Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD)

{insider}IBAD is a deposition technique combining physical vapor deposition (PVD) with an energetical ion irradiation from an ion source. The application of an ion source (different types are used, commonly used ion energies are 200eV...40keV) and of a vapor source (mostly electron beam evaporator, but also ion sputtering or laser ablation are useful, typical deposition rates of 1...50 Å/s), allow a well controlable, reproducible and flexible IBAD process. Ion flux, atom flux, ion energy, ion incidence angle, arrival ratio of the ions to atoms and the substrate temperature are variable and independendly from each other over a wide range.

The combination of a vacuum deposition process with an additional bombardment of energetical ions allows the thin film synthesis of metastable phases, amorphous struktures or especially crystalline compositions for optical and electronical applications or corrosion, wear and friction decreasing coatings. The film density, composition, layer structure, porosity, purity, stress, microstructure and other properties can be influenced.

Advantages of the IBAD process:

  • improved film adhesion
  • high film density,
  • low porosity,
  • low substrate temperature
  • texture control s
  • synthesis of super hard materials
  • reactive and nonreactive ion beam assistance is possible
 
 

Typical thin films made by IBAD:

 
Material 
 
Evaporant 
 
Ion 
 
Energy 
 
Temperature 
 
a-C C
Ar+/Ne+ 
 
200...1000eV 
 
<100°C 
 
c-BN B
N2+ and N+/Ar+ 
 
300...1500eV 
 
200...600°C 
 
AlN Al
N2+ and N+ 
 
75...1000eV 
 
<100°C 
 
TiN Ti
N2+ and N+ 
 
100...30000eV 
 
RT...600°C 
 
TiAlN Ti/Al
N2+ and N+/Ar+ 
 
100...30000eV 
 
RT...600°C 
 
CNx C
N2+ and N+ 
 
100...1500eV 
 
RT...400°C 
 
Si3N4 Si
N2+ and N+ 
 
60...700eV 
 
<200°C 
 
metal oxides Me (Zr, Al, Ti)
O2+ 
 
100...1000eV 
 
50...600°C 
 
HTSC BaF2, Cu, Y
O2+ 
 
50eV 
 
560...640°C 
 
 
  
 
 
 
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