Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34757 Publications

Bacterial-Metal/Radionuclide Interaction: Basic Research and Bioremediation-Extendet Abstracts, Eurokonference, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, December 2-4, 1998

Selenska-Pobell, S.; Nitsche, H.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-252 Februar 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1428
Publ.-Id: 1428


Radioecological Aspects on the Interaction of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals with Biomass: Methods for Speciation and Structural Information

Nitsche, H.; Baraniak, L.

A more detailed survey of modern methods for characterizing radionuclides and heavy metals in the environment and for elucidating the mechanisms of their interaction with biomolecules is given.
Laser-induced spectroscopies, including Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence (TRLFS), Photoacustic (LIPAS), Thermal Lensing (LITLS) and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (LIPDS) provide the identification of the chemical species of radionuclides and heavy metals in environmental media in concentrations down to the micro-molar range and even lower. This includes information on the oxidation state, the stöchiometry, and the structure of ions and dissolved complexes, including the discrimination between ionic and polynuclear or colloidal species that may preferentially be built with thorium, uranium and plutonium.
The complexes formed with the biomolecules as the result of the metal incorporation can be studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopies using synchrotron radiation, such as X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure. These methods give information on the valency and the coordination of the central ion as well as on the bond length to neighboring atoms, leading to an initial understanding of the spatial orientation and structure. This knowledge is essential to describe the interaction of radionuclides, such as U, Th, Ra, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Zr, Sr, Cs and Tc with biomolecules and biomass. The selenium uptake by the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is cited as an example: from XANES spectra, the absorption process could be proved as an incorporation into the cell membrane under reduction of selenium(IV) to zerovalent selenium. From both the identified species and the characterized final complex, conclusions can be drawn regarding the overall absorption mechanism. These information are essential for selecting and optimizing biomolecular systems intended for environmental remediation purposes.

Keywords: Environmental Radioactivity; Radionuclides; Biosorption; Selenium; Bacillus Subtilis; Speciation Methods; X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy

  • Contribution to external collection
    In: Biotechnology for Waste Management and Site Restoration; Ronneau, C., Bitchaeva, O., Eds.; NATO ASI Series, Vol. 34, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1997; pp. 55-59.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Utilization of Biotechnologies in the Field of Radioactive and Toxic Wastes Management and Site Restoration, Mol, Belgium, Nov.28-Dec.2,1994

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1427
Publ.-Id: 1427


Untersuchung des Einflusses der in Grubenwässern gelösten organischen Verbindungen auf den Valenzzustand von Radionukliden und Schwermetallen im Hinblick auf den Flutungsprozess der sächsischen Uranbergwerke

Baraniak, L.; Mack, B.; Abraham, A.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

Mit Bezug auf die Flutung von Bergwerken im sächsischen Raum wurden die Redoxeigenschaften von natürlichen Polyelektrolyten, wie Holzabbauprodukten, Lignin und Huminsäuren und die Reduktion von Eisen(III) und Uran(VI) durch diese Polyelektrolyte untersucht. Außerdem wurde die Adsorption von Eisen(II,III) und Uran(IV,VI) aus Flutungswässern an grubentypischen Gesteinen und Sedimenten unter anaeroben Bedingungen bei Anwesenheit der organischen Substanzen untersucht. (Juni 1998)

Keywords: Umweltchemie; Bergbausanierung; Uranium; Eisen; Redoxchemie; Polyelektrolyte; Holzabbauprodukte; Lignin; Huminsäure; Potentiometrie; Voltammetrie; Spektrophotometrie; Adsorption; Radiotracer; Flüssigszintillationsmessung

  • Other report
    Abschlußbericht zum Förderprojekt des Ministeriums für Wissenschaft und Kunst des Freistaates Sachsen (Förderkennzeichen: 4-7541.83-FZR/512) Juni 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1426
Publ.-Id: 1426


Plasma immersion ion implantation for improvement of mechanical properties of ANSI M2 steel

Uglov, V. V.; Khodasevich, V. V.; Kuleshov, A. K.; Fedotova, J. A.; Rusalsky, D. P.; Günzel, R.; Richter, E.

  • Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 17(2), Mar/Apr 1999, 836-839
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th Int. Workshop on PBII, Dearborn, June 2-4, 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1425
Publ.-Id: 1425


Institute of Radiochemistry; Annual Report 1998

Nitsche, H.; Bernhard, G.

Annual Report 1998
Institute of Radiochemistry

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-247 Januar 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1424
Publ.-Id: 1424


Charakterisierung der Kolloidpartikel im Hauptentwässerungsstollen des Freiberger Bergbaureviers (Rothschönberger Stolln)

Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.

Der Rothschönberger Stolln ist der Hauptentwässerungsstollen des aufgelassenen Freiberger Bergbaureviers. An seinem Mundloch enthält sein Wasser etwa 1 mg/l an kolloidalen Partikeln des Größenbereichs 75 bis 300 nm. Die Partikel bestehen vor allem aus Eisen- und Aluminiumoxidhydroxid, tragen aber auch Spurenelemente (Pb, As, Cu, Y, La). Die Schadstoffe Pb und As z.B. sind im Rothschönberger Stolln nahezu vollständig an Kolloide gebunden. Das Uranium dagegen liegt in nichtkolloidaler Form (echt gelöst) vor; wahrscheinlich sind dafür Karbonatkomplexe des Uranylions verantwortlich. Nach Absenken des pH-Wertes auf etwa 5 (Zerstörung der Karbonatkomplexe) waren erhebliche Mengen des Uraniums an Kolloide gebunden. Letzteres besitzt Bedeutung für die Beurteilung des Verhaltens von Uranium in sauren Grubenwässern, wie z. B. in Wässern der Urangrube Königstein. Speziationsrechnungen mit Hilfe des thermodynamischen Geochemie-Rechenprogramms EQ6 stimmen zunächst schlecht mit den experimentellen Befunden überein. Die vom Experiment abweichenden Rechenergebnisse können jedoch leicht aus einer unzureichenden Berücksichtigung der Kinetik im chemischen Modell erklärt werden. Die Versuche zeigen Wege auf, wie Modellrechnungen mit EQ6 "praxisnäher" gemacht werden können.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    GDCh-Fachtagung, FG Nuklearchemie, Dresden, Germany, 07.-09.09.1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1423
Publ.-Id: 1423


Numerical Simulation of the Emergency Condenser of the SWR1000

Aszodi, A.; Krepper, E.; Schaffrath, A.

The SWR1000 is a new innovative boiling water reactor concept, which is developed by Siemens AG. This concept is characterized in particular by passive safety systems (e.g. four emergency condensers, four building condensers, eight passive pressure pulse transmitters, six gravity-driven core flooding lines). In the framework of BWR Physics and Thermohydraulic Complementary Action (BWR-CA) to the EU BWR R&D Cluster emergency condenser tests were performed by Forschungszentrum Jülich at the NOKO test facility. In this paper post test calculations with ATHLET are presented, which aim at the determination of the removable power of the emergency condenser and its operation mode. The 1D thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET was extended by the module KONWAR for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient during condensation in horizontal tubes. In addition, results of CFD-calculations using the code CFX-4 are presented, which investigate the natural convection during the heat up process at the secondary side of the NOKO test facility.

Keywords: CFX-4; NOKO; ATHLET; SWR1000; emergency condenser

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Ninth International Topic Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-9), San Francisco, California, October 3 - 8, 1999, (Conference CD)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Ninth International Topic Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-9), San Francisco, California, October 3 - 8, 1999, (Conference CD)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1422
Publ.-Id: 1422


Modelling of Condensation in Horizontal Tubes

Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Fjodorow, A.; Gocht, U.; Lischke, W.

The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role e.g. for the determination of the operation mode of horizontal steam generators of VVER reactors or passive safety systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Two different approaches (HOTKON and KONWAR) for modeling this process have been undertaken by Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz (HTWS) and implemented into the 1D-thermohydraulic code ATHLET, which is developed by the Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal transients in light water reactors.
Although the improvements of the condensation models are developed for different applications (VVER steam generators - emergency condenser of the SWR1000) with strongly different operation conditions (e.g. the temperature difference over the tube wall in HORUS is up to 30 K and in NOKO up to 250 K, the heat flux density in HORUS is up to 40 kW/m² and in NOKO up to 1 GW/m²) both models are now compared and assessed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf FZR e.V. Therefore post test calculations of four selected HORUS experiments were performed with ATHLET/KONWAR. It can be seen that the calculations with the extension KONWAR as well as HOTKON improve significantly the agreement between computational and experimental data.

Keywords: condensation inside horizontal tubes; ATHLET; HORUS; HOTKON; KONWAR

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Ninth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Hydraulics (NURETH-9), San Francisco, California, 5th Oct 1999, CD-ROM
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Ninth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Hydraulics (NURETH-9), San Francisco, California, 5th Oct 1999, CD-ROM

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1421
Publ.-Id: 1421


The FEL Projects at the Rossendorf Radiation Source ELBE.

Gabriel, F.; Gippner, P.; Grosse, E.; Janssen, D.; Michel, P.; Prade, H.; Schamlott, A.; Seidel, W.; Steegmueller, U.; Wenzel, M.; Wolf, A.; Wünsch, R.

Abstract: The status of the ELBE FEL projects is reviewed. ü

  • Contribution to proceedings
    20th Int.Free Electron Laser Conference, Williamsburg USA, Aug.1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1420
Publ.-Id: 1420


First evidence of magnetic rotation in the A=80 region

Schnare, H.; Schwengner, R.; Frauendorf, S.; Dönau, F.; Käubler, L.; Prade, H.; Jungclaus, A.; Lieb, K. P.; Lingk, C.; Skoda, S.; Eberth, J.; de Angelis, G.; Lo Bianco, G.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.; Napoli, D. R.; Ur, C. A.

  • Physical Review Letters Vol 82, Number 22, 31 May 1999, 4408-4411

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1418
Publ.-Id: 1418


Identification of Baryon Resonances in Central Heavy-Ion Collisions at Energies Between 1 and 2 AGeV

Eskef, M.; Pelte, D.; Goebels, G.; Häfele, E.; Herrmann, N.; Korolija, M.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Stockmeier, M. R.; Trzaska, M.; Alard, J. P.; Andronic, A.; Averbeck, R.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Fraysse, L.; Fodor, Z.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kotte, R.; Kutsche, R.; Lebedev, A.; Manko, V.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Pras, P.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; de Schauenburg, B.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wang, G. S.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.

The mass distributions of baryon resonances populated in near-central collisions of Au on Au and Ni on Ni are deduced by defolding the pt spectra of charged pions by a method which does not depend on a specific resonance shape. In addition the mass distribution of resonances are obtained from the invariant masses of (p,π±) pairs. With both methods the deduced mass distribution are shifted by an average value of -60 MeV/c2 relative to the mass distribution of the free Δ(1232) resonance, the distribution descent almost exponentially towards mass values of 2000 MeV/c2. The observed differences between (p,π-) and (p,π+) pairs indicate a contribution of isospin I=1/2 resonances. The attempt to consistently describe the deduced mass distributions and the reconstructed kinetic energy spectra of the resonances leads to new insights about the freeze out conditions, i.e. to rather low temperatures and large expansion velocities.

  • European Physical Journal A Vol. 3, Issue 4 (1998), pp. 335-349

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1416
Publ.-Id: 1416


Nicotinamide-substituted complexes as redox markers 2. Synthesis of a 99Tc dihydropyridine mixed-ligand complex and investigation of the stability in tissue homogenates

Rother, A.; Knieß, T.; Pütz, M.; Jungclas, H.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

For developing a dihydropyridine/pyridinium salt redox delivery system that could be useful for SPECT investigations by 99mTc compounds the synthesis of a mixed-ligand complex of the long-lived isotope 99Tc is described. The new compound bearing a pyridinium salt moiety was characterised by NMR-spectrometry and X-ray structure analysis. By reduction with sodium dithionite the corresponding 1,4-dihydropyridine complex was prepared and the stability in buffer, tissue homogenates, blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid was investigated by UV-VIS spectrometry.

Keywords: redox delivery system; pyridinium salt; 1,4-dihydropyridine; 99Tc-complexes

  • J. Labelled Cpd. Radiopharm. 42 (1999) 673-681

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1415
Publ.-Id: 1415


Fluiddynamic Waterhammer Simulations with Consideration of Fluid-Structure Interaction

Repp, T.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Sammelband Workshop Kompetenzerhalt Kerntechnik, Jahrestagung Kerntechnik, 18.-21. Mai 1999, Karlsruhe; Haag, G. (Ed.), 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1414
Publ.-Id: 1414


Synthese und Kristallstruktur von [Fe(MeCN)6][Fe2OCl6]

Kuhn, N.; Kotowski, H.; Maichle-Mößmer, C.; Abram, U.

  • Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 624 (1998) 1653-1656

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1413
Publ.-Id: 1413


Vergleich von Modellen zur Berechnung der Kondensation in horizontalen Rohren

Schaffrath, A.; Fjodorow, A.; Gocht, U.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.

Die Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH entwickelt das Programmsystem ATHLET (Analyse der Thermohydraulik bei Lecks und Transienten) mit der Zielsetzung, das gesamte Spektrum von Kühlmittelverlust- und Transientenstörfällen in Leichtwasserreaktoren berechnen zu können. Voraussetzung hierzu ist jedoch, daß die in ATHLET enthaltenen Modelle in der Lage sind, die hierbei auftretenden Phänomene prinzipiell beschreiben zu können.
Speziell bei WWER-Reaktoren sowie dem SWR1000 treten konstruktive Besonderheiten auf (z.B. beim WWER die Leitungsführung der Hauptkühlmittelleitungen mit je einer Absenkung im heißen und kalten Strang, liegende Dampferzeuger, beim SWR1000 die horizontalen Notkondensatorbündel). Die im Rahmen des BMBF Projektes Nr. 150 0856 8 "Verifikation des Rechencodes ATHLET" [2] von der Hochschule Zittau/Görlitz (HTWS) durchgeführte unabhängige ATHLET-Verifikation und die "Berechnung des passiven Notkondensators eines mit Naturumlauf arbeitenden innovativen Siedewasserreaktors (SWR600) mit ATHLET" (BMBF Projek 15 NU 09485) der Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) GmbH zeigen übereinstimmend, daß das in ATHLET enthaltene Kondensationsmodell für die Simulation der Kondensation innerhalb liegender Rohre ungünstig ist.
Daher wurden in beiden Organisationen umfangreiche Erweiterungen des Kondensationsmodells (HOTKON - HTWS, KONWAR - FZJ) vorgeschlagen, realisiert und anhand von HORUS- bzw. NOKO-Experimenten validiert. Die beiden Experimente unterscheiden sich jedoch hinsichtlich ihrer Betriebsparameter. Zielsetzung der dieser Veröffentlichung zugrunde liegenden Arbeiten ist, KONWAR anhand von HORUS-Experimenten zu validieren und die Rechenergebnisse mit der um KONWAR erweiterten ATHLET-Version mit den experimen-tellen Daten sowie den Rechenergebnissen der Original und um HOTKON erweiterten Version von ATHLET zu vergleichen.

Keywords: ATHLET; KONWAR; HOTKON; WWER; liegende Dampferzeuger; KOndensation in horizontalen Rohren

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99 (1999) in Karlsruhe, INFORUM GmbH, ISSN 0720-9207, S. 111-115
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99 (1999) in Karlsruhe, INFORUM GmbH, ISSN 0720-9207, S. 111-115

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1411
Publ.-Id: 1411


Uranium and Arsenic containing mining related waters: specification model verification by laser spectroscopy

Geipel, G.; Rutsch, M.; Bernhard, G.; Brendler, V.; Nitsche, H.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ACS Annual Meeting 1999, Anaheim

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1410
Publ.-Id: 1410


Die Radionuklidlaboratorien zur Untersuchung bestrahlter Werkstoffproben im Institut für Sicherheitsforschung des Forschungszentrums Rossendorf

Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.

Es wird ein neuerrichtetes Radionuklidlaboratorium zur Untersuchung bestrahlter Werkstoffproben vorgestellt und das Spektrum der gegebenen Untersuchungsmöglichkeiten vorgestellt.

  • Poster
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1999, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai, Tagungsbericht, S. 687
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1999, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai, Tagungsbericht, S. 687

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1409
Publ.-Id: 1409


Anwendung des Master-Curve-Konzeptes zur bruchmechanischen Charakterisierung von Reaktordruckbehälterstählen

Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Deutscher Verband für Materialprüfung und -forschung e.V., Tagung Werkstoffprüfung 1998, Bad Nauheim, Dez. 98, Tagungsberichte „Werkstoffprüfung 1998", S. 353
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Deutscher Verband für Materialprüfung und -forschung e.V., Tagung Werkstoffprüfung 1998, Bad Nauheim, Dez. 98, Tagungsberichte „Werkstoffprüfung 1998", S. 353

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1407
Publ.-Id: 1407


Positron emission tomography for quality assurance of cancer therapy with light ion beams.

Enghardt, W.; Debus, J.; Haberer, T.; Hasch, B.-G.; Hinz, R.; Jäkel, O.; Krämer, M.; Lauckner, K.; Pawelke, J.; Pönisch, F.

no abstract

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Abstracts of the Int. Nuclear Physics Conference, Paris, 24-28 Aug(1998)823
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Abstracts of the Int. Nuclear Physics Conference, Paris, 24-28 Aug(1998)823

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1405
Publ.-Id: 1405


Einfluss von Kupfer, Phosphor und Nickel auf die Neutronenversprödung von Eisenlegierungen

Böhmert, J.; Kryukov, A.; Nikolaev, Y. A.; Erak, D. Y.

Der Einfluss von Kupfer, Phosphor und Nickel auf die Neutronenversprödung wird anhand von 8 Testlegierungen untersucht. Die Testlegierungen sind bis zu Neutronenfluenzen von 1x1019 und 8x1019 N/cm2 [E>0.5 MeV] bei 270 °C in WWER-440-Reaktoren bestrahlt worden. Sowohl Ni als auch P und Cu erhöhen die Bestrahlungsempfindlichkeit. Eine überraschend hohe Bestrahlungsempfindlichkeit zeigt eine Fe-Mn-Si-Legierung hoher Reinheit.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1999, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai, Tagungsbericht S. 663
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1999, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai, Tagungsbericht S. 663

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1404
Publ.-Id: 1404


Speciation in Water Released from Mining and Milling Facilities

Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Rutsch, M.; Brendler, V.; Nitsche, H.

Radionuclide concentrations have been determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in rock samples taken from a forty-years old uranium waste rock pile. With increasing depth, an increase of the Ra-226/U-238 activity ration was found. This can be explained by different migration rates of the individual nuclides.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    NATO Workshop on Global Solutions to Disarmament Involving Management of Radionuclides, Cracow, Poland, 09.-13.11. 1998
  • Contribution to external collection
    T. E. Baca and T. Flokowski: The Environmental Challenges of Nuclear Disarmament, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, 323-332

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1403
Publ.-Id: 1403


Investigation of heating up and evaporation processes of fluids in storage tanks by experiments and by numerical simulation

Aszodi, A.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

Experiments were performed to investigate heating up processes of fluids in storage tanks under the in-fluence of an external heat source. As a con-se-quence of an external fire, the heat-up of the inventory may lead to the evaporation of the liquid and to release of significant quan-tities of dan-ge-rous gases into the envi-ron-ment. Several tests were performed both with heating from the bottom and with heating from the side walls. In recent tests in addition to thermocouples, the tank was equipped with needle probes for measuring of the local void fraction.
The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of single and two phase heating up processes of tanks with side wall heating. The measurement of the temperature and of the void fraction makes interesting phenomena evident. which could be explained by an own 2D model. The gained experimental results may be used for the validation of boiling models in 3-D CFD codes.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Symposium on Two phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation, Pisa May 1999 Proc. Vol. III, pp. 1667-1674
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2nd International Symposium on Two phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation, Pisa May 1999 Proc. Vol. III, pp. 1667-1674

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1402
Publ.-Id: 1402


BRICK - a 1D tool for transient multiphase vessel flow simulations based on a new particle method

Lucas, D.

A one-dimensional model for multiphase flow in a vessel was developed. The model bases on a new particle method and is free of numerical diffusion. This allows a consistent simulation of discontinuities such as the top level of the mixture without additional level tracking methods. The model distinguishes between continuous and dispersed phases. Levels mark the locations where the continuous phase change. This model for multiphase transport is the basic component of a new computer code. Flexible interfaces allow a convenient coupling of this model with constitutive laws for special phenomena. A special goal of the code is the transient simulation of emergency relief from chemical reactors with consideration of foam. For this reason the code was equiped with models for pressure calculation, conservation of energy, phase transfer, bubble generation, bubble growth, coalescence, drift of the phases, heat release from the vessel wall, discharge and homogeneous chemical reactions. A special interface, which enables the modelling of generation and decay of foam at the top level of the mixture, is included. Any of the phases can consist of several components. The code was validated for numerous depressurization experiments.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Experimentation, Pisa, May 23-25, 1999, Volume 3, pp. 1657-1664
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2nd International Symposium on Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Experimentation, Pisa, May 23-25, 1999, Volume 3, pp. 1657-1664

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1400
Publ.-Id: 1400


TROTEC-1 a new high affinity ligand for Labeling of the dopamine transporter

Hoepping, A.; Reisgys, M.; Brust, P.; Seifert, S.; Spies, H.; Alberto, R.; Johannsen, B.

  • Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 41(23) (1998) 4429-4432

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1399
Publ.-Id: 1399


Fluidmechanics of Electrolytic Cells

Schneider, C.

The process in the anode chamber of an alkaline chloride electrolysis cell was modelled by hydrogen peroxide decomposition at a platinum surface, which replaces the anode. Bubble size measurements and shutdown experiments have shown the ap-plicability of this model reaction. In the anode chamber regions of bubble flow, spherical foam and a transition to cell foam at the top were found. Gas fraction distributions were measured by the differential pressure method and gamma densitometry. LDA and PDPA were used to obtain velocity and bubble size distributions. For the bubble flow region, the correct consideration of the bubble size distribution was identified as determining factor to reproduce the volume flow rate of the gaseous phase from the measured gas fraction. Minor contributions to the gas flow rate are caused by bubbles of several millimetres magnitude generated in the ribs of the anode and by a liquid circulation driven by the lateral gas supply, which is characteristic for the design of membrane cells. In the foam region, large bubbles appearing as a result of coalescence carry a significant part of the gas flow rate.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd intern. symposium "Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation", Pisa, Italy, 23-26 May 1999, proceedings vol. 2, pp. 1085-1092.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2nd intern. symposium "Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Experimentation", Pisa, Italy, 23-26 May 1999, proceedings vol. 2, pp. 1085-1092.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1398
Publ.-Id: 1398


Charm, Bottom and Dileptons at RHIC and LHIC

Gallmeister, K.; Kämpfer, B.; Pavlenko, O. P.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Proceedings ISHEPP XIV, Dubna, August 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1390
Publ.-Id: 1390


Pair correlations and magnetic susceptibility of small Al-grains

Kusmenko, N. K.; Michailov, V. M.; Frauendorf, S.

  • Journal of Cluster Science (1999), 10(1), 195-220

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1389
Publ.-Id: 1389


Investigation of Bacterial Diversity in a Soil Sample of a depleted Uranium Mining Area nearby Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxonia, via 16S-rDNA-Sequencing

Puers, C.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

  • Poster
    Eurokonferenz: Bacterial Metal/Radionuclide Interactions, 2.-4.12.1998, Rossendorf/Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1388
Publ.-Id: 1388


Post-Test Analysis of the Experiment 5.2c- Total Loss of Feedwater at the BETHSY Test Facility

Krepper, E.; Schäfer, F.

In the framework of the external validation of the thermohydraulic code ATHLET Mod 1.1 Cycle D, which has been developed by the GRS, post test analyses of two experiments were done, which were performed at the french integral test facility BETHSY.
The BETHSY experiment 5.2c investigates the accident procedures in case of a total loss of feedwater at the steam generator secondary side, [3]. In such an accident the emergency cooling of the reactor core with primary bleed and feed, the behaviour of the steam generators in case of dry out and the long time behaviour of the test facility are special subjects of interest. During the experiment the high pressure injection system, the hydroaccumulators and the low pressure injection system were available.
The evaluation of the calculated results shows, that all main phenomena can be calculated in a good quality compared with the experiment. Resulting from various calculations it should be noticed that the quality of the results strongly depends on the modelling of the heat losses of the facility, which were partly compensated by the trace heating. This trace heating was changed several times in the experiment to compensate the changing heat losses. The exact modelling of the resulting heat losses has a strong influence on the course of the whole transient. In this test the unsufficient modelling of the resulting heat losses may be the reason for deviations of the calculated transient from the observed transient.
The results show, that the safety relevant statement of the experiment could be reproduced by the code ATHLET.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99, Tagungsbericht S. 99-102, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai 1999
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99, Tagungsbericht S. 99-102, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1386
Publ.-Id: 1386


Post-Test Analysis of the BETHSY 9.3 Experiment- Steam Generator Tube Rupture with Failure of both the High Pressure Safety Injection and Auxiliary Feedwater Systems

Krepper, E.; Schäfer, F.

In the framework of the external validation of the thermalhydraulic code ATHLET MOD 1.1 CYCLE D, which is being developed by the GRS, post test analyses of two experiments were done, which were performed at the french integral test facility BETHSY. During test 9.3 the consequences of a steam generator U-tube rupture with failure of the high pressure injection and of the auxiliary feedwater supply were investigated. As accident management measures, the depressurization of the secondary sides, first of the two intact steam generators, then of the damaged steam generator and finally the primary depressurization by opening of the pressurizer valve were performed.
The results show, that the code ATHLET is able to describe the complex scenario in good accordance with the experiment. The safety relevant statement could be reproduced. Deviations, which did`nt impose the general results, occured concerning the break mass flow during the depressurization of the damaged steam generator and the description of the failure of the heat transfer to the damaged steam generator. Reasons are hardly to find, because these processes are highly complex.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99, Tagungsbericht S. 103-106, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai 1999
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '99, Tagungsbericht S. 103-106, Karlsruhe, 18.-20. Mai 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1385
Publ.-Id: 1385


Texture Analysis of EXAFS-Samples using the Rietveld Method

Hennig, C.; Nolze, G.

Texture Analysis of EXAFS-Samples using the Rietveld Method

C. Hennig1, G. Nolze2
1Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., ESRF- ROBL/CRG, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble
2Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin

Until now a lot of EXAFS measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline samples. It is known that powdered samples are characterized by a more or less strong texture, caused by an axial pressure during sample preparation. Owing to the polarized synchrotron radiation, this leads to an incorrect determination of the coordination number Nj, in particular for compounds with an anisotropic coordination center. Exemplarily, a strong polarization dependence can be detected in EXAFS spectra for oriented single crystals containing a uranyl coordination center [1]. The influence of preferred orientation on EXAFS measurements will be shown here for polycrystalline uranyl phosphate hydrate samples. The amplitude function of the EXAFS formula describes this polarization dependency with the term
Njeff = 1/2 Nj (1 + 3cos2*j), (1)
where *j is the angle between the polarization vector of the synchrotron radiation and the interatomic vector between the absorber and backscatterer. The exact calculation of the coordination number Nj is especially difficult because of its strong correlation to the Debye-Waller factor *j. A way to determine the preferred orientation is the use of X-ray diffraction measurements. The powder diffraction technique allows to determine the effective multiplicity of each Bragg reflection. One of the commonly used descriptions of a simple preferred orientation is this given by March and Dollase [2]. There, the preferred orientation is characterized by a single vector and the degree of preferred orientation:
Icorr = Istr (G2cos2 *k + G-1 sin2 *k )-2/3 (2)
For a given reflection hkl, this formula describes the relation between the corrected intensity Icorr and the integral intensity Istr resulting from well-known crystal structure data. Istr will be corrected by the preferred orientation in dependence of the orientation parameter G and the angles *k between the scattering vectors of all symmetry-equivalent lattice planes and the preferred orientation vector , assumed as lattice vector. In contrast, the orientation parameter G is valid for all reflection and must be fitted in a special refinement procedure. Most of Rietveld programs allows the use of the March-Dollase function. Both, the preferred orientation vector and the orientation parameter G should be introduced as additional amplitude correction terms for the calculation of polarization dependent EXAFS measurements on powder samples.

[1] C. Hennig, et al., Z. Krist. Suppl. 15, (1998) 156
[2] Dollase W.A., J. Appl. Cryst. 19 (1986) 267-272

  • Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Supplement 16, S. 157

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1384
Publ.-Id: 1384


Local Structure Analysis of Uranyl Phosphates and Arsenates using EXAFS Spectroscopy

Hennig, C.; Reich, T.; Roßberg, A.; Funke, H.; Rutsch, M.; Geipel, G.; Nitsche, H.; Bernhard, G.

Local Structure Analysis of Uranyl Phosphates and Arsenates using EXAFS Spectroscopy

C. Hennig, T. Reich, A. Roßberg, H. Funke, M. Rutsch,
G. Geipel, H. Nitsche, G. Bernhard

Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institut für Radiochemie, P.F. 510119, D-01314 Dresden

First EXAFS measurements were taken on the new ROssendorf Beam Line (ROBL) [1]. This beamline is built by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf as collaborating research group (CRG) at the ESRF in Grenoble. ROBL comprises a radiochemistry laboratory of type B and a materials research station. The radiochemistry station is designed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy whereas the materials research station uses X-ray diffraction techniques. The monochromator is equipped with a Si(111) and Si(311) water cooled double-crystal system of fixed-exit type which covers an energy range of 5keV-35keV. Higher harmonics are rejected by two Si/Pt coated mirrors.
Some saxonian granites contain uranium as hydrothermal crystallized uranyl phosphates and arsenates. Uranium and arsenic appear also in seepage waters of mine tailing piles from uranium mines and give stable complexes. Local structure analysis of these compounds is nessesary to understand the environmental weathering and mineralization processes.
The investigated samples are natural Cu[UO2PO4]2*nH2O, Ba[UO2PO4]2*nH2O, Ca[UO2PO4]2*nH2O, Cu[UO2AsO4]2*nH2O and synthetic H[UO2AsO4]*nH2O. The crystal structures are generally built up by stable layers of [UO2]2+ and [PO4]3-or [AsO4]3- units and the charge neutrality is achived by different interlayer cations.
U LIII-edge and As K-edge EXAFS spectra were collected in transmission, Cu K-edge EXAFS spectra were measured with a multichannel Ge fluorescence detector [2]. The measurements were carried out with a sample orientation of 0° and 45° to the beam direction in order to investigate the influence of polarization effects.
We have measured small but significant bond length differences within this structural isotypic group. Deviations in the coordination numbers are obtained as a result of polarization effects and moreover different Debye-Waller factors in connection with structural defects. In conclusion, the uranyl arsenate layer structure is nearly independent from the interlayer cation arrangement. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility for compensation the lost angle information in EXAFS spectroscopy by using the radial distribution functions at various absorption edges.

[1] ESRF Beamline Handbook 1997 pp.145
[2] Bucher, J.J., et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (1996) 1

  • Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Supplement 16, S. 158

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1383
Publ.-Id: 1383


Functional expression of the serotonin transporter in immortalized rat brain microvessel endothelial cells

Brust, P.; Friedrich, A.; Krizbai, I. A.; Bergmann, R.; Roux, F.; Ganapathy, V.; Johannsen, B.

There is evidence from recent studies that the brain endothelium (of capillaries and/or larger vessels) may serve as a specific target for serotonin (5-HT). This neurotransmitter is expected to be involved in the regulation of the BBB permeability and/or of the cerebral blood flow via receptor-mediated mechanisms. Effective control of these processes depends on a speedy uptake and metabolism of released 5-HT molecules. To realise this, a similar mechanism of 5-HT uptake as in brain may exist at the BBB. In this study, we have demonstrated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that 5-HT transporter mRNA is present in the brain endothelium and that a saturable transport system for 5-HT is functionally expressed at immortalized rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4 cells). These cells take up [3H]5-HT by an active saturable process with a K m-value of 397± 64 nmol/L and a transport capacity of 51.7 ± 3.5 pmol•g-1•min-1. The 5-HT uptake depends on Na+, as indicated by the replacement of NaCl by LiCl. The 5-HT uptake was sensitive to specific 5-HT transport inhibitors such as paroxetine, clomipramine, fluoxetine and citalopram, but not to inhibitors of the vesicular amine transporter such as reserpine or tetrabenazine. Our results demonstrate that cerebral endothelial cells are able to participate actively in the removal and metabolism of the released 5-HT, which supports the concept of direct serotonergic regulation of the BBB function.

Keywords: Blood-brain barrier; gene expression; serotonin; transporter; clomipramine; citalopram; fluoxetine; paroxetine

  • J.Neurochem. 74, (2000) 1241-1248
  • Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Vol. 19 (Suppl.1), 245

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1382
Publ.-Id: 1382


Characterization of drills implanted with nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

Mändl, S.; Günzel, R.; Rauschenbach, B.; Hilke, R.; Knösel, E.; Künanz, K.

  • Surface and Coatings Technology 103-104 (1998) 161-167

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1381
Publ.-Id: 1381


Contribution of the massive photon decay channel to neutrino cooling of neutron stars

Voskresensky, D. N.; Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Kämpfer, B.

  • Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Vol. 87, Number 2, August 1998, pp. 211-217
    DOI: 10.1134/1.558647

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1380
Publ.-Id: 1380


High-spin states, particle-hole structure, and linked smooth terminating bands in doubly odd 112Sb

Lane, G. J.; Fossan, D. B.; Chiara, C. J.; Schnare, H.; Sears, J. M.; Smith, J. F.; Thorslund, I.; Vaska, P.; Paul, E. S.; Wilson, A. N.; Wilson, J. N.; Hauschild, K.; Hibbert, I. M.; Wadsworth, R.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Ragnarsson, I.

  • Physical Review C, Vol. 58, Number 1, July 1998, pp. 127-149

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1379
Publ.-Id: 1379


Particle-hole induced electric and magnetic rotaqtion in 111In

Vaska, P.; Fossan, D. B.; Lafosse, D. R.; Schnare, H.; Waring, M. P.; Mullins, S. M.; Hackman, G.; Prevost, D.; Waddington, J. C.; Janzen, V. P.; Ward, D.; Wadsworth, R.; Paul, E. S.

  • Physical Review C, Vol. 57, Number 4, April 1998, pp. 1634-1647

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1378
Publ.-Id: 1378


Synthesis, Structure, Lipophilicity and Protonation Behaviour of Mixed Ligand Rhenium Chelates Functionalized by Amine Groups

Papadopoulos, M.; Pirmettis, I.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Friebe, M.; Berger, R.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 49, 1998, pp. 961-966

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1377
Publ.-Id: 1377


About the Influence of Randomness of Hydraulic Conductivity on Solute Transport in Saturated Soil: Numerical Experiments

Prigarin, S. M.; Noack, K.

Up-to-date methods of numerical modelling of random fields were applied to investigate some features of solute transport in saturated porous media with stochastic hydraulic conductivity. The paper describes numerical experiments which were performed and presents the first results.

Keywords: solute transport; saturated porous media; numerical modelling; random fields; stochastic hydraulic conductivity

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-243 Dezember 1998
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1376
Publ.-Id: 1376


Finite Volume and Finite Element Code Calculations to an IAHR-Benchmark Test

Krepper, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.; Weiß, F.-P.

New reactor designs comprise passive elements for decay heat removal. Computational-Fluid-Dynamics codes are an appropriate tool for the assessment of the efficiency of those components. Most of these codes are based either on the Finite-Volume or the Finite-Element method. Because of the importance for reactor safety these numerical tools have to be thoroughly validated using results from experimental setups.
The governing mechanism in passive components for decay heat removal is natural convection and heat transfer with internal heating. To assess the capability describing mixed convection flow, post test calculations of an IAHR benchmark exercise were performed (Kamide et. al, 1991). The commercial codes CFX-4® and ANSYS/FLOTRAN® were used, representing the Finite-Volume Method and the Finite-Element Method respectively.
This paper presents a discussion of the problems and capabilities of each code to calculate complex flow regimes and temperature fields.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-7), Tokyo April 1999 Conference CD, ICONE-7072
  • Contribution to proceedings
    7th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-7), Tokyo April 1999 Conference CD, ICONE-7072

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1374
Publ.-Id: 1374


Fully 3D PET image reconstruction for a spatially-varying system response and very low counting statistics.

Lauckner, K.; Enghardt, W.; Hinz, R.; Pawelke, J.

A dedicated PET-system has been integrated into the heavy ion tumour facility at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt in order to monitor and control the applied dose distribution during the irradiation. The positron camera has strongly spatially-varying system behaviour due to its limited angle design and the presence of detector gaps. Furthermore, the expected counting statistics are limited by the doses applied per therapy fraction.
A three-dimensional Maximum-Likelihood Estimator algorithm has been adapted to this imaging situation. Corrections for activity outside of the field of view, parallax errors, randoms as well as normalization factors have been implemented. The algorithm has been validated using 22Na reference sources. Resolution, edge detectability, geometrical fidelity of size and position have been chosen as figures of merit. Results of the performance studies as well as an example of the algorithm's application to patient data are presented.

  • Poster
    IEEE Medical Imaging Conference, November 8-14, 1998, Toronto, Canada
    Book of Abstracts(1998)84
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Medical Imaging Conference, November 8-14, 1998, Toronto, Canada
    Book of Abstracts(1998)84

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1372
Publ.-Id: 1372


Meßtechnik für stationäre und transiente Mehrphasenströmungen

Schaffrath, A.; Prasser, H.-M.

Initiatoren des zweiten Workshops zum Thema „Meßtechnik für stationäre und transiente Mehrphasenströmungen" im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e.V. waren das Institut für Sicherheitsforschung des FZR und das Institut für Prozeßtechnik, Prozeßautomatisierung und Meßtechnik (IPM) an der Hochschule für Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS) Zittau/Görlitz. Der Workshop wurde mit Unterstützung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Chemisches Apparatewesen, Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie (Dechema) e.V. sowie der Kerntechnischen Gesellschaft (Fachgruppe Thermo- und Fluiddynamik) veranstaltet. In drei Haupt- sowie 13 Fachvorträgen wurden optische Meßverfahren, Impedanzverfahren und Sondergebiete zur Messung wichtiger Größen in einer Zwei- oder Mehrphasenströmung vorgestellt.

Keywords: Meßtechnik für stationäre und transiente Mehrphasenströmungen

  • Atomwirtschaft-Atomtechnik 43 (1998), Nr. 11, S. 706-708

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1370
Publ.-Id: 1370


Stabilization of AuIII and AuI in the same complex molecule by a tridentate phosphinodithiolate ligand. Structures of [AuIIILCl] and [AuIL2AuIII] [L= {PhP(C6H3S-2-SiMe3-3)2}2-)

Ortner, K.; Hilditch, L.; Dilworth, J. R.; Abram, U.

  • Inorganic Chemistry Communications 1 (1998) 469-471

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1369
Publ.-Id: 1369


Technetium Complexes with 2-Mercapto-methyltetrazolate

Abram, U.; Dilworth, J. R.

  • Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 1999, 625, 609-612

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1368
Publ.-Id: 1368


Synthesis, Characterization and Structures of the Novel Rhenium(IV) Complexes trans-[ReCl4{PPh2(OMe)}2], trans-[ReCl4{PPh2(Oet]}2] and trans-[ReCl4(OPPh....

Abram, U.; Caballo, R.; Cabaleiro, S.; Garcia-Fontan, S.; Vazquez-Lopez, E.

  • Polyhedron 18 (1999) 1495-1499

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1367
Publ.-Id: 1367


One-Loop Self Energies at Finite Temperatures

Peshier, A.; Schertler, K.; Thoma, M. H.

  • Annals of Physics 266, 162-177 (1998)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1366
Publ.-Id: 1366


Elektrische und mikrostrukturelle Effekte in hochdotiertem 6H-SiC nach Ionenimplantation

Wirth, H.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-236
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1364
Publ.-Id: 1364


Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors

Höhne, T.; Grunwald, G.; Rohde, U.

For the analysis of boron dilution transients and main steam line break scenarios the modelling of the coolant mixing inside the reactor vessel is important. The reactivity insertion due to overcooling or deboration depends strongly on the coolant temperature and boron concentration. The three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWR's was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (CFX-4). Calculations were performed for the PWR's of SIEMENS KWU, Westinghouse and VVER-440 / V-230 type. The following important factors were identified: exact representation of the cold leg inlet region (bend radii etc.), extension of the downcomer below the inlet region at the PWR Konvoi, obstruction of the flow by the outlet nozzles penetrating the downcomer, etc. The k- turbulence model was used. Construction elements like perforated plates in the lower plenum have large influence on the velocity field. It is impossible to model all the orifi!
ces in the perforated plates. A porous region model was used to simulate perforated plates and the core. The porous medium is added with additional body forces to simulate the pressure drop through perforated plates in the VVER-440. For the PWR Konvoi the whole core was modelled with porous media parameters. The velocity fields of the PWR Konvoi calculated for the case of operation of all four main circulation pumps show a good agreement with experimental results. The CFD-calculation especially confirms the back flow areas below the inlet nozzles. The downcomer flow of the Russian VVER-440 has no recirculation areas under normal operation conditions. By CFD calculations for the downcomer and the lower plenum an analytical mixing model used in the reactor dynamic code DYN3D was verified. The measurements, the analytical model and the CFD-calculations provided very well agreeing results particularly for the inlet region.
The difficulties of analytical solutions and the uncertainties of turbulence models for the numerical solutions require additional experiments. Therefore a 1:5 scaled plexiglas model is under construction at RC Rossendorf. The model can be used variably for PWR's of KONVOI- and EPR- types including the primary loops. The measurements of the mixing effects will be performed with modern wire mesh sensors based on conductivity differences and LDA is used to measure the flow conditions.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-237 October 1998
    ISSN: 1436-3976
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th AER Symposium on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Sept. 21-25, 1998, Bystrice nad Pernstejnem, Czech Republic

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1363
Publ.-Id: 1363


Workshop on "Measuring techniques for steady state and transient multiphase flows"

Schaffrath, A.; Prasser, H.-M.

The second workshop on “Measuring Techniques for Steady State and Transient Multiphase Flows” took place at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) from 24 - 25 September 1998. This series of meetings was initiated by the Institute for Safety Research of the FZR and by the Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Techniques of the Hochschule für Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen (HTWS) Zittau/Görlitz. The workshop was supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chemisches Apparatewesen, Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie (DECHEMA) and the Section “Thermo and Fluiddynamics” of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft. Three main lectures and 13 technical papers dealt with measuring techniques such as optical and radiometric methods, impedance measurements, hot film probes and model-based methods for the measurement of important quantities in two or multiphase flows, such as phase fractions, particle size, velocities, material exchange and concentration of components.

Keywords: measuring techniques for steady state and transient multiphase flows; optical and radiometric methods; impedance measurements; hot film probes

  • Kerntechnik 63 (1998) 5-6, p.300-302

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1362
Publ.-Id: 1362


Zur Zustandsgleichung heißer stark wechselwirkender Materie- konsistente Beschreibungen stark gekoppelter Quantensysteme

Peshier, A.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-239
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1361
Publ.-Id: 1361


Synthesis of Novel Progestin-Rhenium Conjugates as Potential Ligands for the Progesterone Receptor

Wüst, F.; Skaddan, M. B.; Leibnitz, P.; Spies, H.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.; Johannsen, B.

To assist in the development of technetium-based radiopharmaceuticals that are useful for the diagnostic imaging of steroid receptor-positive breast tumors, we have synthesized a series of small-sized metal chelates according to 'n+1' mixed ligand, thioether-carbonyl and organometallic designs. In these preliminary investigations, rhenium was used as a model for the radioactive technetium. The metal chelates contain the rhenium metal in several oxidation states, being +5, +3, and +1, and they were attached to 21-substituted progesterone derivatives. A competitive receptor-binding assay (rat uterine cytosol, 0°C) was used to determine the binding affinity of these conjugates for the progesterone receptor. The highest affinity of 9% (RU5020=100%) was obtained with a '3+1' mixed-ligand complex, containing a NMe group as the central donor atom in the tridentate ligand part. This value reflects a relative binding affinity of 75% compared with the parent steroid progesterone.

Keywords: 21-Substituted progesterone; progesterone receptor; relative binding affinities; rhenium

  • Bioorganic & Medical Chemistry 7 (1999) 1827-1835

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1360
Publ.-Id: 1360


The 3-Dimensional Core Model DYN3D

Grundmann, U.; Mittag, S.; Rohde, U.

Analyzing the safety margins in transients and accidents of nuclear reactors 3-dimensional models of the core were used to avoid conservative assumptions needed for point kinetics or 1-dimensional models. Therefore the 3D code DYN3D has been developed for the analysis of reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) in thermal nuclear reactors. The power distributions are calculated with the help of nodal expansion methods (NEM) for hexagonal and Cartesian geometry. The fuel rod model and the thermohydraulic part provide fuel temperatures, coolant temperatures and densities as well as boron concentrations for the calculation of feedback effects on the basis of cross section libraries generated by cell codes.

DYN3D can analyze RIA initiated by moved control rods and/or perturbations of the coolant flow. Stationary and transient boundary conditions for the coolant flow, the core inlet temperatures and boron concentrations at the core inlet have to be given. For analyzing more complex transients the code DYN3D is coupled with the plant model ATHLET of the GRS. Exercises are presented of the extensive validation work for DYN3D. Some examples are shown of application of the code.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Vortrag auf Obninsk 98: Information Exchange Forum on Safety Analysis for NPPs of VVER and RBMK Type, 26-30 October 1998, Obninsk, Russian Federation
  • Contribution to external collection
    Proceedings von Obninsk 98: Information Exchange Forum on Safety Analysis for NPPs of VVER and RBMK ype, 26-30 October 1998, Obninsk, Russian Federation
  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-248 Januar 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1359
Publ.-Id: 1359


Breakup conditions of projectile spectators from dynamical observables

Begemann-Blaich, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Pochodzalla, J.; Adloff, J. C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Kunde, G. J.; Leray, S.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R. J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Müller, W. F. J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Sann, H.; Schnittker, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Seidel, W.; Stuttge, L.; Trautmann, W.; Tucholski, A.

  • Physical Review C, Vol. 58, Number 3, Sept. 1998, pp.1639-1655

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1358
Publ.-Id: 1358


X-ray reflectivity investigation of near-surface density changes induced in Al-Au multilayers by high-current ion beam bombardement

Markwitz, A.; Prokert, F.; Waldschmidt, M.; Demortier, G.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 143 (1998) 422-426

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1357
Publ.-Id: 1357


Microstructure and wear behaviour of aluminium implanted with nickel

Wieser, E.; Richter, E.; Grötzschel, R.; Mücklich, A.; Prokert, F.

  • Surface & Coatings Technology 103-104(1998) 353-359
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SMMIB 97, Gatlinburg, TE, USA, Sept. 1997

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1356
Publ.-Id: 1356


Solution Structures of Rhenium (V) Oxo Peptide Complexes of Glycylglycylcysteine and Cysteinglycine as Studied by Capillary Electrophoresis and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

Jankowsky, R.; Kirsch, S.; Reich, T.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

  • Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 70 (1998) 99-106

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1355
Publ.-Id: 1355


Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of AlN Monolithic Films and Al/AlN Multilayers: a Comparative Study

Wang, X.; Kolitsch, A.; Prokert, F.; Möller, W.

  • Surface and Coatings Technology 103-104 (1998) 334-339
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SMMIB 97, Gatlinburg, TE, USA, Sept. 1997

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1354
Publ.-Id: 1354


Untersuchungen zum Redoxverhalten von Lignin und Huminsäure

Baraniak, L.; Mack, B.; Abraham, A.

Ausgehend von Messungen der Redoxpotentiale in Abhängigkeit von der Wassertiefe im gefluteten Teil des Schlema/Alberodaer Uranbergwerks werden die Konsequenzen bezüglich des Valenzzustandes des Eisens und Urans betrachtet. Um zu zeigen, daß nicht nur die Pyritoxidation als sauerstoffzehrender Prozeß im Grubenwasser in Frage kommt, sondern auch organische Substanzen, wie das Grubenholz einen Beitrag zur Bildung reduktiver Bedingungen leisten, wurde die Redoxsituation im Hochmoor "Kranichsee" am Erzgebirgskamm untersucht.

Im Laborexperiment wurde das Redoxpotential von Fichtenholzlignin in Abhängigkeit vom pH-Wert mittels der direkten Potentialmessung und der Titration mit Hexacyanoferrat(III) bestimmt. Dadurch werden Voraussagen bezüglich der durch Lignin verursachten Metallreduktionen möglich. Es wurde die Eisen(III)-Reduktion hinsichtlich ihres Umsatzes und ihrer Kinetik sowohl spektrophotometrisch mit o-Phenanthrolin als auch elektroanalytisch durch Square-wave-Voltammetrie untersucht.

Keywords: Environmental Chemistry; Redox Reactions; Uranium; Iron; Arsenic; Manganese; Pyrite; Native Carbon; Mining Site Restoration; Mine Water Chemistry; Highland Bog; Natural Analogue

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop über "Einfluß von Huminstoffen auf das Migrationsverhalten radioaktiver und nichtradioaktiver Schadstoffe unter naturnahen Bedingungen", Mainz, 11.-12. März 1998
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop: Huminsäure, Saarbrücken, Germany, 10.7.1997

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1353
Publ.-Id: 1353


Influence of Mine Wood Degradation Products on the Adsorption of Uranium, Thorium, Iron and Lead on ore Mountain Rocks and Elbe Valley Sediments

Baraniak, L.; Jelen, K.; Schiene, R.; Fischer, K.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

The influence of mine-wood leachates on the adsorption of U(VI), Th(IV), Fe(III) and Pb(II) (1) on typical rocks and minerals of the mining sites in the German Erzgebirge and (2) on sediments of the Königstein mine (Saxony) and its near field was studied under aerobic condition.

The wood was decomposed by reflux boiling of wood shavings with water. The leachates were analysed for DOC, phenolic and saccharic compounds, molecular weight distribution and content of carboxylic and phenolic hydroxyl groups. The adsorption experiments were carried out equilibrating the geomaterial with the aqueous phase in the presence of U(VI) and DOC for 4-6 weeks. The uranium concentration ranged from 3.2 10-6 to 3.2 10-5 mol/L (0.76-7.62 mg/L) and the DOC content was 8.3-166 mg/L. The distribution ratio (Rs [mL/g]) was determined by liquid scintillation counting of an added 234U tracer (10-40 Bq/sample) after distribution and a careful phase separation.

Uranium adsorption on rocks and minerals from the Erzgebirge: The adsorption from a DOC-free synthetic mine water takes mainly place on diabase and on calcite; about 80% of the uranium is bound on these minerals. The influence of the wood degradation products and pine wood lignin increases the adsorption to 90-95 %. Granite and basalt adsorb from DOC-free mine water 50-60% of the uranium. In the presence of the wood leachate and lignin, the adsorption increases to about 80%. The effect of the wood leachate and lignin is insignificant for gneiss. Very little uranium adsorbs on phyllite. From all solutions practically no uranium is bound ( 2%).

Uranium adsorption on Königstein sediments: It is evident that uranium is preferentially bound to sandstone (91-97%); especially with a high distribution ratio to the limonithe-rich turonian sandstone (142 mL/g). Even under the influence of the organic compounds the sorption ranges from 68 to 93%. Wood leachate and lignin (2-4%) decrease the sorption. The adsorption o ...

Keywords: Uranium; Thorium; Iron; Lead; Adsorption; Distribution Ratio; Metamorphic Rocks; Phyllite; Granite; Basalt; Calcite; Gneiss; Diabase; Sediments; Sandstone; Claystone; Wood Degradation Products; Lignin

  • Poster
    Vortragstagung der Fachgruppe Nuklearchemie der Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Dresden 7.-9. September 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1352
Publ.-Id: 1352


Über das Verhalten des Radiums im Flutungsprozeß des Uranbergwerks Königstein

Baraniak, L.; Thieme, M.; Funke, H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.; Nindel, K.; Schreyer, J.

The interaction of radium with characteristic sediments of the upper Saxon Elbe river valley was investigated with the aim to provide key data for transport modelling within the frame of mining site restoration. Adsorption measurements, therefore, were carried out on site-specific sediments (different kinds of sandstone, claystone and lime marl) using (1) acidic mine water coming from sulfuric acid residues of the former in-situ leaching process, (2) groundwater that is inflowing into the mine and (3) mixtures of both which simulates certain stages of the mine flooding process. The distribution ratios (Rd) were determined by batch experiments using an 8 weeks' equilibration at aquifer temperature (14 °C). Radium adsorption from acidic mine water onto different kinds of sandstone is characterized by high distribution ratios (3 400 mL/g). When contacted with groundwater, the sorption is decreased more than 20-fold (60-180 mL/g). For claystone and lime marl the distribution ratios amount to 130 and 480 mL/g, respectively, and they are nearly constant in the mine flooding process. The main adsorption mechanisms on the leached sandstone and the clayey sediments were identified as coprecipitation and ion exchange, respectively.

The long-term migration behaviour in the aquifers of the south-east Saxon Elbe basin was calculated on the basis of Hadermanns' equation, considering retardation, dispersion and radioactive decay.

Keywords: Radium; Environmental Radioactivity; Sediments; Sandstone; Claystone; Groundwater; Mine Water; Adsorption Behaviour; Distribution Ratio; Radium Migration; Uranium Mining Site Restoration

  • Contribution to HZDR-Annual report
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Jahresbericht 1996, S. 21-27

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1351
Publ.-Id: 1351


Sorption Behaviour of Radium on Sandy and Clayey Sediments of the Upper Saxon Elbe River Valley

Baraniak, L.; Thieme, M.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

With the background of uranium mine restoration the adsorption of radium on different kinds of sandstone, claystone and lime marl was studied in dependence on such parameters as water composition, acidity, phase contact time and the concentration of radium, barium and sulfate by static batch experiments at the mine temperature of 14°C.

Keywords: Environmental Radioactivity; Radium; Sandstone; Claystone; Groundwater; Mine Water; Radium Adsorption; Distribution Ratio

  • Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 241, No. 3 (1999) 511-517

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1350
Publ.-Id: 1350


Messung von Gasgehalt, Gasgeschwindigkeit und Volumenstrom mit Gittersensoren

Prasser, H.-M.

Mit Hilfe neuartiger Gittersensoren können Gasgehaltsverteilungen in einer Zweiphasenströmung im Strömungsquerschnitt mit einer Zeitauflösung von über 1000 Hz gemessen werden. Die Sensoren beruhen auf einer elektrischen Leitfähigkeitsmessung. Zwei hintereinander angeordnete Sensoren erlauben die Ermittlung von Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen der Gasphase. Hierzu werden die Zeitverläufe des Gasgehalts an den einzelnen Meßpunkten der beiden Sensoren individuell durch Berechnung von Kreuzkorrelationsfunktionen ausgewertet. Die erhaltenen Geschwindigkeitsverteilungen können mit den ebenfalls gemessenen Gasgehalten multipliziert und über dem Querschnitt integriert werden. Dadurch erhält man den Gesamtvolumenstrom der Gasphase. Tests an einer mit Wasser-Luft-Gemisch betriebenen Versuchsschleife zeigen die Funktionsfähigkeit dieses Verfahrens.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    1. Chemnitzer Verfahrenstechnisches Kolloquium / Strömungen in der Verfahrenstechnik, 25.-26. Nov. 1998, TU Chemnitz
  • Contribution to external collection
    1. Chemnitzer Verfahrenstechnisches Kolloquium / Strömungen in der Verfahrenstechnik, 25.-26. Nov. 1998, TU Chemnitz

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1334
Publ.-Id: 1334


Restorationof the Broken D2-Symmetry in the Mean Field Description of Rotating Nuclei

Dönau, F.; Zhang, J. Y.; Riedinger, L. L.

  • Physics Letters B 450 (1999) 313-319

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1333
Publ.-Id: 1333


Introduction to X-Ray Diffraction at Synchrotron Light Sources

Matz, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Actinide-XAS-98 Conference, Grenoble Oct. 4-6 , 1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings Actinide-XAS-98 Conference, Grenoble Oct. 4-6 , 1998, p. 40-49

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1331
Publ.-Id: 1331


The Rossendorf PET Cyclotron "CYCLONE 18/9" Facility-Two Years of Operation

Preusche, S.; Füchtner, F.; Steinbach, J.

An overview of the two years of operation of the Rossendorf CYCLONE 18/9 facility is given. Datas of the radionuclide production are presented and improvements at the cyclotron and our experience in operation and maintenance of the CYCLONE 18/9 are described.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    "IBA PET CYCLONE USERS, Second Workshop", Eds. KU Leuven and IBA, Leuven, Belgium, 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1330
Publ.-Id: 1330


Simulation of the Single Phase Natural Circulation at the Secundary Side of an Emergency Condenser (NOKO Facility) Using the CFD-Code CFX-4

Aszodi, A.; Krepper, E.

The NOKO-Test facility is a rig for the test of passive components of nuclear power plants and is operated at the research centre J'lich. The facility is used for the experimental investigation of the emergency condenser of the SWR 600/1000, which is a new boiling water reactor design, developed by Siemens. The paper describes the numerical investigation of the natural circulation processes at the secondary side of the NOKO facility. Results of CFX-4 calculations are presented. They show, that during the operation of the emergency condenser a stable temperature stratification is evolving. At the lower part of the secondary side of the NOKO test facility even a dead volume is established. The fluid of this volume does not take part in the fluid circulation. The phenomena observed in the calculations were also found in the experimental results. Different changes of the tank configuration were investigated to reduce the effect of the temperature stratification.

  • Poster
    ENC'98 Nice October 1998, Poster Session 2.05
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ENC'98 Nice October 1998, Poster Session 2.05

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1329
Publ.-Id: 1329


Simultaneous control of the radiation therapy with heavy ions by positron emission tomography.

Hinz, R.; Debus, J.; Enghardt, W.; Haberer, T.; Hasch, B.-G.; Jäkel, O.; Lauckner, K.; Krämer, M.; Pawelke, J.; Sobiella, M.

In December 1997 the treatment of patients suffering from head and neck tumours with beams of high-energy 12C ions started at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. By the simultaneous application of positron emission tomography (PET) the treatments are verified in-situ during the irradiation. The PET-based quality assurance procedure is a chain of consecutive steps. The starting point is the three-dimensional treatment planning on the basis of X-ray computed tomograms (CT). During the heavy ion treatment the produced positron-emitter distribution is measured simultaneously. After that the expected temporal and spatial activity distribution is computed. Both images are reconstructed iteratively and filtered. For the analysis the PET and CT images are superimposed.

  • Poster
    IEEE Medical Imaging Conference, 08-14 Nov, 1998, Toronto, Canada
    Book of Abstracts(1998)109
    Conference Record, Vol. III (1999) 2060-2063
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Medical Imaging Conference, 08-14 Nov, 1998, Toronto, Canada
    Book of Abstracts(1998)109
    Conference Record, Vol. III (1999) 2060-2063

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1328
Publ.-Id: 1328


Corrosion Protection of Titanium by Deposition of Niobium Thin Films

Günzel, R.; Mändl, S.; Richter, E.; Liu, A.; Tang, B. Y.; Chu, P. K.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    PSE 98, Garmisch-Patenkirchen, Sept. 14 - 18, 1998
  • Surface & Coatings Technology 116-119 (1999) 1107-1110

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1307
Publ.-Id: 1307


HPLC Analysis of the Metabolism of 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-DOPA in the Brain of Neonatal Pigs

Vorwieger, G.; Brust, P.; Bergmann, R.; Bauer, R.; Walter, B.; Füchtner, F.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.

  • Book (Authorship)
    Academic Press 1998, Quantitative Functional Brain Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography, ISBN: 0-12-161340-2
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    NeuroImage 5 (1997) B49

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1306
Publ.-Id: 1306


Concept of an Intense Positron Source at the New Superconducting LINAC "ELBE"

Brauer, G.; Ley, R.; Schneider, H.; Arnold, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Vortrag 15th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, Denton, TX, USA Nov. 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1305
Publ.-Id: 1305


Quantifizierung der hydrodynamische Parameter in kurzlebigen Schäumen

Kern, T.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    4. Fachtagung "Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit" Köthen, 5.-6. Nov. 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1304
Publ.-Id: 1304


Mrp1 Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein and P-Glykoprotein Expression in Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

Regina, A.; Koman, A.; Piciotti, M.; El Hafny, B.; Center, M. S.; Bergmann, R.; Couraud, P.-O.; Roux, F.

  • Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 71, No. 2, 1998, 705-715

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1303
Publ.-Id: 1303


EPR Evidence of tetrahalogeno(triphenylmethylimido)rhenium(VI) Complexes [Re{NC(C6H5)3}X4] (X=Cl,Br)

Voigt, A.; Abram, U.; Kirmse, R.

  • Inorganic Chemistry Communications 1 (1998) 203-205

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1302
Publ.-Id: 1302


Absolute E1 and E2 Transition Rates in 110Cd

Kostov, L. K.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Kostova, L. G.; Käubler, L.; Prade, H.; Schwengner, R.

  • The European Physical Journal A 2, 269-273 (1998)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1301
Publ.-Id: 1301


Cranked Shell Model and Isospin Symmetry Near N=Z

Frauendorf, S.; Sheikh, J.

  • Nuclear Physics A (1999) A645 (4) 509-535

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1300
Publ.-Id: 1300


Supershell Structure of Magnetic Susceptibility

Frauendorf, S.; Kolomietz, V. M.; Magner, A. G.; Sanshur, A. I.

  • Physical Review B, Volume 58, Number 9, 1. September 1998, pages 5622-5627

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1299
Publ.-Id: 1299


Solution of the Fifth Dynamic AER Benchmark Using the Coupled Code DYN3D/ATHLET

Kliem, S.

The fifth dynamic benchmark is the first benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal neutron kinetic core models. In this benchmark the interaction between the components of a VVER-440 NPP with the reactor core has been investigated.

The initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one control rod group stucking. This break causes an overcooling of the primary circuit. During this overcooling the scram reactivity is compensated and the scrammed reactor becomes recritical. The calculation was continued until the highly-borated water from the high pressure injection system terminated the power excursion.

Several aspects of this very complex and complicated benchmark problem are analyzed in detail. Sensitivity studies with different hydraulic parameters are made. The influence on the course of the transient and on the solution is discussed.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceeding of the 8th AER-Symposium, pp. 357-367, KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (1998)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th AER-Symposium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1298
Publ.-Id: 1298


Netzgekoppelte Photovoltaikanlagen: Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse

Rindelhardt, U.; Teichmann, G.

Die durchgeführten Untersuchungen an 50 netzgekoppelten PV-Anlagen (Leistungsbereich < 5 kWp) ermöglichten eine vergleichende Analyse der eingesetzten Hauptkomponenten sowie eine Beurteilung der gewählten Anlagenkonzepte. Danach steht bei den Modulen -neben dem Übergang zu Großmodulen- die Erhöhung der Qualität (STC-Leistung !) eindeutig im Vordergrund. Als brauchbarstes Wandlungskonzept in den Wechselrichtern hat sich die Pulsweiten-Modulation erwiesen. Neben hohen Jahresnutzungsgraden (94 %) sollten künftige Modelle durch einen hohen Eingangsspannungsbereich (bis 600 V) die Installation von Einstrang-Anlagen ermöglichen. Durch die Integration von Komponenten zur Anlagendiagnose (etwa PR-Überwachung) und Erhöhung der Zuverlässigkeit können weitere Ertragspotentiale erschlossen werden. Jahreserträge von deutlich über 800 kWh/kWp sind damit bei gut ausgerichteten Anlagen auch im hier untersuchten Leistungsbereich erreichbar.
Durch Auswertung von Einstrahlungsdaten konnten zudem einige energiewirtschaftlich wichtige Parameter der photovoltaischen Energieerzeugung ermittelt werden.

  • Elektrizitätswirtschaft 24/1998, S.27

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1297
Publ.-Id: 1297


Modul-Untersuchungen im FZR-Testfeld

Futterschneider, H.; Rindelhardt, U.; Teichmann, G.

Seit 1993 wird im Institut für Sicherheitsforschung des FZR ein Photovoltaik-Experimentierfeld betrieben. Neben einer kleinen netzgekoppelten PV-Anlage besteht die Gesamtanlage aus einem Strahlungsmeßfeld und einem Modulmeßfeld. Durch kontinuierliche mehrjährige Kennlinienvermessung wurden die ertragsrelevanten Parameter von Modulen ermittelt. Die jährlichen Energieerträge unterschiedlich orientierter Module entsprechen den Berechnungen der jeweiligen Einstrahlungssummen nach dem PEREZ-Modell.
Die STC-Leistung verschiedener Module wurde nach einem Outdoor-Verfahren bestimmt. Dabei wurden Minderleistungen zwischen 15 und 25 % gegenüber Datenblattangaben gefunden. Das auf den DC-Ertrag bezogene Performance Ratio der einzelnen Module lag zwischen 89 und 94 %. Ein mittleres jährliches Leistungsspektrum -gültig für große Teile Deutschlands und kristalline Module- wurde ermittelt.

  • Sonnenenergie 5/1998, S. 36

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1296
Publ.-Id: 1296


Detection von duktiler Rißinitiierung durch Schallemission

Richter, H.; Böhmert, J.; Valo, M.

Es wird eine Kerbschlagbiegeanordnung vorgestellt, mit der simultan Schlagkraft, Rißöffnung, Schallemission und magnetische Emission gemessen werden können. Grundbaustein der Anordnung ist ein invertiertes Pendelschlagwerk. Mit dieser Anordnung wurden seitgekerbte, vorermüdete ISO-V-Proben aus Stählen mit unterschiedlichen Festigkeits-Zähigkeitseigenschaften geprüft.
Die Untersuchung soll aufzeigen, ob Schallemission zur Detektion der stabilen Rißinitiierung an hochzähen Stählen geeignet ist und folglich auf diesem Wege die dynamische Rißinitiierungszähigkeit zuverlässig bestimmt werden kann. Dazu wurden andere Bestimmungsverfahren herangezogen. Als zuverlässigste Verifizierungsbasis wird die physikalische Rißinitiierungszähigkeit betrachtet, die auf der Grundlage der Messung der Stretchzone und der Rißwiderstandskurve in einem Mehrprobenverfahren ermittelt wird. Außer im unteren Übergangsbereich, in dem nur sehr geringer duktiler Rißfortschritt auftritt, konnte mit Schallemission in allen Fällen stabile Rißinitiierung nachgewiesen werden. Die damit bestimmte Rißinitiierungszähigkeit liefert über das gesamte Spektrum der untersuchten Stähle eine nahezu 1:1-Korrelation zur physikalischen Rißinitiierungszähigkeit. Im Einzelfall treten aber auch beträchtliche Streuungen auf und Rangfolgen werden innerhalb einer Versuchsserie nicht rangordnungsgerecht wiedergegeben. Alle anderen untersuchten Einprobenverfahren schneiden in diesem Vergleich deutlich schlechter ab und sind somit als Verifizierungsbasis nicht geeignet.
Die Untersuchung läßt nicht zwingend erkennen, daß Schallemission tatsächlich direkt mit dem Übergang der maximalen Rißabstumpfung zum stabilen Rißwachstum in Verbindung steht. Offensichtlich werden aber Prozesse detektiert, die im zeitlichen und örtlichen Umfeld der Rißinitiierungsprozesses stattfinden. Somit kann im instrumentierten Kerbschlagbiegeversuch mit Hilfe einer zusätzlich in die Hammerfinne integrierten Schallemissionssonde eine brauchbare Schätzung des bruchmechanischen Parameters dynamische Rißinitiierungszähigkeit effektiv und ohne großen Aufwand erhalten werden.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-230
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1295
Publ.-Id: 1295


Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation into High Speed Steel

Mändl, S.; Richter, E.; Günzel, R.; Möller, W.

  • Poster
    Poster IBMM'98 Amsterdam, Niederlande, 31.8.-4.9. 1998
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 148 (1999) 832
  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th Int. Conf.on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1294
Publ.-Id: 1294


Synthesis and Structure of (NH4)2[(AuI4)(MI4)] (M= Ga, In)

Schulz Lang, E.; Abram, U.; Strähle, J.; Vasquez-Lopez, E.

  • Zeitschrift für anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie 1999, 625, 359-362

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1293
Publ.-Id: 1293


Die thermische Zersetzung von Wasserstoffperoxid als Modellreaktion für die Druckentlastung

Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.; Kern, T.

Für die Validierung von Computercodes zur dynamischen Simulation von Druckentlastungsvorgängen werden experimentelle Daten benötigt. Besonders geeignet sind dabei Versuchserien, bei denen einzelne Parameter variiert werden. Mit Hilfe von Parameterstudien lassen sich Rückschlüsse sowohl auf die Güte der Einzelmodelle als auch des Gesamtmodells ziehen. Solche Daten liegen jedoch meist nur für Druckentlastungen verdampfender oder gasentlösender Stoffsysteme vor. In der Praxis ist aber i.a. die Druckentlastung im Fall durchgehender exothermer Reaktionen interessant. Daher wurde eine geeignete Modellreaktion gesucht. Die thermische Zersetzung von Wasserstoffperoxid zeichnet sich dadurch aus, daß sie einfach durchführbar ist, daß mit Wasser und Sauerstoff unproblematische Reaktionsprodukte entstehen und daß die Reaktion allein durch Wärmezufuhr ausgelöst werden kann.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4. Fachtagung Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit, 5.-6.11.1998, Köthen
  • Contribution to proceedings
    4. Fachtagung Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit, 5.-6.11.1998, Köthen

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1292
Publ.-Id: 1292


Characterization of Defects in Ion Implanted SiC by Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering

Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Coleman, P. G.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.

  • Applied Surface Science 149 (1999) 148-150
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th Int. Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-8), Cape Town, Sept. 6 - 12, 1998
  • Lecture (Conference)
    30th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, Jarnoltowek, Sept. 17-21, 1998

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1291
Publ.-Id: 1291


Characterization of vacancy-type defects in Al+ and N+ ion implanted SiC by slow positron implantation spectroscopy

Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.; Coleman, P.

  • Applied Surface Science 149 (1999) 140-143

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1290
Publ.-Id: 1290


The Canonical Form of Transition Matrix Elements

Dönau, F.

  • Physical Review C 58 (1998) 872

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1289
Publ.-Id: 1289


Precipitation, Ripening and Chemical Effects During Annealing of Ge+ Implanted SiO2 Layers

Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Markwitz, A.; Grötzschel, R.; Strobel, M.; Oswald, S.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th Int. Conf. Ion Beam Modification of Materials, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Aug. 31 - Sept. 4, 1998
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 148 (1999) 969-974

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1288
Publ.-Id: 1288


Gold(III) Complexes with Diphenylthiocarbazonate. Synthesis and Structures of [Au(Hdamp-C1){PhNHNC(S)NNPh}Cl]ClxH2O and ...

Ortner, K.; Abram, U.

  • Polyhedron 18 (1999) 749-754

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1287
Publ.-Id: 1287


Reactions of [ReN(Cl)(Me2PhP)2(HEt2tcb)] with Lewis Acids. Synthesis, Characterization and Structures of [Re(NBBr3)Br2(Me2PhP)3], [Re(NGaCl3)Cl(Me2PhP)2(H2Et2tcb)][GaCl4] and [Re{NB(C6F5)3}Cl(Me2PhP)2(HEt2tcb)] (H2Et2tcb=N,N-diethylthiocarbamoylbenzamidine)

Abram, U.; Schmidt-Brücken, B.; Ritter, S.

  • Polyhedron 18 (1999) 831-838

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1286
Publ.-Id: 1286


Spiro[cyclohexadiene-dihydroacridines] - A Novel Class of Spirodihydroacridines by Ring Transformation of Pyrylium Salts

Zimmermann, T.; Abram, U.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Tagungsvortrag XVIIth European Colloquium on Heterocyclic Chemistry

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1285
Publ.-Id: 1285


Verifikation des ATHLET-Rechenprogramms im Rahmen der externen Verifikationsgruppe ATHLET BETHSY Test 9.3- Heizrohrbruch mit Versagen der Hochdruck-Noteinspeisung

Krepper, E.; Schäfer, F.

Im Rahmen der externen Validierung des von der Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit entwickelten Störfallcodes ATHLET, der in der Version Mod 1.1 Cycle D vorlag, wurden zwei Experimente nachgerechnet und analysiert, die an der französischen Versuchsanlage BETHSY durchgeführt wurden. Im Test 9.3 werden die Konsequenzen untersucht, wenn bei einem Heizrohrbruch die Hochdruckeinspeisung sowie die Not-Speisewasserversorgung der Dampferzeuger versagen und nur die Druckspeicher sowie die Niederdruckeinspeisung zur Verfügung stehen. Als Accident Management Maßnahmen wurde die sekundäre Druckentlastung und schließlich die primäre Entlastung über den Druckhalter untersucht.
Die Analyse kommt zu dem Ergebnis, daß der Code ATHLET in der Lage ist, dieses komplexe Szenario recht gut zu beschreiben. Die sicherheitsrelevante Aussage konnte reproduziert werden. Abweichungen, die jedoch nicht die prinzipielle Aussage in Frage stellten, ergaben sich bei der Berechnung des Leckmassenstromes in der Phase der Druckentlastung des havarierten Dampferzeugers sowie bei der Modellierung des Versagens der Wärmeübertragung dieses Dampferzeugers. Die Ursache dieser Abweichungen ist sehr schwer aufzuklären, da diese Prozesse sehr komplex miteinander verflochten sind.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-232
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Publ.-Id: 1284


Verifikation des ATHLET-Rechenprogramms im Rahmen der externen Verifikationsgruppe ATHLET BETHSY Test 5.2c- Totalverlust des Speisewassers

Krepper, E.; Schäfer, F.

Im Rahmen der externen Validierung des von der Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit entwickelten Störfallcodes ATHLET, der in der Version Mod 1.1 Cycle D vorlag, wurden zwei Experimente nachgerechnet und anlaysiert, die an der französischen Versuchsanlage BETHSY durchgeführt wurden.
Das Experiment 5.2c dient der Untersuchung der Notfallprozeduren beim Totalausfall der Speisewasserversorgung auf der Dampferzeugersekundärseite. Spezielles Interesse gilt hierbei den Möglichkeiten der Notkühlung durch primäres Bleed and Feed, dem Verhalten der Dampferzeuger bei sekundärseitiger Austrocknung und dem Langzeitverhalten der Anlage bis zum Einspeisen der einzelnen Notkühlsysteme. Im Verlauf der Transiente erfolgt die Einspeisung sowohl aus dem Hochdrucknotkühlsystem als auch aus den Druckspeichern und dem Niederdrucknotkühlsystem.
Die Auswertung der Rechnungen zeigt, daß praktisch alle wesentlichen Phänome im Verlauf der Transiente korrekt wiedergegeben werden. Als ein wesentlicher Einflußfaktor auf die Qualität der Rechnungen hat sich die Modellierung der Wärmeverluste, welche an der Versuchsanlage teilweise durch eine Zusatzheizung (Trace Heating) kompensiert werden, herausgestellt. Werden die Wärmeverluste im Primärkreis falsch berechnet, so ergeben sich signifikante Abweichungen im Verlauf des Primärdrucks. Da alle Prozesse im weiteren druckgesteuert erfolgen, wirken sich Abweichungen im Primärdruck besonders stark auf den Verlauf der Transiente aus.
Die Ergebnisse der Rechnungen zeigen darüberhinaus, daß die sicherheitsrelevante Aussage des Experiments durch den Code ATHLET reproduziert wird.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-231 August 1998
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Publ.-Id: 1283


Improvement of the High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Ti50Al Via Ion Implantation

Hornauer, U.; Richter, E.; Wieser, E.; Möller, W.; Schumacher, G.; Lang, C.; Schütze, M.

The TiAl intermetallic compound is very promising for high temperature applications, because of its good high temperature strength and its low density. At temperatures exceeding 800°C, the low oxidation resistance is a limiting factor. It is known, that Cl doping reduces the oxidation strongly even in very low concentrations of about 500 ppm ("microalloy"). In the present investigation ion beam implantation is used to dope the material close to the surface quantitatively. The well-defined depth profile obtained after implantation provided a means to monitor the diffusion of additives during oxidation. Implantation of Cl+ ions (1 MeV, 1015 cm-2 - 1017 cm-2) results in a systematic reduction of the oxidation at 900°C in air for doses ≥ 1016 cm-2. AES measurements were performed to investigate the diffusion process during oxidation. A microscopic model will be proposed for the enhanced oxidation resistance. For beneficial effects of Silicon a higher concentration is required ("macroalloy"). Therefore high-dose implantations were carried out (up to 8·1017 cm-2). The change in phase composition, microstructure and the oxidation behaviour will be discussed.

PACS: 81.65M, 81.40, 61.10

Keywords: TiAl; ion implantation; oxidation resistance; depth profiling

  • Poster
    Konferenz IBMM 1998, Amsterdam, Niederlande
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 148 (1999) 858-862

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Publ.-Id: 1282


Cavities in helium implanted and annealed silicon characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry

Fukarek, W.; Kaschny, J. R.

The formation of helium induced cavities in silicon during short-time annealing is analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Specimens implanted with 40 keV He+ ions to a dose of 5×1016 cm–2 are heat treated at 800 °C for times of 1–1200 s by rapid thermal annealing. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is employed to obtain quantitative information on the cavity volume depth profiles. A newly developed formula is used to model the optical multilayer depth profiles. The cavity volume is found to increase during annealing for about 300 s and to decrease for longer annealing times. Over this characteristic time a marked change in the He loss occurs, which has been reported only recently. Swelling of the helium implanted and annealed silicon is analyzed using an atomic force microscope. Step heights are consistent with the cavity volume per unit area obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. The number density of cavities after annealing for 600 s is calculated to be 1.16±0.27×1017 cm–3 and is found to be largely independent of depth in the central part of the cavity layer.

  • Journal of Applied Physics, October 15, 1999, Volume 86, Issue 8, pp. 4067-4713

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1281
Publ.-Id: 1281


Natural circulation experiments at the ISB-VVER integral test facility and calculations using the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET

Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

In 1995 at the integral test facility ISB-VVER in Elektrogorsk near Moscow, natural circulation experiments were performed, that were scientifically supported by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. These experiments were the first of this kind at a test facility, that models VVER-1000 thermal-hydraulics. Using the code ATHLET, which is being developed by Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, pre- and posttest calculations were done to determine the thermal-hydraulic events to be expected and to define and tune the boundary conditions of the test. The conditions found for natural circulation instabilities and cold-leg loop-seal clearing could be confirmed by the tests. In the paper, the experimental results are presented, analysed and compared with ATHLET calculations. The main thermal-hydraulic phenomena were identified and compared with the results gained during similar experiments on VVER-440 test facilities. Besides the thermal-hydraulic standard measurin!
g system, the facility was equipped with needle-shaped conductivity probes for measuring the local void fractions.

  • Nuclear Technology 128(October 1999) No. 1, pp. 75-86

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Publ.-Id: 1280


The Modeling of Fuel Rod Behaviour under RIA Conditions in the Code DYN3D

Rohde, U.

A description of the fuel rod behaviour and heat transfer model used in the code DYN3D for nuclear reactor core dynamic simulations is given. Besides the solution of heat conduction equations in fuel and cladding, the model comprises detailed description of heat transfer in the gas gap by conduction, radiation and fuel-cladding contact. The gas gap behaviour is modeled in a mechanistic way taking into account transient changes of the gas gap parameters based on given conditions for the initial state. Thermal, elastic and plastic deformations of fuel and cladding are taken into account within 1D approximation. A creeping law for time-dependent estimation of plastic deformations is implemented. Metal-water reaction of the cladding material in the high temperature region is considered. The cladding - coolant heat transfer regime map covers the region from one-phase liquid convection to dispersed flow with superheated steam. Special emphasis is put on taking into account the impact of thermodynamic non-equlibrium conditions on heat transfer.
For the validation of the model, experiments on fuel rod behaviour during RIAs carried out in Russian and Japanese pulsed research reactors with shortened probes of fresh fuel rods are calculated. Comparisons between calculated and measured results are shown and discussed. It is shown, that the fuel rod behaviour is significantly influenced by plastic deformation of the cladding, post crisis heat transfer with subcooled liquid conditions and heat release from metal water reaction.
Numerical studies concerning the fuel rod behaviour under RIA conditions in power reactors are reported about. It is demonstrated, that fuel rod behaviour at high pressures and flow rates in power reactors is different from the behaviour under atmospheric pressure and stagnant flow conditions in the experiments. The mechanisms of fuel rod failure for fresh and burned fuel reported from the literature can be qualitatively reproduced by the DYN3D model. However, the model must be extended and improved for proper description of burned fuel behaviour.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 8th AER-Symposium, S. 721-740
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th AER-Symposium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1279
Publ.-Id: 1279


Comparison of the Results of the Fifth Dynamic AER Benchmark- a Benchmark for Coupled Thermohydraulic System/Three-Dimensional Hexagonal Neutron Kinetic Core Models

Kliem, S.

The fifth dynamic benchmark was defined at the 7th AER-Symposium, held in Hörnitz, Germany in 1997. It is the first benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal neutron kinetic core models. In this benchmark the interaction between the components of a VVER-440 NPP with the reactor core has been investigated.

The initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one control rod group stucking. This break causes an overcooling of the primary circuit. During this overcooling the scram reactivity is compensated and the scrammed reactor becomes recritical. The calculation was continued until the highly-borated water from the high pressure injection system terminated the power excursion. Each participant used own best-estimate nuclear cross section data. Only the initial subcriticality at the beginning of the transient was given.

Solutions were received from Kurchatov Institute Russia with the code BIPR8/ATHLET, VTT Energy Finland with HEXTRAN/SMABRE, NRI Rez Czech Republic with DYN3D/ATHLET, KFKI Budapest Hungary with KIKO3D/ATHLET and from FZR Germany with the code DYN3D/ATHLET.

In this paper the results are compared. Beside the comparison of global results, the behaviour of several thermohydraulic and neutron kinetic parameters is presented to discuss the revealed differences between the solutions.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceeding of the 8th AER-Symposium, pp. 429-469, KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (1998)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th AER-Symposium

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Publ.-Id: 1278


Efficient Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Thioester Precursors of [11C] MCN-5652 from Racemic MCN-5652

Zessin, J.; Gucker, P.; Ametamey, S. M.; Steinbach, J.; Brust, P.; Vollenweider, T. X.; Johannsen, B.; Schubiger, P. A.

An improved synthesis of the enantiomerically pure thioester precursors of [11C](+)-McN-5652 ([11C](+)-1), and [11C](-)-McN5652 ([11C](-)-1) starting from racemic McN-5652 ((±)-1) is described. The synthetic method includes the resolution of (±)-1 by repeated crystallization of the (+)- and (-)-di-p-toluoyltartrates yielding (+)-McN-5652 ((+)-1) and (-)-McN-5652 ((-)-1), each with > 98 % enantiomeric purity. S-Demethylation of (±)-1, (+)-1 and (-)-1, respectively was achieved by treatment with sodium amide at low temperatures (-78 °C) followed by conversion of the intermediate thiols 2 with acetyl chloride to give the corresponding thioester precursors (±)-3, (+)-3 or (-)-3. This demethylation method almost completely suppressed the isomerization of the pharmacologically active trans diastereomer into the inactive cis form. Chiral HPLC analyses confirmed that the S-demethylation proceeded without any racemization. 11C-Labelling of (+)-3 or (-)-3 yields enantiomerically pure [11C](+)-McN-5652 or [11C](-)-McN5652, each in 22 % radiochemical yield (decay-corrected, related to [11C]CO2) and a specific radioactivity of 74 GBq/µmol (2 Ci/µmol) at the end of synthesis (EOS).

  • J. Labelled Cpd. Radiopharm. 42 (1999) 1301-1312

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1277
Publ.-Id: 1277


Main Steam Line Break Analysis of a VVER-440 Reactor Using the Coupled Thermohydraulics System/3D-Neutron Kinetics Code DYN3D/ATHLET in Combination with the CFD Code CFX-4

Kliem, S.; Höhne, T.; Rohde, U.; Weiß, F.-P.

The coupled thermohydraulic system/3D-neutron kinetic code complex DYN3D/ATHLET was applied to an asymmetric main steam line break (MSLB) analysis for the Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Such type of MSLB accidents cause an asymmetrical overcooling of the reactor. In this case the coolant mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has an important influence on the behaviour of the reactor. The code DYN3D includes a special model for the mixing of coolant from different primary loops in the lower plenum of VVER-440 type reactors which can be used in the coupled code, too. This model is based on the analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the potential flow
approximation in 2-dimensional cylindrical geometry and the diffusion equation for heat transport or soluble poison. The model is validated against experimental results from a 1:5 VVER-440 flow model with air and experimental data from VVERs with all main coolant pumps (MCP) working. Using this model for the coolant mixing in the MSLB analysis, recriticality of the scramed reactor was predicted. If homogeneous coolant mixing is assumed, no recriticality will be obtained.
The stationary three-dimensional
flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of a VVER-440/V-230 reactor was calculated with a CFD code (CFX-4). For this calculation the RPV from the cold legs inlets, the downcomer, the lower plenum and the lower core support plate was nodalized in detail. The comparison with experimental data and the above mentioned analytical mixing model showed a good agreement for near-nominal conditions (all MCPs are running). However, the comparison between the CFD-results and the analytical model revealed differences for MSLB conditions. After shutdown of the MCPs, natural convection established in the primary circuit. The mass flow rate of the affected by the MSLB loop is approximately twice the value of one of the other loops, a redistribution of the flow below the inlet nozzle of the affected loop is observed. For this reason the temperature field at the core entry cross section has two equal minima next to the position of the concerned inlet nozzle. The temperature distribution obtained by the analytical model has one minimum, just near to the position of this inlet nozzle. The shape of the temperature distribution for MSLB conditions is practically the same like in nominal conditions. The extension of this sector due to the increased mass flow is properly considered by the model.
The core inlet temperature distribution obtained by means of CFX-4 was used to estimate the reactivity effect in the MSLB analysis.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Konferenz Ninth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-9) San Francisco, California, October 3 - 8, 1999
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Konferenz Ninth International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-9) San Francisco, California, October 3 - 8, 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-1276
Publ.-Id: 1276


40 Jahre Rossendorfer Zyklotron U-120

Guratzsch, H.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-234
    ISSN: 1436-3976

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Publ.-Id: 1275


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