning the same polytype structures, based on the assumption that the dechanneling of protons follows an exponential law, for the energy range E-P = 1.7-2.4 MeV.

Publ.-Id: 6757

The Influx of Neutral Amino Acids into the Porcine Brain During Development: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

Brust, P.; Vorwieger, G.; Walter, B.; Füchtner, F.; Stark, H.; Kuwabara, H.; Steinbach, J.; Bauer, R.

Pigs of three different age groups (newborns, 1 week old, 6 weeks old) were used to study the transport of the large neutral amino acids 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA ([F-18]FDOPA) and 3-O-methyl-6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA ([F-18]OMFD) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the blood-brain clearance (K-1) and the rate constant for the brain-blood transfer (k(2)) of [F-18]FDOPA and [F-18]OMFD after i.v. injection. A 40-70% decrease of K-1(OMFD), K-1(FDOPA) and k(2)(OMFD) from newborns to juvenile pigs was found whereas k(2)(FDOPA) did not change. Generally, K-1(OMFD) and k(2)(OMFD) are lower than K-1(FDOPA) and k(2)(FDOPA) in all regions and age groups. The changes cannot be explained by differences in brain perfusion because the measured regional cerebral blood flow did not show major changes during the first 6 weeks after birth. In addition, alterations in plasma amino acids cannot account for the described transport changes. In newborn and juvenile pigs, HPLC measurements were performed. Despite significant changes of single amino acids (decrease: Met, Val, Leu; increase: Tyr), the sum of large neutral amino acids transported by LAT1 remained unchanged. Furthermore, treatment with a selective inhibitor of the LAT1 transporter (BCH) reduced the blood-brain transport of [F-18]FDOPA and [F-18]OMFD by 35% and 32%, respectively. Additional in-vitro studies using human LAT1 reveal a much lower affinity of FDOPA compared to OMFD or L-DOPA. The data indicate that the transport system(s) for neutral amino acids underlie(s) developmental changes after birth causing a decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability for those amino acids during brain development. It is suggested that there is no tight coupling between brain amino acid supply and the demands of protein synthesis in the brain tissue. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Developmental Brain Research 152(2004), 241-253

Publ.-Id: 6756

Hydromagnetic dynamo experiments

Stefani, F.

Planetary, stellar, and galactic magnetic fields are caused by the hydromagnetic dynamo action in moving electrically conducting fluids. While theory and numerics of hydromagnetic dynamos have flourished during the last decades, an experimental validation of the effect was missing until recently. Therefore, it was a nice coincidence that, after years of preparations, the large-scale liquid sodium dynamo facilities in Riga and Karlsruhe became operative nearly simultaneously at the end of 1999. Since those pioneering times, a number of runs have been carried out in either place, yielding reproducible data on the kinematic as well as on the saturation regime. With the main focus on the Riga experiment, I give a summary of what has been achieved so far and what is left for future dynamo experiments.

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag, Technische Universiteit Delft, 20.10.2004, Delft, Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 6755

Depth profiling of light elements in PAMBE-grown GaN and helium-implanted titanium with heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection

Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, V. J.; Durbin, S. M.; Johnson, P. B.; Mücklich, A.; Dytlewski, N.

The heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA) technique was used to investigate the possibility of measuring near-surface elemental depth profiles of light and mid-Z elements in thin films of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE)-grown GaN and helium-implanted titanium. The great advantage of HI-ERDA is the ability to measure mass-separated elemental depth profiles simultaneously. However for some materials it is not certain whether HI-ERDA can be used successfully because significant sputtering or other beam-induced damage may occur. The damage to the surfaces by a 77 MeV iodine beam was assessed using RBS, AFM and profilometry. The results show that for thin PAMBE-grown polycrystalline GaN films and for titanium that has been heavely implanted with helium a significant modification of the near-surface region is caused by the probing heavy ion beam. For the PAMBE-grown GaN films the most significant loss trend is observed for nitrogen. Surprisingly this was not accompanied by a change in surface topology. In contrast, an almost complete removal of the heavily helium-implanted surface layer was measured for the titanium specimens. The investigation shows that reference measurements with additional techniques such as RBS, AFM and profilometry have to be performed to ascertain sample integrity before HI-ERDA data can be used.

Keywords: HI-ERDA; GaN; He-implanted Ti; nanoporous surfaces; sputtering; depth profiling

Publ.-Id: 6754

Investigation of the Formation and Phase Transition of Ge and Co Nanoparticles in a SiO2 matrix

Cantelli, V.; von Borany, J.; Mücklich, A.; Schell, N.

The evolution of ion beam synthesized Co and Ge nanoclusters in a SiO2 matrix during annealing processes has been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction and ex-situ transmission electron microscopy. Remarkable differences has been found for Ge and Co clusters. For Ge implanted SiO2 films a clear influence of near-surface Ge oxidation and nanocluster melting has been established. Annealing at temperatures at around 1000°C leads to the formation of an ensemble of small (d~5 nm) nanocrystals. The cluster growth is mainly thermodynamically driven by classical diffusion limited Ostwald ripening. Contrary, for Co-implanted SiO2 films a drastic transition in nanoclusters evolution has been established. Within a relatively small temperature range at around 800°C an ensemble of small (d~4nm) amorphous Co clusters is transformed into a bimodal cluster distribution with large Co nanocrystals of 20-40 nm diameter near the surface. The influence of oxidation or nanocluster melting can be neglected.

Keywords: Nanoclusters; Cobalt; Germanium; Microstructure; XRD; TEM

  • Poster
    4th Int. Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS-4), August 23-25, 2004, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 6753

Recent developments in the field of nuclear safety research

Rindelhardt, U.; Weiss, F.-P.

Some recent developments in the field of nuclear safety research will be presented. The contribution starts from the general aim of safety research – to contribute to the sustainability of nuclear energy compared with other energy resources.
The first two examples refers to the safety of operating NPPs. Possible boron dilution transients can lead to reactivity accidents at certain conditions. Comprehensive experimental and numerical studies were carried out to identify the critical conditions of such transients. Another topic – which belongs to the severe accident research - is the investigation of the reactor pressure vessel behaviour during core melt and corium in the lower plenum. Pre- and post-test calculations of the Swedish FOREVER-experiments will be presented.
The third topic deals with the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides. Up to now the radioactive waste has safely to be isolated for millions of years. Implementing new concepts a drastic reduction of waste and isolation time can be expected. As example accelerator driven systems (ADS) are discussed.

Keywords: Nuclear safety research; Boron dilution; severe accidents; partitioning and transmutation; ADS

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    CO-MAT-TECH 2004, 12th International Scientific Conference, 14.-15.10.2004, Trnava, Slovakia

Publ.-Id: 6752

In-situ x-ray diffraction during sputter deposition of Ti1-xAlxN thin films

Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R. M. S.; Möller, W.; (Editors)

Due to improved hardness and oxidation resistance, Ti1-xAlxN coatings are constantly displacing TiN in tooling and microelectronic industry. Since the coating’s performance can be further increased by tailoring preferred orientation, an understanding of how deposition parameters influence thin film texture is crucial. The approach used here is in situ x-ray diffraction both in-plane and off-plane during film growth. For this purpose a growth chamber has been installed into the goniometer of the Rossendorf synchrotron BeamLine (ROBL) at the ESRF. Ti1-xAlxN films were deposited by reactive co-sputtering from metallic Ti and Al targets, varying substrate temperature, bias voltage and aluminum concentration. In-situ experiments with x~0.1 revealed competitive growth between low surface free energy (002) grains and low strain energy (111) grains parallel to the surface with (002) orientation dominating at higher substrate temperature in accordance with models found in literature. Contrary to pure TiN, here no sub-surface recrystallisation as a driving factor for texture crossover has been observed. Halving the deposition rate led to almost pure (002) fiber texture independent of film thickness pointing towards kinetic restrictions during film growth. Data of current experiments on nano-composite structured Ti1-xAlxN with x~0.5 will also be presented at the conference.

  • Poster
    Plasma surface Engineering (PSE) 2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th Int. Conf. on Plasma Surface Enginneering, 13.-17.09.2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Publ.-Id: 6751

The crucial role of the diphosphine heteroatom X in the stereochemistry and stabilization of the substitution-inert [M(N)(PXP)]2+ metal fragments (M = Tc, Re; PXP = diphosphine ligand)

Tisato, F.; Refosco, F.; Porchia, M.; Bolzati, C.; Bandoli, G.; Dolmella, A.; Duatti, A.; Boschi, A.; Jung, C. M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Kraus, W.

The nature of the heteroatom X incorporated in the five-member PXP-diphosphine spacer was found to play a primary unit role both in the stereochemical arrangement and overall stability of nitrido containing [M(N)(PXP)]2+ metal fragments (M = Tc, Re). Thus, by mixing PXP ligands with labile [Re(N)Cl4]- and [Tc(N)Cl2(PPh3)2] nitrido precursors in CH2Cl2/MeOH mixtures, a series of neutral [M(N)Cl2(PXP)] complexes (M = Tc, 1-5; M = Re, 8-9) was collected. In the resulting distorted octahedrons PXP adopted facial or meridional coordination, and combination with halide co-ligands produced three different stereochemical arrangements, i.e. fac,cis mer,cis and mer,trans, depending primarily on the nature of the diphosphine heteroatom X. When X = NH, mer,cis-[Tc(N)Cl2(PNP1)] 1 was the only isomer formed. Alternatively, when a tertiary amine nitrogen (X = NR; R = CH3, CH2CH2OCH3) was introduced in the spacer, fac,cis-[M(N)Cl2(PN(R)P)] complexes (M = Tc, 2, 3; M = Re, 8f) were obtained. Isomerization into the the mer,cis-[Re(N)Cl2(PN(R)P)], 8m, species was observed only in the case of rhenium when the tertiary amine group carried the less encumbering methyl substituent. Fac,cis-[Tc(N)Cl2(PSP)], 4f, was isolated in the solid state when X = S, but mixture of fac,cis-[Tc(N)Cl2(PSP)] and mer,trans-[Tc(N)Cl2(PSP)], 4m, isomers was found in equilibrium in the solution state. A similar equilibrium between fac,cis-[M(N)Cl2(POP)] (M = Tc, 5f; M = Re, 9f) and mer,trans-[M(N)Cl2(POP)] (M = Tc, 5m; M = Re, 9m) species was detected in POP containing complexes. The molecular structure of all of these complexes were assessed by means of conventional physico-chemical techniques including multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of representative mer,cis-[Tc(N)Cl2(PN(H)P)] 1, fac,cis-[Tc(N)Cl2(PSP)] 4f, and mer,cis-[Re(N)Cl2(PN(Me)P)] 8m compounds.

  • Inorganic Chemistry 43(2004), 8617-8625

Publ.-Id: 6750

In-situ Charakterisierung während der Hochenergie - Sauerstoffionen - Implantation in Übergangsmetalle

Bohne, Y.; Shevchenko, N.; Prokert, F.; von Borany, J.; Rauschenbach, B.; Möller, W.

Keywords: In-situ; Implantation; Übergangsmetalle; Oxid

  • Poster
    DPG - spring meeting, Regensburg, March 8-12, 2004

Publ.-Id: 6749

Surface processes and properties of ion implanted NiTi alloy

Shevchenko, N.; Pham, M.-T.; Richter, E.; Maitz, M. F.

Keywords: NiTi; ion implantation; surface; biocompatibility

  • Poster
    9th International conference on plasma surface engineering, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, September 13 - 17, 2004

Publ.-Id: 6748

3-O-Methyl-6-18F-Fluoro-L-Dopa, a New Tumor Imaging Agent: Investigation of Transport Mechanism In Vitro

Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, J.; Füchtner, F.; Pawelke, B.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Johannsen, B.; Kotzerke, J.

18F-Labeled amino acids represent a promising class of imaging agents in tumors, particularly brain tumors. However, the determination of their potential to image peripheral tumors, possibly depending on individual transport characteristics, still remains an area of investigation. The present study investigated the transport mechanism for 3-O-methyl-618F-fluoro-L-dopa (OMFD), a novel 18F-labeled phenylalanine derivative, into tumor cells. Methods: OMFD has routinely and reliably been prepared for clinical use in 20 % - 25 % radiochemical yield (decay corrected, related to 18F-F2) using 6-18F-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine preparation devices with minor modifications. In vitro uptake assays with HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) cells, FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma) cells, and RBE4 (immortalized rat brain endothelial) cells were performed with OMFD under physiologic amino acid concentrations without and with the competitive transport inhibitors 2-aminobicyclo[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid and α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid plus serine and without or with Na+. Results: Transport inhibition experiments using specific competitive inhibitors demonstrated that uptake of OMFD in all cell lines tested was mediated mainly by the sodium-independent high-capacity amino acid transport systems. The highest OMFD uptake was in FaDu cells. Conclusion: OMFD seems to be a promising PET tracer for imaging of amino acid transport in tumors.

Keywords: amino acid transport; 18F; PET; radiotracer

  • Journal of Nuclear Medicine 45(2004), 2116-2122

Publ.-Id: 6747

Fluid-dynamic instabilities during mass transfer across the interface between to immiscible liquids

Grahn, A.; Prasser, H.-M.

Experiments and simulations were conducted in a vertically oriented Hele-Shaw cell. Buoyancy driven convection, in particular plumes and double diffusive fingering as well as surface tension driven convection in the form of roll cells have been found in the experiments and reproduced numerically. The calculations reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of mass transfer rates in the presence of the instabilities. The model can be used to predict the mass transfer for the simple geometry of a flat surface.

Keywords: double diffusive instability; Marangoni effect; mass transfer; chemical reaction

  • Contribution to proceedings
    6th world conference on experimental heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, 17.-21.04.2005, Miyagi, Japan

Publ.-Id: 6746

Improvements of tribological properties of CrNiMo and CrCoMo alloys by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

Ueda, M.; Berni, L. A.; Castro, R. M.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.; Soares Jr., P. C.

Improvements of tribological properties of CrNiMo and CrCoMo alloys by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, September 13 - 17, 2004, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Publ.-Id: 6744

Chromium enrichment of AISI 304 stainless steel surface after nitrogen ion recoil bombardment of chromium film

Gomes, G. F.; Ueda, M.; Beloto, A. F.; Reuther, H.; Richter, E.

Chromium enrichment of AISI 304 stainless steel surface after nitrogen ion recoil bombardment of chromium film

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology September 20-24, 2004 Paris

Publ.-Id: 6743

Comparison of nitrogen ion beam and plasma immersion implantation in Al5052 alloy

Ueda, M.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.

Comparison of nitrogen ion beam and plasma immersion implantation in Al5052 alloy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology September 20-24, 2004, Paris, France

Publ.-Id: 6742

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