Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34730 Publications

Hydrogen isotope inventories in plasma facing components of ASDEX UPGRADE

Krieger, K.; Maier, H. J.; Grambole, D.; Schleussner, D.; Franzen, P.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, Japan, Oct. 19 -24, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2236

Lattice site location of foreign atoms measured by the GRID method

Karmann, A.; Wesch, W.; Börner, H. G.; Jentschel, M.; Heinig, K.-H.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Workshop on Applications of High-Precision gamma-Spectroscopy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IL, USA, July 1 - 3, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2234

The GRID technique: current status and new trends

Jentschel, M.; Börner, H. G.; Heinig, K.-H.; Doll, C.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Workshop on Applications of High-Precision (-Spectroscopy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IL, USA, July 1 - 3, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2233

Structural analysis of Si/Fe and Mo/Fe ion-beam mixed layers

Jagielski, J.; Kopcewicz, M.; Turos, A.; Eichhorn, F.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th. Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2232

Growth of ion-beam deposited a-C and a-C:H films: molecular-dynamics simulations using empirical many-body potential expressions

Jäger, H.-U.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th Europ. Conf. on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Nitrides and Silicon Carbide, Crete, Greece, Sept. 13-18, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2231

Untersuchung historischer menschlicher Knochen mit Ionen-Mikrosonde

Jankuhn, S.; Butz, T.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Barckhausen, B.; Hammerl, J.; Protsch Von Zieten, R.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Bethge, K.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrstagung der Fachverbände Chemische Physik, Kurzzeitphysik, Plasmaphysik, Polymerphysik, Bayreuth, March 9 - 13, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2230

Heavy-Ion induced damage of crystalline Ge and W at 0.5 to 8 MeV/u range

Huber, H.; Assmann, W.; Karamian, S. A.; Mieskes, H. D.; Nolte, H.; Gazis, E.; Kokkoris, M.; Kossionides, S.; Vlastou, R.; Grötzschel, R.; Mücklich, A.; Prusseit, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter ( SHIM-98), Berlin , May 1998
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 146 (1998) 309-316

Publ.-Id: 2229

Pd diffusion in ZnTe and CdTe

Herrmann, S.; Mahnke, H.-E.; Spellmeyer, B.; Wienecke, M.; Reinhold, B.; Yankov, R. A.; Gumlich, H.-E.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS´98, Strasbourg, June 16-19, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2228

Effects of neutron irradiation on Fe-Cu model alloys and RPV steels probed by positron annihilation and hardness measurements

Hempel, A.; Saneyasu, M.; Tang, Z.; Hasegawa, M.; Brauer, G.; Plazaola, F.; Yamaguchi, S.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th Symp. on Effects of Radiation on Materials, Seattle/WA, June 16-18, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2227

A combination of computer simulation methods to predict quantum dot evolution during ion beam synthesis

Heinig, K.-H.; Strobel, M.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th Int. Conf. on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids, Okayama, Japan, Sept.15 - 19, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2226

Application of high-resolution gamma-spectroscopy (GRID method) in solid state physics

Heinig, K.-H.; Börner, H. G.; Jentschel, M.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Int. Workshop on Applications of High-Precision (-Spectroscopy, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IL, July 1 - 3, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2225

Nanocrystal formation in SiO2: experiments, modelling and computer simulations

Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Markwitz, A.; Grötzschel, R.; Strobel, M.; von Borany, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    E-MRS'98, Strasbourg, France, June 16-19, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2224

What is the physics behind the 3He-4He anomaly?

Neubert, W.; Botvina, A. S.

We show that coalescence of nucleons emitted prior to thermalization in highly excited nuclei can explain the anomaly of kinetic energies of helium fragments. This mechanism accomplishes the statistical approach to nuclear rections formerly used to describe intermediate mass fragment production.

Keywords: Intermediate energy hadron -nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions; helium isotopes

  • European Physical Journal A, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.101-106

Publ.-Id: 2223

Phasenbildung und Standzeiterhöhung von HSS-Bohrern nach Plasma-Immersions-Implantation

Günzel, R.; Mändl, S.; Möller, W.; Hilke, R.; Knösel, E.; Künanz, K.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Werkstoffwoche München, Oct. 12-15, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2222

Plasma-Immersions-Implantation – ein modernes Verfahren zur Modifizierung von Werkstückoberflächen

Günzel, R.; Brückner, J.; Richter, E.; Möller, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Werkstoffwoche München, Oct. 12-15, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2221

Proton conducting Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O8.73/H2O: Pressure/compositions isotherms in terms of Fermi-Dirac-Statistics

Groß, B.; Marion, S.; Lind, K.; Hempelmann, R.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th Int. Conf. on Solid State Protonic Conductors (SSSPC-9), Bled, Slovenia, Aug. 17 - 21, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2220

Fragmentation of Be induced by 1 GeV protons

Andronenko, L. N.; Andronenko, M. N.; Gusev, Y. I.; Kotov, A. A.; Neubert, W.; Petrov, G. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Strakovski, I. I.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Yatsoura, V. I.; Zalite, A. Y.

Fragment yields and energy spectra of He, Li and Be isotopes have been measured in p+9Be interactions at 1 GeV incident energy at 30 deg. and 126 deg. using a two-arm
spectrometer based on Bragg chambers. The obtained yield ratio of the low abundant
8He to 8Li in the spectator momentum range is compared with published data.

Keywords: fragmentation; cross section; isotope; proton

  • Other report
    Preprint NP-36-1999 Nr. 2321 , St.Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute ,Gatchina, Russia

Publ.-Id: 2219

ERDA in-situ studies of atomic transport processes in various materials

Grötzschel, R.; Kreißig, U.; Kruse, O.; Grigull, S.; Parascandola, S.; Schmidt, B.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Int.Conf. on Swift Heavy Ions in Materials Engeneering and Characterization (SHIMEC-98), New Delhi, Oct. 19 - 22, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2218

Hydrogen and deuterium depth profiling in divertor tiles of a fusion experiment by micro-ERDA

Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Behrisch, R.; Hauffe, W.

Depth profiling of light elements in the surface layer of solids by means of ERDA is limited to depths smaller than about 1 mu m. In order to measure the distributions
of hydrogen isotopes in larger depth regions such as needed for the divertor tiles from the tokamak fusion experiment ASDEX-Upgrade in the Max-Planck-Institut
fur Plasmaphysik, samples cut from the divertor tiles (about 0.6 mm tungsten on carbon) were bevelled at different angles by mechanical cutting and polishing or by
ion beam slope cutting. The mechanically cut slopes were additionally cleaned and polished by oblique incidence ion beam sputtering with target rotation to avoid
anisotropic etching.
The surface composition along the slope was measured by ERDA with the Rossendorf Nuclear Microprobe, A 10 MeV Si ion beam was focused to about 3 mu m
and scanned linearly across the slope. The hydrogen and deuterium recoils were detected by a surface barrier detector at a recoil angle of 30 degrees after passing
through a 10 mu m thick Al foil for stopping scattered primary ions. Deuterium was found at depths up to about 25 mu m and hydrogen up to 750 mu m on the
samples analysed.

Keywords: micro-ERDA; elastic recoil detection; depth profiling; hydrogen; deuterium

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th Int. Conf. on Nucl. Microprobe Technology and Applications, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Oct. 11 - 16, 1998
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 158(1999) 647-652

Publ.-Id: 2217

Fragment production in proton interactions with light nuclei

Andronenko, L. N.; Andronenko, M. N.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Neubert, W.

Isotopic yield ratios were derived from double-differential cross sections measured in p+9Be and p+12C collisions at 1 GeV. Enhanced 9He yields were found compared to heavier target nuclei.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    7th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics. Rab, Croatia 1999

Publ.-Id: 2216

Ions and electron-irradiation induced deep levels in n-type and p-type 6H-SiC

Gong, M.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Brauer, G.; Wirth, H. D.; Skorupa, W.; You, Z.-P.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MRS 1998 Spring Meeting, San Francisco, April 13-17, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2215

Si1-xGex structures fabricated by focused ion beam implantation

Ganetsos, T.; Tsamakis, D.; Panknin, D.; Mair, G. L. R.; Teichert, J.; Bischoff, L.; Aidinis, C.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference in Low Temperature Devices, Toscane, Italy, June 1998
  • Contribution to external collection
    J. de Phys. IV 8 (1998) Pr3 - 109

Publ.-Id: 2214

Analysis of mechanisms in ECR-PECVD of BN films using in situ ellipsometry

Fukarek, W.; Möller, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DACH - Kolloquium, Giengen, Oct. 6-8, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2213

Investigation of in-plane anisotropy of IBAD t-BN films

Fukarek, W.; Möller, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DACH - Kolloquium, Giengen, Oct. 6-8, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2212

In plane anisotropy of IBAD t-BN films

Fukarek, W.; Möller, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science, Tilton School, New Hampshire, USA, Aug. 9 - 14, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2211

Applications of infrared spectroscopy in materials research

Fukarek, W.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    33. Holzhau-Meeting, March 30, April 3, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2210

A slow positron beam investigation of positron-defect interactions in single crystalline synthetic type IB diamonds and a natural type IIB diamond

Fischer, C. G.; Connell, S. H.; Coleman, P. G.; Anwand, W.; Malik, F.; Brauer, G.; Britton, D. T.; Sellschop, J. P. F.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th Int. Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surface (SLOPOS - 8), Cape Town, Sept. 6 - 12, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2209

Temperature effect on the morphology of helium bubble clusters in silicon

Fichtner, P.; Kaschny, J. R.; Yankov, R. A.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th Int. Conf. On Electron Microscopy, Cancum, Mexico, Aug. 31-Sept.5, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2208

The effects of annealing temperature on the formation of helium filled structures in silicon

Fichtner, P.; Kaschny, J. R.; Behar, M.; Yankov, R. A.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM'98), Amsterdam, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2207

X-ray studies of silicon wafers implanted with MeV Ge++ions

Eichhorn, F.; Sass, J.; Mazur, K.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th Europ. Conf. on High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and Topography, Durham/GB, Sept. 9 - 12, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2206


Dobler, M.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IX. Mößbauerkolloquium Freiberg, Sept. 28-30, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2205

Untersuchung der Eisendisilizidbildung nach der Implantation von Fe in Si

Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    10. Arbeitstagung Angewandte Oberflächenanalytik AOFA 10, Kaiserslautern, Sept. 6-10, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2204

Ion bombardment stimulated phase formation in quartz glasses

Deshkovskaya, A. A.; Richter, E.

  • Lecture (Conference) Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2203

FTIR-Untersuchungen zur Komplexierung von Uran(VI) durch Huminsäuren

Heise, K.-H.; Nicolai, R.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Klöcking, R.; Bernhard, G.

Aufgrund der nur unvollkommen erfaßbaren, keineswegs stabilen chemischen Struktur und Funktionalität von Huminsäuren aus natürlichen Recourcen haben operationell mit HS übereinstimmende, synthetische Polymere als Modellhuminsäuren in vielen Bereichen der experimentellen Wissenschaften Eingang gefunden. Sie sind vor dem Hintergrund der Umweltkontaminationen durch toxische und radiotoxische Schwermetalle besonders für Bindungsstudien mit Metallionen interessant, da ihre Funktionalität durch Variation der Precursoren und der Synthesebedingungen in weiten Grenzen "eingestellt" werden kann.

Wir haben FTIR-spektrometrisch die festen Komplexe von Uran(VI) mit unterschiedlichen, gut charaktersierten Huminsäuren, zwei natürlichen Huminsäuren (Aldrich-Huminsäure und eine aus Moorwasser des "Kleinen Kranichsees" isolierte Huminsäure) sowie drei synthetischen Huminsäuren (zwei Melanoidinfraktionen sowie das Oxidationsprodukt von 3,4,5 Trihydroxybenzoesäure), verglichen. Trotz unterschiedlicher Herkunft der Huminsäuren, die in ihren FTIR-Spektren deutlich wird, scheint die Urananbindung an die Huminsäuren sehr ähnlich zu sein, was durch EXAFS-Untersuchungen an Uranylkomplexen natürlicher Huminsäuren und synthetischer Huminsäuren vom Melanoidintyp gestützt wird. Sowohl die asymmetrischen UO22+-Streckschwingungen im mittleren Infrarot, die wir zwischen 933.5 cm-1 und 923.1 cm-1 registrieren, als auch die UO22+-Deformationsschwingungen im fernen Infrarot zwischen 264.8 cm-1 und 260.6 cm-1 sind gut miteinander vergleichbar.
Die Einflußnahmen der strukturellen und funktionellen Unterschiede der Huminsäuren spiegeln sich in unterschiedlichen Verschiebungen der Uranylbanden wieder.

Keywords: FTIR-Spektroskopie; Huminsäuren, Uranyl-Huminsäurekomplexe

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Moor- und Torfkunde e.V.,Sektion IV - Physik, Chemie, Biologie Bad Elster, 07.-09.10.1999

Publ.-Id: 2202

Small Angle Scattering Study Concerning the Effect of Residual Elements on the Radiation Behaviour of Iron Alloys

Ulbricht, A.; Böhmert, J.; Große, M.; Strunz, P.

For better understanding of the influence of the deleterious elements on the neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels, the microstructural evolution due to neutron irradiation was investigated by SANS experiments at ternary iron alloys with different contents of copper and phosphorus. In every case irradiation produced nanoscaled inhomogeneities. The volume fraction of the inhomogeneities incrases with the copper content but not with the phosphorus content. Surprisingly, the high-pure alloy shows a relatively high irradiation effect. The irradiation defects vary in type and kinetic of evolution for the different alloys.

Keywords: small angle scattering; radiation damage; neutron embrittlement; iron alloy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ECNS'99, 2. European Conference on Neutron Scattering, Sept. 1999, Budapest, PHYSICA B 276-278 (2000) 936-938
  • Physica B 276-278 (2000) 936-938

Publ.-Id: 2201

Einfluß der Ionenimplantation auf die Festigkeit von Quarzglas

Deshkovskaya, A. A.; Richter, E.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    28. Int. Konf. Physik der Wechselwirkung geladener Teilchen mit kristallinen Materialien, Moskau, May 25 - 27, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2200

New aspects in the design of silicon detectors for particle spectroscopy

von Borany, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Dresden Protection Symposium on "New Aspects of Radiation Measurements, Dosimetry and Alphaspectrometry", Dresden , March, 4-6, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2199

Computer simulations on thin film growth of superhard materials

Albe, K.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4th Int. Conf. on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids, Okayama, Japan,Sept. 15-19, 1998 (invited lecture)

Publ.-Id: 2198

Non-local approach to modeling of nanocluster evolution in ion implanted layers

Borodin, V. A.; Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS'98, Strasbourg, France, June 16-19, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2197

High Sensitive Thermal Sensors in Heat Spreading Diamond for Industrial Application

Bonhaus, J.; Harlander, T.; Borchert, D.; Ecke, G.; Fontaine, F.; Fahrner, W. R.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Int. Symp. on Industrial Electronics (ISIE `98) , Pretoria, South Africa, July 7 - 10, 1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, proceedings vol. 1, 2 (1998) p. 157

Publ.-Id: 2195

Ion beam synthesis: a novel method of producing (SiC)1-x(AIN)x layers

Yankov, R. A.; Fukarek, W.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Voelskow, M.; Kreißig, U.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Heera, V.; Skorupa, W.

  • Mat. Sci. Forum 264-268 (1998) 753
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. on Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 31 - Sept. 5, 1997

Publ.-Id: 2194

Investigation of ion-implantation induced damage in 6H-SiC by RBS/C and PAS

Wirth, H.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Voelskow, M.; Panknin, D.; Skorupa, W.; Coleman, P. G.

  • Mat. Sci. Forum 264-268 (1998) 729

Publ.-Id: 2193

GRID spectroscopy - a new nuclear method for lattice site localization of foreign atoms

Wesch, W.; Karmann, A.; Börner, H. G.; Jentschel, M.; Heinig, K.-H.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B136-138 (1998) 494
  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Analysis, Lissabon, Portugal, July 28 -August 2, 1997

Publ.-Id: 2192

Cross-sectional micro-Raman Spectroscopy: a tool for structural investigations of thin polytypic SiC layers

Werninghaus, T.; Zahn, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Mücklich, A.; Pezoldt, J.

  • Mat. Sci. Forum 264-268 (1998) 661
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. on Silicon Carbide, III-Nitrides and Related Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 31 - Sept. 5, 1997

Publ.-Id: 2191

Ion bombardment induced relaxation of strained AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures studied by the complementary use of RBS-channeling and X-ray synchrotron radiation

Turos, A.; Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.; Graeff, W.; Grötzschel, R.; Strupinski, W.

AlxGa1-xAs epitaxial layers grown on semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) substrates with x=0,25 and on in-doped GaAs with x= 0,45 were implanted at room temperature with 1.5 MeV Se ions to fluences ranging from 0,6x1014 to 4x1014 at/cm2 . Implanted crystals were analyzed with 1.8 MeV 4He ions using the RBS/channeling technique. In order to determine the defect structure and their depth profiles measurements were carried out at two different temperatures: 295 and 105 K. XRD with synchrotron beams was used for structural analysis. White beam topography was used to detect lattice deformation and strain relaxation. The lattice parameters were determined by rocking curve measurements with a monochromatic beam. For all samples a signifcant tetragonalization of the implanted region was observed. For the layers grown on SI-GaAs the lattice distortion increases with increasing ion dose until a critical lattice strain is attained. At that point the complete relaxation of the epitaxial layer occurs. In contrast, no relaxation was observed for layers grown on practically defect free indoped substrates. The mechanism of this transformation is attributed to the much higher dislocation density in the SI-GaAs substrate. Nucleation of new dislocations at defects produced by ion implantation and their interaction with threading dislocations leads to the strain relaxation by plastic
deformation of epitaxial layers.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B136-138 ( 1998) 1062

Publ.-Id: 2190

Conversion algorithm for ERDA multielement spectra and its application to thin-film problems

Spaeth, C.; Richter, F.; Grigull, S.; Kreißig, U.

A computer program was designed for the conversion of element-resolved energy spectra obtained from elastic recoil
detection analysis into composition depth profles. The algorithm is described in detail. An important feature of the
program is that the contribution of the analyzed elements to the stopping power is accounted for self-consistently. Extensions of the algorithm address the problem of the simultaneous analysis of recoil and forward scattering events, respectively, and of distortions in the recoil spectra due to the presence of target constituents with isotopic distributions that cannot be resolved when using standard ionization chambers for recoil detection. Two examples are given to demonstrate how one may benefit from the capabilities of the conversion program in the context of specifc thin film problems. The first example addresses compositional changes in Si3N4/C bilayers due to N-ion implantation, while the second one is dealing with the problem of impurity accumulation at the hexagonal-to-cubic phase boundary in BN films.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B140 (1998) 243

Publ.-Id: 2189

Content of hydrogen in boron-, carbon-, nitrogen-, oxygen-, fluorine- and neon-implanted titanium

Soltani-Farshi, M.; Baumann, H.; Rück, D.; Richter, E.; Kreißig, U.; Bethge, K.

  • Surf. Coat. Technol. 103-104 (1998) 299
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SMMIB 97, Gatlinburg, TE, USA, Sept. 1997

Publ.-Id: 2188

Positron Studies of defects in nitrogen and carbon implanted titanium

Soltani-Farshi, M.; Baumann, H.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Coleman, P.; Richter, E.; Kreißig, U.; Bethge, K.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 527 (1998) 81

Publ.-Id: 2187

Untersuchungen zum Korrosionsverhalten von Magnesium nach Ionenimplantation

Schneider, M.; Nocke, K.; Richter, E.

  • Galvanotechnik 80 (1998) 2524

Publ.-Id: 2186

Angle dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy on ß-FeSi2 single crystals

Reuther, H.; Behr, G.; Dobler, M.; Teresiak, A.

  • Hyperfine Interactions (c) 3 (1998) 385

Publ.-Id: 2185

Investigation of the calcium content in joint cartilage: Is it connected with (early arthrotic) changes in cartilage structure?

Reinert, T.; Butz, T.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Jankuhn, S.; Vogt, J.; Gründer, W.; Kanowski, M.; Wagner, M.; Werner, A.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

This paper describes investigations using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission method (PIXE) to evaluate the con-
centration of Ca together with that of other elements (S, Cl, and K) across the articular cartilage of domestic pigs in
order to verify a putative influence of calcium on the structural changes in early arthrotic stage, derived from NMR
microscopic imaging. The measurements were carried out with focused ion beams of a lateral resolution down to
20 lm. The main matrix components (C, N, O) were evaluated from proton backscattering spectra.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B136-138 (1998) 936
  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA-13), Lisboa, Portugal, July 27 - Aug. 1, 1997

Publ.-Id: 2184

Strong blue and violet light emission from silicon- and germanium-implanted silicon-dioxide films

Rebohle, L.; Tyschenko, I. E.; von Borany, J.; Schmidt, B.; Grötzschel, R.; Markwitz, A.; Yankov, R. A.; Fröb, H.; Skorupa, W.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 486 (1998) 175

Publ.-Id: 2183

Strong blue and violet photo- and electroluminescence from Ge- and Si-implanted silicon dioxide

Rebohle, L.; von Borany, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Markwitz, A.; Schmidt, B.; Tyschenko, I. E.; Skorupa, W.; Fröb, H.; Leo, K.

The photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) properties of Ge-implanted SiO2 films thermally-grown on a Si substrate have been investigated and compared to those of Si-implanted SiO2 films. It is found that the blue-violet PL from both Si and Ge-rich layers reaches a maximum after annealing at 500°C for 30 min. The PL and EL from Ge-implanted SiO2 are distinctly higher than that from Si-implanted layers and well visible for the naked eye. The EL spectrum from the Ge-implanted oxide annealed at 1000 °C correlates very well with the PL one and shows a linear dependence on the injected current. The neutral oxygen vacancy is assumed to be responsible for the observed luminescence. In the case of Ge the microstructure after high temperature annealing is studied.

  • Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 165 (1998) 31

Publ.-Id: 2182

Studies of buried (SiC)1-x(AIN)x layers formed by co-implantation of N+ and Al+ ions into 6H-SiC

Pezoldt, J.; Yankov, R. A.; Voelskow, M.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Heera, V.; Skorupa, W.; Coleman, P.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Defect Recognition and Image Processing of Semicond. (DRIP VII) Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 160 (1998) IOP Publ. Ltd. Bristol, 1998, 335

Publ.-Id: 2177

Raman scattering analysis of defects in 6H-SiC induced by ion implantation

Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez-Varona, O.; Calvo-Barrio, L.; Morante, J. R.; Wirth, H.; Panknin, D.; Skorupa, W.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Mat. Sci. Forum 258 - 263 (1998) 727

Publ.-Id: 2176

Hydrogen incorporation into Cu-III-VI 2 chalcopyrite semiconductors

Otte, K.; Lippold, G.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Schlemm, H.; Schindler, A.; Bigl, F.

We implanted H3+ at 300 eV into Cu-chalcopyrite semiconductors at temperatures between 50 °C and 300 °C. The surface chemistry is similar to the previously reported behavior of CuInS2 implanted with a H2+, H+ low energy ion beam with respect to secondary phase etching. We also found an increase of radiative recombination (photoluminescence), which had been attributed to defect passivation and, hence, as an indicator of hydrogen incorporation. Under the 300 eV H3+ implantation conditions, however, we observed neither a hydrogen concentration in a few hundred nm surface range exceeding the NRA detection limit of about l x exp(19) cm-3 nor a pronounced stoichiometry variation in the ternary material, as proved by Raman measurements.
We conclude, therefore, that a 300 eV H3+ implantation introduces significantly less atomic hydrogen into the volume of the sample than previously reported for other beam compositions under similar temperature and current density conditions. This could be a result of the very low energy of less than 100 eV which can be expected for atomic H produced by dissociation of 300 eV H3+ at the surface, making the instant out-diffusion into the high vacuum of the implantation chamber a favored process.

  • Poster
    MRS-Spring Meeting, San Francisco, USA, April 13 - 17, 1998
  • Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 513(1998), 275

Publ.-Id: 2175

Fluorine enrichement on the surface of antarctic C30 and H chondrites by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and the sources of this terrestrial fluorine

Noll, K.; Döbeli, M.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Krähenbühl, U.

  • Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33 (1998) Supplement, A 118


Publ.-Id: 2174

Structure and magnetic properties in the low temperature annealing range of FeZrBCu-base alloys

Müller, M.; Herzer, G.; Mattern, N.; Grahl, H.; Schnell, B.; Reibold, M.; Reuther, H.

  • Contribution to external collection
    J. Phys. IV 8 (1998) Pr 2 - 187

Publ.-Id: 2173

Specific heat of single-, poly- and nanocrystalline diamond

Moelle, C.; Werner, M.; Szüczs, F.; Wittorf, D.; Sellschop, M.; von Borany, J.; Fecht, H.-J.; Johnston, C.

  • Diamond and Rel. Mat. 7 (1998) 499

Publ.-Id: 2172

Measuring sputtering yields of high energy heavy ions on metals

Mieskes, H. D.; Assmann, W.; Brodale, M.; Dobler, M.; Glückler, H.; Hartung, P.; Stenzel, P.

For measuring sputtering yields with MeV heavy ions only low current densities can be used in order to avoid excessive target heating. Consequently self-cleaning of the target surface during the irradiation cannot be achieved and a contamination free surface has to be maintained by means of UHV conditions. A UHV-setup including a differential pumping system has been designed and operated at a vacuum of 10-10 mbar during experiments. Sputtered particles were collected on Si catchers and subsequently measured by two different surface analysis methods: Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), and Heavy Ion Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HI-RBS). In-situ surface cleaning by 8 keV Xe ions as well as online monitoring by ERDA were found to be essential. With sufficient precautions on the surface conditions reproducible sputtering yields were obtained. First measurements for 230 MeV Au ions on Au, Zr, and Ti targets are presented.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 146 (1998) 162

Publ.-Id: 2171

X-ray high resolution diffraction and reflectivity studies of the mechanical treatment related defects in NdGaO3 single crystals

Mazur, K.; Sass, J.; Eichhorn, F.

  • J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 (1998) 6065

Publ.-Id: 2170

Growth, patterning and microelectronic applications of epitaxial cobaltdisilicide

Mantl, S.; Kappius, L.; Antons, A.; Löken, M.; Klinkhammer, F.; Dolle, M.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mesters, S.; Buchal, C.; Bay, H. L.; Trinkaus, H.; Heinig, K.-H.

  • Contribution to external collection
    MRS Symp. Proc. 514 (1998) 145

Publ.-Id: 2169

Investigation of d.c.-reactive magnetron-sputtered AIN thin films by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and polarized infra-red reflection

Manova, D.; Dimitrova, V.; Fukarek, W.; Karpuzov, D.

  • Surf. Coat. Technol. 106 (1998) 205

Publ.-Id: 2168

Proton conducting Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O8.73/H2O: Sol-gel preparation and pressure/composition isotherms

Groß, B.; Marion, S.; Hempelmann, R.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

Thin films of Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O8.73, prepared in a sol-gel process by multiple dip-coating on silicon wafers were charged with hydrogen by dissociative water
absorption at definite values of water vapour pressures and temperatures. The hydrogen content was determined using nuclear resonance reaction analysis. From the resulting water vapour pressure/hydrogen composition isotherms the absorption enthalpies and the absorption entropy were calculated in the framework of a two site
model, based on Fermi-Dirac statistics. On Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O8.73 also impedance spectroscopy was performed yielding the bulk conductivity. From these data
in combination with proton transport numbers and the thermodynamic results as noted above the proton diffusion coefficient could be evaluated.

Keywords: solid proton conductors; water in oxide ceramics; thermodynamics; impedance spectroscopy

  • Solid State Ionics 109 (1998) 13

Publ.-Id: 2167

Theoretical description of high-temperature implantation of 6H-SiC with N+-and Al+-ions

Kulikov, D. V.; Trushin, Y. V.; Yankov, R. A.; Pezoldt, J.; Skorupa, W.

  • Techn. Phys. Lett. 24 (1998) 17

Publ.-Id: 2165

Depth analysis of Fe-silicide formation after Fe-implantation into Si by DCEMS

Kruijer, S.; Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.; Keune, W.

  • Hyperfine Interactions (C) 3 (1998) 149
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. Appl. Mössbauer Effect, Rio de Janeiro, Sept. 14 - 20, 1997

Publ.-Id: 2164

Depth analysis of phase formation in alpha-Fe after high-dose Al ion implantation

Kruijer, S.; Nikolov, O.; Keune, W.; Reuther, H.; Weber, S.; Scherrer, S.

  • J. Appl. Phys. 84 (1998) 6570

Publ.-Id: 2163

In situ ERDA studies of ion drift processes during anodic bonding of alkali-borosilicate glass to metal

Kreißig, U.; Grigull, S.; Lange, K.; Nitzsche, P.; Schmidt, B.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 136 - 138 (1998) 674

Publ.-Id: 2162

Exposure of Allan Hills 84001 and other achondrites on the Antarctic ice

Krähenbühl, U.; Noll, K.; Döbeli, M.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Tobler, L.

The enrichment of F on Antarctic meteorites is the result of their exposure to the atmosphere, and its measurement allows a subdivision of the terrestrial age into a
duration of exposure on the ice and the time a meteorite was enclosed by the ice. In many cases, the periods of surface exposure are only small fractions of the
terrestrial ages of meteorites collected in Antarctica. The enrichment of F on the surfaces of Antarctic achondrites was investigated by means of nuclear reaction
analysis (NRA): scanning proton beams with an energy of 2.7 and 3.4 MeV were used to induce the reactions F-19(p,alpha gamma)160 and
F-19(p,p'gamma)F-19, respectively. Gamma signals proportional to the F content were measured. The following Antarctic achondrites were investigated: Martian
meteorite ALH 84001; diogenite ALHA77256; the eucrites ALHA81011 and ALHA78132; and in addition, the H5 chondrite ALHA79025. For ALH 84001, our
data indicate a period of exposure on the ice of <500 years. Thus, this specimen was enclosed in the ice >95% of its terrestrial age of 13 000 years.

  • Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33 (1998) 665


Publ.-Id: 2161

Interactions of medicinal and biological relevant anions with functionalized dendrimers

Stephan, H.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.; Gestermann, S.; Gorka, M.; Hesse, R.; Kauffman, C.; Klein, L.; Vögtle, F.

Due to their unique topology and unusual guest-binding behaviour, dendrimers are promising reagents for use in diagnostic imaging and therapy. We are especially interested in efficient binding and transport of medicinal and biological relevant anions as pertechnetate and the nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. Poly(propylenamine)-Dendrimers (POPAM) of different generations have been functionalized at the periphery with the goal to obtain a hydrophobic shell. The dendrimers synthesized (cf. Fig.) were characterized by solvent extraction experiments at the system pertechnetate,(nucleotide)-buffer-H2O/dendrimer-CHCl3. A dendritic effect is clearly visible of all dendrimers investigated. The influence of pH and temperature on the extraction of pertechnetate and nucleotides with dendrimers is reported.

  • Poster
    1st International Dendrimer Symposium, Frankfurt/Main, 3. -5. 10. 1999
  • Contribution to proceedings
    1st International Dendrimer Symposium, Frankfurt/Main, 3.-5. 10. 1999

Publ.-Id: 2160

Lipophilic urea-functionalized dendrimers as efficient carriers for oxyanions

Stephan, H.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.; Klein, L.; Vögtle, F.

Urea-functionalized dendrimers are prepared, which show very efficient phase transfer in particular of the diagnostically relevant anions pertechnetate, perrhenate and ATP. The extractability rates are evaluated quantitavely by tracer methods. Their pH dependancy allows to steer the release of guest molecules from the dendrimer host.

  • Chem. Commun., 1999, 1875-1876

Publ.-Id: 2159

Electrical and optical properties of boronated tetrahedrally bonded amorphous carbon (ta-C:B)

Kleinsorge, B.; Ilie, A.; Chowalla, M.; Fukarek, W.; Milne, W. I.; Robertson, J.

  • Diamond and Related Mat. 7 (1998) 472

Publ.-Id: 2158

Effect of ion dose and annealing mode on the photoluminescence from SiO2-layers implanted with Si-ions

Kachurin, G. A.; Leier, A. F.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Tyschenko, I. E.; Gutakovsky, A. K.; Volodin, V. A.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.

  • Phys. Techn. Semiconductors (in Russian) 32 (1998) 1371
  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th Int. Conf. on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, Amsterdam,The Netherlands, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998

Publ.-Id: 2156

Freie Elektronen Laser an der Strahlungsquelle ELBE: Theoretische Vorhersagen und eindimensionale Modellrechnungen

Wünsch, R.

Für die im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf im Bau befindliche Strahlungsquelle ELBE werden die Möglichkeiten zur Erzeugung kohärenter Strahlung mit Hilfe eines Freie Elektronen Lasers im Bereich des mittleren und fernen Infrarot vorgestellt. Mit Hilfe einfacher Modelle werden die Vorgänge bei der Erzeugung und Verstärkung kohärenter Strahlung erläutert und ihre Eigenschaften in Abhängigkeit von den Parametern des Elektronenstrahls und des verwendeten Undulators berechnet. Insgesamt werden 4 mögliche Varianten eines Undulators diskutiert. Anwendbarkeit und Genauigkeit der verwendeten Näherungsformeln werden mit Hilfe eindimensionaler Simulationsrechnungen getestet.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-276 September 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 2155

Medium Effects in K+ and K- Poduction in Nuclear Collisions at Subthreshold Beam Energies

Dohrmann, F.

We have conducted systematic experimental studies of K+ and K- production and propagation in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies close to and below the production threshold for free nucleon-nucleon (NN) collisions. In noncentral Au+Au collision, the K+ mesons are preferentially emitted perpendicular to the reaction plane and the excitation functions for K+ and K- mesons nearly coincide when correcting for the threshold energy. In contrast, for NN collisions the K+ yield exceeds the K- yield by two orders of magnitude near the respective NN threshold. Both effects are considered to be experimental signatures of a modification of kaon properties in the nuclear medium.

Keywords: In-medium modifications of K mesons; Particle and Resonance Production; Meson Production

  • Contribution to external collection
    Nucl.Phys. A 663 (2000) 521-524

Publ.-Id: 2154

Nucleation and growth of platelet bubble structures in helium implanted silicon

Fichtner, P.; Kaschny, J. R.; Kling, A.; Trinkaus, H.; Yankov, R. A.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.; Zawislak, F. C.; Amaral, L.; Da Silva, M. F.; Soares, J. C.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 136 - 138 (1998) 460

Publ.-Id: 2151

Depth distribution of point defects in Si bombarded by high-energy N5+ and Si5+ ions

Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Karanovich, A. A.; Grötzschel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Kögler, R.; Rybin, A. V.

  • Phys. Solid State 40 (1998) 195

Publ.-Id: 2150

Post-implantation annealing of SiC studied by slow positron spectroscopies

Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Coleman, P.; Störmer, J.; Plazaola, F.; Campillo, J. M.; Pacaud, Y.; Skorupa, W.

  • J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 (1998) 1147

Publ.-Id: 2149

Influence of surface roughness on measuring depth profiles and the total amount of implanted ions by RBS and ERDA

Behrisch, R.; Grigull, S.; Kreißig, U.; Grötzschel, R.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 136-138 (1998) 628

Publ.-Id: 2147

In situ characterization of cubic boron nitride film growth in the IR spectral region

Barth, K. L.; Fukarek, W.; Maucher, H. P.; Plass, M. F.; Lunk, A.

  • Thin Solid Films 313-314 (1998) 697

Publ.-Id: 2146

Swift heavy ion induced formation of aplha-FeSi2

Assmann, W.; Dobler, M.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kruijer, S.; Mieskes, H. D.; Nolte, H.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 146 (1998) 271

Publ.-Id: 2145

Slow positron implantation spectroscopy of high current ion nitrided austenitic stainless steel

Anwand, W.; Parascandola, S.; Richter, E.; Brauer, G.; Coleman, P. G.; Möller, W.

Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel by high current ion nitriding at 400°C has been studied by Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS). In addition, Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) has been applied to obtain information about the nitrogen depth profile. The results obtained from both methods are compared and discussed with respect to the nature of defects produced by high current ion nitriding and their influence on the formation of a surface layer, called expanded austenite.

  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 136-138 (1998) 768-772

Publ.-Id: 2144

Institute of Safety Research; Annual Report 1998

Weiß, F.-P.; Rindelhardt, U.; (Editors)

The report gives an overview on the scientific work of the Institute of Safety Research in 1998.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-268 Juli 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 2143

Isolation and Characterization of Aquatic Humic Substances from the Bog 'Kleiner Kranichsee'

Schmeide, K.; Zänker, H.; Heise, K.-H.; Nitsche, H.

Surface water has been studied from the mountain bog 'Kleiner Kranichsee'. This bog is situated in the Johanngeorgenstadt area (Saxony/Germany) close to an abandoned uranium mine and mine tailing piles. The bog water contains about 130 mg/L of organics (primarily humic and fulvic acid).
First, bog water colloids were determined for their particle size and size distribution using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with size fractionation by filtration. Second, about 400 L of the bog water were processed in order to isolate aquatic humic substances. SupeliteTM DAX-8 (Supelco) was used as adsorption resin. The humic material was separated into humic and fulvic acids. A total of 14 g of humic acid and 10 g of fulvic acid were isolated. The humic substances were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, functional properties including proton exchange capacity, charge/size ratios and spectroscopic characteristics. The results were compared with data of a commercial humic acid from Aldrich.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6124, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 1998, p. 161.

Publ.-Id: 2141

Investigation of the Migration Behavior of Uranium in an Aquifer System Rich in Humic Substances: Laboratory Column Experiments

Pompe, S.; Artinger, R.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.-H.; Kim, J. I.; Bernhard, G.

The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich in humic substances was studied in laboratory column experiments. For the investigations we used a Pleistocene aeolian quartz sand and groundwater GoHy-532 from the Gorleben site (Germany). The column experiments were performed in a glove box under anaerobic conditions (Ar + 1 % CO2). 232U(VI) was used as a tracer. The migration behavior of uranium was investigated as a function of the uranium/groundwater equilibration time before injection into the column, the groundwater flow velocity and the column length.
From the breakthrough curves one can conclude that a part of the injected uranium migrates slightly faster than groundwater. The observed migration behavior is attributed to the association of a part of uranium with humic colloids, which move faster due to size exclusion processes. Depending on the experimental conditions the recovery of humic colloid-bound transported uranium amounts to 0.4 up to 7.6 %. The recovery of non-retarded colloid-borne uranium increases with increasing uranium/groundwater equilibration time before injection into the column. Beyond it, the recovery of humic colloid-borne uranium decreases with decreasing groundwater flow velocity and increasing column length, which corresponds to an increasing residence time in the column.
The results refer to the fact that the migration behavior of uranium is strongly influenced by kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with humic colloids.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6324, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 1999, p. 219.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Fourth Project Meeting of the EU project: Effects of Humic Substances on the Migration of Radionuclides: Complexation and Actinides, Leuven, Belgium, 19.-20.11.1998

Publ.-Id: 2140

Säulenexperimente zur Untersuchung des Einflusses von Huminstoffen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran(VI) in einem sandigen Sediment

Pompe, S.; Artinger, R.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.-H.; Nitsche, H.; Kim, J. I.

Die Untersuchung des Ausbreitungsverhaltens von Actinidionen in wäßrigen Systemen ist unabdingbar zur Erstellung von Risikoabschätzungen zur Langzeitsicherheit von ober- und untertägigen Einrichtungen des ehemaligen Uranerzbergbaus sowie von Endlagern für radioaktiven Abfall. Das Migrationsverhalten von Actinidionen in einem natürlichen Aquifer wird stark von den vorherrschenden Bedingungen beeinflußt. Dabei können Huminstoffe als ubiquitäre, organische Komplexbildner einen entscheidenden Einfluß auf die Immobilisierung bzw. Mobilisierung der Actinidionen ausüben.
Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt Ergebnisse von Säulenexperimenten zur Untersuchung des Einflusses aquatischer Huminstoffe auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran(VI) in einem sandigen Grundwasserleiter. Für die Untersuchungen wurden ein Grundwasser (GoHy-532, DOC: 30 mg C/l) sowie pleistozäner Flugsand aus dem Gebiet Gorleben verwendet. Der in Säulen (Länge 25 cm und 50 cm; Durchmesser 5 cm) eingebaute Sand wurde unter Inertgasbedingungen (Ar + 1 % CO2) mit dem Grundwasser konditioniert. Zur Bestimmung der hydraulischen Parameter der Säulen wurde tritiertes Wasser als Tracer verwendet. Die Migrationsuntersuchungen erfolgten in Abhängigkeit von der Kontaktzeit des Grundwassers mit Uran(VI) (232UO2Cl2) bis zur Injektion auf die Säule, der Grundwasserfließgeschwindigkeit sowie der Säulenlänge.
Die Uran-Durchbruchskurven der Säulenexperimente zeigen, daß ein Teil des Urans ungehindert, an Huminstoffe gebunden und dabei bis zu 5 % schneller als das Wasser durch das Sediment transportiert wird. Der Wiedererhalt an Uran liegt für die durchgeführten Experimente im Bereich zwischen 2 % und 9 %.
Der ungehinderte, huminstoffgetragene Urantransport ist von der Kontaktzeit des Grundwassers mit Uran(VI) abhängig und steigt mit Erhöhung der Konditionierungszeit. Darüber hinaus nimmt der Wiedererhalt mit abnehmender Grundwasserfließgeschwindigkeit sowie zunehmender Säulenlänge, d.h. mit Erhöhung der Kontaktzeit mit dem Sediment, ab. Dieses Ergebnis deutet auf eine kinetisch kontrollierte Wechselwirkung des huminstoffgebundenen Urans mit der Sandoberfläche hin.

  • Poster
    Vortragstagung der GDCh, FG Nuklearchemie, Dresden, 07.-09.09.1998

Publ.-Id: 2139

Complexation of Aquatic Humic Substances from the Bog "Kleiner Kranichsee" with Uranium(VI)

Schmeide, K.; Zänker, H.; Hüttig, G.; Heise, K.-H.; Bernhard, G.

As a contribution to Task 1 (Sampling and Characterization), we have characterized Derwent Reservoir fulvic acid by means of FTIR spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis and compared to Kranichsee humic and fulvic acid and Aldrich humic acid.
Our contribution to Task 2 (Complexation) consists of two parts. First, we studied the complexation of Kranichsee humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) with uranyl(VI) ions by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 4 and an ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO4). The loading capacities were determined to be 14 ± 1 % and 13 ± 1 % for humic acid and fulvic acid, respectively. The complexation constants for Kranichsee humic acid and fulvic acid were found to be log ß = 6.35 ± 0.22 and log ß = 6.21 ± 0.20, respectively. These results were compared to the uranyl complexation behavior of other natural humic acids such as Aldrich HA and GoHy-573 HA. Second, we investigated original bog water of the mountain bog 'Kleiner Kranichsee' by ultrafiltration to determine the hydrodynamic particle size distribution, i.e., the 'apparent molecular weight' distribution of the organic substances in the bog water. Furthermore, the influence of uranyl complexation on this particle size distribution of humic colloids was investigated. No significant influence of the uranyl ions on the molecular weight distribution of the humic substances was found.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6324, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 1999, p. 177.

Publ.-Id: 2138

Effect of Humic Acid on the Uranium(VI) Sorption onto Phyllite and its Mineralogical Constituents

Schmeide, K.; Jander, R.; Heise, K.-H.; Bernhard, G.

The effect of humic acid (HA) on the uranium(VI) sorption onto phyllite and onto its individual main mineralogical constituents, muscovite, albite, and quartz was studied in air-equilibrated batch experiments in the pH range of 3.5 to 9.5. The uranyl(VI) and HA concentration was 1×10-6 M and 5 mg/L, respectively. The ionic strength was held constant at 0.1 M (NaClO4 solution). A size fraction of 63 to 200 µm of the solids was used, the mass loading was 12.5 g/L, and the experimental volume was 40 mL.
The rock material phyllite shows both the highest HA sorption over the entire pH range and the highest uranyl sorption in the neutral pH range compared to the pure mineral phases muscovite, albite and quartz. In contrast to the minerals the maximum of the uranium sorption on phyllite is not shifted to lower pH values but remains largely unchanged in the pH range from 6 to 7.8 when HA is present at 5 mg/L. This is attributed to ferrihydrite a secondary mineral phase formed during the sorption experiments.
The humic acid and uranyl sorption on the mineral surfaces of the constituents of phyllite decreased in the sequence: muscovite > albite > quartz. Below pH 5, the uranium uptake is generally increased in the presence of HA. This is attributed to the fact that the HA is sorbed on the mineral surface thereby providing additional sorption sites due to their complexing ability and/or due to adsorption of uranyl humate complexes on the mineral surface. In the neutral pH range, the HA sorption decreases with increasing pH. The dissolved HA forms aqueous uranyl humate complexes thereby decreasing the uranyl uptake on the solids. At alkaline pH values, the HA has little or no effect on the amount of uranium sorbed by muscovite, albite and quartz. Inorganic carbonates with its high complexing ability towards uranyl ions predominate the influence of HA under the given experimental conditions. We conclude that the uranium sorption is determined by the kind of rock material or mineral and is strongly affected by both the pH and the presence of organic material.
In addition, the uranium adsorption on phyllite was studied as a function of the HA concentration (5 and 60 mg HA/L). Below pH 5.7, the uranium sorption is enhanced in the presence of 60 mg HA/L compared to experiments carried out with 5 mg HA/L. From pH 5.4 to 9.4, the uranium uptake, on a percentage basis, decreased as the humic acid concentration increased. Thus, a strong relationship between the initial humic acid concentration in solution and the amount of uranium adsorbed at a given pH was found.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6324, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 1999, p. 199.

Publ.-Id: 2137

Einfluß von Sulfat auf die Uranyl(VI)-Humat-Komplexierung

Schmeide, K.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.-H.; Nitsche, H.

Die Bewertung des Einflusses von Huminstoffen auf die Mobilität von Radionukliden in natürlichen Aquifersystemen ist von großem Interesse und ermöglicht beispielsweise eine Einschätzung zur Langzeitsicherheit stillgelegter Uranbergwerke bzw. Endlagerstätten für radioaktive Stoffe. Infolge der Komplexierung von Radionukliden durch Huminstoffe kann deren Löslichkeit erhöht und somit ihre Mobilität in der Geosphäre erhöht werden. Zur Quantifizierung der Wechselwirkung zwischen Huminstoffen und Radionukliden kann die Komplexbildungskonstante genutzt werden.
Aquatische Huminstoffe wurden aus dem Oberflächenwasser des Hochmoores 'Kleiner Kranichsee' isoliert, welches im ehemaligen Uranbergbaugebiet bei Johanngeorgenstadt (Sachsen, D) liegt. Die Huminstoffe wurden in Humin- und Fulvinsäurefraktionen getrennt und hinsichtlich ihrer Elementarzusammensetzung, funktionellen Eigenschaften einschließlich der Protonenaustauschkapazität, Ladungs-Größenverhältnisse und spektroskopischer Eigenschaften charakterisiert.
Die Komplexierung von Uranyl(VI) durch Huminsäure (HS) und Fulvinsäure (FS) wurde bei pH 4 und einer Ionenstärke von 0.1 M mittels zeitaufgelöster Laserfluoreszenzspektroskopie (TRLFS) untersucht. Mit Hilfe des Ladungsneutralisationsmodells wurden Komplexbildungskonstanten (log ß) und Beladungskapazitäten (LC) der Huminstoffe mit UO2 2+ bestimmt. Folgende Ergebnisse wurden erhalten:
HS: log ß = 6.35±0.22, LC = 14%; FS: log ß = 6.21±0.20, LC = 13%.
Weiterhin wurde der Einfluß von SO4 2- als anorganischer, konkurrierender Ligand auf die Uranyl-Huminstoff-Komplexierung untersucht, da Sickerwässer sächsischer Uranbergbauhalden neben anderen Ionen relativ hohe Konzentrationen an Uran (10-5 M) und Sulfat (3x10-2 M) enthalten. Dabei wurde festgestellt, daß das Sulfat-Ion auf die Komplexierung zwischen Uranyl und Huminstoff keinen Einfluß hat, da die Uranyl-Huminstoff-Komplexbildungskonstanten trotz steigender Sulfat-Konzentrationen (0, 10-3, 10-2 M) innerhalb des experimentellen Fehlers unverändert bleiben. Dagegen sinkt die Beladungskapazität der Huminstoffe gegenüber Uranyl-Ionen mit steigender Sulfat-Konzentration. D.h., das Sulfat-Ion muß einen Einfluß auf die komplexierenden Gruppen der Huminstoffe ausüben.

  • Poster
    Vortragstagung der GDCh, FG Nuklearchemie, Dresden, 7.-9.9.1998

Publ.-Id: 2136

BRICK - Ein 1-D Simulationstool für Mehrphasenströmungen in Behältern

Lucas, D.

Die Auslegung von Apparaten der chemischen Verfahrenstechnik erfolgt in der Praxis oft noch auf der Grundlage experimenteller Untersuchungen oder mit groben Abschätzungen. Mit der Verbesserung der Rechentechnik nimmt jedoch die Bedeutung der numerischen Simulation der gekoppelten strömungsmechanischen, thermodynamischen und chemischen Prozesse in diesen Apparaten zu. Ziel der vorliegenden Modellentwicklung war es, einen weitgehend allgemeingültigen Programmkern, der die Transportgleichungen löst, zur Verfügung zu stellen. Spezielle Modelle für einzelne Phänomene oder Apparate sollen leicht über Interfaces ankoppelbar sein. Das ermöglicht insbesondere Untersuchungen zum Einfluß spezieller Phänomene und Modelle auf das Simulationsergebnis. Dreidimensionale Rechnungen erfordern i.a. einen sehr hohen Aufwand und sind meist nur für spezielle Probleme praktisch anwendbar. Bei dem vorgestellten Simulationstool für Mehrphasenströmungen in einem Behälter erfolgte daher eine Beschränkung auf die axiale Behälterkoordinate. Ausgangspunkt war die Simulation von Druckentlastungsvorgängen. Das Behältermodell muß das Aufwallen des Behälterinhalts wiedergeben und Aussagen zur Zusammensetzung des in die Abblaseleitung eintretenden Fluids liefern. Diese hängt von der Phasenseparation einschließlich des Schaumverhaltens des Fluids ab. Schäume treten in einer Vielzahl technischer Apparate wie Rührreaktoren, Blasensäulen, Trennkolonnen, Elektrolysezellen oder Bioreaktoren auf. Die Beschreibung von Schaumentstehung und Schaumzerfall am Gemischspiegel war ein spezielles Ziel der Modellentwicklung. Durch die Anwendung einer speziellen Partikelmethode für die Modellierung der Transportvorgänge wird zum einen die numerische Diffusion vollständig unterdrückt, zum anderen das Transportproblem weitgehend von den anderen Prozessen entkoppelt. Das Fehlen der numerischen Diffusion bringt Vorteile bei der Beschreibung von Diskontinuitäten, wie dem Übergang zwischen dem Mehrphasengemisch und dem Gasraum und damit bei der Modellierung der Schaumzone. Um das Modell einfach zu halten, wurden statt der Impulserhaltung nur ein zeitabhängiger Behälterdruck (ggf. mit Beachtung des geostatischen Drucks) und die Relativbewegungen der Phasen auf der Grundlage empirischer oder halbempirischer Ansätze (Driftbeziehungen) berücksichtigt.

Keywords: Mehrphasenströmung; Partikelmethode; Chemiereaktor; Modellierung; Druckentlastung; Schaum

  • Chemie Ingenieur Technik 71 (1999) 713-717

Publ.-Id: 2134

Institute of Radiochemistry, Report January 1998 - June 1999

Bernhard, G.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-272 September 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 2133

Electrical and microstructural properties of highly boron-implantation doped 6H-SiC

Panknin, D.; Wirth, H.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.

Boron was implanted into 6H-SiC layers to form a 500 nm thick layer with plateau concentrations up to 1.5E21 cm-3. The electrical and microstructural effects were investigated using temperature dependent Hall measurements, XTEM and SIMS. After annealing at temperatures between 1550 and 1750 C for B concentrations above the solubility extraordinary B diffusion and Ostwald ripening is observed forming boron clusters. For B concentrations near the solubility the outdiffusion is reduced. These effects are confirmed by Hall Effect measurements showing a stagnation of hole concentration with increasing B concentration above 1.5E19 cm-3. The electrical activation is limited due to the solubility of boron in 6H-SiC at about 1600 C. Higher B concentrations as well as higher annealing temperatures, including short time annealing at about 2000 C, do not lead to higher activation.

Keywords: SiC; boron; ion implantation; annealing; diffusion; electrical efficiency

  • Journal of Applied Physics Vo. 89, No. 6, 15. March 2001, p. 3162-3167

Publ.-Id: 2130

Control of Flow Separation from a Hydrofoil Using Lorentz Forces

Weier, T.; Fey, U.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

Electromagnetic body (Lorentz) forces originating from a system of permanent magnets and electrodes are used to control the flow of a weakly electrically conducting NaCl solution around a NACA-0017-like hydrofoil. The orientation of the Lorentz force is always parallel to the surface. The effect of a suction-side, streamwise Lorentz force is quantified by means of force balance measurements for chord-length Reynolds numbers of 3 to 8x 10^4. Depending on the angle of attack, two different effects are observed. (1) At small angles of incidence, a moderate increase in lift due to additional circulation is observed. Simultaneously, a decrease in the drag of the hydrofoil is caused by the added momentum. (2) At higher angles of attack, where the unforced hydrofoil would normally stall, a more pronounced lift increase - by 90% at Re=3 10^4 - and a corresponding drag reduction are observed due to separation prevention. The physical tendencies found in the experiments are confirmed by direct numerical simulations at lower Reynolds numbers.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DFD 99 Meeting of The American Physical Society APS Bulletin vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 164 (1999)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    DFD 99 Meeting of The American Physical Society APS Bulletin vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 164 (1999)

Publ.-Id: 2128

Is there a unique thermal source of dileptons in Pb(158 A · GeV) + Au, Pb reactions?

Gallmeister, K.; Kämpfer, B.; Pavlenko, O.

An analysis of the dilepton measurements in the reactions Pb(158 A · GeV) + Au, Pb points to a unique
thermal source contributing to the invariant mass and transverse momentum spectra. Effects of the flow pattern are discussed.

Keywords: dileptons; heavy-ion collisions

  • Physics Letters B 473 (2000) 20-24

Publ.-Id: 2126

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of the interaction of U(VI) and Fe(III) with natural humic acid in aqueous solutions

Teterin, Y. A.; Nefedov, V. I.; Lebedev, A. M.; Dementjev, A. P.; Utkin, I. O.; Teterin, A. Y.; Bubner, M.; Reich, T.; Pompe, S.; Heise, K.-H.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of the interaction of U(VI) and Fe(III) with natural humic acid in aqueous solutions.
Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Egon Uhlig on the occasion of his 70th birthday.
Complexes of U(VI) and Fe(III) with natural humic acid (NHA) were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It follows from the analysis of the uranium and iron concentrations at the surface and in the bulk of the humates that the reaction in solution is heterogeneous. The NHA reacts as a particle. In solutions containing either U(VI) or Fe(III), NHA reacts similar with Fe(III) and U(VI). However, in a mixed solution of Fe(III) and U(VI), NHA reacts predominantly with iron. In comparison to Fe(III) complexes, the complexes with U(VI) are formed mostly in the inner of the NHA particle. Therefore, the concentration ratio U/Fe as measured by XPS increases by powdering of the particles. Salts of Fe(III) can be used to inhibit the uranium migration in form of its soluble humates.

Keywords: Keywords: Humic acid complexes; Uranyl complexes; Iron complexes; XPS of humates

  • Journal für Praktische Chemie Vol. 341, Issue 8 (1999), pp. 773-777

Publ.-Id: 2125

The interplay of sputtering and oxidation during plasma diffusion treatment

Parascandola, S.; Kruse, O.; Möller, W.

Metals that form dense native surface oxide layers challenge plasma diffusion treatment techniques. Experimental results obtained during nitriding of stainless steel from real-time depth-resolved compositional analysis by elastic recoil detection give insight into the transport kinetics. In agreement with semi-quantitative considerations on the oxide removal and the oxide growth, the interplay of sputtering and oxidation emerges as a key parameter. On this background, suggestions for practical applications and optimization of the modification processes are given for different plasma diffusion treatment techniques.

  • Applied Physics Letters 75 (1999) No. 13, 1851-1853

Publ.-Id: 2124

The Influence of the Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Ion Nitriding of Al - an Investigation by means of Real Time In-situ Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

Parascandola, S.; Telbizova, T.; Kruse, O.; Möller, W.

Aluminium is known as a promising but difficult candidate for successful nitriding. It exhibits a dense native surface oxide layer that acts as a barrier for diffusional nitrogen transport. To investigate the influence of the oxygen partial pressure, samples of pure polycrystalline Aluminum have been ion nitrided at different oxygen partial pressures from a hot filament ion source. Before and during the nitriding process depth profiling of nitrogen and oxygen has been performed by in-situ Real Time Elastic Recoil Detection. The oxygen partial pressure plays a crucial role for the evolution of the surface oxide layer and thus for the nitriding result. If the surface oxide layer is removed an AlN-layer grows. The results are compared to semi-quantitative considerations on the interplay of sputtering and oxidation. A criteria for the removal of the surface oxide layer is given.

Keywords: Nitriding; Aluminium; ERD; oxidation; sputtering

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 161-163 (2000) 406-410
  • Beitrag zu fremden Sammelwerken / Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis / Sixth European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, Dresden, Germany, 26-30 July 1999
  • Vortrag (Konferenzbeitrag)

Publ.-Id: 2123

Effect of Fast Ti-Deposition on Gas Recycling at the First Wall and on Fast Ion Losses in the GDT Experiment

Bagryansky, P. A.; Bender, E. D.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Murachtin, S. V.; Noack, K.; Krahl, S.; Collatz, S.

Fast Ti-deposition was applied in the gas-dynamic trap (GDT) facility in the regimes with 14-17.5 keV, 2.5-4 MW neutral beam (NB) injection to control gas recycling at the first wall and thereby to reduce charge-exchange losses of energetic ions. The charge-exchange losses of the fast ions turned out to be much less than in former, non-conditioned discharges. The temporal spatial variation of the neutral gas density was measured during typical shots and compared with the results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo transport code. The comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data shows that the recycling coefficient of the chamber wall which has been freshly coated by titanium is close to that of the pure metallic surface.

Keywords: Ti-deposition; gas dynamic trap; neutral gas; gas recycling; plasma experiment; Monte Carlo calculation

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 265 (1999) 124 -133

Publ.-Id: 2122

NEUSI - A Code for the Calculation of Neutral Particle Densities Inside the Plasma Region of the GDT

Collatz, S.; Noack, K.

Based on the Integral Transport Method the code NEUSI calculates the radial-, axial- and time-dependent distributions of fast and slow hydrogen atoms and hydrogen molecules in the plasma region of the GDT facility of the Budker Institute Novosibirsk. The present paper briefly describes the basic features and approximations of the code and gives some calculation results.

Keywords: mirror plasma; gas dynamic trap; neutral gas; transport calculation; integral transport method

  • Poster
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27 - 31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 375
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27 - 31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 375

Publ.-Id: 2121

Wall Conditioning and Neutral Gas Transport at the GDT Facility

Murachtin, S. V. E. A.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27 - 31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 370

Publ.-Id: 2120

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