Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34757 Publications

Secondary Neutron Fields During Modern Cancer Treatments -- Simulation and Measurement of the Secondary Radiation Field at the University Proton Therapy Dresden (UPTD)

Lutz, B.; Reginatto, M.; Zboril, M.; Swanson, R.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.

Particle therapy is a strongly growing field in cancer therapy. More than 60 treatment centres are currently operating worldwide and the total number will reach more than 90 by 2017(1). The majority of the centres uses protons to treat patients.

With the increasing importance of particle therapy, the development of application-specific monitoring systems has received a significant boost. On the one side, there are the radio-protection questions like the secondary dose to patients or to radio-sensitive equipment. On the other side, there are the methods that intend to verify the correct application of the treatment dose, during or short after the treatment, like prompt-gamma-imaging or -timing, or PET. For both groups of measurements, a good understanding of the secondary radiation field is crucial.

The greatest challenge in determining the secondary radiation field comes from neutrons. The spectra of the neutrons, generated by protons of therapeutic energies, extend far beyond the specification of most commercially available dosimeters. Additionally, the generated neutron fields are spatially non-uniform and in case of passive field formation strongly dependent on the operational setting. Combined with the very limited spatial and spectral resolution of the available neutron detectors, many details of the field cannot be experimentally resolved. Therefore, a dependable measurement of the neutron field requires a detailed simulation of the neutron generation in the treatment system.

The talk gives an overview of the passive proton field formation used at the University Proton Therapy Dresden. The challenges in modelling and measuring the resulting neutron fields are discussed. The current status of the simulation model is presented. The predicted neutron fields are also compared to first experimental measurements with a neutron REM meter and an extended Bonner sphere spectrometer.

(1) Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group (PTCOG),

Keywords: neutron simulation; neutron experiment; UPTD

  • Lecture (others)
    Lunch seminar University of Michigan, 15.06.2016, Ann Arbor, USA
  • Lecture (others)
    Fachgespräches des Fachbereichs Strahlenschutz des VKTA, 23.11.2016, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    Institutsseminar des Instituts für Kern- und Teilchenphysik der TU-Dresden, 29.06.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23805

P1219 - Funktionalised silicon nanoparticles

Stephan, H.; Bergmann, R.; Ruffani, A.; de Cola, L.

The present invention is related to silicon nanoparticles, a pharmaceutical composition comprising silicon nanoparticles, a method for synthesis of the silicon nanoparticles and their use for in vivo diagnostics, visualization of drug delivery or staining of cells, biological processes or pathways. The silicon nanoparticles are characterised that they comprise a silicon core of a size of 1 to 10 nm and are terminated with allylamine or poly(allylamine) comprising up to 10 allylamine groups.

  • Patent
    WO2013087734 - Offenlegung 20.06.2013, Nachanmeldungen: CN, EP, US

Publ.-Id: 23804

Systematic XAS study on the reduction and uptake of Tc by magnetite and mackinawite

Yalcintas, E.; Scheinost, A. C.; Gaona, X.; Altmaier, M.

The mechanisms for the reduction and uptake of Tc by magnetite (Fe3O4) and mackinawite (FeS) are investigated using XAS techniques (XANES, EXAFS), in combination with thermodynamic calculations of the Tc/Fe systems and accurate characterization of the solution properties (pHm, pe, [Tc]). Batch sorption experiments were performed in the presence of freshly prepared magnetite and mackinawite in 0.1 M NaCl solutions with varying [Tc(VII)]0 (2·10–5 – 2·10–4 M) and loading of Tc (400–900 ppm ). XANES confirms the complete reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in all investigated systems, as predicted by experimental (pHm + pe) measurements and thermodynamic calculations. Two Tc pure endmember species are identified by EXAFS in the magnetite system, corresponding to fully incorporated Tc in the magnetite structure and (likely) to a Tc-Tc dimeric structure with triple-bonding to the magnetite {111} faces. The latter endmember is favoured at higher [Tc], whereas incorporation prevails at low [Tc] and less alkaline pH conditions. The key role of pH in the uptake mechanism is interpreted in terms of magnetite solubility, with higher [Fe] and greater recrystallization rates occurring with decreasing pH values. A TcS2-like phase prevails in all investigated mackinawite systems, although the contribution of up to  20% of TcO2xH2O(s) (likely as surface precipitate) is observed for the highest investigated loadings (900 ppm). These results provide key inputs for an accurate mechanistic interpretation of the Tc uptake by magnetite and mackinawite, so far controversially discussed in the literature, and represent a very relevant contribution in the context of nuclear waste disposal.

Keywords: Tc; nuclear waste; XAS; XAFS; XANES; magnetite; mackinawite

Publ.-Id: 23803

Phosphorene under electron beam: from monolayer to one-dimensional chains

Vierimaa, V. V.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Komsa, H.-P.

Phosphorene, a single sheet of black phosphorus, is an elemental two-dimensional material with unique properties and potential applications in semiconductor technology. While few-layer flakes of the material have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy, very little is known about its response to electron irradiation, which may be particularly important in the context of top-down engineering of phosphorus nanostructures using a focused electron beam. Here, using first-principles simulations, we study the production of defects in a single phosphorene sheet under impacts of energetic electrons. By employing the McKinley–Feshbach formalism and accounting for the thermal motion of atoms, we assess the cross section for atom displacement as a function of electron energy. We further investigate the ener- getics and dynamics of point defects and the stability of ribbons and edges under an electron beam. Finally, we show that P atomic chains should be surprisingly stable, and their atomic structure is not linear giving rise to the absence of a gap in the electronic spectrum.

Keywords: Phosphorene; 2D materials; first-principles simulations; defect; irradiation

Publ.-Id: 23802

Biologische Laugung von Kupfer aus Kupferschiefer

Kostudis, S.; Bachmann, K.; Kutsche, S.; Pollmann, K.; Gutzmer, J.

Die Kupferschiefervorkommen Mitteleuropas stellen eine anspruchsvolle lokale Ressource von Basismetallen wie Kupfer, aber auch strategischen Elementen wie Gallium oder Molybdän dar. Um diese Wertstoffe aus dem Kupferschiefer umweltfreundlich und effizient zu gewinnen, werden biotechnologische Laugungsverfahren untersucht. Die klassische Biolaugung, die säureliebende Mikroorganismen verwendet, stößt beim Kupferschiefer aufgrund hoher Karbonatgehalte von bis zu 18 % (Material aus Polkowice, Polen)an ihre Grenzen, da der optimale mikrobielle pH-Bereich um pH 2 überschritten wird. Daher werden alternative Verfahren getestet; so beispielsweise die Produktion organischer Säuren wie Glutamin- oder Zitronensäure durch Mikroorganismen. Hier wurden mithilfe von Schimmelpilzen bereits gute Kupferausbeuten aus Material des Kupferschiefertyps erzielt. Allerdings konnte in eigenen Arbeiten gezeigt werden, dass bei der Verwendung organischer Säuren die Laugungseffektivität im neutralen pH-Bereich höher ist als im schwach sauren Milieu. Daher stellt der Beitrag Ergebnisse zur Biolaugung von Kupfer aus Kupferschiefer im neutralen pH-Bereich vor. Dabei werden sowohl geochemische als auch mineralogische Daten präsentiert.

  • Poster
    Jahrestagung Aufbereitung und Recycling, 11.-12.11.2015, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23801

Resource Analytics:An introduction into automated mineralogy and application on REE

Birtel, S.

An introduction into automated mineralogy and application on REE is an oral contribution to the Ist Workshop Goiano de Terras Raras in Catalo, Brasil which was oraginzed by the universidad de federal de Goias within the 'fact finding' Mission for a CLIENT II proposal. The workshop itself had ca 300 participants including the German and Brasilian delegations. The presentation is about the analytical facilites at HIF in particular MLA analytics, some technical background on MLA and case studies to demonstrate the application of MLA to specific challenges in ore and processiong product characterisation with focus on REE elements

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ist Workshop Goiano de Terras Raras, 23.-25.05.2016, Catalao, Brazil

Publ.-Id: 23800

How to use a MLA correctly

Birtel, S.; Tolosana Delgado, R.; Bachmann, K.; Heinig, T.; Gutzmer, J.; Matos Camacho, S.; van den Boogaart, K. G.

SEM-based image analysis (aka Automated Mineralogy) has become a standard method not only in mineral processing but also for petrological studies, e.g., for the determination of modal mineralogy, search for rare phases, or for fabric parameters such as grain size and mineral association. A very small aliquot (the surface of a polished epoxy block prepared from a few grams of ground material or the surface of a polished thin section) are used during analysis. All caution is needed to assure that this small aliquot is representative of the sample material to be examined – and that it yields the information of particular interest, e.g., the abundance and microfabric relations of rare phases such as PGEs or Au.
SEM-based image analysis is performed on surfaces, i.e. observations are obtained on two-dimensional surfaces, whereas the relevant attributes all related to the properties of three dimensional mineral grains/particles/rock volumes. For grain mounts, the appearance of a grain on the analyzed surface is controlled by the behavior of the grain during sample preparation and depends on grain size, shape and density of phases. Cutting effects usually cause an underestimation of grain size for isotropic grains, whereas phases forming grains with a shape preferred orientation (e.g. mica) may be over- or underestimated depending on the plane chosen for analysis. This causes also bias in modal mineralogy, grain size and shape or mineral association and liberation. At best, measurements can be precise but not accurate with reference to the entire sample.
To evaluate these effects, a systematic study was performed on grain mounts of a mineralogically rather simple greisen from the Erzgebirge (Germany), mainly constituted by zinnwaldite mica, topaz and quartz, i.e minerals with different density, mineral grain size and shape. Eight values of the ratio solid load/resin and analyses of two cutting planes (xy and xz) were performed, having 16 MLA measurements. Apparent modal mineralogy compositions were statistically compared, using bootstrapping techniques to estimate their uncertainty. Results showed a significant and constant difference of the topaz proportion between xy and xz measurements, as well as a significant systematic reduction in the ratio zinnwaldite/quartz with increasing solid load/resin ratio on xy measurements, a bias absent from xz measurements. In conclusion, sample preparation biases can be reduced by measuring on transverse planes (xz) or reducing the amount of resin added to the sample. For a first time the error in analyzing modal mineralogy was quantified. Other biases remain, like e.g. stereological distortion in estimating 3D quantities from 2D measurements. Such challenges are left for further research.

  • Poster
    Gordon Conference Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits, 19.-24.06.2016, Les Diablerets,, Switzerland

Publ.-Id: 23799

Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors - Thermo- and Fluid-dynamic effects

Seeliger, A.; Alt, S.; Kästner, W.; Renger, S.; Kryk, H.; Harm, U.

Within the framework of the German reactor safety research, generic experimental investigations were carried out aiming at thermal-hydraulic consequences of physicochemical mechanisms, caused by dissolution of zinc in boric acid during corrosion processes at hot-dip galvanized surfaces of containment internals at lower coolant temperatures and the subsequent precipitation of solid zinc borates in PWR core regions of higher temperature. This constellation can occur during sump recirculation operation of ECCS after LOCA. Hot-dip galvanized components, which are installed inside a PWR containment, may act as zinc sources. Getting in contact with boric acid coolant, zinc at their surfaces is released into coolant in form of ions due to corrosion processes. As a long-term behavior resp. over a time period of several days, metal layers of zinc and zinc alloys can dissolve extensively.
First fundamental studies at laboratory scale were done at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Their experimental results were picked up for the definition of boundary conditions for experiments at semi-technical scale at the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz (HSZG). Electrical heating rods with zircaloy cladding tubes have been used as fuel rod simulators.
As near-plant core components, a 3x3 configuration of heating rods (HRC) and a shortened, partially heatable PWR fuel assembly dummy were applied into cooling circuits. The HRC module include segments of spacers for a suitable representation of a heating channel geometry. Formations of different solid zinc compounds (mainly borates) were observed at heatable zircaloy surfaces and characterized in detail for heating-up to several coolant temperatures. As a strict consequence of their proven influence on heat removal and coolant flow behavior in the PWR core, preventive water-chemical methods were defined and tested.

Keywords: loss-of-coolant accident; LOCA; pressurized water reactor; PWR; zinc; corrosion; zinc borate; boric acid; reactor safety research; downstream effects


Publ.-Id: 23798

Radio-labelled nanomaterials for cancer diagnostics and treatment

Stephan, H.

The field of nanomedicine offers excellent prospects for the development of new non-invasive strategies for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. A major advantage of nanomaterials (NMs) is their potential to be used as non-invasive diagnostic tools. By combining multiple modalities into a single probe, higher sensitivity can be achieved, leading to deeper insights into different in vitro and in vivo processes. Despite the significant progress that has been made in the field of NMs-based cancer diagnostics, our overall understanding of their pharmacokinetics (adsorption, uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion) is still limited. Detailed investigations of the physicochemical properties and physiological behavior of NMs in biological environments are required to be better able to understand, predict and control their biodistribution.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ICARO Kick-off Meeting, 10.06.2016, Sestri Levante (Genua), Italy

Publ.-Id: 23796

Hydroxyquinoline-Calix[4]arene-Conjugates as Ligands for Polynuclear Lanthanide Complexes: Preparation, Characterization, and Properties of a Dinuclear Eu(III) complex

Jäschke, A.; Kischel, M.; Mansel, A.; Kersting, B.

The synthesis of a calixarene-based N4O4 donor ligand H6L, in which two 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carbaldehyde units are appended via hydrazone-carbonylmethoxy linkages in a 1,3-arrangement to the lower rim of tert-butyl-calix[4]arene, and its coordination properties towards Eu(III) are described. The reaction of H6L with Eu(NO3)3.6H2O produces a dinuclear complex [Eu2(H3L)2] (4). The Eu(III) ions in 4 are well-separated from each other (d > 8 Å) each being coordinated by two tetradentate hydroxyquinoline-2-carbaldehyde-hydrazone substituents from two triply deprotonated molecules (H3L)3- in a dodecahedral geometry. As a consequence there are no exchange interactions between the Eu(III) ions, and the magnetic properties are solely associated with thermal population of excited (7F1-7F6) terms. The spin-orbit coupling constant lambda is 325.2(4) cm-1. Moreover, the ligand H6L was found to extract Eu(III) and Tb(III) at pH 7-8 from aqueous solution, as established by radiotracing using the short-lived radionuclides 160Tb and 152Eu.

Keywords: Polynuclear Complex; 8-Hydroxyquinoline; Calix[4]arene; Europium; Extraction

Publ.-Id: 23795

P1407 - Verfahren zur Hydrophilisierung von Metalloxid-Nanopartikeln

Hunoldt, S.; Stephan, H.

Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Hydrophilisierung von Metalloxid-Nanopartikeln durch eine gezielte Modifizierung der Gitterplätze und die Verwendung dieser, wobei das Verfahren zur Herstellung oberflächenhydrophilisierter Metalloxid-Nanopartikel die folgenden Schritte umfasst:
a. Aktivierung von hydrophoben Metalloxid-Nanopartikel in einem organischen Lösungsmittel, durch Zugabe einer organophilen Base,
b. Zugabe eines aktiven C1-6-Alkans, aufweisend eine Funktionalität,
c. Abtrennung des Niederschlags und Überführung in eine wässrige Lösung,
wobei die kovalente Anbindung in (b) über ein Kohlenstoffatom der C1-6-Alkylgruppe des aktiven C1-6-Alkans an den Nanopartikel-eigenen, die Oberflächengitterplätze der Metalloxid-Nanopartikel besetzenden, Sauerstoff erfolgt.

  • Patent
    DE102014218355 - Offenlegung 17.03.2016

Publ.-Id: 23794

Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

Best, A.; Caciolli, A.; Fulop, Z.; Gyurky, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Napolitani, E.; Rigato, V.; Roca, V.; Szucs, T.

The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

Publ.-Id: 23793

P1508 - Complementary resistance switch,contact-connected polycrystalline piezo-orferroelectric thin-film layer,method for encrypting a bit sequence

Schmidt, H.; Bürger, D.; Du, N.; Manjunath, N.; Skorupa, I.; You, T.

Gemäß verschiedenen Ausführungsformen kann ein komplementärer Widerstandsschalter aufweisen: zwei äußere Kontakte (T1, T2 ), zwischen denen zwei piezo- oder ferroelektrische Schichten (11a und 11b) liegen, die durch einen inneren gemeinsamen Kontakt voneinander getrennt sind, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass mindestens ein Bereich der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) mindestens einmal derart modifiziert ist, dass in der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) jeweils zwischen dem inneren Kontakt und dem zugehörigen äußeren Kontakt ein Bereich (11') der Dicke (d ') entsteht, weicher mindestens zusätzlich in einem Bereich (11") der Dicke (d") modifiziert sein kann, wobei a) die äußeren Kontakte Oberflächenkontakte (Sa) und (Sb) und der innere Kontakt ein gemeinsamer zugehöriger Gegenkontakt (O) oder die äußeren Kontakte Gegenkontakte (Oa) und (Ob) und der innere Kontakt ein gemeinsamer zugehöriger Oberflächenkontakt (S) sind, b) die Oberflächenkontakte (S), (Sa) und (Sb) gleichrichtend und die Gegenkontakte (O) bzw. (Oa) und (Ob) nicht-gleichrichtend sind, c) sich die modifizierten Bereiche in der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) an den Oberflächenkontakten (S) bzw. (Sa) und (Sb) ausbilden, d) die piezo- oder ferroelektrische Schichten (11, 11', 11") verschiedene verspannungsabhängige strukturelle Phasen mit unterschiedlicher Bandlücke und/oder unterschiedlicher Polarisationsladung aufweisen, und e) die elektrische Leitfähigkeit der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schichten (11, 11', 11") unterschiedlich ist.

  • Patent
    US20150358151 - Offenlegung 10.12.2015

Publ.-Id: 23792

P1507 - Komplementärer Widerstandsschalter, kontaktierte Polykristalline piezo- oder ferroelektrische Dünnschicht, Verfahren zum Verschlüsseln einer Bitfolge

Schmidt, H.; Bürger, D.; Du, N.; Manjunath, N.; Skorupa, I.; You, T.

Gemäß verschiedenen Ausführungsformen kann ein komplementärer Widerstandsschalter aufweisen: zwei äußere Kontakte (T1, T2 ), zwischen denen zwei piezo- oder ferroelektrische Schichten (11a und 11b) liegen, die durch einen inneren gemeinsamen Kontakt voneinander getrennt sind, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass mindestens ein Bereich der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) mindestens einmal derart modifiziert ist, dass in der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) jeweils zwischen dem inneren Kontakt und dem zugehörigen äußeren Kontakt ein Bereich (11') der Dicke (d ') entsteht, weicher mindestens zusätzlich in einem Bereich (11") der Dicke (d") modifiziert sein kann, wobei a) die äußeren Kontakte Oberflächenkontakte (Sa) und (Sb) und der innere Kontakt ein gemeinsamer zugehöriger Gegenkontakt (O) oder die äußeren Kontakte Gegenkontakte (Oa) und (Ob) und der innere Kontakt ein gemeinsamer zugehöriger Oberflächenkontakt (S) sind, b) die Oberflächenkontakte (S), (Sa) und (Sb) gleichrichtend und die Gegenkontakte (O) bzw. (Oa) und (Ob) nicht-gleichrichtend sind, c) sich die modifizierten Bereiche in der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schicht (11a und 11b) an den Oberflächenkontakten (S) bzw. (Sa) und (Sb) ausbilden, d) die piezo- oder ferroelektrische Schichten (11, 11', 11") verschiedene verspannungsabhängige strukturelle Phasen mit unterschiedlicher Bandlücke und/oder unterschiedlicher Polarisationsladung aufweisen, und e) die elektrische Leitfähigkeit der piezo- oder ferroelektrischen Schichten (11, 11', 11") unterschiedlich ist.

  • Patent
    EP2917946 - Offenlegung 16.09.2015

Publ.-Id: 23791

P1512 - Gittersensor-System zum Charakterisieren einer Fluidströmung

Schleicher, E.; Tschofen, M.; Pietruske, H.

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Gittersensor-System zum Charakterisieren einer Fluidströmung, aufweisend einen Sensoreinschub mit einem Gittersensorelement und eine Strömungsführung mit einer Einlass-Leitung, einer Auslass-Leitung und einer dazwischen angeordneten Einschubaufnahme zum Aufnehmen des Sensoreinschubes, wobei von der Strömungsführung ein geradliniger Strömungsweg gebildet ist, und wobei die Einschubaufnahme derart ausgebildet ist, dass der Sensoreinschub entlang einer quer zu dem Strömungsweg verlaufenden Einschubrichtung in die Einschubaufnahme einschiebbar ist.

  • Patent
    DE102015117084 - Erteilung 19.05.2016, Nachanmeldungen: WO

Publ.-Id: 23790

P1501 - Anordnung zum Erfassen der Strömungsgeschwindigkeit einer Fluidströmung in einem Strömungsquerschnitt

Hampel, U.

Die Erfindung betrifft eine Anordnung zum Erfassen der Strömungsgeschwindigkeit einer Fluidströmung in einem Strömungsquerschnitt, aufweisend ein Sensorelement, eine Spannungsbeaufschlagungs-Einrichtung und eine Auswerteeinrichtung, wobei das Sensorelement mehrere unter Ausbildung von Kreuzungspunkten gitterartig angeordnete Elektroden und Gegenelektroden mit dazwischen angeordneten schwingfähigen Körpern aufweist, wobei die Spannungsbeaufschlagungs-Einrichtung zum Anlegen einer elektrischen Spannung zwischen die Elektrode und die Gegenelektrode der einzelnen Kreuzungspunkte ausgebildet ist, sodass das dadurch hervorgerufene elektrische Feld bei in die Fluidströmung eingebrachtem Sensorelement durch die strömungsinduzierte Schwingung der schwingfähigen Körper variiert wird, und wobei die Auswerteeinrichtung zum Ermitteln der lokalen Strömungsgeschwindigkeiten an den einzelnen Kreuzungspunkten mittels Auswertens der zugehörigen Feldvariation ausgebildet ist.

  • Patent
    DE102015100213 - Erteilung 25.05.2016

Publ.-Id: 23789

P1411 - Anordnung und Verfahren zur Dispersionsmessung sowie Mehrphasenapparat mit einer solchen Anordnung

Hampel, U.

Die Erfindung betrifft eine Anordnung und ein Verfahren zur Dispersionsmessung sowie einen Mehrphasenapparat mit einer solchen Anordnung, wobei die Anordnung zum Ermitteln der Dispersion einer dispersen ersten Phase beim Durchlaufen eines Strömungsweges innerhalb einer kontinuierlichen zweiten Phase vorgesehen ist und zum Durchführen folgender Schritte ausgebildet ist: Zuführen eines Stoffstromes der ersten Phase in die zweite Phase an einer Zuführposition zur Ausbildung eines Gemischs mit der ersten Phase und der zweiten Phase, wobei der Stoffstrom der ersten Phase mit einem vorgegebenen Zuführstrom-Zeitverlauf moduliert wird; Erfassen eines zeitlichen Verlaufs eines Messsignals, das den Gehalt der ersten Phase in dem Gemisch an einer stromabwärts der Zuführposition angeordneten Messposition repräsentiert, als Messsignal-Zeitverlauf; und Charakterisieren der Dispersion der ersten Phase basierend auf dem Messsignal-Zeitverlauf.

  • Patent
    DE102014118649 - Erteilung 24.12.2015

Publ.-Id: 23788

P1408 - Photochemische Entfernung von Uran(VI)-Verbindungen aus mit Uran(VI)-verschmutzten Flüssigkeiten

Fahmy, K.; Tsushima, S.; Attia, E.

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Abtrennung von Uran(VI)-Verbindungen aus Uran(VI)-Verbindungen-haltigen Flüssigkeiten mit den Verfahrensschritten herstellen einer Suspension, enthaltend eine Mikrostruktur, aufweisend mindestens ein Flavonoid und mindestens eine amphiphile Substanz, zugeben der Uran(VI)-Verbindungen-haltigen Flüssigkeit zu der Mikrostruktur, wobei eine einen Flavonoid-Uran(VI)-Komplexes, wobei mindestens eine Uran-Spezies mit einer Oxidationsstufe kleiner sechs gebildet wird und entfernen der Uran-Spezies aus der Suspension.

  • Patent
    DE102014225951 - Erteilung 04.02.2016

Publ.-Id: 23787

Preclinical and clinical evaluation of ɣH2AX as potentially predictive biomarkers for radiosensitivity

Meneceur, S.; von Neubeck, C.; Gudziol, V.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.

Ionizing radiation leads to DNA damages - including double strand breaks (DSB) - which are detected by DNA repair proteins. Upon DSB formation, the histone variant H2AX is phosphorylated - giving rise to ɣH2AX foci. GammaH2AX foci represent a promising biomarker to predict radiosensitivity - and might contribute to the individualization of cancer treatment in the future. It has previously been shown that residual ɣH2AX foci (24 h post irradiation) negatively correlate with local tumor control in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts after 4 Gy irradiation in vivo [1]. Additionally, it is well known that the tumor micromilieu plays a critical role in cellular response to radiation. In this study, we propose to analyze residual ɣH2AX foci in established HNSCC models in a dose and micromilieu dependent manner [2]. Besides, the ɣH2AX foci assay has been translated to ex vivo irradiated patient biopsies. It could be shown that radiosensitive tumor entities present a steeper dose response curve compared to radioresistant entities [2]. Here, we show first results of the assay applied on HNSCC patient-derived biopsies.

Cell line derived xenografts were subcutaneously transplanted on the hind leg of NMRI nude mice. When the tumor reached a size of 7x7 mm, BrdU (viability marker) and pimonidazole (hypoxia marker) were injected, and the mice were randomly distributed to 5 treatment arms (untreated control, 2 Gy, 4 Gy, 6 Gy, 8 Gy). The mice were sacrificed 24 h post irradiation, and the tumors were excised, fixed and embedded in paraffin (FFPE). Consecutive paraffin sections of the tumors were stained for BrdU and pimonidazole on the one hand - and for ɣH2AX on the other hand. GammaH2AX foci were manually counted in oxic areas at a maximal distance of 45 µm from the closest perfused vessel. In an attempt to transfer the assay to a clinical setting, patient-derived HNSCC biopsies were ex vivo cultivated for 24 h including 4 h of pimonidazole and BrdU treatment, subsequently irradiated with 0 – 8 Gy and FFPE fixed after 24 h.

Results and conclusion:
Preliminary results confirm that residual ɣH2AX foci increase in a dose dependent manner after in vivo irradiation, and that the different radiosensitivity of the xenograft models is associated with different slope of the dose response curves. In the patient materials, the different slopes of the dose response curves suggest patient specific repair capacities - which is of particular interest for treatment individualization.

This work was supported by a grant of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 02NUK035C).

[1] Koch et al., Radiother. Oncol. 108:434–39 (2013)
[2] Menegakis et al., Radiother. Oncol. 116:473–79 (2015)

  • Poster
    Gesellschaft für biologische Strahlenforschung, 26.-28.09.2016, Erlangen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23786

Das Ende der letzten Eiszeit – 10Be Expositionsdatierung im Aaretal, Schweiz

Zech, R.; Wüthrich, L.; Morabito, E. G.; Gnägi, C.; Zech, J.; Veit, H.; Merchel, S.

Während der Eiszeiten sind wiederholt die Gletscher aus den Alpen bis weit in das Schweizer Mittelland vorgestossen. Genaues Ausmass und Zeitpunkt sind selbst für die letzte Vergletscherung umstritten. Publizierte 10Be Expositionsalter von Findlingen auf dem Niederbippstadium des Rhone-Aare-Gletschers dokumentieren scheinbar den maximalen Vorstoss während der letzten Vergletscherung vor ca. 24 ka. Allerdings ist die Bodenentwicklung auf dem Niederbippstadium deutlich fortgeschrittener (Entkalkungstiefen von 3 bis 4 m) als die Bodenentwicklung auf dem Bern- und Gurtenstadium mit vermuteten Altern von ca. 18 – 20 ka (Entkalkungstiefen dort <1,5 m).
Wir haben mehrere Findlinge auf dem Bern- und Gurtenstadium beprobt und ihre 10Be Expositionsalter bestimmt. Die ältesten drei von sechs Findlingen vom Bernstadium liefern Expositionsalter um ca. 18 ka und dokumentieren den Gletscherstand des Aaregletschers kurz vor dem endgültigen und raschen Zerfall der Vorlandgletscher am Ende der letzten Eiszeit. Zwei von fünf Findlingen vom Gurtenstadium haben Expositionsalter um 20 ka und zeigen, dass der Aaregletscher zu diesem Zeitpunkt noch sehr viel grösser war. Auf beiden Stadien gibt es deutlich “zu junge” Expositionsalter, die höchstwahrscheinlich mit Erosion, geomorphologischer Instabilität, und menschlicher Aktivität erklärt werden müssen.
Es kann bisher nicht vollständig ausgeschlossen werden, dass die Expositionsalter des Niederbippstadium ebenfalls “zu jung” sind. Dann liesse sich die Bodenentwicklung auf dem Niederbippstadium problemslos erklären. Dokumentieren die Expositionsalter tatsächlich den maximalen Gletschervorstoss vor 24 ka, muss davon ausgegangen werden, dass die mächtige Entkalkung und Tonverlagerung dort in wenigen tausend Jahren, und vor allem unter glazialen Bedingungen stattgefunden hat. Weitere Findlinge sind daher im Moment in Bearbeitung, um den Zeitpunkt der maximalen, letztglazialen Vergletscherung zu klären.

Keywords: AMS; cosmogenic nuclide; moraine

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Deutscher Arbeitskreis für Geomorphologie 2016, 06.-08.10.2016, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23785

The constancy of the galactic cosmic rays: The contribution of cosmogenic noble gases and radionuclides in iron meteorites

Smith, T.; Leya, I.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Pavetich, S.; Scharf, A.

Introduction: The temporal constancy of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) over the last few billion years is an important and long-standing question in meteorite research. Over the years, meteorites have been intensely studied to answer this question [1]. While travelling in space, meteoroids are exposed to GCRs and the nuclear interactions produce (among others) stable (noble gases) and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides. Being interested in the long-term variation of the GCRs, we study iron meteorites because they typically have cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages in the range of a few million years (Ma) and – for some – even up to 2 Ga [2]. It has been demonstrated previously that periodic GCR flux variations can induce peaks in CRE age histograms, which is due to the fact that during periods of high fluency the “apparent” time seems to run faster and vice-versa. Therefore, setting up a consistent exposure age histogram and then searching for periodic peaks would make it possible to study GCR flux variations.
Experimental methods: We measured the isotopic concentrations of He, Ne, and Ar by noble gas mass spectrometry at the University of Bern following procedures described earlier [3,4]. Analyses of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca have been performed at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (DREAMS, [5]) using chemical separation procedures described in [6].
Results: In total 55 iron meteorite samples, predominantly of class IIIAB, have been selected and investigated for their cosmogenic nuclide contents. The CRE ages have been calculated using the 36Cl-36Ar dating scheme [1]. However, doing so we had to correct 36Cl for radioactive decay on Earth, i.e., we had to determine the terrestrial age for each studied meteorite. To avoid problems with 10Be and 26Al production from inhomogeneously distributed sulfur- and phosphorous-bearing minerals, we use the 41Ca-36Cl system to determine terrestrial ages instead of e.g. 10Be-36Cl system. Doing so we use updated Monte-Carlo calculations, e.g., [3], instead of the classical semiempirical approaches [7]. Up to now, noble gases have been measured in 35 samples and radionuclides in 48 samples. The calculated CRE ages range between ~5 and ~700 Ma, which is in the range expected for iron meteorites [2,8]. So far, no features can be observed in the CRE ages histogram. Additional noble gas and radionuclide measurements are ongoing, which will increase the statistics and will help to study possible long-term variations in the GCR intensities over the last few billion years.
References: [1] Lavielle B. et al. 1999. Earth Planetary and Science Letters 170:93–104. [2] Wieler R. et al. 2013. Space Science Reviews 176:351-363. [3] Ammon K. et al. 2009. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44:485-503. [4] Ammon K. et al. 2011. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46:785-792. [5] Rugel G. et al. 2016. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics B 370:94-100. [6] Merchel S. and Herpers U. 1999. Radiochimica Acta 84:215-219. [7] Welten, K. et al. 2001. Abstract in 31st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. [8] Eugster O. et al. 2006. Meteorites and the Early Solar System II, Part IX: 829-851.
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the following museums and colleagues for their precious contribution to this study: D. Cook (ETH Zürich), the Ege University Observatory Research and Application Center, Turkey, L. Ferrière and F. Brandstätter (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien), P. Heck (The Field Museum, Chicago), A. Muszyński (Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Poznań), I. Nicklin (Royal Ontario Museum), P. Rochette (CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Université), C. Smith (Natural History Museum London), and J. Zipfel (Senckenberg Naturmuseum Frankfurt). This work is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF).

Keywords: AMS; cosmogenic nuclide; cosmic rays

  • Lecture (Conference)
    79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 07.-12.08.2016, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23784

Preatmospheric size and terrestrial age of the Twannberg meteorite (IIG)

Smith, T.; Leya, I.; Hofmann, B.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Pavetich, S.; Scharf, A.

Introduction: The main mass of the Twannberg meteorite (15.9 kg) has been found 1984 in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland. The Twannberg meteorite belongs to the IIG group, which comprises so far only six members and which is characterized by large amounts of schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P and a low nickel content of 5% only [1]. Twannberg is so far the largest meteorite found in Switzerland. Recent research campaigns have increased the amount of recovered material yielding to a total mass of ~70 kg in ~550 individual pieces.
In this study, we analyzed 17 individual samples and calculated their cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age using cosmogenic noble gases and radionuclides. We applied updated Monte-Carlo model calculations to determine (i) the preatmospheric size, (ii) the cosmic ray exposure age, and (ii), especially, the terrestrial age of Twannberg to better understand its relation to the last glaciation event in Europe [1].
Experimental methods: The isotopic concentrations for He, Ne, and Ar have been measured by noble gas mass spectrometry at the University of Bern following procedures described earlier [2,3]. Analyses of the cosmogenic radionuclides (i.e., 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca) have been performed at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (DREAMS, [4]) using procedures described in [5].
Results: In total, 17 samples have been analyzed for noble gas concentrations; seven of them have also been investigated for their cosmogenic radionuclide contents. We observe a wide range of noble gas and radionuclide concentrations of more than one order of magnitude among the different samples. The noble gas and radionuclide concentrations linearly correlate, demonstrating the reliability of the analysis despite low concentrations. Combining the data with improved model calculations indicate a preatmospheric radius of up to 10 m. Considering an average density of about 8 g/cm3 and assuming a spherical object, the preatmospheric mass of Twannberg was most likely larger than 33000 tons.
The CRE age for Twannberg, which has been determined using the 36Cl-36Ar method [6], is 236±50 Ma, which is in the range of typical CRE ages for iron meteorites [7] and which is in good agreement with the adopted age of 230±50 Ma found previously [1]. More importantly, the mean terrestrial age based on 41Ca-36Cl systematics and up-dated Monte-Carlo calculations is 165±58 ka. The age therefore indicates that Twannberg most likely fell during the second last glaciation (~185-130 ka), or even during one of the two last (~130-115 ka) or (~225-185 ka) interglacials. Research campaigns in the field are still ongoing and we hope for a further recoveries of Twannberg material.
References: [1] Hofmann B. et al. 2009. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44:187-199. [2] Ammon K. et al. 2008. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43:685-699. [3] Ammon K. et al. 2011. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 46:785-792. [4] Rugel G. et al. 2016. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics B 370:94-100. [5] Merchel S. and Herpers U. 1999. Radiochimica Acta 84:215-219. [6] Lavielle B. et al. 1999. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 170:93-104. [7] Eugster O. 2003. Chemie der Erde-Geochemistry 63:3-30.
Acknowlegments: This study heavily relies on samples collected in a great effort by a joint group of meteorite enthusiasts and scientists. We particularly thank for the collaboration and samples: Marc Jost, Manuel Eggimann, Hannes Weiss, Sergey Vasiliev, Andreas Koppelt, Ernst Wyler, Gino Bernasconi, Marcel Häuselmann, and Edwin Gnos. This work is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF).

Keywords: AMS; cosmogenic nuclide; meteorite

  • Poster
    79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 07.-12.08.2016, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23783

Can Morasko and Mundrabilla help reconstructing production rates and nuclear reaction cross-section for light cosmogenic nuclides?

Merchel, S.; Smith, T.; Leya, I.; Pavetich, S.; Rugel, G.; Scharf, A.; Muszynski, A.

Introduction: The reconstruction of pre-atmospheric sizes and exposure and terrestrial ages of meteorites including shielding depths of individual samples has advanced in the last decades. Technical developments in noble gas and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) led to cosmogenic nuclide data of higher accuracy. Additionally, progress in Monte-Carlo calculations [1] seems to produce more reliable interpretation of the experimental data than earlier “classical” semiempirical approaches. However, some problems regarding both experimental data and calculations are persistent. One of these is the production of lighter nuclides such as 10Be, 21,22Ne, and 26Al from inhomogeneously distributed sulfur- and phosphorus-rich inclusions or from trace elements in iron meteorites or metal phases of stony-iron meteorites. As we lately experienced again, the uselessness of 26Al and 21,22Ne for deciphering the history of a newly discovered iron meteorite, i.e. Gebel Kamil [2], we follow an approach to measure cosmogenic nuclides in schreibersite and troilite inclusions from iron meteorites compared to bulk metal to get more quantitative insights into these difficulties. First, samples from Morasko and Mundrabilla (metal, troilite, schreibersite) were investigated.
Experimental: Lighter stable nuclides of He, Ne, and Ar have been measured by noble gas mass spectrometry at the University of Bern [3], radionuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca) at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility (DREAMS) [4,5] after radiochemical separation [6].
Results and discussion: Data of 36Cl and 36Ar of the metal yield to partially consistent exposure ages, i.e. (247 ± 26) Ma for Mundrabilla (compared to (350 ± 90) Ma [7]) and (210 ± 22) Ma for Morasko (compared to (130 ± 15) Ma [8]). Our Morasko exposure age is validated by the corresponding troilite analyses giving an age of (246 ± 49) Ma proving the 36Cl-36Ar-system not being influenced by contributions from sulfur within uncertainties. All our ages are based on three to four individual 36Cl-36Ar-analysis.
Terrestrial ages based on the 41Ca-36Cl-system should be the most reliable and least influenced by S- and P-abundances. Data of Morasko was indistinguishable from saturation activities, thus, confirming the young terrestrial age of 5 ka determined by earlier luminescence-dating of the corresponding crater [9]. However, high 41Ca/36Cl of 1.5 and 2.9 for troilite and metal fractions of Mundrabilla, respectively, do not allow calculating a reasonable terrestrial age pointing to unexplained discrepancies in either the AMS measurements or Monte-Carlo calculations for shielded samples. Further work is needed.
As expected, 26Al is most severely influenced by S- and P-abundances. In Mundrabilla 26Al (mean of four individual samples each; standard deviation) is as high as (4.618 ± 0.071) dpm/kgtroilite compared to neighboring metal fractions (0.1635 ± 0.010) dpm/kgmetal, resulting in 26Al/10Be-ratios of 20.8 (troilite) compared to 0.9 (metal). Same observations (mean of three samples each; standard deviation) can be made for 26Al in Morasko: (7.36 ± 0.18) dpm/kgtroilite vs. (0.2399 ± 0.0063) dpm/kgmetal with 26Al/10Be of 19.4 (troilite) and 0.8 (metal). A single analysis of Morasko schreibersite produced intermediate 26Al-data of (3.286 ± 0.081) dpm/kgschreibersite resulting in 26Al/10Be of ~1.6.
Conclusions and outlook: It has been clearly shown that even traces of troilite influence the 26Al-concentration. It seems obvious that careful sample inspection under a binocular is essential to overcome the most severe influences by S- and P-inclusions. However, the determination of S and P in aliquots of each metal sample is analytical challenging and mean bulk values might not be representative for the individual sample. Nevertheless, we are aiming at deciphering thick-target production rates and cross-sections for 10Be, 21,22Ne, and 26Al - from S and P - from this first data and future analyses to include them into Monte-Carlo calculations for later use.
References: [1] Ammon K. et al. 2009. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44:485-503. [2] Ott U. et al. 2014. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 49:1365-1374. [3] Ammon K. et al. 2008. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43:685-699. [4] Akhmadaliev et al. 2013. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physic B 294:5-10. [5] Rugel G. et al. 2016. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics B 370:94-100. [6] Merchel S. and Herpers U. 1999. Radiochimica Acta 84:215-219. [7] Maruoka T. and Matsuda J. 2011. Chemical Geology 175:751-756. [8] Hutzler A. 2015. PhD thesis, Aix-Marseille Université. [9] Stankowski W.T.J. et al. 2007. Geochronometria 28:25-29.
Acknowledgements: We thank the operators of the ion beam centre and further colleagues at HZDR, especially René Ziegenrücker, for help in performing AMS measurements at DREAMS. We are grateful to Jutta Zipfel from Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt for putting precious Mundrabilla samples at our disposal.

Keywords: AMS; cosmogenic nuclide

  • Lecture (Conference)
    79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 07.-12.08.2016, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23782

New insights in preservation of meteorites in hot deserts: The oldest hot desert meteorite collection

Hutzler, A.; Rochette, P.; Bourlès, D.; Gattacceca, J.; Merchel, S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Valenzuela, M.

With a meteorite concentration up to 170 meteorites over 10 g per km² [1], the Central Depression of the Ataca-ma Desert is an exceptional field for recovery of meteorites. Without clear evidence of physical concentration, and based on models calculating the falling rate of meteorites on Earth at 80 meteorites (>10 g) Ma-1 km² [2], the time needed to reach such a density is in the order of million years.
To test this hypothesis, a random subset of 25 chondrites from Chilean dense collection areas (DCA) were first 14C-dated. Over 67% of them are beyond the C-14 dating limit, namely ~40 ka. This led us to conclude that longer half-lived cosmogenic nuclides are better-suited to study this collection.
A random subset of 24 ordinary chondrites was chosen from the 213 meteorites of the El Médano collection (El Médano and Caleta el Cobre DCAs). Their terrestrial ages were calculated using cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. For comparison, we also present the terrestrial ages calculated for 10 Chilean iron meteorites (4 from this study, 6 from the literature [3]).
Cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl and 41Ca) were extracted from iron fractions of chondrites and from iron meteorites following [4]. Their concentrations were measured at the French 5 MV AMS national facility ASTER (CEREGE, France) [5]. Terrestrial ages have been calculated using three different methods: Tterr 36Cl/10Be, Tterr 36Cl/41Ca and Tterr 36Cl [6][7].
The terrestrial ages of the El Médano collection meteorites are distributed between 35 ka and 1 Ma (36Cl /41Ca method), with an unweighted average of (0.41±0.26) Ma. Terrestrial ages of the Chilean iron meteorites range be-tween 0 and 2.7 Ma, with an unweighted average at (0.43±0.43) Ma. This distribution highlights significantly older terrestrial ages than those related to other hot desert collections. It is comparable to the age spectrum for DCAs from Antarctica, such as Allan Hills. According to these results, it is possible for a meteorite collection to be preserved for over 1 Ma in a hot desert environment, providing the environment shows long-standing hyperarid conditions. In view of its exceptional old age, the El Medano meteorite collection offers the possibility to study the meteorite flux to Earth on the million years time scale.
References: [1] Hutzler A. et al. 2016. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 51:468-482. [2] Halliday, I. et al. 1989. Meteoritics 24:87-122 [3] Koblitz J. 2005. Metbase, version 7.1. [4] Hutzler A. 2015. PhD Thesis, Aix-Marseille-University. [5] Arnold et al. 2010. Physics Research B 268:1954-1959.[6] Leya I. and Masarik J. 2009. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, 1061-1086. [7] Nishiizumi K. et al. 1989. Earth and Planetary Science Letter 93:299-313.

Keywords: AMS; terrestrial age

  • Poster
    79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, 07.-12.08.2016, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23781

Investigation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in pure and mixed-species culture for bioleaching of Theisen sludge from former copper smelting

Klink, C.; Eisen, S.; Daus, B.; Heim, J.; Schlömann, M.; Schopf, S.

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of bioleaching for the treatment of an environmentally hazardous waste, a blast-furnace flue dust designated Theisen sludge.
Methods and Results: Bioleaching of Theisen sludge was investigated at acidic conditions with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in pure and mixed-species culture with Acidiphilium. In shaking-flask experiments, bioleaching parameters (pH, redox potential, zinc extraction from ZnS, ferrous- and ferric-iron concentration) were controlled regularly. The analysis of the dissolved metals showed that 70% zinc and 45% copper were extracted. Investigations regarding the arsenic and antimony species were performed. When iron ions were lacking, animonate (Sb(V)) and total arsenic concentration were highest in solution. The bioleaching approach was scaled up in stirred-tank bioreactors resulting in higher leaching efficiency of valuable trace elements. Concentrations of dissolved antimony were approx. 23 times, and of cobalt, germanium, and rhenium three times higher in comparison to shaking-flask experiments, when considering the difference in solid load of Theisen sludge.
Conclusions: The extraction of base and trace metals from Theisen sludge, despite of its high content of heavy metals and organic compounds, was
feasible with iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. In stirred-tank bioreactors, the mixed-species culture performed better.
Significance and Impact of the Study: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first providing an appropriate biological technology for the treatment of Theisen sludge to win valuable elements.

Keywords: acidophilic bacteria; bioleaching of valuable trace elements; stirred-tank bioreactors; Theisen sludge; toxic organic compounds


Publ.-Id: 23780

Optical ridge waveguides in Nd:LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing

Cheng, Y.; Lv, J.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Chen, F.

We report on the fabrication of optical ridge waveguides in Nd:LGS crystal by using combination of swift C5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing. The ridge structures support guidance both at 632.8 nm and 1064 nm wavelength along the TE and TM polarizations. The lowest propagation losses of the ridge waveguide for the TM mode are ~1.6 dB/cm at 632.8 nm and ~1.2 dB/cm at 1064 nm, respectively. The investigation of micro-fluorescence spectra and micro-Raman spectra indicates that the Nd3+ luminescence features have been well preserved and the microstructure of the waveguide region has no significant change after C5+ ion irradiation.

Keywords: Optical waveguide; Nd:LGS crystal; Ion irradiation; Diamond blade dicing


Publ.-Id: 23779

Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

Jagielski, J.; Ostaszewska, U.; Bielinski, D.; Grambole, D.; Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R.; Kosinska, A.

Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H+, He+ and Ar+ studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers

Keywords: Ion implantation; Elastomers; Ion beam analysis; Hydrogen release

Publ.-Id: 23777

Velocity Measurement For Two-Phase Flows Based On Ultrafast X-ray Tomography

Barthel, F.; Bieberle, M.; Hoppe, D.; Banowski, M.; Hampel, U.

The ultrafast electron beam X-ray tomography scanner ROFEX is used for the investigation of multiphase flows. Its functional principle allows us to obtain sequences of cross-sectional flow images, which shows local attenuation properties of the flow. Hence, the X-ray CT images mainly reveal the shape and interfaces of flow constituents, such as gas, liquid and solids via their X-ray contrast. It is, however, more difficult to obtain velocity information from multi phase flows. In this article we discuss different methods to extract information on the velocities of particles or interfaces as well as for continuous phase. For disperse phase velocity measurement, e.g. ingas–liquidorgas–solids flows, we employ cross-correlation based techniques using two imaging planes. Apart from the standard cross-correlation technique we developed a method and algorithm, which is capable to identify identical bubbles in the two planes giving us a unique Lagrangian particle-related velocity information. Eventually we give an example of velocity measurement in the continuous liquid phase using an X-ray contrast agent.

Keywords: Ultrafast X-raytomography; Velocity measurement; Cross-correlation; ROFEX

Publ.-Id: 23776

Anomalous Hall Effect in Polycrystalline MnxSi1–x (x ≈ 0.5) Films with the Self-Organized Distribution of Crystallites over Their Shapes and Sizes

Chernoglazov, K. Y.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Rylkov, V. V.; Semisalova, A. S.; Zenkevich, A. V.; Tugushev, V. V.; Vasil’Ev, A. L.; Chesnokov, Y. M.; Pashaev, E. M.; Matveev, Y. A.; Granovskii, A. B.; Novodvorskii, O. A.; Vedeneev, A. S.; Bugaev, A. S.; Drachenko, O.; Zhou, S.

The structural, transport, and magnetic characteristics of polycrystalline MnxSi1 – x (x ≈ 0.51–0.52) films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto Al2O3(0001) substrates when the low-energy components are deposited owing to collisions with the atoms of the buffer gas have been studied in the “shadow” geometry. The magnetization of these films is determined by two ferromagnetic phases—the high-temperature phase with the Curie temperature TC ≈ 370 K and the low-temperature one with TC ≈ 46 K. The anomalous Hall effect changes sign from positive to negative with a decrease in temperature. The sign change occurs in the temperature range of 30–50 K; the specific value of this temperature depends on the thickness of the MnxSi1–x film. The results can be interpreted in terms of the structural self-organization related to the formation of two layers in the course of film growth. These layers have nearly the same chemical composition but significantly differ in the shapes and sizes of crystallites. This leads to a drastic difference in the values of TC and in the value and the sign of the anomalous Hall effect for such layers.

Keywords: SiMn alloys; room-temperature ferromagnetism; PLD; anomalous Hall effect


Publ.-Id: 23775

Remote sensing exploration of Nb-Ta-LREE-enriched carbonatite (Epembe/Namibia)

Zimmermann, R.; Brandmeier, M.; Andreani, L.; Mhopjeni, K.; Gloaguen, R.

On the example of the Epembe carbonatite-hosted Nb-Ta-LREE deposit we showcase the use of hyperspectral reflectance data and geomorphic indicators to improve the remote sensing exploration of structurally controlled critical raw material deposits. It further demonstrates how exploration can benefit from a combination of expert knowledge and remotely sensed relief as well as imaging data. In a first stage, multi-source remote sensing data feed lithological mapping based on \textit{kohonen} Self-Organizing maps. We show that morphological indices such as Topographic Position Index, and spatial coordinates are crucial parameters to improve the accuracy of carbonate classification by 10%. The resulting lithological map shows the spatial distribution of the ridge forming carbonatite dyke, the fenitization zone, syenite plugs and mafic intrusions. In a second step, the internal zones of the carbonatite complex were identified using multi-range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) algorithm and a specific decision tree. This approach allowed detecting potential enrichment zones characterized by an abundance of fluorapatite and pyroxene as well as dolomite-carbonatite (beforsite). Cross validation of the mineral map with field observations and radiometric data confirm the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Carbonatite; REE; Self-Organizing Maps; Decision Tree; Spectral Feature Fitting; Geomorphology; Namibia; HyMap; SRTM

Publ.-Id: 23774

Direct measurements of the magnetocaloric effect in pulsed magnetic fields

Skourski, Y.

es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    European Campus Card Conference (ECCA) 2016, 22.-24.05.2016, Wroclaw, Polen

Publ.-Id: 23773

BMBF-Verbundprojekt SAVE: Sicherheitsrelevante Analyse des Verhaltens von Armaturen, Kreiselpumpen und Einlaufgeometrien unter Berücksichtigung störfallbedingter Belastungen

Szeliga, N.; Bezecny, D.; Richter, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Schlüter, M.; Schäfer, T.; Hampel, U.; Blömeling, F.; Lawall, R.; Hamberger, M.; Walberer, A.

In Leichtwasserreaktoren sind Not- und Nachkühlsysteme vorhanden, die auch bei einem Kühlmittelverluststörfall zu jedem Zeitpunkt die im Kern erzeugte Nachzerfallsleistung über einen längeren Zeitraum abführen müssen. Dazu muss die für die Abfuhr der Nachwärme erforderliche Menge Wasser zur Verfügung stehen. Die Not- und Nachkühlsysteme müssen derart betrieben werden, dass ihre Funktion weder durch Einschränkungen des hydraulischen Verhaltens noch durch mechanische Probleme beeinträchtigt wird. Insbesondere Gasmitriss durch luftziehende Hohlwirbel, Dralleintrag sowie Kavitation können zu einer Störung oder sogar zu einem Ausfall des Not- oder Nachkühlsystems führen. Das Ziel des Verbundprojektes SAVE ist die Bereitstellung von verbesserten bzw. neuen Berechnungsgleichungen sowie von Auslegungsempfehlungen zur Vermeidung von Gasmitriss in Pumpenzuläufen. Da sich ein Gasmitriss nicht immer konstruktiv ausschließen lässt, erfolgt darüber hinaus die Beschreibung des Gasmitrisses in Pumpenzuläufen und des hieraus resultierenden Einflusses auf Kreiselpumpen und Armaturen. Hierfür werden experimentelle Messungen an groß- und kleindimensionierten Anlagenkomponenten durchgeführt und durch dreidimensionale Strömungssimulationen (CFD) ergänzt. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen dienen der Aufstellung und Validierung theoretischer Modelle, die durch physikalisch begründete Ansätze an reale Prozesse angepasst werden können. Die experimentelle und theoretische Analyse ist für die Ermittlung von Gültigkeitsbereichen und Skalierungsansätzen sowie für die Gewährleistung der Übertragbarkeit auf andere Stoffsysteme und Betriebsbedingungen unerlässlich. Dies wiederum ermöglicht eine Übertragung der Erkenntnisse über die nukleare Sicherheitsforschung hinaus auf andere Forschungsbereiche.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    48. Kraftwerkstechnisches Kolloquium, 18.-19.10.2016, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Book chapter
    in: Kraftwerkstechnik 2016, Freiberg: Saxonia Standortentwicklungs- und -verwaltungsgese, 2016, ISBN 978-3-934409-69-9

Publ.-Id: 23772

Experimentelle Untersuchung von Armaturen und Kreiselpumpen unter störfallbedingten Belastungen

Schäfer, T.; Szeliga, N.; Bezecny, D.; Richter, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Blömeling, F.; Lawall, R.; Hamberger, M.; Walberer, A.; Schlüter, M.; Hampel, U.

In Kraftwerken ist der zuverlässige Betrieb von Pumpen und Armaturen eine Grundvoraussetzung für einen effizienten und sicheren Betrieb. Beispielsweise sind in Kernkraftwerken mit Leichtwasserreaktoren Not- und Nachkühlsysteme vorhanden, die auch bei einem Kühlmittelverluststörfall zu jedem Zeitpunkt die im Kern erzeugte Nachzerfallsleistung über einen längeren Zeitraum abführen müssen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes SAVE wird das Verhalten von Pumpen und Armaturen in Leichtwasserreaktoranlagen unter kritischen Betriebsbedingungen untersucht. Ein Schwerpunkt bildet dabei die Problematik des Gasmitrisses durch Hohlwirbelbildung in Pumpenzulaufbecken sowie die Auswirkung von Luftmitriss auf das Betriebsverhalten der Komponenten. Dazu wurden umfangreiche experimentelle Studien an Einlaufbeckengeometrien, Kreiselpumpen und Armaturen durchgeführt und durch numerische Simulationen begleitet. Ziel ist die experimentelle Validierung bzw. Weiterentwicklung von Modellen zur Auslegung von Einlaufgeometrien sowie zur Festlegung sicherer Einlaufüberdeckungen. Die Ergebnisse können für die Auslegung, Optimierung, Nachrechnung sowie Prüfung von Zulauf- und Armaturgeometrien genutzt werden. Einer der Schwerpunkte liegt hierbei auf der Erfassung von Maßstabseffekten, wofür Untersuchungen in verschiedenen Größenordnungen durchgeführt wurden. Die Arbeiten umfassen u. a. die experimentelle Untersuchung der Hohlwirbelbildung im Pumpenansaugbecken sowie der Auswirkungen des daraus resultierenden Luftmitrisses auf nachfolgende Systemkomponenten wie Kreiselpumpen und Armaturen, die tomographische Untersuchung und Visualisierung der Gas-Flüssigkeitsverteilungen im Inneren von Kreiselpumpen und Armaturen sowie die experimentelle Untersuchung von nuklearen Armaturen in verschiedenen Stresstests, so zum Beispiel unter erhöhten seismischen Belastungen. Begleitet werden die experimentellen Untersuchungen von numerischen Simulationen, wobei die experimentell erzielten Ergebnisse in eine verbesserte Modellbildung einfließen.

Keywords: Kreiselpumpen; Armaturen; störfallbedingte Belastungen; Hohlwirbelbildung; Gaseintrag

  • Poster
    48. Kraftwerkstechnisches Kolloquium, 18.-19.10.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23771

Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

Tillner, F.; Thute, P.; Löck, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fursov, A.; Haase, R.; Lukas, M.; Rimarzig, B.; Sobiella, M.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.; Bütof, R.; Enghardt, W.

Preclinical in-vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel Small Animal Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and X-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and X-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

Keywords: translational cancer research; small animal research platform; image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT); cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); orthotopic tumour models; precision irradiation; X-ray dosimetry

Publ.-Id: 23770

Are established glioblastoma models suitable to mirror the radiobiology of patient tumors?

Dietrich, A.; Jakob, A.; von Neubeck, C.; Fursov, A.; Tillner, F.; Baumann, M.; Krause, M.; Bütof, R.

Introduction: Suitable in vivo modelling of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is essential for developing new radio-oncological treatment strategies. On the translational axis from bench to bedside, it is important to have a model which closely reflects the clinical situation. However, it is also essential to investigate clinically relevant endpoints and use models which are reasonable regarding costs and feasible regarding statistically necessary animal numbers. Established cell lines are comprehensively characterized and can be efficiently engrafted in large cohorts of animals. In this project, a panel of five human GBM cell lines (U 87 MG, U 251 MG, A7, LN 229, HGL21) is characterized after subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft transplantation (take rate, radiosensitivity, histology, putative stem cell markers (SM)) to investigate their potential as suitable GBM models.

Methods: Limiting dilution assays were performed using subcutaneous injection of decreasing cell numbers. Intrinsic radiosensitivity and effectiveness of combined Radiochemotherapy was studied by irradiation of subcutaneous tumors with different dose levels. Take dose 50% (TD50) and tumor control dose 50% (TCD50) were calculated. For orthotopic transplantation, mCherry- or luciferase-positive cell variants were used. Intracranial transplantation was performed with a stereotactic frame. Tumor growth was assessed weekly via optical imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. After excision, tumors were analysed histologically (Haematoxylin/Eosin, SM).

Results: Both, TD50 and TCD50 values are low for the five GBM models. One of four investigated models showed no signs of orthotopic tumor growth. Two models grew within 30-60 days to end size but the histological phenotype showed weak analogy to GBM patients. Stem cell marker heterogeneity was high between the models and also differed between the orthotopic and heterotopic transplantation site (e.g. Nestin positivity in U-87 MG ortho: 100%, hetero: ~80%).

Conclusion: The low TD50 values indicate high amounts of cancer initiating cells. However, the surprisingly low TCD50 values are in contrast to the remarkable radioresistance of GBM in patients. Additionally, no investigated model shows a GBM-like histology after orthotopic transplantation. Although xenograft models from established cell lines of other entities very closely mirror the clinical situation, this remains questionable for GBM.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biological Radiation Research - GBS, 26.-28.09.2016, Erlangen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23769

Experimental study of centrifugal pumps under gas entrainment conditions

Schäfer, T.; Neumann, M.; Bieberle, A.; Hampel, U.

The effects of gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps have been experimentally investigated. Depending on different gas entrainment conditions, the impact on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed and the influence of the pump installation position has been disclosed. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT), operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode, has been used to resolve and quantify the local gas/liquid phase fraction distribution inside the operating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation inside the impeller chambers has been visualized.

Keywords: centrifugal pump; gas entrainment; two-phase flow; gas holdup; gamma-ray computed tomography

  • Lecture (Conference)
    47th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT47), 10.-12.05.2016, Hamburg, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    47th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT47), 10.-12.05.2016, Hamburg, Deutschland
    Proceedings of 47th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT47)

Publ.-Id: 23768

Advanced imaging techniques for multiphase flow analysis in industrial and scientific applications

Schäfer, T.

survey lecture on recent imaging techniques developed at HZDR focused on industrial and scientific applications

Keywords: process tomography; gamma-ray CT; ultrafast X-ray Ct; wire mesh sensor; process microscope

  • Lecture (others)
    Strategiegespräch Fa. Bitzer, 24.02.2016, Schkeuditz, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23767

Large magnetoresistance of insulating silicon films with superconducting nanoprecipitates

Heera, V.; Fiedler, J.; Skorupa, W.

We report on large negative and positive magnetoresistance in inhomogeneous, insulating Si:Ga films below a critical temperature of about 7 K. The magnetoresistance effect exceeds 300% at temperatures below 3Kand fields of 8T. The comparison of the transport properties of superconducting samples with that of insulating ones reveals that the large magnetoresistance is associated with the appearance of local superconductivity. A simple phenomenological model based on localized Cooper pairs and hopping quasiparticles is able to describe the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the sheet resistance of such films.

Keywords: insulating silicon films; superconducting nanoprecipitates; Ga doping; low temperature magnetoresistance; transport model

Publ.-Id: 23765

Carbon nanotubes in low molar mass liquid crystals

Schymura, S.; Park, J. H.; Dierking, I.; Scalia, G.

Carbon nanotubes constitute a highly anisotropic form of carbon with outstanding mechanical, thermal end electrical properties. Their dispersion and organization are important but challenging issues and this chapter describes the advantages of using thermotropic liquid crystals as host for nanotube dispersion and ordering.

Keywords: Kohlenstoff-Nanoröhrchen/ carbon nanotube; Flüssigkristall/ liquid crystal

  • Book chapter
    Lagerwall, Jan P.F., Scalia, Giusy: Liquid Crystals with Nano and Microparticles, London: World Scientific, 2016, 603-630
    DOI: 10.1142/9789814619264_0017

Publ.-Id: 23764

Bipolar resistive switching in YMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 pn-heterojunctions

Bogusz, A.; Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.

Resistively switching oxides are promising materials for use in electronic applications such as nonvolatile memories, logic gates, and artificial synapses. This work presents the bipolar resistive switching (BRS) in YMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 pn-heterojunctions. A thermally driven electroforming process is required prior to the observed BRS. Results indicate that the BRS in YMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 originates from the combined effects of charge trapping and detrapping processes along with the electro-migration of charged point defects in the depletion layer of the pn-heterojunction. It is shown that the built-in voltage of the pn-heterojunctions can be tuned by the oxygen partial pressure during growth of the YMnO3 thin film and impacts the working parameters of the resistively switching cell. This study provides a guideline for material engineering of bipolar resistive switches based on pn-heterojunctions.

Keywords: YMnO₃; Nb:SrTiO₃; bipolar resistive switching; pn-heterojunction; forward current; reverse current

Publ.-Id: 23763

Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system

Ishikawa, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Yamaura, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritak, T.; Sano, T.; Shimoda, R.; Tomita, K.; Uchino, K.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mizuta, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Crowston, R.; Woolsey, N.; Doyle, H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Michaut, C.; Pelka, A.; Yuan, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J.; Wang, F.; Takabe, H.

We present first measurements of spectrally resolved x-rays scattered from cryogenic hydrogen jets in the single photon counting limit. The 120 Hz capabilities of the LCLS, together with a novel hydrogen jet design, allow for the ability to record a near background free spectrum. Such high-dynamic-range x-ray scattering measurements enable a platform to study ultra-fast, laser-driven, heating dynamics of hydrogen plasmas. This measurement has been achieved using two Highly Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite (HAPG) crystal spectrometers to spectrally resolve 5.5 keV x-rays elastically and inelastically scattered from cryogenic hydrogen and focused on to Cornell-SLAC Pixel Array Detectors (CSPAD).

Keywords: x-ray scattering; x-ray lasers; hydrogen

Publ.-Id: 23762

The peculiar chemistry of the nuclear fuel-sodium coolant interaction

Smith, A. L.; Raison, P. E.; Y. Colle, J.; Colineau, E.; Griveau, J.-C.; Hen, A.; Beneš, O.; Guéneau, C.; Martin, P.; Prieur, D.; Martel, L.; Magnani, N.; Caciuffo, R.; Sanchez, J. P.; Charpentier, T.; Scheinost, A. C.; Hennig, C.; Kvashnina, K.; Suard, E.; Wallez, G.; Cheetham, A. K.; Konings, R. J. M.

In the event of a clad breach in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), the metallic sodium coolant will enter the pin and react with the (U, Pu, Np)O2 fuel. The reaction products are numerous, but there is still little knowledge of their structural and thermodynamic properties. Under the oxygen potential conditions of the reactor, pentavalent Na3U1-xPuxO4 is expected to form, but its structure was the subject of controversy until now. This compound was shown in the 1980s to be of lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the fuel, leading to local swelling and creation of hot spots. Such a situation can induce further cladding failure and result in a contamination of the primary coolant with highly radioactive fission products.

In this work, we have revisited the crystal structure of the Na3MO4 (M=U,Np,Pu) reaction product. Surprisingly, the structure of the sodium uranate differs from the one observed with neptunium and plutonium. In addition, this phase can accommodate excess sodium on the uranium site, with subsequent charge compensation from U(V) to U(VI), which was not previously foreseen. By contrast, the sodium neptunate and plutonate remain pentavalent.

Temperature and oxygen potential are the two fundamental parameters that control the chemistry of the interaction. Assessing the margin to the safe operation of SFRs requires a thorough knowledge of the actinide cation valence state in the reaction products, and a complete thermodynamic description of the system. The valence state was determined in the Na-M-O (M=U,Np,Pu) ternary phases using XANES and Mössbauer spectroscopy, covering a wide range of oxidation states, namely (IV) to (VII). Coupling experimental thermodynamic investigations with thermodynamic modelling assessments using the CALPHAD method, we have calculated the phase equilibria in the Na-U-O system, and derived the oxygen potential threshold required within the fuel (and sodium coolant) to form the sodium uranate ternary phases.

Keywords: Sodium-cooled nuclear reactor; safety; uranium; sodium uranate; EXAFS; XANES; Moessbauer

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    NuMat2016: The Nuclear Materials Conference, 07.-10.11.2016, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 23761

Polymer and cluster chemistry of tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)) in aqueous solutions

Ikeda-Ohno, A.

Because of their high charge density, the aqueous chemistry of f-elements (i.e. lanthanides and actinides) with lower valences (e.g. tri- and tetravalent) is predominantly controlled by strong hydrolysis producing a variety of hydroxide species. Interestingly enough, this strong hydrolysis often induces the intrinsic formation of polymer and nano-sized cluster complexes which are stable even in aqueous solutions. This talk will provide a recent overview of the hydrolysis-induced polymer/cluster formation of tetravalent f-elements, with a special focus on tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)), primarily from the viewpoint of structural chemistry, as well as the associated characterisation techniques (e.g. X-ray absorption spectroscopy or X-ray scattering).

Keywords: f-elements; hydrolysis; cerium; tetravalent; characterisation; X-ray; polymer; cluster

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    UMR Internal Colloquium, 25.07.2016, UMR, Université de Lille, France

Publ.-Id: 23760

Viren als Nützlinge - Biologie hilft beim Recycling

Lederer, F.

Populärwissenschaftlicher Beitrag unter Vorstellung der Phage Surface Display Methode und aktuellen Forschungsergebnissen im MinePep Projekt

Keywords: Phage surface display; Peptide; Seltene Erden; Lanthanphosphat

  • Lecture (others)
    Tag des offenen Labors am HZDR, 28.05.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23759

Fluid Dynamics in a Bubble Column: New Experiments and Simulations

Rzehak, R.; Krauß, M.; Kováts, P.; Zähringer, K.

Bubble columns are a common type of multiphase reactors used in many chemical engineering applications. Optimization and scale-up of bubble column processes is a complex task that can greatly benefit from multiphase CFD simulations. Calculations on industrial scales become feasible by the Euler-Euler two-fluid model, but suitable closure relations describing interfacial exchange processes are needed for practical application. Concerning pure fluid dynamics of dispersed gas-liquid multiphase flow an ongoing effort has led to a validated set of closures that is applicable under a rather broad range of conditions. The availability of new experimental data with large spatial and temporal resolution and high accuracy for a comprehensive set of observables and a range of different conditions provides the opportunity for further testing of this model. In this way the reliability of the obtained predictions is continually increased.

Keywords: bubble-columns; CFD simulation; Euler Euler two fluid model; shadowgraphy; PIV; model validation


Publ.-Id: 23757

Structural and kinetic considerations for the application of the traceless Staudinger ligation to future 18F radiolabeling using XRD and 19F-NMR

Köckerling, M.; Mamat, C.

A 4-fluorobenzoate-functionalized phosphane was synthesized and reacted with different azides using the traceless Staudinger ligation as a representative sample reaction for future radiolabeling purposes with short-lived radionuclides like fluorine-18. For this purpose, the reaction rate was evaluated at different temperatures. The effect of starting material concentrations and the influence of the steric effect coming from the applied azides were investigated. 19F NMR was used to determine the reaction half-live (τ1/2) and the reaction rate constant (kobs) of this ligation under mild reaction conditions in a water–acetonitrile mixture. Furthermore, the phosphane key compound 1 (orthorhombic, space group Pna21, a = 18.6363(9), b = 8.3589(4), c = 18.5480(9) Å, V = 2889.4(2) Å3, Z = 8, Dobs = 1.277 g/cm3), which acts as starting material for all subsequent syntheses, and the fluorine-containing phosphane 3 (monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 8.321(2), b = 16.160(4), c = 14.940(4) Å, β = 99.51(1)°, V = 1981.4(8) Å3, Z = 4, Dobs = 1.342 g/cm3) were analyzed by single-crystal XRD.

Keywords: Click; bioorthogonal; building blocks; kinetics


Publ.-Id: 23756

Statistical Analysis of the Early Phase of SBO Accident for PWR

Kozmenkov, Y.; Jobst, M.; Kliem, S.; Schaefer, F.; Wilhelm, P.

A statistical approach is used to analyse the early phase of station blackout accident for generic German PWR with the best estimate system code ATHLET-CD as a computation tool. The analysis is mainly focused on the timescale uncertainties of the accident events which can be detected at the plant. The developed input deck allows variations of all input uncertainty parameters relevant to the case. The list of identified and quantified input uncertainties includes 30 parameters related to the simulated physical phenomena/processes. Time uncertainties of main events as well as the major contributors to these uncertainties are defined. A linear regression analysis is used for predicting times of future events from detected times of occurred/past events. The presented statistical approach could be helpful for assessing and improving existing or elaborating additional emergency operating procedures aimed to prevent severe damage of reactor core.

Keywords: Pressurized water reactor; best estimate simulation; station blackout; accident management measures; statistical approach; timescale uncertainties of events; sensitivity analysis; linear regression; prediction intervals

Publ.-Id: 23754

Uranium contaminated drinking water linked to leukaemia – revisiting a case study from South Africa taking alternative exposure pathways into account

Winde, F.; Erasmus, E.; Geipel, G.

The paper presents results of a follow-up to an earlier study which established a geospatial link between naturally elevated uranium (U) levels in borehole water and haematological abnormalities in local residents serving as a proxy for leukaemia prevalent in the area. While the original study focussed on drinking water only, this paper also explores alternative exposure pathways including the inhalation of dust and the food chain.
U-levels in grass and tissue of sheep generally reflect U-levels in nearby borehole water and exceed background concentrations by 20 to nearly 500 times. U-levels in sheep tissue increase with age of the animal. Wool showed the highest U-concentration followed by other non-consumable tissue such as hooves, teeth and bones. Lower levels occur in edible parts such as meat and inner organs. The U-deposition rate in wool is several orders of magnitudes higher than in bone as a known target organ. Wool is an easy-to-sample noninvasive bioindicator for U-levels in meat. Depending on the original water content, dried samples show up to 5 times higher U-levels than identical fresh material.
Contaminated drinking water is the main exposure pathway for farm residents resulting in U-uptake rates exceeding the WHO’s tolerable daily intake (TDI) limit by up to 900%. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that U-speciation is dominated by a neutral calcium-uranyl-carbonate complex of relatively low toxicity. Commercially available household filters are able to significantly reduce U-levels in well water and are thus recommended as a short-term intervention. Based on average consumption rates sheep meat, as local staple food, accounts for 34% of the TDI for U. Indoor levels of radon should be monitored, too, since it is linked to both, U and leukaemia. With elevated U-levels being present in other geological formations across South Africa boreholes in these areas should be surveyed.

Keywords: uranium; groundwater; sheep; leukaemia; food chain

Publ.-Id: 23753

Modelling of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe alloys with Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation supported by DFT calculations

Liedke, B.; Posselt, M.; Murali, D.; Claisse, A.; Olsson, P.

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are considered as one of the most promising candidates for structural materials in next generation nuclear fusion reactors and future nuclear fission reactors [1]. The ODS materials consist of a ferritic or ferritic/martensitic Fe-Cr matrix filled with yttria-based oxide particles and is fabricated during mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. It is well known that their extraordinary properties such as high-temperature creep strength as well as high dose ion/neutron irradiation resistance are due to formation of small Y-Ti-O clusters with a size of few nanometers. Besides their significant effect on reduction of dislocations and grain-boundaries mobility, the nanoclusters also act as traps for point defects like vacancies, interstitials and helium, which may be typically generated in a nuclear reactor. It is still under debate what the formation mechanisms of the nanoclusters are and why they prove such high temperature and radiation damage stability.
Experimental methods typically applied to investigate the issues stated above cannot fully reflect the atomic-scale of the nanoclusters, as well as the mechanisms related to their formation, evolution and destruction upon radiation damage. Therefore, atomistic computer experiments can significantly contribute to a general understanding.
In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) technique is applied to study evolution of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in a bcc-Fe and FeCr matrix. Starting from a uniform distribution of O, Y, Ti atoms in the matrix at first a stationary state is produced by high temperature annealing. Such a state is characterized by a certain population of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters. Then vacancies and interstitials are introduced in order to simulate ion and neutron irradiation taking into account realistic conditions, and the evolution of the nanostructure is studied. The parameters for the atomic interactions used in KMC were obtained recently by first-principle Density-Functional-Theory calculations and applied in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations on energetics, structure and composition of the Y-Ti-O nanoclusters [2].
1. G. R. Odette, M. J. Alinger, B. D. Wirth, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38, 471 (2008)
2. M. Posselt, D. Murali, B. K. Panigrahi, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 22, 085003 (2014)

Keywords: ODS alloys; DFT; KMC; atomistic modelling; radiation damage

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd ODISSEUS Workshop, 19.-20.04.2016, HZDR, Germany

Publ.-Id: 23752

Investigations on viscous couplings using time-averaged rotation-synchronized gamma-ray computed tomography

Bieberle, A.; Schlottke, J.; Kühnel, W.; Hampel, U.

For controlled transfer of high torques in devices, like engine fans and/or four wheel drives, viscous couplings are frequently used. Torque transfer is realized in viscous couplings by a working fluid, mainly responsible for the transfer quality, i.e. efficiency and operating range as well as stability. Unfortunately, investigations at rapidly rotating couplings is challenging since they consist of dense material, e.g. aluminum, have no optical access and the work area is composed of ring channels being significantly smaller than on millimeter. Thus, the high-resolution computed tomography measurement system (HireCT) is used for contactless liquid investigations in an industrial viscous coupling operated under various authentic operation scenarios. Despite the limited spatial resolution of approximately 2 mm and a measuring interval of approximately 900 s sharp liquid phase distributions could be provided in both primary disc and housing side of the coupling from a single CT scan. Here, the so called time-averaged rotation synchronized CT scanning mode is applied, where the acquired projection data stream are synchronized and averaged corresponding to the rotational position of the couplings’ parts. Therefore, zero crossing signals from the primary and secondary side are simultaneously acquired. The reconstructed data comprises the cross-section of the coupling and liquid distribution correspondingly.

Keywords: gamma-ray computed tomography; viscous coupling

  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th World Congress On Industrial Process Tomography, 26.-29.09.2016, Iguassu Falls, Brasilien
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th World Congress On Industrial Process Tomography, 26.-29.09.2016, Iguassu Falls, Brasilien

Publ.-Id: 23751

Switching CAR T cells on and off: A novel modular platform for retargeting of T cells to AML blasts

Cartellieri, M.; Feldmann, A.; Koristka, S.; Arndt, C.; Loff, S.; Ehninger, A.; von Bonin, M.; Bejestani, E. P.; Ehninger, G.; Bachmann, M. P.

The adoptive transfer of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells (CAR T cells) resulted in encouraging clinical trials in indolent B cell malignancies.
However, they also show the limitations of this fascinating technology: CAR T cells can lead to even life-threatening off-tumor, on-target side effects if CAR T cells cross-react with healthy tissues.
Here, we describe a novel modular universal CAR platform technology termed UniCAR, which reduces the risk of on-target side effects by a rapid and reversible control of CAR T cell reactivity. The UniCAR system consists of two components: (i) a CAR for an inert manipulation of T cells, and (ii) specific targeting modules (TMs) for redirecting UniCAR T cells in an individualized time- and target-dependent manner. UniCAR T cells can be armed against different tumor targets simply by replacement of the respective TM for (i) targeting more than one antigen simultaneously or subsequently to enhance efficacy, and (ii) reducing the risk for development of antigen-loss tumor variants under treatment. Here we provide “proof of concept” for retargeting of UniCAR T cells to CD33 and/or CD123 positive AML Blasts in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords: adoptive T cell therapy; acute myeloid leukemia; CD33; CD123; chimeric antigen receptor; targeted immunotherapy

Publ.-Id: 23750

Recent progress at the LUNA 400 kV underground accelerator

Bemmerer, D.

The experimental study of radiative capture reactions directly at the energies of relevance for astrophysics requires long experiments with low counting rate. This type of study has greatly bene ted in recent years from the ultra-low gamma-ray background level underground, in the INFN Gran Sasso laboratory, Italy. There, the LUNA 400kV accelerator has enabled a rich research program. The 2 H(alpha,gamma)6 Li reaction has been studied for the first time in the Big Bang energy region. Very recently, three resonances have been observed for the first time in the 22 Ne(p,gamma)23 Na reaction, directly at energies relevant for the hot- bottom burning process in asymptotic giant branch stars. Studies on other hydrogen burning reactions on 17,18O and 23Na are ongoing, with promising preliminary results. The group report will show an overview of recent progress and discuss future perspectives, in particular on the future LUNA experiment on the Big Bang 2H(p,gamma)3He reaction.

Keywords: Nuclear Astrophysics underground LUNA Big Bang nucleosynthesis hydrogen burning NeNa cycle

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrstagung 2016 der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 14.-18.03.2016, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23749

Felsenkeller shallow-underground 5 MV accelerator for nuclear astrophysics, status and outlook

Bemmerer, D.

Felsenkeller shallow-underground 5 MV accelerator for nuclear astrophysics, status and outlook is discussed as of February 2016, with a view also on potential European collaborations.

Keywords: Nuclear Astrophysics Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Helium burning Solar fusion Felsenkeller

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2nd Workshop on Nuclear Astrophysics at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory, 29.02.-01.03.2016, Canfranc Estacion, Spanien
  • Lecture (Conference)
    German-Japanese minisymposium on hot topics in particle and nuclear physics, 12.05.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23748

Progress of the Felsenkeller shallow-underground 5 MV accelerator for nuclear astrophysics early 2016

Bemmerer, D.

The progress of the Felsenkeller shallow-underground 5 MV accelerator for nuclear astrophysics is reviewed, as of early 2016

Keywords: Felsenkeller; Nuclear Astrophysics Underground; nuclear astrophysics low-background; measurements solar fusion helium burning

  • Lecture (Conference)
    NAVI Physics Days, 18.01.2016, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23747

Towards SiPM readout for the NeuLAND large plastic scintillator

Bemmerer, D.

Towards SiPM readout for the NeuLAND large plastic scintillator

Keywords: R3B NeuLAND neutron time of flight picosecond timing ELBE scintillator silicon photomultiplier

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fraunhofer IMS workshop on CMOS SiPM technology, 26.11.2015, Duisburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23746

The copper spoil heap Knappenberg, Austria, as a model for metal habitats - Vegetation, substrate and contamination

Adlassnig, W.; Weiss, Y. S.; Sassmann, S.; Steinhauser, G.; Hofhansl, F.; Baumann, N.; Lichtscheidl, I. K.; Lang, I.

Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular plants, mosses and lichens on a copper spoil heap on the ore bearing Knappenberg formed by Prebichl Layers and Werfener Schist in Lower Austria. It serves as a model for discriminating between various ecological traits and their effects on vegetation.Five distinct clusters were distinguished: (1) The bare, metal rich Central Spoil Heap was only colonised by highly resistant specialists. (2) The Northern and (3) Southern Peripheries contained less copper; the contrasting vegetation was best explained by the different microclimate. (4) A forest over acidic bedrock hosted a vegetation overlapping with the periphery of the spoil heap. (5) A forest over calcareous bedrock was similar to the spoil heap with regard to pH and humus content but hosted a vegetation differing strongly to all other habitats.Among the multiple toxic elements at the spoil heap, only Cu seems to exert a crucial influence on the vegetation pattern. Besides metal concentrations, irradiation, humidity, humus, pH and grain size distribution are important for the establishment of a metal tolerant vegetation. The difference between the species poor Northern and the diverse Southern Periphery can be explained by the microclimate rather than by the substrate. All plant species penetrating from the forest into the periphery of the spoil heap originate from the acidic but not from the calcareous bedrock.

Keywords: Copper pollution; Metal tolerance; Metallophytes; Mine residues; Ore minerals

Publ.-Id: 23745

Dual β1 integrin and JNK inhibition decreases radiochemoresistance and invasion of Glioblastoma stem-like cells

Vehlow, A.; Klapproth, E.; Storch, K.; Temme, A.; Krause, M.; Cordes, N.

Background: The poor prognosis associated with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) largely arises from the radiochemotherapy resistance of GBM cells and their aggressive infiltration and destruction of the healthy brain. β1 integrin and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) are potential therapeutic targets in GBM owing to their regulation of radioprotective pro-survival and pro-invasive signaling hubs in Glioblastoma stem-like cells and the tumor bulk. Here, we evaluate the effect of simultaneous targeting of β1 integrin and JNK in combination with radiochemotherapy on clonogenic survival and invasion of patient-derived GBM stem-like cells and GBM cell lines in vitro and in an orthotopic GBM mouse model.
Methodology: The sphere forming capacity, clonogenic survival and invasion of patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GS-8, DK41, DK42) and Glioblastoma cell lines (HT7606, T4, U343-MG) was analyzed upon irradiation (0-6 Gy X-ray), chemotherapy (Temozolomide, TMZ, IC10) or a combination of both. Simultaneously, β1 integrin was inhibited by the specific antibody AIIB2 and JNK activation was blocked by pharmacologic inhibition using SP600125 (IC10, IC50). In addition, tumor growth and survival of mice with orthotopic GBM were assessed upon dual β1 integrin/JNK inhibition combined with radiochemotherapy. Changes in signal transduction mechanisms were examined by means of Western blotting and broad-spectrum phosphoproteome analysis. Cell cycle changes were evaluated by FACS and alterations in DNA repair mechanisms were quantified by immunofluorescent staining of DNA double strand breaks.
Results: Co-inhibition of β1 integrin and JNK strikingly induces radiochemosensitization and blocks invasion of patient-derived GBM stem-like cells and GBM cell lines. In line, the combination of radiochemotherapy plus dual targeting significantly delays tumor growth resulting in prolonged median survival of mice bearing orthotopic GBM. Mechanistically, phosphoproteome and functional analysis reveals that the radiochemosensitizing potential of the β1 integrin/JNK co-inhibition is caused by a prolonged G2/M arrest upon irradiation due to a defective repair of DNA double strand breaks.
Conclusion: Here, we suggest co-targeting of β1 integrin and JNK as a promising approach to overcome radiochemoresistance of GBM in-vitro and in-vivo. Intriguingly, sphere forming capacity and invasion of GBM stem-like cell populations as well as clonogenicity and invasion of established GBM cell lines could be substantially reduced upon dual targeting simultaneously to conventional radiochemotherapy. Currently, ongoing studies are aimed at identifying possible bypass mechanisms.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    GBS-Jahrestagung, 26.-28.09.2016, Erlangen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23744

Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem

Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Dileva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30–400 keV. This measure requires an ultra- low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2–3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Gamma spectroscopy Underground Physics Lithium problem

Publ.-Id: 23743

Coordination chemistry of tetravalent actinides

März, J.

Against the background of nuclear waste disposal, the interactions between actinides and organic complexation agents were studied. Actinides show a variety of different oxidation states, but in case of a deep disposal, the tetravalent species can be predominant in the environment. We synthesised An(IV) chlorides and iodides as actinide starting materials and studied organic ligand systems ranging from pure oxygen to pure nitrogen donors. Some first isostructural actinide complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques showing the typical shortening of the donor-acinide bonds across the actinide series.

Keywords: Tetravalent actinides; Coordination chemistry

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    8th International Workshop on „Coordination Chemistry of Metals with Medical Relevance and Supramolecular Building Blocks“, 26.-27.05.2016, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23742

Cosmic Background Measurements at a Proposed Underground Laboratory by the REGARD Muontomograph

Oláh, L.; Surányi, G.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Bemmerer, D.; Hamar, G.; Melegh, H. G.; Varga, D.

A portable cosmic particle tracking detector has been developed by the REGARD group with angular resolution of 10 mrad. The Close Cathode Chamber-based tracking system is optimized for environmental and geophysical applications with its weight of 15 kg and size of 51 cm × 43 cm × 32 cm. Our aim was to determine the cosmic background at the site of the proposed accelerator and experimental facilities at an approximate 50 meter depth in Felsenkeller, Dresden, Germany. Here, we present our high-precision muon flux measurements, which have been performed during 44 days in one of the tunnels. Angular acceptance of our mapping covered full 2π solid angle of the upper hemisphere. The maximum flux value is found to be below 2.5 m^{-2}sr^{-1}s^{-1}.

Keywords: Felsenkeller Nuclear Astrophysics Muon flux

Publ.-Id: 23741

Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

Reifarth, R.; Altstadt, S.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Koloczek, A.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Weigand, K. S. M.; Adachi, T.; Aksouh, F.; Al-Khalili, J.; Algarawi, M.; Alghamdi, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alkhomashi, N.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Andreev, V.; Andrei, B.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bacri, C.; Bagchi, S.; Barbieri, C.; Beceiro, S.; Beck, C.; Beinrucker, C.; Belier, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Berjillos, R.; Bertini, D.; Bertulani, C.; Bishop, S.; Blasi, N.; Bloch, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boretzky, K.; Botvina, A.; Boudard, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Boztosun, I.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Briz Monago, J.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Cederwall, B.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Coleman-Smith, P.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespi, F.; Crespo, R.; Cresswell, J.; Csatlós, M.; Déchery, F.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Derya, V.; Detistov, P.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; Dijulio, D.; Dmitry, S.; Doré, D.; Nas, J. D.; Dupont, E.; Egelhof, P.; Egorova, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Endres, J.; Ershov, S.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Fetisov, A.; Fiori, E.; Fomichev, A.; Fonseca, M.; Fraile, L.; Freer, M.; Friese, J.; Borge, M. G.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Gannon, S.; Garg, U.; Gasparic, I.; Gasques, L.; Gastineau, B.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, M.; Glorius, J.; Golubev, P.; Gorshkov, A.; Gourishetty, A.; Grigorenko, L.; Gulyas, J.; Haiduc, M.; Hammache, F.; Harakeh, M.; Hass, M.; Heine, M.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Herzberg, R.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ilieva, S.; Ivanov, M.; Iwasa, N.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Joshi, P.; Junghans, A.; Jurado, B.; Körner, G.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kezzar, K.; Khan, E.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kogimtzis, M.; Körper, D.; Kräckmann, S.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kratz, J.; Kresan, D.; Krings, T.; Krumbholz, A.; Krupko, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kumar, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuzmin, E.; Labiche, M.; Langanke, K.; Lazarus, I.; Le Bleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Lemmon, R.; Liberati, V.; Litvinov, Y.; Löher, B.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Machado, J.; Maev, E.; Mahata, K.; Mancusi, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez Perez, M.; Marusov, V.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Morcelle, V.; Moreno, O.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nikolski, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nolan, P.; Novatsky, B.; Nyman, G.; Ornelas, A.; Palit, R.; Pandit, S.; Panin, V.; Paradela, C.; Parkar, V.; Paschalis, S.; Paw\Lowski, P.; Perea, A.; Pereira, J.; Petrache, C.; Petri, M.; Pickstone, S.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Potlog, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Rauscher, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M.; Richter, A.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Rios, A.; Ritter, C.; Rodríguez Frutos, T.; Rodriguez Vignote, J.; Röder, M.; Romig, C.; Rossi, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rout, P.; Roy, S.; Söderström, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sakuta, S.; Salsac, M.; Sampson, J.; Sanchez Del Rio Saez, J.; Sanchez Rosado, J.; Sanjari, S.; Sarriguren, P.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Schrock, P.; Schwengner, R.; Seddon, D.; Sherrill, B.; Shrivastava, A.; Sidorchuk, S.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Simpson, E.; Singh, P.; Slobodan, D.; Sohler, D.; Spieker, M.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Stanoiu, M.; Stepantsov, S.; Stevenson, P.; Strieder, F.; Stuhl, L.; Suda, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Streicher, B.; Taieb, J.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Terashima, S.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Thoennessen, M.; Thomas, T.; Thornhill, J.; Thungstrom, G.; Timar, J.; Togano, Y.; Tomohiro, U.; Tornyi, T.; Tostevin, J.; Townsley, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trivedi, T.; Typel, S.; Uberseder, E.; Udias, J.; Uesaka, T.; Uvarov, L.; Vajta, Z.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V.; Volknandt, M.; Volkov, V.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Schmid, M.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wells, D.; Westerberg, L.; Wieland, O.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Wimmer, K.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkel, M.; Woods, P.; Wyss, R.; Yakorev, D.; Yavor, M.; Zamora Cardona, J.; Zartova, I.; Zerguerras, T.; Zgura, I.; Zhdanov, A.; Zhukov, M.; Zieblinski, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.

The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

Keywords: FAIR nuclear astrophysics radioactive ion beams

Publ.-Id: 23740

Primordial nucleosynthesis

Gustavino, C.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Trezzi, D.

Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of light nuclei in the early phases of the Universe. For this, precise knowledge of the cosmological parameters, such as the baryon density, as well as the cross section of the fusion reactions involved are needed. In general, the energies of interest for BBN are so low (E < 1 MeV) that nuclear cross section measurements are practically unfeasible at the Earth’s surface. As of today, LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been the only facility in the world available to perform direct measurements of small cross section in a very low background radiation. Owing to the background suppression provided by about 1400 meters of rock at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, and to the high current offered by the LUNA accelerator, it has been possible to investigate cross sections at energies of interest for Big Bang nucleosynthesis using protons, 3He and alpha particles as projectiles. The main reaction studied in the past at LUNA is the 2H(4He,γ)6Li. Its cross section was measured directly, for the first time, in the BBN energy range. Other processes like 2H(p,γ)3He, 3He(2H,p)4He and 3He(4He,γ)7Be were also studied at LUNA, thus enabling to reduce the uncertainty on the overall reaction rate and consequently on the determination of primordial abundances. The improvements on BBN due to the LUNA experimental data will be discussed and a perspective of future measurements will be outlined.

Publ.-Id: 23739

Determination of the Neutron-Capture Rate of 17C for the R-process Nucleosynthesis

Heine, M.; Typel, S.; Wu, M.-R.; Adachi, T.; Aksyutina, Y.; Alcantara, J.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ashwood, N.; Avdeichikov, T. A. V.; Barr, M.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkäll, J.; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespo, R.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubev, P.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Holl, M.; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, A.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knöbel, R.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lepyoshkina, O.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Maroussov, V.; Mostazo, M.; Movsesyan, A.; Najafi, A.; Neff, T.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Röder, M.; Rossi, D.; Sanchez Del Rio, J.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin (Ganil), O.; Stoica, V.; Streicher, B.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Terashima, S.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Uberseder, E.; van de Walle, J.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Weigand, M.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, C.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M. V.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.

With the R3B-LAND setup at GSI we have measured exclusive relative-energy spectra of the Coulomb dissociation of 18C at a projectile energy around 425~AMeV on a lead target, which are needed to determine the radiative neutron-capture cross sections of 17C into the ground state of 18C. Those data have been used to constrain theoretical calculations for transitions populating excited states in 18C. This allowed to derive the astrophysical cross section σ∗nγ accounting for the thermal population of 17C target states in astrophysical scenarios. The experimentally verified capture rate is significantly lower than those of previously obtained Hauser-Feshbach estimations at temperatures T9≤1~GK. Network simulations with updated neutron-capture rates and hydrodynamics according to the neutrino-driven wind model as well as the neutron-star merger scenario reveal no pronounced influence of neutron capture of 17C on the production of second- and third-peak elements in contrast to earlier sensitivity studies.

Keywords: Coulomb dissociation; radiative neutron capture; nucleosynthesis; r-process


Publ.-Id: 23738

Absolute hydrogen depth profiling using the resonant 1H(15N,αγ)12C nuclear reaction

Reinhardt, T. P.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Stöckel, K.; Wagner, L.

Resonant nuclear reactions are a powerful tool for the determination of the amount and profile of hydrogen in thin layers of material. Usually, this tool requires the use of a standard of well-known composition. The present work, by contrast, deals with standard-less hydrogen depth profiling. This approach requires precise nuclear data, e.g. on the widely used 1H(15N,αγ)12C reaction, resonant at 6.4\,MeV 15N beam energy. Here, the strongly anisotropic angular distribution of the emitted γ-rays from this resonance has been re-measured, resolving a previous discrepancy. Coefficients of (0.38±0.04) and (0.80±0.04) have been deduced for the second and fourth order Legendre polynomials, respectively. In addition, the resonance strength has been re-evaluated to (25.0±1.5)\,eV, 10\% higher than previously reported. A simple working formula for the hydrogen concentration is given for cases with known γ-ray detection efficiency. Finally, the absolute approach is illustrated using two examples.

Keywords: Hydrogen storage; hydrogen depth profiling; Nuclear resonant reaction analysis


Publ.-Id: 23737

Magnetoresistive detection of single magnetic vortices

Ramasubramanian, L.; Fowley, C.; Kákay, A.; Aleksandrov, Y.; Matthes, P.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, S.; Schulz, S.; Deac, A.

The fundamental oscillation mode of magnetic vortices in thin-film elements has recently been exploited in spin-torque-driven nano-oscillators [A. Wachowiak et al., Science (2002)]. The fundamental frequency is determined by the saturation magnetisation, as well as the geometrical confinement of the magnetisation e.g. the diameter and height of a magnetic disk. The objective of this study is to design magnetic discs, contact them with electrical leads and probe the dynamics of the vortex structures using magnetoresistive detection. By varying the thickness and dimensions of the disk, requirements for the magnetic vortex as a ground state will be determined. The electrical resistance of a single disc is expected to change based on the relative angle between the magnetisation direction and the applied current (the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect) [S. Kasai et al, PRL 97, 107204 (2006)]. Using the AMR as a detection technique we will determine if electrical detection of dynamics is feasible in this geometry and its associated limits.

Keywords: magnetic vortex; AMR

  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung Regensburg 2016, 06.-11.03.2016, Regensburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 23736

Membrane Lateral Pressure Controls Hydration and Water Mobility at the Copper-Binding Site of the P1B-type Copper ATPase CopA from Legionella Pneumophila

Fahmy, K.; Fischermeier, E.; Sayed, A.

P-type ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis to ion transport. We have reconstituted the copper-transporting P1B-type ATPase LpCopA from Legionella pneumophila into lipid nanodiscs in order to study the influence of membrane lateral pressure on the functionally relevant intra-membrane protein hydration at the ion-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the solvatochromic fluorophore BADAN was covalently linked to the cysteine residues at the conserved copper-binding CPC motif on transmembrane helix 4. The decomposition of the fluorescence spectra of labeled LpCopA in the micellar and the lipid-inserted state shows that membrane lateral pressure reduces hydration and water mobility in the environment of the more buried Cys-382 with a concomitant change of the local dielectric constant by −9. In contrast, the environment of Cys-384 which is located closer to the putative membrane surface, resembles a “hydrophobic gate” with low water mobility that is little affected by insertion into a bilayer (change of local dielectric constant by −3). The asymmetric hydration and water mobility around the CPC motif provides Cys-382 with a highly dynamic hydration. The data show that membrane lateral pressure may provide a restoring force in hydration / dehydration cycles around Cys-382 in the transmembrane domain during catalytic activity. The lower hydration and mobility in the Cys-384 environment, on the other hand, would favor the dehydration of copper and hinder its re-solvation from the intracellular side.

Keywords: fluorescence; BADAN; nanodisc

  • Poster
    Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, 27.02.-03.03.2016, Los Angeles, U S A

Publ.-Id: 23735

Radiative deexcitation of initially slow highly charged ions transmitted through graphene

Wilhelm, R. A.; Gruber, E.; Schwestka, J.; Heller, R.; Kozubek, R.; Hierzenberger, A.; Schleberger, M.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

The interaction of slow highly charged ions with solid surfaces is associated with many different phenomena. One of them is the formation of a hollow atom or ion already in front of the surface due to resonant electron transfer above the Coulomb barrier between the ion and the surface [1]. A hollow atom is a highly excited neutral particle, which will rapidly de- excite by either radiative or non-radiative processes [2,3].
Here we study the former process when Xenon and Argon ions with charge states up to Q=40 and Q=18, respectively, are transmitted through a freestanding single layer of graphene. Emitted x-rays are detected with a Bruker XFlash detector with an energy resolution of 140eV. Transmitted ions are also detected with an electrostatic analyzer, allowing charge exchange and energy loss measurements. Both ion and x-ray detection can be performed in coincidence in order to clearly distinguish between x-rays emitted from ions transmitted through graphene and ions impinging on the surrounding target holder (see Fig. 1).

  • Poster
    18th International Conference on Physics of Highly Charged Ions, 11.-16.09.2016, Kielce, Polen

Publ.-Id: 23734

Highly charged ion interaction with graphene

Wilhelm, R. A.; Gruber, E.; Smejkal, V.; Schwestka, J.; Kozubek, R.; Hierzenberger, A.; Schleberger, M.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

Studying ion-solid interaction has a long standing tradition both in fundamental research and for technological applications. The main parameter in this respect is the ion stopping force, i.e. the kinetic energy loss per unit length in a solid. The stopping force depends on the kinetic energy of the ions as well as on the degree of ionization [1]. The latter fact is usually disregarded, because after a few nanometers in a solid the ion accommodates an equilibrium charge state independent of it’s initial charge state. Stopping force in charge equilibrium is very well known.
Here we use slow (v ≪ v0) highly charged ions (Q Z) to study stopping force far from charge equilibrium and the charge equilibration dynamics [2,3]. Using novel two-dimensional materials as target material allows us to limit the ion trajectory in the solid with monolayer precision and thus study non-equilibrium effects.
The left side of fig. 1 shows schematically the experimental conditions with an ion beam transmitted under normal incidence through a freestanding single layer graphene sheet. The ion energy and charge state are measured with an electrostatic analyzer. A typical charge state distribution for Xe30+ ions at 40 keV (310 eV/amu) transmitted through graphene is also shown (right). Ions at this low velocity (0.1v0) are not fully neutralized. Hence, they still capture and stabilize about 20 electrons within the collision time of only 1-3 fs. Especially stabilization of the electrons is surprising, since the classical-over-barrier model for charge exchange [4] predicts the population of highly excited states with principal quantum numbers of n > 10 and a subsequent Auger electron cascade. Such a cascade would lead to the reemission of electrons and thus to a recharging of the ion. Present results show the need for a model beyond classical-over-barrier.
This ultrafast charge exchange process is accompanied by a kinetic energy loss of up to ∆E /E ≈ 10 %, which is about 1 order of magnitude larger than predicted by the SRIM code. In this contribution, recent results on charge exchange and energy loss of highly charged ion at low velocities in graphene will be presented. A qualitative description of the processes involved will be given.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12th European Conference on Atoms, Molecules and Photons (ECAMP), 05.-09.09.2016, Frankfurt a.M., Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23733

Charge equilibration and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in single layer graphene

Wilhelm, R. A.; Gruber, E.; Smejkal, V.; Schwestka, J.; Kozubek, R.; Hierzenberger, A.; Schleberger, M.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

Processes in ion-solid interaction are subject to both fundamental research and technological application. The ion stopping force, i.e. the kinetic energy loss per unit length in a solid is here a key main parameter. The stopping force depends on the kinetic energy of the ions as well as on the ionic charge [1]. Usually the influence of the charge state is neglected, because after a few nanometers in a solid the ion accommodates an equilibrium charge state Qeq independent of it’s initial charge. Stopping force in charge equilibrium is well understood.
In this study we use slow (v≪v0) highly charged ions (Qeq≪Q) to study stopping force far from charge equilibrium [2,3]. Using novel two-dimensional materials as target material allows us to limit the ion interaction in the solid to only a single scattering event.
In our experiment an ion beam is transmitted through a freestanding single layer of graphene. The ion energy and charge state after transmission are measured with an electrostatic analyzer. Ions at low velocity (0.05v0 - 0.25v0) are not fully neutralized. Hence, they still capture and stabilize about 20 electrons within the collision time of less than 3 fs. Especially stabilization of the electrons is surprising, since the classical-over- barrier model for charge exchange [4] predicts the population of highly excited states with principal quantum numbers of n > 10 and a subsequent Auger electron cascade. Such a cascade would lead to the reemission of electrons and thus to a recharging of the ion.
This ultrafast charge exchange process is accompanied by a kinetic energy loss of up to ∆E /E ≈ 10 %, which is about 1 order of magnitude larger than predicted by the SRIM code.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    27th International Conference on Atomic Collisions in Solid (ICACS), 24.-29.07.2016, Lanzhou, China
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrestagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Sektion Kondensierte Materie, 07.-10.03.2016, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23732

Slow highly charged ion induced nanopit formation on the KCl(001) surface

Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.

We report on nanostructuring of the KCl(001) surface due to individual impact of slow highly charged ions. Samples were irradiated with Xe ions with charge states of Q = 15 to 40 at kinetic energies from 1.7 to 160 keV. The formation of nanopits at the virgin surface is observed and attributed to a defect mediated desorption process involving the removal of up to 2000 surface atoms per incident ion. The depth of the produced pits is shallow, but not limited to the first monolayer. From the variation of the ion parameters (charge state and kinetic energy) we derive a phase diagram for the structuring of the KCl(001) surface with highly charged ions.


Publ.-Id: 23731

Simulation of ELBE SRF gun II for high-bunch-charge applications

Lu, P.; Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Vennekate, H.; Xiang, R.

The SRF gun at ELBE will benefit most of the local user beamlines for future high-bunch-charge operations. Parallel to its development, simulation-based investigations have been performed to improve the beam quality for THz experiments and Compton backscattering experiments. These two applications have the most challenging requirements: THz experiments benefit significantly from short bunch lengths at the sub-ps level, while Compton backscattering experiments demand small transverse beam sizes of about 30 µm. The beam dynamics of the SRF gun are simulated with ASTRA and the beam transport is optimized using Elegant. Important physical effects included in simulations are introduced first, where the interesting phenomenon of “slice mismatch” is generally quantified and numerically studied. Afterwards, beam transport strategies and optimization methods are proposed which are based on the specific settings of ELBE but also applicable to similar accelerator setups. Finally, optimizations of the SRF gun and the beam transport in ELBE are presented. Results show that the SRF gun is capable of providing 500 pC bunches for both applications with better beam qualities than the currently 100 pC bunches supplied by the existing thermionic DC source.

Keywords: ELBE SRF Gun II; high bunch charge; slice emittance; space charge effect

Publ.-Id: 23730

Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of Nb4+ and O− polarons in LiNbO3 single crystals

Kämpfe, T.; Haußmann, A.; Eng, L. M.; Reichenbach, P.; Thiessen, A.; Woike, T.; Steudtner, R.

We probe here the optical relaxation properties of Mg-doped wide-band-gap LiNbO3 single crystals with both a high spectral and temporal resolution at cryogenic temperatures. Surprisingly, we observe the photoluminescence to decay in a two-step process: a fast relaxation and a slower one centered around an energy Emax=2.62±0.05 eV. Both decays fit well to the stretched-exponential behavior. Moreover, we are able to associate these energies to the recombination of light-induced Nb4+ and O− small polarons. Also, we checked the stability of our findings by using LiNbO3 single crystals that show on-purpose modified radiative recombination processes, i.e., with a Mg doping both above and below the optical damage resistance threshold, as well as with different poling histories of inverted domains.


Publ.-Id: 23728

Suppressing the cellular breakdown in silicon supersaturated with titanium

Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Hübner, R.; Yuan, Y.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

Hyper doping Si with up to 6 at.% Ti in solid solution was performed by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser annealing and flash lamp annealing. In both cases, the implanted Si layer can be well recrystallized by liquid phase epitaxy and solid phase epitaxy, respectively.
Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of Ti-implanted Si after liquid phase epitaxy shows the so-called growth interface breakdown or cellular breakdown owing to the occurrence of constitutional supercooling in the melt. The appearance of cellular breakdown prevents further recrystallization. However, the out-diffusion and cellular breakdown can be effectively suppressed by solid phase epitaxy during flash lamp annealing due to the high velocity of amorphous-crystalline interface and the low diffusion velocity for Ti in the solid phase.

Keywords: ion implantation; solid phase epitaxy; liquid phase epitaxy; Si; cellular breakdown

Publ.-Id: 23727

A novel Europium (III) nitridoborate Eu3[B3N6]: Synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties ,and Raman spectra

Aydemir, U.; Kokal, I.; Prots, Y.; Förster, T.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Schappacher, F. M.; Pöttgen, R.; Ormeci, A.; Somer, M.

A novel europium (III) nitridoborate, Eu3[B3N6], was successfully synthesized by oxidation of Eu3 II[BN2]2 with Br2 at 1073 K. The compound crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3c (No:167) with a=11.9370(4) Å, c=6.8073(4) Å, and Z=6. The crystal structure of Eu3[B3N6] consists of isolated, planar cyclic [B3N6]9- units which are charge-balanced by Eu3+ cations. The oxidation state of Eu was investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations. The 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopic measurement at 77 K reveals that the main signal at δ=0.93(7) mm/s is originating from trivalent Europium. Eu3[B3N6] showed no ESR signal in accordance with a non-magnetic (J=0) 7F0 ground state of the 4f6 configuration. Quantum chemical calculations find six electrons in the 4f subshell (4f6) of Eu indicating an oxidation state of +3. We present for the first time the vibrational spectra of a compound with cyclic trimer [B3N6]9- moieties. The Raman spectrum of Eu3[B3N6] is in good agreement with the predicted number of modes for the spectroscopically relevant cyclic [B3N6]9- group with D3h symmetry.

Publ.-Id: 23726

In-Situ Visualisierung und Streaming von Plasmasimulationsdaten

Matthes, A.

Computersimulationen sind heutzutage ein wichtiges, wissenschaftliches Instrument. Visualisierungen dieser helfen dabei die Daten zu verstehen und zu interpretieren. Da auf heutigen Peta- und zukünftigen Exascalesystemen zu viele Daten pro Zeitschritt entstehen, um sie komplett in einem Postprocessingschritt visualisieren zu können, stellt diese Arbeit die In-Situ Visualisierungsbibliothek ISAAC vor, die die Daten direkt nach ihrer Entstehung verteilt visualisieren kann, ohne sie zu speichern oder zu übertragen. Mithilfe von Templates und Template Metaprogrammierung wird ein abstraktes, wiederverwendbares Interface beschrieben, welches trotzdem eine simulationsspezifische Optimierung erlaubt. Die Visualisierung mittels Raytracing erfolgt auf den Originaldaten der Simulation, auch wenn diese auf einem Rechenbeschleuniger wie Nvidia GPUs oder Intel Xeon Phis läuft. In diesem Fall nutzt auch ISAAC die Beschleunigerhardware. Des Weiteren wird die Möglichkeit beschrieben, beliebige Metadaten zwischen Clients und Simulationen auszutauschen, insbesondere um sie live steuern zu können.
Neben der C++ Visualisierungsbibliohtek für Simulationen wird weiterhin ein generischer, zentraler Server zur Videostreamerzeugung motiviert und beschrieben sowie ein einfacher HTML Referenzclient zur Anzeige und Steuerung der Simulation implementiert. Zur Evaluierung der Lösung wird mit ISAAC die verteilte, GPU-beschleunigte Plasmasimulation PIConGPU des HZDR visualisiert. Des Weiteren wird die Rendergeschwindigkeit in Abhängigkeit verschiedener Parameter gemessen und diskutiert.

Computer simulations are important scientific instruments these days. Visualizations help to understand and interpret these data. Since with the classic post processing approach too much data is produced per time step on recent peta scale and future exa scale systems this thesis introduces the in situ visualization library ISAAC, which is able to visualize distributed data right after creation without theneed to store or transmit them. Using templates and template meta programming an abstract and reusable interface is described, which still enables simulation specific optimizations. The visualization over ray tracing works on the original data of the simulation, even if it runs on computation accelerators like Nvidia GPUs or Intel Xeon Phis. In these cases ISAAC is using the accelerators, too. Furthermore a way of sending and receiving meta data from and to simulations is described, especially to be able to steer them.
Besides this C++ library for visualization of simulations, a generic central server for creating video streams is motivated and described and also a simple HTML reference client for showing and steering simulations is implemented. For the evaluation of the solution, ISAAC is used to visualize the distributed gpu-based plasma simulation PIConGPU form the HZDR. Furthermore the speed of rendering dependent on different parameters is measured and discussed.

Keywords: in-situ visualization; simulation steering; in-memory visualization; live visualization; heterogeneous architectures; high performance computing

  • Diploma thesis
    TU Dresden, 2016
    Mentor: Grottel, Sebastian; Bussmann, Michael
    120 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 23725

Live in-Situ Visualisierung und Steuerung von wissenschaftlichen Simulationen auf Hochleistungsrechnern

Matthes, A.; Widera, R.; Hübl, A.; Zenker, E.; Eckert, C.; Gumhold, S.; Grottel, S.; Bussmann, M.

Hochleistungsrechner sind ein wichtiges Instrument für die Forschung. Hochparallele physikalische Simulationen können in Zusammenarbeit mit Experimenten neue Erkenntnisse erschließen oder bestehende hochkomplexe Modelle überprüfen.
Eine solche Simulation stellt die Plasmasimulation PIConGPU des Helmholtz-Zentrums Dresden – Rossendorf (HDZR) dar, die zusätzlich noch Grafikkarten zur weiteren Rechenbeschleunigung nutzen kann. Dabei entstehen jedoch derart viele Daten, dass ein Speichern und nachträgliches Auswerten der wissenschaftlichen Daten nicht mehr möglich ist, weshalb die Simulationsergebnisse live auf dem Hochleistungsrecher visualisiert werden müssen.
Im Rahmen der vorgestellten Diplomarbeit wurde eine abstrakte Bibliothek für die live in-situ Visualisierung und Steuerung von Simulationen beschrieben und implementiert. Der Projektstand zeigt eine live Visualisierung von PIConGPU auf einer stereoskopischen 3D Leinwand während es auf dem Hochleistungscluster Hypnos des HZDR läuft.

Keywords: in-situ visualization; simulation steering; in-memory visualization; live visualization; heterogeneous architectures; high performance computing

  • Lecture (others)
    OUTPUT.DD, 09.06.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23724

Ultrafast ion heating above 1 keV temperautres in solid density plasmas driven by ultrashort relativistic laser pulses

Huang, L. G.; Cowan, T.

Bulk ion heating driven by high power laser pulses is a fundamental scientific issue and of great interest to the potential applications such as nuclear excitation by electronic processes, inertial confinement fusion and so on. Yet, most theoretical and experimental investigation focus on several hundred picoseconds to nanosecond time scale evolution of ion heating dynamics, relying on radiation-hydrodynamic simulations and high energy laser facilities with the order of nanosecond pulse durations. Both the theoretical and experimental methodologies have constraints. In one hand, the hydrodynamic simulations may smooth out the kinetic effects in solid density plasmas such as species thermal decoupling, spatial mixing and separation. In the other hand, the experimental access using several hundred to kilo-Joule laser facilities is quite limited at present.

We present our recent results on ultrafast ion heating dynamics in solid buried layer targets driven by relativistic laser pulses with tens to hundreds of femtosecond pulse durations and high repetition rates[1]. The kinetic simulations using Particle-in-Cell methodology showing that the light ions within highly compressed solid density plasmas can be heated above 1 keV temperature in several hundred femtosecond time to picosecond time scales. We also found that significant instabilities and ion species mixture showing up which are originated from the interfaces of the solid buried layer targets. The possible heating mechanisms during the internal expansion and compression passage will be discussed and addressed.

In order to connect the ion heating dynamics seen in simulations with experiments, we will discuss the role of in-situ synthetic diagnostics that mimic experimental diagnostics. As one example, analyzing the energy spectrum and angular distribution of generated neutrons is possible to determine the ion temperature and distinguish the beam fusion and thermonuclear fusion, which is a conventional diagnostic method in experiments currently. The other key example we propose to directly probe the buried layer dynamics with coherent scattering techniques using hard X-Ray Free Electron Lasers, which is in principle and feasible to allow for probing fundamental plasma properties in nanosecond and femtosecond resolutions of plasma processes for the first time in the near future[2].


[1] L. G. Huang et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 093109 (2013)

Keywords: Ion Heating; High power laser; XFEL; solid plasmas

  • Lecture (Conference)
    1st International Conference onMatter and Radiation at Extremes, 08.-12.05.2016, Chengdu, China

Publ.-Id: 23723

Overview on recent research activities related to electrochemical processes in magnetic fields

Mutschke, G.; Yang, X.

The talk will first give a brief introduction of the Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf and its Institute of Fluid Mechanics.
It will then give an overview on recent research activities related to electrochemical topics, thereby describing the numerical and the experimental techniques applied and the results obtained. Special focus is drawn on the influence of magnetic fields in electrochemical processes, and recent results are presented in the fields of copper deposition, the evolution of hydrogen during water electrolysis and the enrichment of paramagnetic ions in aqueous electrolytes.

Keywords: electrochemistry; metallurgy; hydrogen production; rare-earth metals; electrolysis; magnetohydrodynamics

  • Lecture (others)
    Eingeladener Vortrag an Department of Physical Chemistry and Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metalls, AGH University of Science and Technology, 31.05.2016, Krakau, Polen

Publ.-Id: 23722

Pulse Flow in Solid Foam Packed Reactors: Analysis of Morphology and Key Characteristics

Zalucky, J.; Claußnitzer, T.; Schubert, M.; Lange, R.; Hampel, U.

In this paper, results of an experimental study on pulsing two-phase flow in SiSiC solid foam packed reactors are presented. Thereby, the pulse characteristics in a wide range of water and air fluxes at different axial positions for foams with pore densities of 20, 30, and 45 ppi were investigated using ultrafast X-ray computed tomography. Morphologically, discs, curtains and bowls were encountered as basic pulse shapes, which occurred randomly. The key characteristics, i.e. frequency, velocity and volume of pulses as well as peak and time-averaged liquid holdup, have been extracted by applying a dynamic threshold criterion to time-variant liquid holdup profiles. The key properties strongly depend on axial position, pore density and fluid fluxes and can be distinguished in a local and global mode of pulsing. In the local mode, which evolves close to the regime transition boundary, pulses with small liquid volumes move slowly but frequently through the solid foam packed reactor. In the global mode, significantly faster pulses with large liquid volumes were encountered, which cover most of the reactor cross-section but occur less frequent. Compared to literature data for conventional random packings, the pulse frequency was in a similar range while both pulse velocity and liquid content largely exceeded their counterparts. Phenomenologically, the pore occlusion model was found to be more applicable than the concepts based on flow stability.

Keywords: pulse flow; solid foam packing; pulse properties; ultrafast X-ray computed tomography; pore occlusion model; liquid holdup

Publ.-Id: 23721

Evaluation of flow dynamics and liquid-solid mass transfer in solid foam packed reactors using the limiting current technique

Zalucky, J.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.

In heterogeneous catalytic multiphase reactors, such as trickle-bed reactors, the achieved space time yield depends strongly on the individual mass transfer steps between the individual phases. Being a transfer resistance to all reactants, the liquid-solid mass transfer can be considered as the most crucial mass transfer step.
The limiting current technique (also called electrochemical method) is an established method to study liquid-solid mass transfer at any solid surface. By application of an electric potential to Nickel electrodes having a morphology representative for the solid phase of interest, the limiting electric current can be continuously measured and directly related to the liquid-solid mass transfer. Moreover, the method allows to study dynamic shear stress-related phenomena in the liquid film such as flow regime transition or dynamics of pulses.
In recent years, open-cell solid foams have gained lots of interest as catalyst support in multiphase processes. They consist of a highly tortuous continuous solid network with void fractions of approx. 90% and combine large specific surface area with low flow resistance and high thermal conductivity. Moreover, their hydrodynamic behavior in terms of flow regimes under cocurrent downflow, i.e. trickling flow at high gas and liquid flow rates, may open up new modes of operation.
In the present contribution, the limiting current technique is used to evaluate fast flow dynamics at trickling and pulsing flow and corresponding liquid-solid mass transfer in trickle-bed reactors packed with silicon-infiltrated silicon-carbide (SiSiC) foams.

Keywords: Liquid-solid mass transfer; solid foam packed reactors; limiting current technique

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der Fachgruppe Wärme- und Stoffübertragung 2016, 29.02.-02.03.2016, Kassel, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23720

Alternative FIB Applications using Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources

Bischoff, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bruchhaus, L.; Gierak, J.

At this time Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology is dominated by gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, despite new developments like He/Ne ion microscopes or Xe-FIBs many applications in the µm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium or noble gases: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis or even Focused Ion Beam Lithography. For this special use cases Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB [1]. Switching between the certain species obtained from a chosen alloy using an ExB mass filter in the ion optical column can be applied to change significantly different physical and chemical characteristics of the resulting nanostructures. In other words the electrical, optical, magnetic and/or mechanic properties can be tuned. This offers a large application potential by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Now nearly half of the elements of the Periodic Table are available in FIB technology.
Main properties of a modern LMAIS should be long life-time, high brightness and stable ion current emission. This contribution will involve the physical basics and experimental results of LMAIS, their physical properties and questions of the preparation technology for elementary as well as binary and ternary alloys as source material. Furthermore selected applications of these sources in highly focused beams are given feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry.

[1] L. Bischoff, P. Mazarov, L. Bruchhaus, and J. Gierak, Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focused ion beam, Appl. Phys. Rev. 3 (2016) 021101.

Keywords: Focused Ion Beam; Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources; Nanotechnology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th DACH FIB workshop, 27.-28.06.2016, Brno, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 23719

Liquid Metal Ion Source driven High Current Ion Beam Injector

Laufer, P.; Bock, D.; Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L.; Tajmar, M.

The capability of Liquid Metal (Alloy) Ion Sources (LMAIS) to emit a broad variety of ions from nearly the half of the periodic table including molecular ions or small clusters, consisting of a few atoms and different charge stages render them unique for special applications. LMAIS are characterized by a high brightness of about 1e6 A/cm² sr, low energy spread of some eV and a compact design which prefer them for focused ion beam (FIB) systems [1] or field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters in space technology [2].
The main attention is dedicated to the emission of heavy metallic polyatomic ions – a very special of LMAIS. With Bi or Au di- and trimer ions in the energy range of some 10 keV regular self-organized hexagonal dot structures were obtained after room temperature irradiation of Ge at normal incidence using a FIB instrument. The patterning is induced by the enormous energy deposition by the heavy projectiles but due to the low available currents restricted to only small areas [3, 4]. Consequently, an ion injector based on high current LMAIS is the aim of this work to process larger areas adaptable on single-end ion beam systems. Different types of field emitters were tested for a high permanent ion current of much more than 100 µA.
Among classical needle emitters, particularly the application of porous needles from Tungsten and Rhenium and Tantalum capillaries with a 50 µm inner diameter showed an excellent and stable emission behavior. Source materials like Ga for tests, Gold (from Au82Si18 alloy), Lead and Bismuth (Bi or Ga38Bi62 alloy) were investigated. In the developed injector a nearly parallel ion beam of about 2 mm diameter can be obtained by means of an asymmetric ion-optical Einzel lens. Furthermore a mass separation system (Wien filter) selects the desired ions while a quadrupole is used for beam adjustment and astigmatism correction. High cluster ion currents enable the formation of various nanostructures or even smooth surfaces over an area in cm²-range depending on ion species, energy, fluence and angle of incidence. The LMAIS characterization and the performance of the ion beam module for certain experiments will be presented and discussed.

[1] L. Bischoff: “Alloy liquid metal ion sources and their application in mass separated focused ion beams”, Ultramicroscopy 103 (2005), 59. DOI:10.1016/j.ultramic.2004.11.020
[2] M. Tajmar and B. Jang: “New materials and processes for field emission ion and electron emitters”, CEAS Space J. 4 (2013), 47. DOI: 10.1007/s12567-013-0031-z
[3] L. Bischoff, K.-H. Heinig, B. Schmidt, S. Facsko and W. Pilz: “Self-organization of Ge nanopattern under erosion with heavy Bi monomer and cluster ions”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 272 (2012), 198. DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2011.01.064
[4] R. Boettger, L. Bischoff, K.-H. Heinig, W. Pilz, and B. Schmidt: “From sponge to dot arrays on (100) Ge by increasing the energy of ion impacts” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30 (2012), 06FFF12. DOI: 10.1116/1.4767269

Keywords: Liquid Metal (Alloy) Ion Sources; polyatomic ions; nanostructures

  • Lecture (Conference)
    1st International Conference on Helium Ion Microscopy and Emerging Focused Ion Beam Technologies (HEFIB 2016), 08.-10.06.2016, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

Publ.-Id: 23718

Focused Ion Beam Applications using Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources

Bischoff, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bruchhaus, L.; Gierak, J.

Presently Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is dominated by gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, beside new developments in this field like He/Ne ion microscopes or Xe-FIBs many applications in the µm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium or noble gases: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis or even Focused Ion Beam Lithography. Therefore Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB [1,2]. Simple switching between the certain ion species using an ExB mass filter can be applied to change significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures -in other words the electrical, optical, magnetic and mechanic properties. This offers a large application potential which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Now nearly half of the elements of the Periodic Table are available in FIB technology. Main properties of a modern LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness and stable ion current. This contribution will cover the physical basics and experimental results of LMAIS, their physical properties (I-V characteristics, energy spread) and questions of the preparation technology using elementary as well as binary and ternary alloys as source material. Furthermore selected applications will be presented to underline the impact of these sources in modern nanotechnology by highly focused ion beams. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry.

[1] L. Bischoff: “Application of mass-separated focused ion beams in nano-technology”, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266 (2008), 1846. DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2007.12.008
[2] L. Bischoff, P. Mazarov, L. Bruchhaus, and J. Gierak: „Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources - An Alternative for Focused Ion Beam Technology” , Appl. Phys. Rev. 3 (2016) 021101-1-30
[3] L. Bischoff and Ch. Akhmadaliev: “An alloy liquid metal ion source for lithium”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 (2008) 052001. DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/41/5/052001

Keywords: Focused Ion Beam; Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources; Mass spectra

  • Lecture (Conference)
    1st International Conference on Helium Ion Microscopy and Emerging Focused Ion Beam Technologies (HEFIB 2016), 08.-10.06.2016, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

Publ.-Id: 23717

Incorporation of Eu(III) into Calcite under Recrystallization conditions

Hellebrandt, S. E.; Hofmann, S.; Jordan, N.; Barkleit, A.; Schmidt, M.

The interaction of calcite with trivalent europium under recrystallization conditions was studied on the molecular level using site-selective time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). We conducted batch studies with a reaction time from seven days up to three years with three calcite powders, which differed in their specific surface area, recrystallization rates and impurities content. With increase of the recrystallization rate incorporation of Eu(III) occurs faster and the speciation comes to be dominated by one species with its excitation maximum at 578.8 nm, so far not identified during previous investigations of this process under growth and phase transformation conditions. A long lifetime of 3750 µs demonstrates complete loss of hydration, consequently Eu must have been incorporated into the bulk crystal. The results show a strong dependence of the incorporation kinetics on the recrystallization rate of the different calcites. Furthermore the investigation of the effect of different background electrolytes (NaCl and KCl) demonstrate that the incorporation process under recrystallization conditions strongly depends on the availability of Na(I). These findings emphasize the different retention potential of calcite as a primary and secondary mineral e.g. in a nuclear waste disposal site.

Keywords: Calcite; recrystallization; incorporation; Europium

Publ.-Id: 23716

Combined use of flow cytometry and microscopy to study the interactions between the gram-negative betaproteobacterium Acidovorax facilis and uranium(VI)

Gerber, U.; Zirnstein, I.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Lünsdorf, H.; Arnold, T.; Merroun, M. L.

The former uranium mine Königstein (Saxony, Germany) is currently in the process of remediation by means of controlled underground flooding. Nevertheless, the flooding water has to be cleaned up by a conventional wastewater treatment plant. In this study, the uranium(VI) removal and tolerance mechanisms of the gram-negative betaproteobacterium Acidovorax facilis were investigated by a multidisciplinary approach combining wet chemistry, flow cytometry, and microscopy. The kinetics of uranium removal and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated. The results showed a biphasic process of uranium removal characterized by a first phase where 95 % of uranium was removed within the first 8 hours followed by a second phase that reached equilibrium after 24 hours. The bacterial cells displayed a total uranium removal capacity of 130 mg U/g dry biomass. The removal of uranium was also temperature-dependent, indicating that metabolic activity heavily influenced bacterial interactions with uranium. TEM analyses showed biosorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation of uranium. Uranium tolerance tests showed that A. facilis was able to withstand concentrations up to 0.1 mM. This work demonstrates that A. facilis is a suitable candidate for in situ bioremediation of flooding water in Königstein as well as for other contaminated waste waters.

Keywords: Acidovorax facilis; AMD; uranium; in situ bioremediation; flow cytometry; metal tolerance


Publ.-Id: 23715

Fundamental investigation of the structure of neodymium-di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid combinations using ESI and MALDI spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy

Scharf, C.

Neodymium-DEHPA-species forming in the organic phase during solvent extraction of neodymium with solutions of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA) have been studied. Two samples were prepared, one with a low molar ratio of neodymium to DEHPA which is liquid and clear, and the other with a high molar ratio of neodymium to DEHPA (complete loading) which has the consistency of a gel. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric investigations show numerous compounds in addition to the generally assumed species dimeric DEHPA and Nd(DEHP·DEHPA)3, in the liquid sample. NMR spectroscopic investigation of pure DEHPA and of a completely loaded sample confirm the formula of pure DEHPA and of the organic part of Nd(DEHP)3. Furthermore, chemical analysis of a dried completely loaded sample also proves the existence of the species Nd(DEHP)3. Results of X-ray powder diffraction measurement of this sample agree well with literature data.

Keywords: solvent extraction of neodymium; di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid; DEHPA; neodymium-DEHPA gel; neodymium-DEHPA species

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, 15.-20.12.2015, Honolulu, USA
    Proceedings of the International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies

Publ.-Id: 23714

Ion Beam Injector based on High Current LMIS

Laufer, P.; Bock, D.; Pilz, W.; Bischoff, L.; Tajmar, M.

One of the major advantages of Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) is the capability to emit a broad spectrum of ions from doubly and singly charged ions of nearly the half of the periodic table up to molecular ions or small clusters, consisting of a few atoms and different charge stages. These ion sources, characterized by a high brightness of about 106 A/cm2 sr, low energy spread of some eV and a very compact design are dedicated mostly for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [1] or field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters in space technology [2]. Normal ions in a wide spectrum of parameters can be provided also by other ion sources. The very special of LM(A)IS are the formation of heavy polyatomic ions from metallic or semiconducting elements, which is of great interest for self-organized surface patterning. So with Bismuth di- and trimer ions regular hexagonal dot structures were obtained after room temperature irradiation of Germanium at normal incidence using a FIB instrument induced by the enormous energy deposition by the heavy projectiles [3, 4]. To employ these heavy ions also for other ion beam systems and especially for larger areas an ion source injector module based on a high current LM(A)IS will be presented. Total emitted ion currents of more than 100 µA can be reached using different types of field emitter in particular porous needles from Tungsten and Rhenium or capillaries, 50 µm inner diameter of Tantalum. Source materials like Ga for tests, Gold (from Au82Si18 alloy), Lead or Bismuth (Bi or Ga38Bi62 alloy) were investigated.
In the injector a nearly parallel ion beam of about 2 mm diameter can be obtained by means of an asymmetric ion-optical Einzel lens. The cluster ion fraction for a certain ion species is in the range of per mil up to a few percent dependent on the emitted elements. A mass separation system (Wien filter) selects the desired ions while a quadrupole is used for beam adjustment and astigmatism correction. High cluster ion currents enable the formation of various nanostructures or even smooth surfaces over an area in cm²-range depending on ion species, energy, fluence and angle of incidence. The LM(A)IS preparation and the performance of the ion beam module at certain experiments will be presented and discussed.

[1] L. Bischoff, Ultramicroscopy 103, 59 (2005).
[2] M. Tajmar and B. Jang, CEAS Space J. 4, 47 (2013).
[3] L. Bischoff, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 272,198 (2012).
[4] R. Boettger et al. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30, 06FFF12 (2012).

Keywords: Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source; Ion Beam Injector; Cluster Ions

  • Lecture (Conference)
    60th International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication (EIPBN), 31.05.-06.06.2016, Pittsburgh, USA

Publ.-Id: 23713

Investigation of thermal spin transfer torque in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions using FMR microresonators

Cansever, H.; Kowalska, E.; Fowley, C.; Aleksandrov, Y.; Yildirim, O.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A.

MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions are commonly used in spintronic device applications, such as recent spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) because of their non-volatility, fast switching and high storage capacity. Spin transfer torque is defined as a spin polarized current flowing through a ferromagnet exerting a torque on the local magnetization. With thermal spin transfer torque (T-STT), thermally excited electron transport is used instead of spin polarized charge current and provides an interesting way of using thermoelectric effects in magnetic storage applications. Our study focuses on fundamental experimental research aimed at demonstrating that thermal gradients can generate spin-transfer torques in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). We use microresonators in order to analyze how the ferromagnetic resonance signal corresponding to the free layer of an in-plane MgO-based tunnel junction device is modified in the presence of a temperature gradient across the barrier.
This work is supported by DFG-SPP1538

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 06.-11.03.2016, Regensburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 23712

Ultra-doped n-type germanium thin films for sensing in the mid-infrared

Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Voelskow, M.; Vines, L.; Rebohle, L.; Lang, D.; Berencén, Y.; Andric, S.; Boettger, R.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

A key milestone for the next generation of high-performance multifunctional microelectronic devices is the monolithic integration of high-mobility materials with Si technology. The use of Ge instead of Si as a basic material in nanoelectronics would need homogeneous p- and n-type doping with high carrier densities. Here we use ion implantation followed by rear side flash-lamp annealing (r-FLA) for the fabrication of heavily doped n-type Ge with high mobility. This approach, in contrast to conventional annealing procedures, leads to the full recrystallization of Ge films and high P activation. In this way single crystalline Ge thin films free of defects with maximum attained carrier concentrations of 2.20±0.11E20 cm-3 and carrier mobilities above 260 cm2/(V·s) were obtained. The obtained ultra-doped Ge films display a room-temperature plasma frequency above 1,850 cm-1, which enables to exploit the plasmonic properties of Ge for sensing in the mid-infrared spectral range.

Keywords: Ge; ion implantation; flash lamp annealing; plasmonics

Publ.-Id: 23711

In-situ, steerable, hardware-independent and data-structure agnostic visualization with ISAAC

Matthes, A.; Widera, R.; Hübl, A.; Zenker, E.; Eckert, C.; Gumhold, S.; Grottel, S.; Bussmann, M.

We showcase the C++ template library ISAAC [1,2] for in-situ visualization of simulations or other high rate data sources running distributed on modern HPC systems. As most in-situ visualization solutions suffer from the problem that the simulation data needs to be converted to visualization specific data structures, ISAAC implements a data structure agnostic raycasting algorithm using C++ templates and C++ meta programming. With this ISAAC is not only able to visualize nearly arbitrary simulation data without the need of deep copying or converting it beforehand, but is also capable to use the very same computation device as the simulation itself.

Using the same computation device as the simulation usually limits the scope of usable hardware as modern many-core devices require programming models optimized for the specific hardware, e.g. CUDA for NVIDIA devices, to achieve optimum performance. In order to circumvent this problem ISAAC is based on the abstract kernel interface library Alpaka [3,4], which defines a redundant parallel hierarchy model for many-core architectures that serves as a front end to underlying models such as CUDA, OpenMP or Thread Building Blocks. With this, the ISAAC software renderer can run in-situ on almost every platform currently available.

Not all simulation data is perfectly suited for direct visualization but sometimes requires transformation. ISAAC thus introduces so called Functor Chains, which are very simple precompiled, but at runtime selectable, functions used for local domain transformations of the original simulation data performed before the data is streamed to the raycasting algorithm.

ISAAC is capable of scaling up to Petascale systems using the IceT library. It is not intended for highly specialized visualization but instead renders the classical representation as glowing gas or as iso surfaces. Aside from the obligatory transfer functions for the classification ISAAC also supports an arbitrary amount of random clipping planes useful for a deeper look into the simulated volumes.

ISAAC includes an interface for simulations to send arbitrary live meta data with the live preview and to receive live steering data. The whole communication layer of ISAAC is intentionally based only on open and widely used standards such as Websockets, RTP Streams and especially the open-standard format JSON.

ISAAC provides a server running on the head or login node of the HPC system, which creates the video streams from the visualization and forwards them together with the meta data to a freely selectable number of clients. The video stream created by the server can be received from arbitrary clients such as VLC or even streaming platforms like Twitch. Furthermore, each client can steer the simulations. ISAAC itself introduces a platform-independent HTML5 client, which can be adjusted to the needs of specific simulations easily.

Since every part of ISAAC is open source and makes use of the openly documented JSON communication protocol, it is easily possible to implement new clients or to extend the visualization core itself for simulation-specific features. ISAAC is designed to be as language-, framework-, data-format- and platform-agnostic as possible.

In order to demonstrate the real time capabilities of ISAA we will showcase a live visualization of the GPU-accelerated plasma simulation PIConGPU [5,6]. We show that we can achieve more than ten frames per seconds using 64 GPUs on the Hypnos cluster at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf running both the simulation and visualization simultaneously.

[1] A. Matthes, In-situ Visualisierung und Streaming von Plasmasimulationsdaten, Technical University Dresden (2016)
[3] E. Zenker et al., Alpaka - An Abstraction Library for Parallel Kernel Acceleration, (2016)
[5] M. Bussmann et al., Radiative Signatures of the Relativistic Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, SC'15, 5, 1 (2013)

Keywords: in-situ visualization; simulation steering; in-memory visualization; live visualization; heterogeneous architectures; high performance computing

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ISC Workshop On In-situ Visualization 2016, 23.06.2016, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 23710

Radiation Dose Measurements for high-intensity laser interactions with solid targets at SLAC

Liang, T.; Bauer, J.; Cimeno, M.; Ferrari, A.; Galtier, E.; Granados, E.; Lee, H. J.; Liu, J.; Nagler, B.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.; Woods, H. T. M.

A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser–solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. These laser–solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser–solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 10^18 and 7.1 10^19 W cm-2 are presented.

Keywords: radiation measurements; laser-induced ionizing radiation


Publ.-Id: 23707

Ionizing Radiation Measurements from Interaction of MEC Laser (0.7 J, 10^19 W/cm2) with Cu and Ni Targets

Liang, T.; Bauer, J.; Blaha, J.; Cimeno, M.; Ferrari, A.; Liu, J.; Rokni, S.; Woods, M.

Laser system upgrades at SLAC Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) have increased the potential dose levels generated from laser-matter interactions at LCLS Hutch 6. In July 2014, the 800 nm Ti:sapphire MEC laser operated at 0.7 J with an intensity of 1.0 10^18 W/cm2, and shots were taken on Cu foils and a Ni nanowire target. In August 2014, MEC scientists utilized a deformable mirror improve the laser spot size to achieve an intensity of 1.0 10^19 W/cm2 with 0.7 J, and laser shots were again taken on Cu foil and Ni nanowire. During both experiments, passive (nanoDot, RADOS, 2 mR PIC) and active (Victoreen 451, BF3) detectors were deployed inside and outside the target chamber to measure ionizing radiation from laser shots on Cu and Ni targets, and measurements from active and passive detectors agree. No local cone shielding was in place at MEC during radiation measurements.

Keywords: laser induced ionizing radiation

  • Other report
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA: SLAC RADIATION PHYSICS NOTE RP-14-23, 2014
    23 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 23706

Shielding and activation studies for MYRRHA in critical and sub-critical mode

Ferrari, A.; Mueller, S.; Konheiser, J.

This work has been performed in the framework of the FP7 European project MAXSIMA (“Methodology, Analysis and eXperiments for the Safety In MYRRHA Assessment”), which has the goal to support the design of the accelerator-driven system MYRRHA (“Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-Tech Applications”) at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium), in view of the licensing of the facility.
The aim of the MAXSIMA Work Package 2 is to provide solid safety analyses for the Belgian safety authorities in view of the licensing process.
The main goal of the Task 2.1 is to support these analyses on one side by providing the needed neutronic parameters as input (see Deliverable D2.1), and on the other side by performing shielding and activation studies using the up-to-date MYRRHA core models.
These studies are the object of the present Deliverable, D2.2.

Keywords: Shielding; accelerator driven systems; MYRRHA; spallation sources

  • Other report
    Report for EU Commission: Deliverable D2.2 of the MAXSIMA EU Project, 2015
    496 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 23705

An activation database for materials used at high-intensity laser acceleration facilities

Ferrari, A.; Fasso, A.; Olsovcova, V.; Versaci, R.

The ELI-Beamlines facility, which is expected to start operation in 2017, will be the high-energy, high repetition-rate laser pillar of the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). The goal of the project is to deliver ultra-short, high-energy laser pulses for generation and applications of high-brightness X-ray sources and accelerated particles. Particle beams are expected to operate in an unprecedented energy range for laser-driven accelerators, going from 1 GeV up to 50 GeV for electrons and from 100 MeV up to 3 GeV for protons. The number of particles per laser shot is estimated to be 10^9-10^10 for electron beams and 10^10-10^12 for proton beams. The high energy and the large current per shot of the produced beams, together with the potentiality to operate at 10 Hz laser repetition rate, require an adequate evaluation of activation in structural materials in order to assess several radiation protection problems, such as minimization of residual dose rates close to and inside the experimental chambers and management of active materials (short and long-term storage and eventual decommissioning).
A large database covering all the energies and materials of interest is being developed using FLUKA, a Monte Carlo code successfully benchmarked for the production of radioactive nuclides. Results for electrons and protons at intermediate energies are presented. These results, although focused on the needs of laser-driven accelerators, are likely to be useful also when designing more conventional facilities.

Keywords: activation; laser induced ionizing radiation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ARIA 2015 - Workshop on Accelerator Radiation Induced Activation, 15.-17.04.2015, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States

Publ.-Id: 23704

Activation calculations for the MYRRHA accelerator-driven system design

Ferrari, A.; Castelliti, D.; Konheiser, J.; Mueller, S.; Sarotto, M.; Stankovskiy, A.

The MYRRHA facility at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium), which is at present in an advanced phase of the design, aims to demonstrate efficient transmutation of high level waste and associated Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) technology. The system is based on a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled reactor, working both in critical and in sub-critical operation modes. Neutrons needed to sustain fission in the sub-critical mode are produced via spallation processes by a 600 MeV, < 4 mA proton beam, which is provided by a linear accelerator and hits a LBE spallation target located inside the reactor core. The use of a high energy/high current proton beam, coupled with a nuclear reactor operating in subcritical mode, presents many challenges for various aspects of the design, being minimization of the induced activation a key point. In order to assess the main activation and shielding problems, a method based on the combined use of the two Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA has been developed, with the goal to perform detailed analyses of both the radiation fields due to the system in operation, and the coupled residual radiation due to the activated materials. Activation has been then evaluated for typical irradiation patterns and key structural materials, from the spallation target to the structure above the core, the reactor cover and critical points along the proton beamline.
The results of this simulation work are presented, with some implications on the design solutions.

Keywords: Activation; shielding; accelerator driven systems; spallation sources

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ARIA 2015 - Workshop on Accelerator Radiation Induced Activation, 15.-17.04.2015, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States

Publ.-Id: 23703

Source term determination for shielding assessment of high-power laser-plasma experiments

Ferrari, A.; Cowan, T.; Pelka, A.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Tschentscher, T.; Rokni, S.; Liu, J.; Bauer, J.; Liang, T.; Fasso’, A.; Margarone, D.; Versaci, R.

In an increasing number of experiments, high-power, high-intensity lasers hit targets and create plasma. The laser-plasma interaction will produce hot electrons with a Maxwellian energy spectrum and an electron temperature ranging from about 10 keV to 10 MeV for irradiance between 10^16 and 10^21 W/cm2. The electrons interact in turn with the target, producing bremsstrahlung and possibly photoneutrons, resulting in a radiation field that must be contained by shielding. Since the physics of plasmas is very different from that of the common phases of matter, the shielding design cannot be carried out with only conventional tools.
Different, complementary approaches are possible: to use analytical formulas, to experimentally evaluate source terms to be used as input to established Monte Carlo codes, or to interface those codes with specialized Particle-In-Cell programs, which describe the generation and transport of particles in plasma.
At the Helmholtz-Beamline, which will operate as laser facility at the European XFEL, the shielding design of the High Energy Density (HED) Physics Instrument has been evaluated by using analytical calculations, cross-checked with measurements at the DRACO laser at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). On the other hand an extensive experimental campaign is planned at SLAC, where dedicated radiation measurements will be performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) short-pulse laser facility.

  • Poster
    SATIF-12 Shielding aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities, 28.-30.04.2014, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, United States

Publ.-Id: 23702

Radiation field calculations around the spallation target and the reactor core for the MYRRHA ADS design

Ferrari, A.; Castelliti, D.; Fernandez, R.; Konheiser, J.; Mueller, S.; Sarotto, M.; Stankovskiy, A.

The MYRRHA facility at SCK·CEN in Mol (Belgium), which should enter the construction phase in 2015, aims to demonstrate efficient transmutation of high level waste and associated Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) technology. The system is based on a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled reactor, working both in critical and in sub-critical operation modes. The neutrons needed to sustain fission in the sub-critical mode are produced via spallation processes by a 600 MeV,  4 mA proton beam, which is provided by a linear accelerator and hits a LBE spallation target located inside the reactor core. In order to assess the main shielding problems, a method based on the combined use of the two Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA has been developed, with the goal to perform detailed analyses of both the radiation fields due to the system in operation, and the coupled residual radiation due to the activated materials. The results of this simulation work are presented, with the implications on the design solutions.

Keywords: Accelerator driven systems; spallation targets; shielding

  • Poster
    SATIF-12 Shielding aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities, 28.-30.04.2014, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, United States

Publ.-Id: 23701

Shielding and activation studies for the ELI-Beamlines project

Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Korn, G.; Versaci, R.

ELI-beamlines is one of the four pillars of the Extreme Light Infrastructure, a European ESFRI Project, for the next generation of high-energy and high-intensity lasers. It aims at the development of high-brightness sources of X-rays and the acceleration of proton, electron, and ion beams, to be used both for pure research and practical applications.
Aiming at a proper radiation protection assessment, for both shielding and activation, extensive FLUKA simulations have been performed, taking into account the laser high repetition rates. The present work, which is the continuation of the calculations presented at SATIF-10, is the first one based on the design of the facility being constructed and on the updated experimental set-up.

Keywords: Shielding; Monte Carlo calculations; FLUKA

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    SATIF-12 Shielding aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities, 28.-30.04.2014, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, United States
    Workshop Proceedings: OECD, Nuclear Science NEA/NSC/R(2015)3, 105-111

Publ.-Id: 23700

Measurements of high-intensity laser induced ionising radiation at SLAC

Liang, T.; Bauer, J.; Cimeno, M.; Ferrari, A.; Galtier, E.; Granados, E.; Liu, J.; Nagler, B.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.; Tran, H.; Woods, M.

A systematic study of measurements of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-target interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory using a femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 40 fs, up to 1 J and 25 TW) at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Preliminary results from recent measurements with the laser-optic-target system (peak intensity 1.8x1018 W/cm2) are presented and compared with results from calculations based on analytical models and FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations.

Keywords: Laser induced ionising radiation; source terms measurements; shielding

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    SATIF-12 Shielding aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities, 28.-30.04.2014, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, United States
    Workshop Proceedings: OECD, Nuclear Science NEA/NSC/R(2015)3, 40-53

Publ.-Id: 23699

Data-driven model for evaluation of cerebrovascular-reserve measurement with hypercapnia BOLD

Vondráčková, L.; Krukowski, P.; Gerber, J.; Linn, J.; Kybic, J.; Petr, J.

Hypercapnia BOLD with the breath-holding task is a technically easier and more clinically available alternative to cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) mapping than administration of CO enriched air using an air-tight mask. The disadvantage is complicated data evaluation in case the subject does not adhere to the breathing protocol completely. Here, a data-driven approach for evaluation is presented that is more robust to protocol deviations and produces a reasonable CVR map in most cases where the standard model-driven approach fails. This is demonstrated on randomized evaluation of CVR maps of a group of 86 subjects with stenosis or vessel occlusion.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    24th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 07.05.2016, Singapore, Singapore
    Proceedings of the 24th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • Poster
    24th Scientific Meeting and Exhibition of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 07.05.2016, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 23698

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