Jose Godinho
Department of Analytics

Phone: +49 351 260 - 4475


3D X-ray Computed Tomography (3D X-ray CT)

Technical Specifications

  • CoreTOM from XRE
  • Down to 5 micron voxel size
  • Fast in situ scans (<1 min.)
  • Energy range of the source: tungsten (40-180) keV
  • Power: up to 300 W
  • Normal detector size: 2880 x 2880
  • Prototype of a energy selective detector that allows resolving the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-rays (energy range: 23-155 KeV over 120 energy bins, resolution ~ 1.1 keV)


  • Visualization of mineral distribution in a rock
  • Quantification and statistical analysis of the components inside a sample
  • 3D Rendering of materials to feed into numerical models
  • Analysis of time-lapse processes inside materials
  • 3D element / mineral identification by coupling the normal detector with the energy detector

Sample Requirements

  • Samples up to 1 m height and 30 cm diameter
3D image of a REE (red) bearing carbonate rock ©Copyright: da Assuncao Godinho, Jose Ricardo

3D image of a REE (red) bearing carbonate rock (~15 cm diameter) 

Foto: J.R.A. Godinho

3D image of a crushed REE (red) bearing carbonate rock ©Copyright: da Assuncao Godinho, Jose Ricardo

Particles (<1 mm) from the same rock (left), after comminution

Foto: J.R.A. Godinho

Selected Publications ►

  • Godinho, J. R. A.; Chellappah, K.; Collins, I.; Ng, P.; Smith, M.; Withers, P. J.
    “Time-lapse imaging of particle invasion and deposition in porous media using in situ X-ray radiography”, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering (2019)
    DOI-Link: 10.1016/j.petrol.2019.02.061
  • Godinho, J. R. A.; Kern, M.; Renno, A. D.; Gutzmer, J.
    “Volume quantification in interphase voxels of ore minerals using 3D imaging”, Minerals Engineering (2019)
    DOI-Link: j.mineng.2019.106016

How does it work? ►

The components within a sample are imaged based on the principle, that each material attenuates X-rays differently, depending on its electron density. Therefore, after passing through a sample the X-rays projected on a detector show a shadow of the sample’s components. Acquiring projections while rotating the sample (360 degrees) allows tracking the individual component in space, which enables the construction of the sample in 3D. Normal detectors measure the total amount of X-rays (of all energies), while our special energy sensitive detector allows to resolve the energy spectrum. This helps to identify elements with a k-edge > 23 keV (heavier than Ru).  

Important to plan a scan: The resolution is inversely proportional to the field of view. Samples < 2 cm diameter are necessary to achieve the highest resolution (~4 um). Cylindrical samples are ideal but other geometries can be measured without any special treatment. The method is non-destructive.