Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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31863 Publications
The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction studied at LUNA
Bemmerer, D.; Kunz, R.; Marta, M.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F.; Trautvetter, H.-P.;
The nuclear physics input from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section is a major uncertainty in the fluxes of Be-7 and B-8 neutrinos from the Sun predicted by solar models and in the Li-7 abundance obtained in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations.
Here we report on a precision cross section measurement performed by the LUNA collaboration at Gran Sasso (Italy). At energies directly relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis, the cross section has been studied by both the activation [1] and the prompt-gamma technique.
Using a windowless gas target, high beam intensity, a low background in beam gamma-detector and low background gamma-counting facilities, the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Bee cross section has been determined at 90-170 keV center-of-mass energy with a total uncertainty as low as 4%.

The new data can be used in big-bang nucleosynthesis
calculations and to constrain the extrapolation of the
3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor to solar

[1] D. Bemmerer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 122502 (2006)
Keywords: nuclear astrophysics big-bang solar neutrinos
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrstagung Hadronen und Kerne, 13.03.2007, Gießen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10249 - Permalink

Experimentelle Nukleare Astrophysik über Tage und tief unter Tage im Gran-Sasso-Labor (Italien)
Bemmerer, D.;
New and precise astronomical observations call for nuclear data of equal precision for their interpretation. This will permit a better understanding of big-bang nucleosynthesis and of asymptotic giant branch stars.

Based on the recent experimental study of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be nuclear reaction directly in the energy range of big-bang nucleosynthesis, a new experiment to study the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction at big-bang energies is proposed. The new data will allow to test a possible nuclear solution to the big-bang Li-6 posed by new observations of Li-6 in very old stars.

The 15N(p,alpha)12C reaction is an important source of uncertainty in the prediction of the F-19 yield observed in asymptotic giant branch stars. Based on angular distribution measurements performed at TU Berlin, the potential of a new precision cross section measurement is evaluated.
Keywords: nuclear astrophysics
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Kolloquium Universität Potsdam, 21.02.2007, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10248 - Permalink

The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction measured by activation at LUNA
Bemmerer, D.;
The nuclear physics input from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section is a major uncertainty in the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun predicted by solar models and in the 7Li abundance obtained in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations. In the seminar I will report on a new precision experiment on this reaction performed by the LUNA collaboration [1].

Using a windowless gas target, the high beam intensity of the LUNA2 accelerator, and the Gran Sasso low background gamma-counting facilities, the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section has been determined by the activation method at 90 -- 170 keV center-of-mass energy with a total uncertainty as low as 4%. The present low energies are directly relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis and had previously been reached experimentally only by the prompt-gamma technique and with inferior precision.

The new LUNA data can be used in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations and to constrain the extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor to solar energies.

[1] D. Bemmerer et al. (LUNA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 122502 (2006)
Keywords: big-bang nuclear astrophysics activation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physics Seminar, 31.01.2007, Assergi (AQ), Italy

Publ.-Id: 10247 - Permalink

Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser
Kehr, S. C.; Cebula, M.; Mieth, O.; Härtling, T.; Seidel, J.; Grafström, S.; Eng, L. M.; Winnerl, S.; Stehr, D.; Helm, M.;
We demonstrate the imaging of ferroelectric domains in BaTiO3, using an infrared-emitting free-electron laser as a tunable optical source for scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy. When the laser is tuned into the spectral vicinity of a phonon resonance, ferroelectric domains can be resolved due to the anisotropy of the dielectric properties of the material. Slight detuning of the wavelength gives rise to a contrast reversal clearly evidencing the resonant character of the excitation. The near-field domain contrast shows that the orientation of the dielectric tensor with respect to the sample surface has a clear influence on the near-field signal.
  • Physical Review Letters 100(2008), 256403

Publ.-Id: 10246 - Permalink

EXAFS studies of Zn/Al and Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxides
Funke, H.; Chukalina, M.; Scheinost, A. C.; Voegelin, A.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    ESRF User's Meeting 2007, 07.-09.02.2007, Grenoble, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 10245 - Permalink

Generation of Ultrahigh Light Intensities and Relativistic Laser-Matter Interaction
Sauerbrey, R.; Hein, J.;
Modern technologies allow the amplification of short laser pulses to energies of some tens of kJ. Additionally, ultrashort pulses containing only some optical cycles can be generated. By merging these techniques nowadays focused laser beams can reach unprecedented intensities in the range of 1021 W/cm2 and will reach even higher ones in the near future. At these intensities the electric and magnetic field strength is many orders of magnitude higher than those that will ever possible in a static generation scheme. By applying these fields on a target it becomes possible to get access to a new interaction regime of light and matter: relativistic optics. This opens a new wide area in experimental science where classical optics meets plasma dynamics, relativistic quantum mechanics, and high energy physics.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Frank Träger: Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, LLC New York: Springer, 2007, 978-0-387-95579-7, 827-841

Publ.-Id: 10244 - Permalink

Interactions between Metals and Bacteria: Fundamental and Applied Research
Merroun, M.;
Soils, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with radionuclides and other toxic metals, are a reservoir of unusual bacteria well adapted to these toxic environments. These bacteria possess fascinating mechanisms for interaction with and bio-transformation of radionuclides and other heavy metals, thus regulating the mobility of the metals in the environment. This paper will give an overview on the different mechanisms of interaction between radionuclides/metals and bacterial strains isolated from different extreme habitats including uranium mining waste piles as well as groundwater of a radioactive repository. For this purpose, a combination of spectroscopic (EXAFS, XANES, TRLFS), microscopic (TEM), microbiological and wet chemistry techniques is used. Elucidating the interaction mechanisms microbe/metals is helpful for understanding the role which bacteria play in the transport and mobility of toxic metals in the environment as well as their biotechnological application in the bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated waters. Another application of the isolated bacterial cells and their biocomponents is in the field of nanotechnology. Thus, the surface layer (S-layer) protein of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12, a bacterium isolated from a uranium mining waste pile near the town of Johanngeorgenstadt in Germany, is used as template for the formation of noble metal (Pd, Pt, Au, etc.) nanoparticles for industrial application (e.g. catalysis). The structure and the size of these metallic nanoparticles were characterized using synchrotron radiation-based methods such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Mendez-Vilas, A.: Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology, Badajoz, Spain: Formatex, 2007, 978-84-611-9422-3, 108-119

Publ.-Id: 10241 - Permalink

Physik im Kraftfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Kultur
Sauerbrey, R.;
Was ist Physik für eine Wissenschaft? Eine populärwissenschaftliche Betrachtung der Wissenschaft Physik, erläutert anhand einer Liste ungelöster physikalischer Aufgaben.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Hans-Peter klöcking: Klassensitzungsvorträge 2000-2004, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Sitzungsberichte 13/2006, Erfurt: Verlag der Akademie gemeinnütziger Wissenschaften, 2006, 3-932295-69-2, 151-161

Publ.-Id: 10239 - Permalink

Crystal structure and its correlation to intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties of epitaxial hard magnetic Pr-Co films
Patra, A. K.; Neu, V.; Fähler, S.; Groetzschel, R.; Bedanta, S.; Kleemann, W.; Schultz, L.;
Pulsed laser deposited epitaxial PrxCo100−x (x=8.7–27.6 at. %) thin films were systematically studied as a function of Pr content. Structural and magnetic measurements reveal different phases for specific composition ranges. In some cases, the phases observed are in contrast to their bulk counterparts. Uniaxial anisotropy at room temperature is observed in all the films enabling excellent hard magnetic properties. Polarization decreases monotonically with the increase of Pr content, whereas coercivity exhibits a broad maximum near the highly anisotropic PrCo5 composition. For the optimum combination of coercivity and polarization, the measured (BH)max reaches values of 310 kJ/m3, which exceeds the highest-energy product value reported for RE-Co (RE=rare-earth) systems. Temperature-dependent ac susceptibility measurements reveal that films with x=8.7–20.4 undergo a spin reorientation from easy axis to easy cone, but films with x=22.9–27.6 maintain their uniaxial anisotropy throughout the temperature range of investigation. From the comparison of the structural investigations and the spin reorientation temperature measurements, it is concluded that the spin reorientation temperature is insensitive to the change in the lattice parameter of the PrCo5±δ phase.
  • Physical Review B 75(2007), 184417-1-184417-8

Publ.-Id: 10238 - Permalink

Intersubband relaxation dynamics in InGaAs/AlAsSb multiple quantum wells
Tribuzy, C. V.-B.; Schneider, H.; Ohser, S.; Sellesk, M.; Winnerl, S.; Grenzer, J.; Helm, M.; Neuhaus, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Biermann, K.; Künzel, H.;
Intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells (QW) are crucial for mid-infrared lasers, detectors, and modulators. New compound materials such as lattice matched InGaAs/AlAsSb and strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs, both grown on InP, feature large conduction band discontinuities (>1eV) and allow the extension of the available wavelength range into the near infrared. Such short wavelengths require narrow QWs (<3 nm) where the first excited state inside the QW may be raised above indirect (X or L) valleys within the Brillouin zone. Quantum cascade lasers involving subbands above the indirect minimum have recently been reported [1].
We have studied intersubband relaxation dynamics in In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs0.56Sb0.44 multiple QWs with thicknesses from 2.9 to 4 nm (corresponding to absorption wavelengths of 2.4 to 3.2 µm) by femtosecond pump-probe experiments [2]. At early delay times, all samples show an exponential decay of the transient transmission occurring with time constants of 0.8 to 1.5 ps. The relaxation dynamics at later delay times strongly depends on the QW thickness and doping. For very narrow QWs the observed bi-exponential decay indicates several competing relaxation channels. Here transfer of electrons to X- and L-states in the barriers, which exist in the case of n-type modulation doping, or in the wells is energetically possible. The data are analyzed in terms of an effective three-level configuration. Our results indicate that intervalley scattering in QWs is in the ps regime, much slower than in a bulk semiconductor. This observation suggests that intersubband lasing involving states above indirect minima of the well material should be possible, as also confirmed by the results of [1].
[ ] D. G. Revin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021108 (2007).
[2] C. V.-B. Tribuzy et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171104 (2006).
Keywords: lattice matched InGaAs/AlAsSb, multiple quantum wells, intersubband relaxation, indirect valleys
  • Poster
    ITQW07 - The Ninth International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, 14.09.2007, Ambleside, Cumbria, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 10237 - Permalink

Design of an optical tomograph for the investigation of single and two phase pipe flows
Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.; Da Silva, M. J.; Thiele, S.; Li, A.; Wollrab, E.;
We describe a fast optical tomography sensor which has been designed for the investigation of single and two phase flows in pipes and bubble columns. It enables image acquisition at frame rates of up to 4.5 kHz at roughly 2 mm image resolution. The sensor works similar to a conventional CT with 256 light emitters and 32 light receivers arranged about the object’s cross-section. The light emitters are sequentially flashed while the light receiver intensities are recorded synchronously. Primary area of application is single phase flows with dye tracers. Another potential application is the investigation of bubbly two phase flows at low gas fractions. Principle tests have been made for both problems.
Keywords: optical tomography, multiphase flow sensors, flow visualization
  • Measurement Science and Technology 19(2008)9, 094006

Publ.-Id: 10236 - Permalink

Beam parameter simulation of the Rossendorfer SRF gun and comparison with other RF photo injectors
Staufenbiel, F.; Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Teichert, J.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.;
For each accelerator the choice of the injector is a crucial topic and the best gun concept for the different demands must be determined. This paper presents simulated data of beam parameters from the Rossendorfer SRF gun and other RF photo injectors. The differences between normal and superconducting guns lead to different possibilities in the operation modes. Due to the high RF power losses in normal conducting guns the duty cycle is low and cw-mode operation impossible. For the SRF gun an exterior magnetic field for emittance compensation close to the photo cathode is prohibited due to the Meißner-Ochsenfeld effect. Therefore, other mechanisms for emittance compensation must be used. In the simulations RF focusing with a proper cathode visor and a solenoid focusing after the gun are considered.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    41st Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovery Linacs ERL 2007, 21.-25.05.2007, Warrington, UK

Publ.-Id: 10235 - Permalink

Inefficiency of intervalley transfer in narrow InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum wells
Tribuzy, C. V.-B.; Ohser, S.; Sellesk, M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Neuhaus, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Biermann, K.; Künzel, H.;
It has been shown that the performance of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers (QCL) can be severely hampered by the influence of indirect states [1]. Yet very recent work has demonstrated that lasing can be achieved in InGaAs/AlAsSb [2], InGaAs/AlAs [3] and InAs/AlSb [4] at around 3 um, where the upper laser level lies above some indirect minima.
We have performed a pump-probe investigation of intersubband relaxation in doped narrow In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs0.56Sb0.44 multi quantum wells (QW) with different thicknesses from 2.9 to 4 nm, grown by MBE latticed matched to an InP substrate. The measurements were performed with a high-repetition-rate (78 MHz) optical parametric oscillator tunable between 1.1 and 3.3 um with a pulse length of 280 fs [5]. The extremely high signal-to-noise ratio allows us to analyze the decay dynamics in detail.
In a well-doped 3 nm QW, where the second subband lies above the InGaAs X-minimum, we observe a non-exponential decay, which can be very well reproduced with two exponentials of 1.5 and 6.2 ps (Fig. 1). Analyzing this behavior with three-level rate equations, the first time constant represents the combined decay rate from the upper subband to the lower one and to the X-state. The second time constant correspond to the return time from the X-level to the ground state. This means that the intervalley transfer time (≥ 2 ps) is much longer than known from bulk systems and implies that population inversion in a QCL can persist, thus explaining the functioning of QCLs at wavelength as short as 3 um.
As a cross check, we also investigated wider-QW samples, where the second subband lies below the X-level. As expected, these were found to exhibit a simple mono-exponential behavior. We are presently extending this investigation to coupled QWs, which bear closer similarity to actual QCL structures.

[1] L. R. Wilson et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1378 (2002).
[2] D. G. Revin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021108 (2007).
[3] M. P. Semtsiv et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051111 (2007).
[4] K J. Devenson et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111118 (2007).
[5] C. V.-B. Tribuzy et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171104 (2006).
Keywords: multi quantum wells, intersubband relaxation, InGaAs/AlAsSb
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors HCIS15, 23.-27.07.2007, Tokyo, Japan
  • Physica Status Solidi (C) 5(2008), 229

Publ.-Id: 10234 - Permalink

Detailed Analysis of Amorphous Silicon Passivation Layers Deposited in Industrial In-Line and Laboratory-type PECVD Reactors
Hofmann, M.; Schmidt, C.; Kohn, N.; Grambole, D.; Rentsch, J.; Glunz, S.; Preu, R.;
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers for the passivation of p-type silicon wafer surfaces are investigated. The first main topic is the thermal stability of a-Si passivation. Here, an improved thermal stability in annealing (400 °C) and firing processes (wafer temp. 550 °C) could be achieved by stacking a-Si layers with PECVD SiOx layers of different thickness. Hydrogen depth profiling using nuclear reaction analysis shows a hydrogen concentration of 11 at% in the bulk of the a-Si. After firing of single layer a-Si samples a hydrogen concentration peak at the a-Si / c-Si interface could be observed. The second major topic of this paper is the deposition of a-Si layers using an industrial-type inline PECVD reactor. Excellent surface passivation (>1 ms on 1 Ohm cm FZ wafers) can be reported. These a-Si layers are further characterised using FTIR and spectroscopic ellipsometry.
Keywords: a-Si, annealing, CVD based deposition, lifetime, PECVD
  • Lecture (Conference)
    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy
    Proceedings of 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 1528-1531

Publ.-Id: 10233 - Permalink

Status of the Superconducting RF Photo-Injector Development
Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Stephan, J.; Lehmann, W.-D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.; Matheisen, A.; Horst, B. V. D.; vom Stein, P.; Volkov, V.; Lipka, D.;
A status report of the superconducting RF photo electron injector development at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) will be given. The SRF gun project is a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, MBI and FZD and aims at the installation of a high average current CW photo injector at the ELBE superconducting electron linac. Main design parameters of the SRF gun are an electron energy of 9.5 MeV, a maximum average current of 1 mA, transverse normalized emittances (rms) of 1 mm mrad at 77 pC and 2.5 mm mrad at 1 nC bunch charge. The 1.3 GHz niobium cavity consists of three full cells with TESLA geometry, a specially designed half-cell in which the photo cathode is placed, and a choke filter in order to prevent rf losses at the cathode side of the cavity. Presently, the helium tank welding and cavity treatment have been finished. The cavity is now in the FZD and the cryomodule assembly has been started. Various subsystems like cathode cooler, cavity tuners, cryostat components, and the niobium cavity are still being tested and measured. A photo cathode preparation system was developed and installed. The equipment is now in operation and the first series of Cs2Te photo cathodes have been produced. The development of the 262 nm driver laser system for the high charge mode (500 kHz, 1 nC) is finished. A diagnostic beamline, which is especially designed for the SRF gun parameter measurement, is being build up.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ERL07 - 41st Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovery Linacs, 21.-25.05.2007, Warrington, United Kingdom
  • Poster
    13th International Workshop on RF Superconductivity, 14.-19.10.2007, Peking, China

Publ.-Id: 10232 - Permalink

Current status of Riga dynamo experiment
Gailitis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.;
Almost eight years ago the first magnetic field was created by an intense flow of molten sodium in the Riga dynamo experiment. Since then a lot of data has been collected. In our geometry dominates the vertical field component which is remarkably strong with a maximum value exceeding 0.1 T. The principal symmetry of field with respect to the vertical axis is m=1. As such a strong field considerably deforms the flow some additional modes with m=3, 5 and even 7 are observed. The field pattern rotates around the axis with a frequency of 1.2 to 1.8 Hz. This rotation is not completely constant as turbulence in sodium flow creates some turbulence in magnetic field, too. Nevertheless the field turbulence is low and causes no considerable secondary electromagnetic effects. Hence the field generation itself is based on the mean-flow only. For the last two years the experiment was in repair. Among other things a worn out sodium seal was replaced by a magnetic coupler. This will widen the measuring possibilities particularly in the vicinity of the threshold. We plan to restart experiments this summer and hope to report new results at the meeting.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHD Laboratory Experiments for Geophysics and Astrophysics, 01.-03.10.2007, Catania, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10231 - Permalink

Micro channeling study of crystal damage in ZnO by ion implantation
Munnik, F.; Grambole, D.; Bischoff, L.; Grötzschel, R.;
The study of crystal damage by ion implantation with high current densities is important to obtain better insights in the processes taking place during ion implantation (under ex-treme conditions). The combination of a Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) and an ion microprobe with channeling capability within the same institute facilitates this type of research by enabling small implanted areas to be analysed. In this study Ga was implanted by FIB into ZnO at different ion fluxes and fluences. The fluences were varied from 1013 to 1017 at/cm² and fluxes of 5•1013 at. cm-²s-1 and 5•1018 at. cm-²s-1 were used. The implanted areas were analysed with a 1 MeV He+ ion beam focussed to well below the size of the implanted area (about 100 x 100 µm²). The damage of the sample caused by the ion microprobe was also studied and the fluence for the analysis has been chosen so low that no significant damage occurs.
The results of the channeling measurements are presented and the effects of flux and flu-ence on the crystal damage are discussed. It can be noted that the effects of the flux are relatively minor and crystal damage in ZnO occurs only at high fluences
Keywords: FIB, Ion microprobe, damage
  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, 23.-28.09.2007, Hyderabad, India

Publ.-Id: 10230 - Permalink

Firing Stable Surface Passivation Using All-PECVD Stacks of SiOx:H and SiNx:H
Hofmann, M.; Kambor, S.; Schmidt, C.; Grambole, D.; Rentsch, J.; Glunz, S.; Preu, R.;
Surface passivation stack systems, all deposited using PECVD, are investigated. Stacks of SiOx, SiNx and SiOx (PECVD-ONO) are shown to be a suitable passivation layer system for the rear of silicon solar cells (p type bulk). The thermal stability during annealing at 425 °C and firing of screen printed front contacts could be shown with surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s after firing. Solar cell precursors without metallisation showing implied Voc values above 680 mV are presented. Hydrogen depth profiling using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) shows the hydrogen distribution after deposition and different thermal treatments. Finally, solar cells using the new stack system as rear passivation and laser-fired rear contacts are presented with a peak efficiency of 19.4 %.
Keywords: CVD Based Deposition, Deposition, Lifetime, Passivation, PECVD, Silicon-Nitride, SiO2
  • Lecture (Conference)
    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy
    Proceedings of the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 1030-1033

Publ.-Id: 10229 - Permalink

Intersubband-dephasing in an undoped multi-quantum well
Wagner, M.; Stehr, D.; Schneider, H.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Andrews, M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.;
We have investigated the dephasing time associated with intersubband transitions of photocarriers in an undoped GaAs/AlGaAs multi quantum-well heterostructure. Our measurements were performed directly in the time-domain. After optical generation of electron-hole pairs across the band-gap, a resonant THz-pulse excited the electrons to the second subband and generated a coherent polarization involving the ground and the first excited subbands. The re-radiation from this polarization was detected by a cross-correlation technique with a second THz-pulse. The polarization was observed to decay with short decay-times between 50 fs and approx. 200 fs. They depend on the carrier concentration which was adjusted by the optical excitation power. These time constants determine directly the linewidth of this intersubband transition. At low temperatures, the dephasing signals show a pronounced beating at all optical excitation powers which we attribute to excitonic effects such that more than two energy levels are involved in the interaction with the THz-pulse.
By varying the excitation power, we also found a strong depolarization shift of the absorption line.
Keywords: GaAs/AlGaAs multi quantum-well heterostructure, intersubband dephasing, depolarization shift
  • Lecture (Conference)
    71. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft und DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik, 26.-30.03.2007, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10226 - Permalink

Cryogenic experiences at the ELBE accelerator
Schneider, C.; Haberstroh, C.;
The superconducting linear accelerator ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf has a wide variety of experimental applications ranging form nuclear spectroscopy over x-ray to infrared FEL experiments. The two superconducting accelerator modules of ELBE and in the future a superconducting photo injector are connected to a 200 W at 1.8 K cryogenics plant. The presentation will give an overview of the ELBE cryogenics system and will focus on operation experience with the superconducting cryogenics modules and of the cryogenic plants. Specific problems of fill level stability, helium pressure stability and cool down procedures of the cryomodules will be presented. Specific problems of the ELBE helium plant concerning purity, maintenance and reliability will be discussed, too.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CryoPraque 2006, 17.-21.07.2006, Prag, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 10225 - Permalink

Phase inhomogeneities in the charge-orbital-ordered manganite Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 revealed through polaron dynamics
Prasankumar, R. P.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Kamenev, K. V.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. M.; Taylor, A. J.; Averitt, R. D.;
Ultrafast midinfrared spectroscopy is used to probe dynamics in the intermediate bandwidth manganite Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3. In the majority paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, the early time dynamics are consistent with the excitation and subsequent redressing of uncorrelated lattice polarons, with longer time dynamics related to spin-lattice thermalization. These polaron excitations reveal the intrinsically inhomogeneous nature of these phases. At lower temperatures we observe ultrafast melting of charge-orbital order, liberating quasiparticles that subsequently relax into bound polaronic states on a subpicosecond time scale. The temperaturedependent amplitude of the polaron excitations scales with the volume fraction of the CE phase. Thus, polaron dynamics, as measured using ultrafast spectroscopy, serve as a sensitive probe of phase inhomogeneity.
  • Physical Review B 76(2007), 020402(R)

Publ.-Id: 10224 - Permalink

The effect of metal coated carbon black filling on the physical and magnetic behaviour of natural and synthetic rubbers
Ürögiova, E.; Piest, J. A.; Heinrich, G.; Probst, N.; Pronin, A.; Wosnitza, J.;
Elastomer materials filled with magnetically and/or electrically susceptible particles promise to have different functionality than conventional elastomers, and therefore, could likely be applied in state-of-the-art control technologies [1]. Of particular interest are elastomers, which are filled with metal coated carbon black (MCCB). These filler fulfils its reinforcing function to the rubber and also chang the elastomer´s electro-magnetic properties. Thus, the rheological and viscoelastic properties of rubber can be changed and controlled by subjecting the compound to a magnetic field.
  • Poster
    PMA 2007 & SRC 2007 - 2nd International Conference on Polymeric Materials in Automotive 2007 & 19th Rubber Conference 2007, 15.-17.05.2007, Bratislava, Slovakia

Publ.-Id: 10223 - Permalink

High-field magnetization measurements on Er2Fe17 single crystals
Kuz´Min, M. D.; Skourski, Y.; Skokov, K. P.; Müller, K.-H.;
If the easy magnetization direction of a 3d-4f ferrimagnet is perpendicular to a high-symmetry axis, a magnetic field applied in the easy direction may induce a number of first-order transitions, the first (lowestfield ) one of which carries the information sufficient for an unambiguous determination of the intersublattice molecular field. This idea has been used to find the molecular field in Er2Fe17. To this end, magnetization curves have been measured in pulsed magnetic fields of up to 50 T applied along [100] or [001]. In order to obtain a reference value of the molecular field by a conventional method, high-field measurements have also been performed on crystals free to rotate. The molecular fields determined by both techniques are in good agreement with each other as well as with the values deduced from literature data.
  • Physical Review B 75(2007), 184439

Publ.-Id: 10222 - Permalink

Coherent detection of terahertz radiation with scalable antennas
Winnerl, S.; Peter, F.; Nitsche, S.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Drachenko, O.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Köhler, K.;
We present a novel non-resonant photoconductive THz detection antenna. Compared to electro-optic sampling, photoconductive antennas can be integrated more easily into compact THz setups, e.g. by using substrate lenses and by coupling to optical fibers. However, since the antenna gap of typical THz detection antennas is usually only a few µm wide, the alignment of photoconductive antennas is not simple and the possibility to move the antenna is limited. Here we report on a THz system consisting of a scalable THz emitter based on an interdigitated electrode structure [1] and a detection antenna with similar electrode geometry. While the THz emitter is fabricated on SI-GaAs substrate, various materials with short carrier lifetimes are used for the detection antenna. Detection antennas based on LT-GaAs and GaAs implanted with As+ (dual-energy implants, 1MeV and 2.4 MeV, doses in the range from 10e13 cm-2 to 10e16 cm-2) and N+ (dual-energy implants, 0.4 MeV and 0.9 MeV, doses in the range from 10e12 cm-2 to 10e14 cm-2) are compared. The strongest detected signals are found for As+ implantations with a dose in the 10e14 cm-2 range. Antenna currents of up to 7 nA are observed, the corresponding spectrum extends up to 4 THz. The THz radiation was modulated with frequencies up to 100 kHz. In this range the detected signal was independent of the modulation frequency. From the RC time constant of the detector antenna a cut-off frequency of 500 kHz is expected. Furthermore the dependence of the detected signal on the gating laser power and the spot size of the gating beam were studied and optimum conditions are discussed. In conclusion, the scalable antennas constitute an efficient, easy-to-use, symmetric emitter-detector pair.
[1] A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
  • Poster
    The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and the 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, 02.-09.09.2007, Cardiff, UK
  • Contribution to proceedings
    The Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and the 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, 02.-09.09.2007, Cardiff, UK
    Conference Digest of the Joint 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and the 15th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, 1-4244-1439-3, 740-741

Publ.-Id: 10221 - Permalink

Easy-to-use scalable antennas for coherent detection of THz radiation
Winnerl, S.; Nitsche, S.; Peter, F.; Drachenko, O.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Köhler, K.;
We present a terahertz transceiver consisting of a photoconductive emitter and detection antenna with similar electrode geometry. Here, we focus on the detection antenna. Compared to electro-optic sampling, photoconductive antennas can be integrated more easily into compact THz setups, e.g. by using substrate lenses and by coupling to optical fibers. However, since the antenna gap of typical THz detection antennas is usually only a few µm wide, the alignment of photoconductive antennas is not simple and the possibility to move the antenna is limited. The transceiver consists of a scalable THz emitter based on an interdigitated electrode structure [1] and a detection antenna with similar electrode geometry. While the THz emitter is fabricated on SI-GaAs substrate, various materials with short carrier lifetimes are used for the detection antenna. Detection antennas based on LT-GaAs and GaAs implanted with As+ (dual-energy implants, 1 MeV and 2.4 MeV, doses in the range from 1013 cm-2 to 1016 cm-2) and N+ (dual-energy implants, 0.4 MeV and 0.9 MeV, doses in the range from 1012 cm-2 to 1014 cm-2) are compared. The strongest detected signals are found for As+ implantations with a dose in the 1014 cm-2 range. In Fig. 1 THz transients detected with an LT-GaAs antenna are shown together with the corresponding power spectra. The spectra extend up to 4 THz. The dependence of the detected signal on the gating laser power and the spot size of the gating beam were studied. For 70 mW power of the gating beam, a spot size in the range from 200 to 700 µm yields the strongest signals. The lower limit is determined by a nonlinear dependence of the signal on the excitation density. The upper limit for the spot size is simply given by the size of the antenna, which was 1 mm x 1 mm. Furthermore the detector was used to study the spatial profile of the THz beam. In this experiment, the detector was placed 27 mm behind the emitter and scanned across the THz beam. The beam had Gaussian shape with a full width at half maximum of 8 mm and 18 mm for frequency components of 0.7 THz and 0.2 THz, respectively. This experiment demonstrates the potential of the detector to map out unfocussed THz fields with a good signal-to-noise ratio. In conclusion, the scalable antennas constitute an efficient, easy-to-use, symmetric emitter-detector pair.
[1] A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors, 08.-12.07.2007, Guildford, UK
  • Springer Proceedings in Physics 119(2008), 167-169

Publ.-Id: 10220 - Permalink

Forschung in hohen Magnetfeldern
Wosnitza, J.;
hat nicht vorgelegen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Festkolloquium der Universität Karlsruhe (TH), 27.10.2006, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10219 - Permalink

Intervally transfer in narrow InGaAS/AlAsSb quantum wells studied by pump-probe spectroscopy
Tribuzy, C. V.-B.; Ohser, S.; Sellesk, M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Neuhaus, J.; Dekorsy, T.; Biermann, K.; Künzel, K.;
The development of quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for frequencies as low as 3 µm has gained a lot of attention recently. While the performance of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers (QCL) can be severely hampered by the influence of indirect states [1], very recent work has demonstrated that lasing can be achieved in InGaAs/AlAsSb [2], InGaAs/AlAs [3] and InAs/AlSb [4] at around 3 m, where the upper laser level lies above some indirect minima.
We have performed a pump-probe investigation of intersubband relaxation in doped narrow In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs0.56Sb0.44 multi quantum wells (QW) with different thicknesses from 2.9 to 4 nm, grown by MBE latticed matched to an InP substrate. The measurements were performed with a high-repetition-rate (78 MHz) optical parametric oscillator tunable between 1.1 and 3.3 µm with a pulse length of 280 fs [5]. The extremely high signal-to-noise ratio allows us to analyze the decay dynamics in detail.
The relaxation dynamics of a well-doped 3 nm QW was studied with 130 pJ pulses at a wavelength of 2.4 µm. In this sample, where the second subband lies above the InGaAs X-minimum, we observe a non-exponential decay, which can be very well reproduced with two exponentials of 1.5 and 6.2 ps (Fig. 1). Analyzing this behavior with three-level rate equations, tau =1.5 ps represents the combined decay rate from the upper subband to the lower one and to the X-state. 6.2 ps correspond to the return time from the X-level to the ground state (see inset). This means that the intervalley transfer time (tauX2 ≥ 2 ps) is much longer than known from bulk systems and implies that population inversion in a QCL can persist, thus explaining the functioning of QCLs at wavelength as short as 3 µm.
As a cross check, we also investigated wider-QW samples, where the second subband lies below the X-level. As expected, these were found to exhibit a simple mono-exponential behavior. We are presently extending this investigation to coupled QWs, which bear closer similarity to actual QCL structures.

[1] L. R. Wilson et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1378 (2002).
[2] D. G. Revin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021108 (2007).
[3] M. P. Semtsiv et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 051111 (2007).
[4] K J. Devenson et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111118 (2007).
[5] C. V.-B. Tribuzy et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171104 (2006).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors, 08.-12.07.2007, Guildford, UK

Publ.-Id: 10218 - Permalink

Magnetic-field and temperature-dependent Fermi surface of CeBiPt
Wosnitza, J.;
hat nicht vorgelegen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    9th Japanese-German Symposium, 26.-29.08.2006, Hikone, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10216 - Permalink

THz Strahlung von einem skalierbaren photoleitenden Emitter
Peter, F.; Nitsche, S.; Winnerl, S.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.;
Terahertz radiation from a large-area Photoconductive device
  • Lecture (others)
    THz – Frischlinge - Meeting, 01.-04.04.2007, Freiburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10215 - Permalink

The High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Dresden
Wosnitza, J.;
hat nicht vorgelegen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Sino-German Workshop, 17.-19.10.2005, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10214 - Permalink

Forschung in hohen Magentfeldern
Wosnitza, J.;
Abstrakt hat nicht vorgelegen!
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium der Universität Leipzig, 08.05.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10212 - Permalink

Science at high magnetic fields
Wosnitza, J.;
Abstrakt hat nicht vorgelegen!
  • Lecture (others)
    Lecture at FZD, 05.03.2007, Dresden-Rossendorf, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10211 - Permalink

Terahertz radiation from a large-area photoconductive device
Peter, F.; Nitsche, S.; Winnerl, S.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.;
We present studies of the radiation properties of a photoconductive terahertz (THz) structure [1]. It consists of an interdigitated electrode structure fabricated on GaAs. Illuminating this structure by a femtosecond laser pulses yields accelerated photocarriers, which are the source of THz radiation. For avoiding destructive interference of radiation generated in regions of opposite field direction a second metallization isolated from the first one covers every second electrode spacing. Intense THz radiation with fields of the order of 1 kV/cm is observed. We use a photoconductive detection antenna for measuring the spatial profile. The detection antenna is placed in a distance of 13 mm from the emitter. The beam profile is resolved for spectral components in the range from 0.5 to 1.5 THz. All beam profiles have Gaussian shape. The divergence increases with decreasing frequency. For wavelengths significantly smaller than the excitation spot size, the results can be well described by Gaussian optics. However, at longer wavelength, where the paraxial approximation fails, diffraction has to be considered in a more general way.
[1] A. Dreyhaupt, S.Winnerl, M.Helm, T. Dekorsy, Opt. Lett. 31, 1546 (2006)
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 26.-30.03.2007, Regensburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10210 - Permalink

Coherent detection of terahertz radiation with non-resonant antennas
Winnerl, S.; Peter, F.; Dreyhaupt, A.; Nitsche, S.; Drachenko, O.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Köhler, K.;
We present a novel scalable photoconductive THz detection antenna. Compared to electro-optic sampling, photoconductive antennas can be integrated more easily into compact THz setups, e.g. by using substrate lenses and by coupling to optical fibers. However, since the antenna gap of typical THz detection antennas is only a few µm wide, the alignment of photoconductive antennas is not simple and the possibility to move the antenna is limited. Here we report on a THz system consisting of a scalable THz emitter based on an interdigitated electrode structure [1] and a detection antenna with similar electrode geometry. While the THz emitter is fabricated on SI-GaAs substrate, various materials with short carrier lifetimes are used for the detection antenna. Detection antennas based on LT-GaAs and GaAs implanted with As+ (dual-energy implants, 1 MeV and 2.4 MeV, doses in the range from 1013 cm-2 to 1016 cm-2) and N+ (dual-energy implants, 0.4 MeV and 0.9 MeV, doses in the range from 1012 cm-2 to 1014 cm-2) are compared. The strongest detected signals are found for As+ implantations with a dose in the 1014 cm-2 range. A comparison with electro-optic sampling indicates that the carrier lifetime in this material is of the order of 0.4 ps. Furthermore the dependence of the detected signal on the gating laser power and the spot size of the gating beam were studied and optimum conditions are discussed. The antenna is suitable for detection of THz radiation which is not focussed to a spot of the order of the THz wavelength. We demonstrate this by showing the frequency resolved beam profile of an unfocussed THz beam. In conclusion, the scalable antennas constitute an efficient, easy-to-use, symmetric emitter-detector pair.
[1] A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
  • Lecture (others)
    French Russian Seminar: Sources and detectors of terahertz radiation based on semiconductur nanostructures, 05.06.2007, Toulouse, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 10209 - Permalink

Singlet and Triplet Polaron Relaxation in Doubly Charged Self-Assembled Quantum Dots
Grange, T.; Zibik, E. A.; Ferreira, R.; Bastard, G.; Phillips, P. J.; Stehr, D.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Steer, M. J.; Hopkinson, M.; Cockburn, J. W.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R.;
Polaron relaxation in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot samples containing 2 electrons per dot is studied using far-infrared, time-resolved pump-probe measurements for transitions between the s-like ground and p-like first excited conduction band states. Spin-flip transitions between singlet and triplet states are observed experimentally in the decay of the absorption bleaching, which shows a clear biexponential dependence. The initial fast decay (∼ 30ps) is associated with the singlet polaron decay, while the decay component with the longer time constant (∼ 5 ns) corresponds to the excited state triplet lifetime. The results are explained by considering the intrinsic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, which induces spin-flip transitions by acoustic phonon emission or phonon anharmonicity. We have calculated the spin-flip decay times, and good agreement is obtained between the experiment and the simulation of the pump-probe signal. Our results demonstrate the importance of spin-mixing effects for intraband energy relaxation in InAs/GaAs quantum dots.
Keywords: Ustrafast spectroscopy, quantum dots, polaron dynamics
  • Open Access LogoNew Journal of Physics 9(2007), 259

Publ.-Id: 10208 - Permalink

The new installation at the FZD: The Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden
Wosnitza, J.;
Abstrakt hat nicht vorgelegen!
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    EuroMagNET council meeting, 26.01.2007, Toulouse, France

Publ.-Id: 10207 - Permalink

Investigation of the radial ionization distribution of heavy ions with an optical particle track chamber and Monte-Carlo simulation
Laczkó, G.;
In the present work we applied the Optically read out PArticle track Chamber, OPAC, for the measurement of radial dose distributions, d(r), around tracks of heavy ions passing through the gas-filled sensitive volume of the chamber. The measured data were compared with d(r) functions derived from data calculated with the Monte Carlo particle transport code, TRAX – which is used for the heavy ion therapy planning at GSI.
To measure this quantity we have used here an optically read out time projection chamber (OPAC) with a parallel-drift field and one or several electron and light amplification stages. The two dimensional projection of the three dimensional ionization pattern caused by the ionizing particle passing through the chamber is captured by an image intensified CCD camera.
The work is motivated by the role the radial dose distribution plays in the estimation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of heavy ions, e.g. in radiation therapy and in radiation protection. The most successful model for high-dose irradiation with ions (applicable e.g. for heavy ion therapy) is found to be the local effect model (LEM). The present work intends to deliver measured data for one of the basic physical parameters which serve as input for the application of the local effect model: the radial dose distribution, d(r).
The first goal of our measurement program was the measurement of d(r) distributions around carbon ions of different energies from 400 MeV/u down to the Bragg peak regions. We found an excellent agreement between the measured and simulated distributions at all carbon energies for the r–range in which the measurements deliver useful results. The lower limit of this range is about 100 nm and the upper limit is 6000 nm at a resolution of down to 33 nm ­ if scaled to water density.
Despite the simplifications in the TRAX code (e.g. binary encounter theory for the emission ionization electrons), the discrepancies between the simulated and measured d(r) distributions are found to be lower than the measurement uncertainties at most measured carbon ion energies in almost the whole observed r-range. Hence, within the limitations of our measurements we can conclude that the precision of TRAX is sufficient to simulate the d(r) distributions around carbon ions to serve as input parameter for therapy planning. However, this conclusion is only valid for larger radial distances (r >100 nm). For smaller radial distances the measured data are dominated by the diffusion.
Apart from carbon ion tracks, tracks of very heavy ions (40Ar, 84Kr and 238U) were also measured with OPAC. The simulated d(r) values were typically slightly or significantly higher than the measured data in the 100 nm < r < 5000 nm region.
The energy values of the very heavy ions were selected with the aim of comparing the track structures - and namely the d(r) distributions - of ions with largely different atomic mass but similar LET values. From the Z­dependency of the stopping power we know that for heavier ions a higher specific ion energy (expressed in MeV/u) is required to provide the same LET. For example the common LET of 315 keV/μm was achieved at largely different specific energy levels of 4,4 MeV/u for 12C, 65 MeV/u for 40Ar and 650 MeV/u for 84Kr ions. The difference in the track structures was expected mainly due to the different ion velocities and thus e.g. different ranges of δ-electrons. This expectation could be confirmed by the measurements. The reason why ­in line with the simulations ­ no strong differences could be observed in the d(r) distributions of the argon and krypton ions is the relatively small difference in the velocities of the both ion types in conjunction with the limited range in r, where the data can be compared. In contrary, the d(r) function of the carbon ion shows a qualitatively different behavior than the heavier ions inside the observable radius-range ­ in agreement with the simulations.
Keywords: Time projection chamber, radiation therapy, carbon ions, Monte Carlo simulation, ionization density distribution, GSI, particle track, RBE, LET, gas chamber
  • Book (Editorship)
    Bremenhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, 2007
    0164 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-3-86509-634-0
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutskolloquium bei der Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt, 24.05.2007, Braunschweig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10204 - Permalink

Electronic properties of quasi-two-dimensional organic metals and superconductors
Wosnitza, J.;
es hat kein Abstrakt vorgelegen!
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    WE-Heraeus-Seminar "Physics of Highly Ordered Organic Interfaces and Layers", 22.-24.01.2007, Bad Honnef, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10203 - Permalink

Das Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden: Forschung in hohen Magnetfeldern
Wosnitza, J.;
es hat kein Abstrakt vorgelegen!
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium der TU Chemnitz, 03.01.2007, Chemnitz, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10202 - Permalink

Widerstand zwecklos - Aktuelles zur Supraleitung
Wosnitza, J.;
kein Abstrakt vorgelegen
  • Lecture (others)
    Vorlesung in der Reihe "Physik am Samstag" der Fachrichtung Physik der TU Dresden, 02.12.2006, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10201 - Permalink

SPICE simulations of self-actuated piezoresistive cantilever arrays
Frank, A.; Zöllner, J.-P.; Sarov, Y.; Ivanov, T.; Rangelow, I. W.; Swiatkowski, M.; Gotszalk, T.; Nikolov, N.; Zier, M.; Schmidt, B.;
A 2-dimensional massively parallel self-actuated piezoresistive cantilever arrays are a possible candidate for use in high speed AFM based surface imaging systems. By the utilization of cantilever arrays consisting of several hundred of cantilevers the AFM inspection speed of the next generations IC can be significantly increased. In the frame of the European Project PRONANO we are developing such arrays based on self-actuated piezoresistive cantilever. For design optimization and error detection in MEMS structures, which include a lot of CMOS processing, a device and process simulations are useful and essential. Besides the description of the electro-mechanic behaviour of the MEMS-part a parasitic effects (electrical crosstalk, noise, and temperature influence) of the CMOS have to be included. SPICE is well suitable tool for these investigations.
The investigated cantilever system consists of a p-doped piezoresistive sensor and a p-doped heater is represented qualitatively in Figure 2. The meander structure is the ion implanted heater to control the thermal bending of the silicon beam. An AC power supply is applied to the heater to bring the beam in resonant oscillation and to steer the position of the free end of the beam. The beam bending is determined with the piezoresistor. Experimentally a current crosstalk was detected. At the configuration a voltage peak occurs during the positive half wave of the sensor signal. The magnitude of this voltage peak depends on the dc-voltage of the heater signal. To simulate this effect a suitable equivalent network model was developed. The heater and the piezoresistor were modeled by resistor chains, which are interconnected to the n-doped silicon body (resistor network) by diodes including the junction capacitance. Additionally pnp-transistors were inserted in the equivalent circuit, where heater and piezoresistor are located near each other.
With this circuit model the experimentally determined behavior could be simulated and the effect could be explained as a current crosstalk across the parasitic transistors. We will show that this effect can be significantly suppressed by applying a certain substrate bias and corresponding design optimisation.
Keywords: Self-actuated piezoresistive cantilever, cantilever arrays, SPICE, crosstalk
  • Poster
    33rd International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Engineering (MNE07), 23.-26.09.2007, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publ.-Id: 10200 - Permalink

Transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow: Hydrodynamics with QCD-based equations of state
Bluhm, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Heinz, U.;
We present a family of equations of state described within a quasiparticle model adjusted to first-principles lattice QCD calculations and study the impact on azimuthal flow anisotropies and transverse momentum spectra within hydrodynamic simulations for heavy-ion collisions at energies relevant for LHC.
  • Journal of Physics G 35(2008), 054001

Publ.-Id: 10199 - Permalink

Novel experimental measuring techniques required to provide data for CFD validation
Prasser, H. M.;
CFD code validation requires experimental data that characterize distributions of parameters within large flow domains. On the other hand, the development of geometry-independent closure relations for CFD codes have to rely on instrumentation and experimental techniques appropriate for the phenomena that are to be modelled, which usually requires high spatial and time resolution. The presentation reports about the use of wire-mesh sensors to study turbulent mixing processes in the single-phase flow as well as to characterize the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical pipe flow. Experiments at a pipe of a nominal diameter of 200 mm are taken as the basis for the development and test of closure relations describing bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer and turbulence modulation for a multi-bubble-class model. This is done by measuring the evolution of the flow structure along the pipe. The transferability of the extended CFD code to more complicated 3D flow situations is assessed against measured data from tests involving two-phase flow around an asymmetric obstacle placed in a vertical pipe. The obstacle, a half-moonshaped diaphragm, is movable in the direction of the pipe axis; this allows the 3D gas fraction field to be recorded without changing the sensor position. In the outlook, the pressure chamber of TOPFLOW is presented, which will be used as the containment for a test facility, in which experiments can be conducted in pressure equilibrium with the inner atmosphere of the tank. In this way, flow structures can be observed by optical means through large-scale windows even at pressures of up to 5 MPa. The so-called “Diving Chamber” technology will be used for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) tests. Finally, some important trends in instrumentation for multi-phase flows will be given. This includes the state-of-art of X-ray and gamma tomography, new multi-component wire-mesh sensors, and a discussion of the potential of other non-intrusive techniques, such as neutron radiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Keywords: CFD, wire-mesh sensors, bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer, turbulence modulation, multi-bubble-class model, 3D flow situation, vertical pipe
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    OECD/NEA International Workshop on The Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety (CFD4NRS), 05.-09.09.2006, Garching, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    OECD/NEA International Workshop on The Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety (CFD4NRS), 05.-09.09.2006, Garching, Germany
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 238(2008), 744-770
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2007.02.050

Publ.-Id: 10198 - Permalink

Thermomechanische Modellierung eines Reaktordruckbehälters in der Spätphase eines Kernschmelzunfalls
Willschütz, H.-G.;
Für das unwahrscheinliche Szenario eines Kernschmelzunfalls in einem Leichtwasserreaktor mit Bildung eines Schmelzesees in der Bodenkalotte des Reaktordruckbehälters (RDB) ist es notwendig, mögliche Versagensformen des RDB sowie Versagenszeiträume zu ermitteln, um die daraus resultierende mögliche Belastung des Sicherheitsbehälters bestimmen zu können. In dieser Arbeit wird ein integrales Modell entwickelt, das die Vorgänge im unteren Plenum beschreibt. Dabei sind zwei prinzipielle Modellbereiche zu unterscheiden: Das Temperaturfeld in der Schmelze und im RDB wird mit einem thermodynamischen Modell berechnet, während für die Strukturanalyse des RDB ein mechanisches Modell verwendet wird.
Das thermodynamische und das mechanische Modell können rekursiv gekoppelt werden, wodurch die wechselseitige Beeinflussung berücksichtigt werden kann. Insbesondere werden damit neben der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Materialparameter und den thermisch induzierten Spannungen im mechanischen Modell auch die Rückwirkungen der Behälterverformung auf das Temperaturfeld selber erfasst.
Für die Kriech- und Schädigungssimulation werden in dieser Arbeit neue Verfahren angewendet. Durch die Entwicklung und den Einsatz einer Kriechdatenbasis konnte die bei sehr unterschiedlichen Temperaturen, Spannungen und Dehnungen ungeeignete Verwendung einzelner Kriechgesetze umgangen werden. Aufbauend auf experimentellen Untersuchungen wurde eine Kriechdatenbasis für einen RDB-Stahl entwickelt und an Hand von Kriechversuchen verschiedener Geometrie und Dimension validiert.
Die wesentlichen Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: Aufgrund des thermodynamischen Verhaltens eines großen Schmelzesees mit inneren Wärmequellen erfolgt die höchste thermomechanische Belastung des RDB im oberen Drittel der Bodenkalotte. Dieser Bereich wird als heißer Fokus bezeichnet. Der untere Bereich der Kalotte weist hingegen eine höhere Festigkeit auf und verlagert sich deswegen bei entsprechender Belastung des RDB im wesentlichen senkrecht nach unten. Bei einer externen Flutung besteht auch bei hohen Innendrücken für einen Reaktor großer Leistung die Möglichkeit, die Schmelze im RDB zurückzuhalten. Ohne interne oder externe Flutung besteht für das betrachtete Szenario keine Aussicht für eine Schmelzerückhaltung im RDB.
Aus den gewonnenen Erkenntnissen wurden zwei Patente abgeleitet. Dabei handelt es sich um passiv wirkende Einrichtungen zur Schadensbegrenzung: Die erste reduziert durch Abstützen des unteren Kalottenzentrums die Maximalspannungen im hochbeanspruchten Bereich des heißen Fokus und kann damit ein Versagen verhindern oder zumindest verzögern. Die zweite Einrichtung ermöglicht die passive Auslösung einer Flutung, indem die Abwärtsbewegung der Kalotte zur Steuerung genutzt wird. Hierdurch kann beispielsweise ein Ventil geöffnet werden, um Wasser aus im Gebäude höher angeordneten Reservoirs in die Reaktorgrube zu leiten.
Abweichend von bisherigen Annahmen kann festgehalten werden, dass eine Kernschmelzerückhaltung im Reaktordruckbehälter auch für Reaktoren größerer Leistung möglich ist.
Keywords: Light Water Reactor, Severe Accident, Core Melt Down, In-Vessel-Retention, thermal and mechanical Simulation
  • atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power 52(2007)12, 799-806

Publ.-Id: 10197 - Permalink

Annual Report 2006 - Institute of Radiation Physics
Fahmy, K.; Grosse, E.; Kämpfer, B.; Schneidereit, C.; Wagner, A.; (Editors)
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-461 2007


Publ.-Id: 10196 - Permalink

Annual Report 2006 - Institute of Safety Research
Weiß, F.-P.; Rindelhardt, U.; (Editors)
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-465 2007


Publ.-Id: 10195 - Permalink

Experimental studies of photodisintegration in the p-process
Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.;
In explosive nucleosynthesis temperatures are high enough for photodissociation reactions to occur, e.g. leading to the production of p-process nuclei. In order to understand the reaction rates of element production and element disruption we started an experimental program at the new bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of FZ-Rossendorf, Dresden. The bremsstrahlung facility and the detector setup are designed such that the scattering of photons from nuclei and the photodissociation of nuclei around the particle separation energies can be studied under optimized background conditions. In activation measurements with bremsstrahlung at end-point energy from 10.0 to 16.5 MeV (gamma,p), (gamma,n) and (gamma,alpha) reactions of 92,100 Mo. have been studied. Our activation yields can be described within a factor 2-3 or better with calculations using the cross sections from recent Hauser-Feshbach models.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XXXVIII. Arbeitstreffen Kernphysik, 22.02.-01.03.2007, Schleching, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10194 - Permalink

Dipole-strength distributions up to the Giant Dipole Resonance deduced from photon scattering
Schwengner, R.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    9th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics - Changing Facets of Nuclear Structure, 20.-24.5.2007, Vico Equense, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10193 - Permalink

Experimental results on the flow structure in liquid metal two-phase
Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
In our experiments we investigated the consequence of an application of a DC magnetic field on both the bubble and the liquid velocity. The motion of single argon bubbles rising in GaInSn were analyzed in terms of the terminal velocity, the drag coefficient, the oscillation frequency of the bubble velocity and the Strouhal number. Because the gas bubble is electrically non-conducting, it does not experience the effect of the electromagnetic force directly. However, the bubble behaviour is influenced by the magnetically induced modifications in the liquid flow structure around the bubble. The measurements reveal a distinct effect of the magnetic field on the bubble velocity as well as the bubble wake. The magnetic field application leads to a mitigation of the horizontal components of the bubble velocity resulting in a more rectilinear bubble path. A restructuring of the entire flow field can be observed if a bubble plume is exposed to a DC magnetic field. As a result of the interaction between magnetic field and liquid flow electric currents were induced inside the liquid causing a damping of the flow by Joule dissipation. However, a characteristic feature of the electromagnetic dissipation is the anisotropy. Thus, the application of a transverse field leads not only to a general damping of the flow, but also favours the occurrence of vortices aligned parallel to the magnetic field direction.
Keywords: Liquid metal, bubble plume, DC magnetic field, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Symposium on Multi-Phase Flows: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 25.-27.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10192 - Permalink

Development of a superconducting radio frequency photoelectron injector
Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.;
A superconducting radio frequency (RF) photoelectron injector (SRF gun) is under development at the Research Center Dresden–Rossendorf. This project aims mainly at replacing the present thermionic gun of the superconducting electron linac ELBE. Thereby the beam quality is greatly improved. Especially, the normalized transverse emittance can be reduced by up to one order of magnitude depending on the operating conditions. The length of the electron bunches will be shortened by about two orders of magnitude making the present bunchers in the injection beam line dispensable. The maximum obtainable bunch charge of the present thermionic gun amounts to 80 pC. The SRF gun is designed to deliver also higher bunch charge values up to 2.5 nC. Therefore, this gun can be used also for advanced facilities such as energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and soft X-ray FELs. The SRF gun is designed as a Click to view the MathML source cell cavity structure with three cells basically TESLA cells supplemented by a newly developed gun cell and a choke filter. The exit energy is projected to be 9.5 MeV. In this paper, we present a description of the design of the SRF gun with special emphasis on the physical and technical problems arising from the necessity of integrating a photocathode into the superconducting cavity structure. Preparation, transfer, cooling and alignment of the photocathode are discussed. In designing the SRF gun cryostat for most components wherever possible the technical solutions were adapted from the ELBE cryostat in some cases with major modifications. As concerns the status of the project the design is finished, most parts are manufactured and the gun is being assembled. Some of the key components are tested in special test arrangements such as cavity warm tuning, cathode cooling, the mechanical behavior of the tuners and the effectiveness of the magnetic screening of the cavity.
Keywords: Superconductivity; Radio frequency; Photoelectron injector; Cavity; Laser


Publ.-Id: 10191 - Permalink

Binding properties of a phosphonate clip towards nucleic acid building blocks
Raditzky, B.; Eilzer, M.;
Water-soluble clips are possible molecules to study the weak, non-covalent interactions, responsible for many biological processes. The complexation behaviour of naphthalene clips, substituted with phosphonate or phosphate groups, has been studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy with ultrafast pulses (fs-TRLFS). As guest molecules we used nucleic bases, nucleosides and nucleotides. The determined association constants for the 1:1 complexes range from log Ka = 3.9 – 4.2 and are around one order of magnitude higher than published in literature. The measured spectra assumes the appearance of excited state species or dimerization of the clip.
Keywords: moleculare clips, nuclic bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, fs-TRLFS, association
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th SUPRAPHONE/3rd WG Meeting COST D31, 31.05.-03.06.2007, Lipari, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10190 - Permalink

X-ray study of ion-beam induced amorphous-crystalline ripples in silicon
Biermanns, A.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U.; Hanisch, A.; Facsko, S.; Grenzer, J.;
Ripple formation with a spatial periodicity in the sub-micrometer range on obliquely ion-bombarded solid surfaces has become a topic of intense research in the context of fabrication of nanoscale textured materials [1]. Ion-beam induced ripples are produced by the interplay between a roughening process caused by ion beam erosion (sputtering) of the surface and smoothening processes caused by thermally or ion-induced surface diffusion. Recently we have shown that Ar- ion irradiation of Si (001) surfaces under an angle of about 60° with respect to surface normal and using ion energies of about 60keV results in periodic crystalline ripple formation where the crystalline ripples are covered by a partially amorphous surface layer [2, 3]. In this contribution we report on investigations of patterned Si (001) surfaces after irradiation with Xe-ions using ion-energies between 5 and 40keV. Besides AFM measurements, the structure of the amorphous layer and the amorphous-crystalline interface were studied by means of grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) and grazing-incidence diffraction (GID) using synchrotron-radiation. The data reveal that both surface and crystalline ripples appear for all ion energies used. These ripples show asymmetric side-facets where the degree of asymmetry decreases for increasing ion-energy. They show short-range ordering; the ripple wavelength and thickness of the amorphous layer increase as a function of the ion-energy.

Acknowledgement: One of the authors (A.B.) would like to thank the ESRF for financial support and the ID01 beamline-staff for providing beamtime and valuable help.

[1] M.A. Makeev, R Cuerno and A.-L. Barabasi, Nuc. Inst. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 197, 185 (2002).
[2] S.Hazra, T.K. Chini, M.S. Sanyal, J. Grenzer U. Pietsch , Phys. Rev. B 70, 121307(R) (2004).
[3] S. Grigorian, J. Grenzer, D. P. Datta, S. Hazra, T.K. Chini, M. K. Sanyal and U. Pietsch, Appl. Phys. Lett 89, 231915 (2006).
Keywords: Ion beam patterning, x-ray diffraction
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nanopatterning via Ions, Photon beam and Epitaxy, 23.-27.09.2007, Sestri Levante, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10189 - Permalink

Velocity measurements in liquid metal flows driven by intermittently or alternately applied rotating magnetic fields using the ultrasonic Doppler method
Räbiger, D.; Eckert, S.; Nikrityuk, P. A.; Eckert, K.;
Model experiments with low melting point liquid metals become an important tool to investigate the flow structure and related transport processes in melt flows being relevant for metallurgical applications. This approach is encouraged by recent developments of appropriate flow measuring techniques in the temperature range until about 300°C. The ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) which delivers instantaneous profiles of the local velocity along the ultrasonic beam is a very attractive technique to attain experimental data from flows of opaque liquids.
AC magnetic fields are used in industrial practice for melt stirring. The requirements are manifold for miscellaneous metallurgical operations or casting technologies, mainly the magnetic field application should provide an efficient mixing of the melt in order to achieve homogeneous distributions of solute and/or temperature. Here the standard case of electromagnetic stirring by means of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) is considered. Especially, we study the melt flow excited by an application of an intermittently or alternately applied RMF.
Keywords: lqiud metal, velocity measurements, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, rotating magnetic field
  • Poster
    2nd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2007), 23.-25.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10187 - Permalink

Determination of the flow field in the vicinity of a solidification front by X ray radioscopy
Boden, S.; Eckert, S.; Willers, B.; Gerbeth, G.;
Melt convection significantly affects the solidification of metallic alloys. Therefore, the knowledge of the flow field in the melt is an important issue. Velocity measurements in liquid metals are complicated by the specific material properties. Recently, X-ray radioscopic methods became an important diagnostic tool for real-time and in-situ observation of the solidification front with a spatial resolution of a few microns.
Solidification experiments using Ga-30wt%In alloy (melting point 38°C) have been conducted. The metal alloy was poured in a flat solidification cell (150 µm gap thickness) made from two fused quartz glasses, and was heated above its melting point and was subsequently solidified by cooling of the solidification cell’s bottom. A microfocus X-ray radioscopy setup was used for qualitative real-time visualisation of concentration fluctuations and structure formation within the solidifying melt at a spatial resolution of 10 µm. Image integration times of 440 ms were found to be sufficient to ensure sufficient temporal sampling rate.
The optical flow method has been adopted to determine the velocity of the liquid and the dendritic growth rate from translocations of concentration contour lines appearing during a temporal image sequence. Therefore, Gaussian spatio-temporal low-pass filtering was applied to smooth spurious image brightness fluctuations caused by noise. Then any local image brightness variation was related to a certain amount of change in the local alloy composition. Image pattern deformations due to diffusion processes in the melt are considered to be negligible. Thus, the continuity equation was used as a first constraint to compute local translocation velocities in image regions providing sufficient brightness gradients. The physically justified assumption of a locally smooth velocity field was used as a second constraint.
Keywords: X-ray radioscopy, solidification, Ga-In alloys, thermo-solutal convection
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2007), 23.-25.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10186 - Permalink

Ultrasound Velocimeter with frequency modulated signals for 2d2c measurements of non-stationary flows with high temporal resolution
Lenz, M.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
In conjunction with flow measurements in nontransparent fluids like liquid metals, there is an increasing demand for the measurement of non-stationary flows. Ultrasound Doppler Velocimeters (UDV) belong to the standard equipment of research. UDV emit short ultrasound pulses into the fluid which have a typical duration equivalent to 2-8 wavelengths. The ultrasound is partly reflected by small tracer particles inside the fluid and scattered back to the transducer. The tracer particles are assumed to move without slip. The echo signals are recorded and can be used to estimate the fluid velocity. The measurement principle of Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, however, suffers from inherent constraints: One problem is the limitation in time resolution. For non-stationary flows a high temporal resolution is essential, because the relevant flow information is partly contained in the high frequency part of the velocity signal. In practice, the problem of time resolution occurs because an average over several send pulses is required to get accurate velocity estimates. Another problem is the maximum velocity that can be detected unambiguously with Doppler systems and related narrowband methods.
The actual problem with time resolution is the fact that a sending pulse only contains little signal energy, which leads to a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method under examination uses sending signals with a length of ~20µs instead of typically 0.5µs to 2µs in UDV systems. Long sending signals contain more signal energy and result in a better signal quality in terms of SNR. With higher SNR, however, less averaging is needed, and thus time resolution can be increased.
We propose the use of a short (~20µs) sending signal with linear chirp. The coding is similar to that of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar (FMCW Radar). The chirp is needed to obtain spatial resolution. Similar to the crosscorrelation approach in Pulse Doppler Ultrasound, it finally leads to a time-of-flight evaluation. The main difference, however, is that more ultrasound energy can be sent into the fluid. Also, the maximum velocity limit of Doppler systems does not apply for this method, so that velocities above this limit can be detected unambiguously.
Keywords: Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, Flow mapping, Frequency modulated signals
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2007), 23.-25.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10185 - Permalink

Application of the Ultrasonic Doppler Method in liquid metal flows: examples and perspectives
Eckert, S.; Zhang, C.; Gundrum, T.; Gerbeth, G.;
The Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) is a non-intrusive technique to measure velocities of liquid flows. Because of the ability to work in opaque fluids and to deliver complete velocity profiles in real time it becomes very attractive for liquid metal applications. But, in case of hot metallic melts the user is confronted with a number of specific problems: First of all the application of the ultrasonic transducers is usually restricted to maximum temperatures of about 150°C. The transmission of a sufficient amount of ultrasonic energy from the transducer to the fluid has to be guaranteed. Here, the acoustic coupling and the wetting conditions have to be considered as important issues. Moreover, the flow has to be seeded with reflecting particles to obtain Doppler signals from the fluid.
The feasibility of velocity profile measurements by UDV has already been demonstrated for low temperature liquid metals as mercury and gallium. Complications arise for UDV applications in liquid metal flows at high temperatures. Recently, an integrated ultrasonic sensor with acoustic wave guide has been developed. The feasibility of this sensor concept has been demonstrated in diverse experiments using miscellaneous metallic melts until temperatures of about 700°C.
In this presentation we show various applications of UDV in liquid metal flows to demonstrate the capabilities and current restrictions of this technique. For instance, we consider single- and multi-transducer arrangements for flow mapping or present velocity measurements obtained during the solidification of a metallic melt. Besides the determination of velocity profiles in the liquid phase the UDV data allow for an assessment of the current position of the solidification front too. Specific problems arising in the context of UDV measurements in liquid metal experiments will be discussed.
Keywords: liquid metal, Velocity measurements, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, Acoustic waveguide, High temperature applications
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2007), 23.-25.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10184 - Permalink

Velocity measurements in liquid metal two-phase flows by means of the ultrasonic Doppler method
Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
Bubble driven flows have found wide applications in industrial technologies. In metallurgical processes gas bubbles are injected into a bulk liquid metal to drive the liquid into motion, to homogenize the physical and chemical properties of the melt or to refine the melt. For such gas-liquid metal two-phase flows, external magnetic fields provide a possibility to control the bubble motion in a contactless way.
Compared to the numerous experimental studies on the movement of bubbles in transparent liquids , especially in water, the number of publications dealing with gas bubbles rising in liquid metals is comparatively small. The shortage of suitable measuring techniques can be considered as one reason for the slow progress in the investigations of gas-liquid metal flows. Powerful optical methods are obviously not available for measurements in liquid metals. The majority of measurements in liquid metal two-phase flows published until now was obtained using local conductivity probes, hot wire anemometer or optical fiber probes to determine quantities such as void fraction, bubble and liquid velocity or the bubble size. However, measurements with any local probe disturb the flow in a significant way, especially if the structures to be investigated reach dimensions comparable to the probes. In the case of opaque liquids the application of acoustic or ultrasonic sensors offers a possibility to get information about the flow structure and bubble quantities. We applied the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) for measurements of the velocity structure in liquid metal bubbly flows. Because of the ability to work non-invasively in opaque fluids and to deliver complete velocity profiles in real time it is very attractive for liquid metal applications.
Keywords: liquid metal, bubble plume, Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry, DC magnetic field
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Workshop on Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLM2007), 23.-25.04.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10183 - Permalink

The Role of Magnetic Forces in Electrochemical Reactions - Numerics and Experiments
Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.; Bund, A.;
It is well known, that Lorentz forces can be used to enhance the convection in electrochemical cells. Usually this enhancement leads to an increased limiting current [1], i.e. an increased deposition rate in the case of metal deposition. Currently, the influence of magnetic fields on the morphology of the deposited layers and the action of concentration gradient forces on deposition are intensively discussed. [2,3]
In our presentation, we will discuss the effect of magnetic forces during the electrodeposition of copper for different orientations of the external magnetic field. Besides new analytical findings, by numerical methods, we will present results on the velocity and the concentration field inside the cell from which interesting conclusions can be drawn. Three-dimensional effects are found to play an important role. Finally, a comparison with recent experimental results [4] will be performed.

[1] T.Z. Fahidy, J. Appl. Electrochem. 13 (1983) 553.
[2] A. Bund, H.H. Kuehnlein, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 19845.
[3] J. M. D. Coey, F. M. F. Rhen, P. Dunne, S. McMurry, J. Solid State Electrochem. DOI: 10.1007/s10008-006-0254-4.
[4] A. Bund, S. Koehler, H.H. Kühnlein, W. Plieth, Electrochimica Acta 49 (2003) 147.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    58th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, 09.-14.09.2007, Banff, Canada

Publ.-Id: 10182 - Permalink

Journal of Low Temperature Physics Special Issue Dedicated to Frank Pobell Volume 146, Numbers 5/6, March 2007
Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Krotscheck, E.; (Editors)

For more than a decade, Prof. Frank Pobell has worked as an editor for the Journal of Low Temperature Physics. He has, along with Horst Meyer (Duke University, USA) and recently Neil Sullivan (University of Florida, USA), advanced the Journal of Low Temperature Physics to a highly regarded magazine and the worldwide leading publication medium in low temperature and high magnetic field physics. Due to his imminent retirement, Frank Pobell has recently handed on the baton to Mikko Paalanen (Helsinki University of Technology, Finland) who has taken over as an editor as of September 2005.
During the 24th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT24) in Orlando, the undersigned and Horst Meyer have discussed the idea to thank Frank Pobell for his dedication to the JLTP with a special issue. Publishing special issues has emerged as an effective concept for JLTP to honour outstanding members of the community. It has been applied at various occasions. We have therefore invited colleagues and companions of his scientific locations at Munich, Cornell, Jülich, Bayreuth and Dresden to contribute articles to the "Special Issue to honour Frank Pobell for his dedication for the Journal of Low Temperature Physics as an editor".
Frank Pobell dedicated his scientific live to the physics of matter under extreme conditions. Most of us got to know him because of his quest for ultra-low temperatures. With his groups in Jülich and Bayreuth, he achieved several records of the lowest equilibrium temperature. The last record, T = 1.5 µK, which has been reached through the adiabatic demagnetization of Platinum is valid since a decade. He built up several nuclear demagnetization refrigerators which enabled outstanding investigations of solids and quantum fluids down to lowest temperatures. He attended to nuclear-spin ordering phenomena, superconductors, magnetic superconductors, magnets, spin glasses, liquid and solid 3He and 4He. Frank Pobell shared his cooling machines and experimental techniques with the international community. His institute in Bayreuth had the status of an EU user facility during the 3rd and 4th research framework programme of the European Community.
Frank Pobell was acting as an editor for JLTP even in the recent years, when he was the director of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, a large research centre in Dresden, as well as the president of the Leibniz Society, one of the four large science communities of Germany. During that time, Frank Pobell also emphasized the importance of physics in high magnetic fields, in particular in a field range, B > 50 T, not available to the wide science community, so far. In consequence, he accompanied by four other research institutes in Dresden, successfully applied for the German high magnetic field project, the Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), a user facility for experiments in very high pulsed magnetic fields up to 100 T which will go into operation in mid 2007. Until 2005, Frank Pobell also headed the build-up team of the HLD.
One of us (TH) had the opportunity both to be a member of his µK laboratory in Bayreuth and to participate in the construction of pulsed field installations at HLD. "As one of his former students, I am very grateful to Frank Pobell who has taught us much more than only low-temperature physics." Acting as guest editors for this issue, we got an impression on the amount of work which is necessary to keep that journal a vivid publication medium for the international low-temperature science community.
Thomas Herrmannsdoerfer, Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Germany
Eckhard Krotscheck, Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz, Austria
Keywords: physics and techniques at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism
  • Book (Editorship)
    New York: Springer, 2007
    297 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 10181 - Permalink

Selenite reduction by mackinawite, magnetite and siderite: XAS characterization of redox products
Scheinost, A. C.; Charlet, L.;
Suboxic soils and sediments contain the reactive Fe-bearing mineral phases mackinawite (FeS), siderite (FeCO3) and the Fe(II/III) oxide magnetite (Fe3O4), which should be able to reduce Se to oxidation states 0, -I and –II, forming elemental Se and iron selenides of low solubility. While the reduction of selenate or selenite to Se(0) by green rust, pyrite and by Fe2+ sorbed to montmorillonite in a slow (weeks), kinetically limited redox reaction has been demonstrated earlier, we show here that selenite is rapidly (within one day) reduced by nanoparticulate mackinawite and magnetite, while only 1/3 of selenite is reduced by the larger siderite crystals within one day. Depending on Fe(II)-bearing phase and pH, we observed four different reaction products, α-monoclinic and trigonal (hexagonal) elemental Se, and two iron selenides with structures similar to Fe7Se8 and FeSe. The thermodynamically most stable iron selenide, ferroselite (FeSe2) was not observed. The local structure suggests formation of nanoscale clusters, which may be much more soluble than the corresponding macrocrystalline solids, and mobile in case the physicochemical parameters of groundwater favor formation of stable colloidal suspensions (e.g. low IS and pH close to PZC).
  • Environmental Science & Technology 42(2008), 1984-1989

Publ.-Id: 10180 - Permalink

A finite-time thermodynamics of unsteady flows - from the onset of vortex shedding to developed homogeneous turbulence
Noack, B. R.; Schlegel, M.; Ahlborn, B.; Mutschke, G.; Morzynski, M.; Comte, P.;
Turbulent fluid has often been conceptualized as transient thermodynamic phase. Here, a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) formalism [1] is proposed to compute mean flow and fluctuation levels of unsteady incompressible flows. That formalism builds upon a traditional Galerkin model which simplifies a continuum 3D fluid motion into a finite-dimensional phase-space dynamics and subsequently, into a thermodynamics energy problem. This model consists of a velocity field expansion in terms of flow configuration dependent eigenmodes and of a dynamical system describing the temporal evolution of the mode coefficients. Each mode may be considered as a wave, parameterized by a wave number and frequency. In our FTT framework, the mode is treated as one thermodynamic degree of freedom, characterized by an energy level. The dynamical system approaches local thermal equilibrium where each mode has the same energy if it is governed only by internal (triadic) mode interactions. However, the full system approaches only partial thermal equilibrium by strongly mode-dependent external interactions. In these interactions, large-scale modes typically gain energy from the mean flow while small-scale modes loose energy to the heat bath. The energy flow cascade from large to small scales is thus a finite-time transition phenomenon. The FTT model has been successfully applied to predict the cascade for flows with simple to complex dynamics. Examples include laminar vortex shedding which is dominated by 2 eigenmodes and homogeneous shear turbulence which has been modeled with 1459 modes. In addition, the onset of vortex shedding is described in the Galerkin and vortex picture as a finite time scale phenomenon.

[1] B. Andresen, P. Salamon & R.S. Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 66 (1977) 1571-1577.
Keywords: finite-time thermodynamics, vortex shedding, turbulence
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Joint European Thermodynamics Conference IX, 12.-15.06.2007, Saint Entienne, France
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Joint European Thermodynamics Conference IX, 12.-15.06.2007, Saint Entienne, France
    Proceedings, 129-132

Publ.-Id: 10179 - Permalink

Planar channeling radiation in the presence of a hypersonic superlattice
Grigoryan, L. S.; Mkrtchyan, A. H.; Wagner, W.; Atanesyan, A. K.; Khachatryan, H. F.; Azadegan, B.;
The radiation emitted by a relativistic electron/positron planar channeled in a single crystal and simultaneously swinging transversely due to longitudinal hypersonic (HS) vibrations excited in the crystal has been investigated. In the present case, the continuum potential of crystallographic planes has been obtained by averaging the corresponding atomic potentials over an area, the size of which was chosen to be much smaller than the wavelength of the quasi-stationary HS field. The spatially periodic HS superlattice involves a zone structure of the channeling states. Probabilities of radiant transitions as well as spectral-angular distributions of the intensity of the corresponding channeling radiation have been calculated assuming parametric resonance. Numerical results are given for several crystallographic planes of -quartz.
Keywords: channeling radiation, piezoelectric crystals, quartz, ultrasound
  • Poster
    VII Symposium RREPS-07, Radiation from relativistic electrons in periodic structures, 24.-28.09.2007, Prague, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 10178 - Permalink

Interactions of uranium with Brassica
Viehweger, K.; Geipel, G.;
Uranium is a widespread radioactive toxic heavy metal, released into the biosphere mostly by military purposes and nuclear industry. It is taken up by plant root systems and its chemical toxicity is much more dangerous than the radiological. Thus cell suspensions of rape (Brassica napus) revealed similar defence mechanisms after uranium exposure as described for other heavy metals (Clemens 2001). Some of them will be presented in detail, e.g. the pH-shift of the outer medium, the uptake and cellular sequestration revealed by ICP-MS and confocal microscopy. The speciation of uranium in aqueous solutions depends strongly on the pH-value, ionic composition and strength and thus plays an important role in bioavailability and cytotoxicity respectively. To investigate the speciation of uranium time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was performed. Further investigations are under way to clarify the molecular interactions between possible cellular ligands and uranium.

Clemens, S. (2001). "Molecular mechanisms of plant metal tolerance and homeostasis." Planta V212 (4): 475-486.
Keywords: uranium, heavy metal, plant cell suspension, defence mechanisms, confocal microscopy, TRLFS
  • Poster
    Botanikertagung Hamburg 2007, 03.-07.09.2007, Hamburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10177 - Permalink

Concepts for a sub-millimetre resolving gamma ray CT for nondestructive testing applications
Zippe, C.; Hoppe, D.; Bieberle, A.; Hampel, U.;
Recently we have developed a high resolution gamma ray CT system for process diagnostics. Typical application areas are nuclear fuel element bundles, chemical reactors, and hydrodynamic machines. In order to use gamma ray CT for non-destructive testing application, such as crack detection in metal parts, an increase in spatial resolution is required. Therefore, we tested two different approaches to increase resolution. The first technique is spatial collimation, where scanning is performed with an additional tungsten collimator in front of the detector arc. The collimator comprises slits of 0.33 mm width to narrow the sampling radiation beams. Thereby, the collimator also provides additional protection against false detection of scattered gamma photons. For a full sampling of the projection space the collimated detector needs to be laterally moved in six steps in addition to the rotary scanning motion of the tomography system. This increases measurement time proportionally and further requires an additional precise translation stage. As an alternative we tested a so called wobbling scheme that has frequently been used with earlier emission and transmission type CT scanners to increase resolution. With the wobbling scheme the detector has to be displaced laterally as with the collimation technique but the collimator is no longer needed. Since the collimator is a heavy and expensive part this approach is attractive. However, to produce the same sharp projection information as with the collimated detector it is necessary to deconvolve the measurement data with the detector’s response function. In our article and presentation we will discuss the methods in details and compare results that have been obtained from practical measurements on phantoms and industrial objects.
Keywords: gamma ray tomography, high resolution
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 03.-06.09.2007, Bergen, Norway
    Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Paper No TSD01, 38-44
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 03.-06.09.2007, Bergen, Norway

Publ.-Id: 10176 - Permalink

Fracture mechanical evaluation of an in-vessel melt retention scenario
Abendroth, M.; Willschütz, H. G.; Altstadt, E.;
This paper presents methods to compute j-integral values for cracks in two- and three-dimensional thermo-mechanical loaded structures using the finite element code ANSYS. The developed methods are used to evaluate the behavior of a crack on the outside of an emergency cooled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a severe core melt down accident. It will be shown, that water cooling of the outer surface of a RPV during a core melt down accident can prevent vessel failure due to creep and ductile rupture. Further on, we present j-integral values for an assumed crack at the outside of the lower plenum of the RPV, at its most stressed location for an emergency cooling (thermal shock) scenario.
Keywords: in-vessel retention, thermal shock, j-integral

Publ.-Id: 10175 - Permalink

Strahleninduzierte Zellschädigung
Beyreuther, E.;
no abstract available
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar Klinik- und Poliklinik für Nuklearmedizin Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, 11.06.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10174 - Permalink

Design of an Electron Beam Energy Control Loop Using Transverse Dispersion
Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Evtushenko, P.;
Stability in mean electron beam energy is of highest interest for a number of experiments performed at the ELBE accelerator. Energy drifts affect parameters of the generated Bremsstrahlung spectra, X-rays or infrared light, as well as the beam trajectory at the production targets or through the FEL waveguide, respectively.
In practise, we observe a slow drifting of the effective accelerating field during the first hours after a machine power-up or after switching to different nominal beam energies. Initially, this effect was compensated manually. A first order automation solution has been developed that corrects the resulting energy drift continuously, using a non-intrusive beam position monitor placed in a transversely dispersive part of the beam guide.
This paper describes the beam line setup and the simplified dynamic model of the control loop derived from it. Calculation of controller parameters using standard a standard method is shown. The user interface of the control system and working conditions for the loop are explained. Operational performance and conclusions towards improvements close this contribution.
Keywords: accelerator control, feedback, electron beam, beam energy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    DIPAC 2007 - 8th European Workshop on Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation for Particle Accelerators, 20.-23.05.2007, Venezia, Italy
  • Poster
    DIPAC 2007 - 8th European Workshop on Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation for Particle Accelerators, 20.-23.05.2007, Venezia, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10173 - Permalink

Superconductivity and Magnetism at low temperatures, in high magnetic fields, and in reduced dimensions
Herrmannsdörfer, T.;
Survey on recent investigations on the superconducting and magnetic properties of micro- and nanogranular materials at very low temperatures and high magnetic fields
Keywords: superconductivity, magnetism, nanoclusters, very low temperatures, high magnetic fields
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    233. PTB Seminar "Physik und Metrologie bei tiefen Temperaturen", 05.-06.06.2007, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10172 - Permalink

Röntgen- und Gamma-Tomographie in der Technik
Hampel, U.;
Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über den Einsatz von Röntgen- und Gamma-Tomographieverfahren in der Technik.
Keywords: X-ray tomography, gamma ray tomography
  • Lecture (others)
    Lehrerfortbildung 2007, 16.2.2007, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10171 - Permalink

Measurement techniques and experimental investigations for multiphase flows
Hampel, U.;
The presentation is a short-course lecture that introduced the current state of the art in multiphase flow measurement techniques. Sensors and measurement techniques, which are intoduced are: electrical and optical needle probes, wire-mesh sensors and tomography techniques. Beside the physical measuring and sensor construction principles the presentation addresses the topic of data processing for multiphase flow measurements.
Keywords: multiphase flow measurment, multiphase flow sensors
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Multi-Phase Flows: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 25.-27.04.2007, Dresden, Germany
    Proceedings of Multi-Phase Flows: Simulation, Experiment and Application
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Multi-Phase Flows: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 25.-27.04.2007, Dresden, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Multiphase Flows - Simulation, Experiment and Application, 24.-26.06.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Multiphase Flows - Simulation, Experiment and Application, 26.-28.05.2009, Dresden, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SIAMUF – Multiphase Flows Meeting, 21.-22.10.2009, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Multiphase Flows - Simulation, Experiment and Application, 22.-24.06.2010, Dresden, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Multiphase Flows - Simulation, Experiment and Application, 08.-10.06.2011, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10170 - Permalink

Orrientation dependant nitrogen diffusion in single crystalline austenitic stainless steel during ion beam nitriding
Martinavičius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Möller, W.; Templier, C.; Declemy, A.;
Nitrogen diffusion in single crystalline stainless steel during ion beam nitrding is investigated. Single crystalline [orientations (001), (110) and (111)] AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was ion beam nitrided at 400 °C using a Kaufman-type ion source with ion energy and flux of 1.2 keV and 0.5 mA cm−2, respectively. Phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) while nitrogen distribution profiles were obtained by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). XRD analysis shows the presence of the phase usually called “expanded” austenite or γN phase. The NRA nitrogen depth distribution can be depicted by an initial quasilinear decrease followed by a sharp leading edge. It is observed that nitrogen penetration depth depends on the orientation: the fastest diffusion is observed in single crystalline samples with orientation (001) than in (011) or (111), while the orientations (110) and (111) showed similar penetration depth. The NRA profiles were compared with theoretical calculated employing ‘trapping-detrapping’ model. This comparison shows that the full experimental profile shape can be theoretically reproduced. In addition, this allows extracting diffusion coefficient values for different orientations.
Keywords: Nitriding; Anisotropic diffusion; Stainless steel
  • Poster
    VEIT 2007 - Fifteenth International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies, 17.-21.09.2007, Sozopol, Bulgaria

Publ.-Id: 10169 - Permalink

Results of the PROMISE experiment on helical magnetorotational instability
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Rüdiger, G.; Szklarski, J.; Hollerbach, R.;
The PROMISE experiment relies on the fact that the critical Reynolds number for the appearance
of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal flows drastically decreases when the the purely axial magnetic field is replaced by a helical one. We report the results of two series of experiments which differ slightly in the radial electric boundary conditions. It is shown that the helical MRI emerges as a travelling wave with a frequency that is in good correspondence with numerical predictions. Special focus is laid on the role of the radial jet region where the two Ekman vortices from the top and the bottom meet each other.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHD Laboratory Experiments for Geophysics and Astrophysics, 01.-03.10.2007, Catania, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10168 - Permalink

Noise induced relaxation oscillations and Earth's magnetic field reversals
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Günther, U.; Xu, M.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.;
The magnetic field of the Earth is known to undergo polarity reversals with a mean reversal rate that varies between zero during the superchrons and around 5 per Myr in the present. Typically, these reversals have an asymmetric, saw-toothed shape with a slow decay and a fast recreation of the dipole. This asymmetry points to a possible connection with relaxation oscillations as they are well known from the van der Pol oscillator. A simple mean-field dynamo model with a spherically symmetric helical turbulence parameter which is quenched by the magnetic energy and disturbed by additional noise is analysed with view on this similarity. The basic features of geomagnetic polarity reversals are shown to be generic consequences of the dynamo action in the vicinity of branching points of the spectrum of the dynamo operator where two real eigenvalues coalesce and continue as a complex conjugated pair of eigenvalues. A comparison of the time series and the phase space trajectories with those of paleomagnetic measurements is carried out. For the case of highly supercritical dynamos a very good agreement with the paleomagnetic data is achieved. We explain also why such highly supercritical dynamos have a general tendency to self-tune into reversal prone states. The similar clustering properties of numerical and paleomagnetic reversal sequences are discussed. Spectral theory of the non-selfadjoint dynamo operator is also invoked to speculate that the growth of the inner core might be responsible for the long term changes of the reversal rate and for the occurrence of superchrons.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XXIV IUGG General Assembly, 02.-13.07.2007, Perugia, Italy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    XXIV IUGG General Assembly, 02.-13.07.2007, Perugia, Italy
    Earth: our changing planet, Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia: Umbria Scientific Meeting Association, 978-88-95852-25-4, 2483

Publ.-Id: 10167 - Permalink

Hybrid soft-magnetic lateral exchange spring films prepared by ion irradiation
McCord, J.; Schultz, L.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Magnetic stripe patterns in a magnetically patterned lateral exchange spring film are created by ion implantation. Periodic domain patterns with predefined positions are created by local alloying. The laterally confined modulation of magnetic properties opens new opportunities to the tuning of functionalities of soft-magnetic thin films.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, magnetic patterning, modification, Kerr microscopy
  • Advanced Materials 20(2008), 2090
    DOI: DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700623
  • Poster
    6th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers, 15.-19.10.2007, Perth, Australia

Publ.-Id: 10166 - Permalink

Comparison of isoscalar vector meson production cross sections in proton-proton collisions
Abdel-Bary, A.; Abdel-Samad, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Clement, H.; Dietrich, J.; Doroshkevich, E.; Dshemuchadse, S.; Ehrhardt, K.; Erhardt, A.; Eyrich, W.; Filippi, A.; Freiesleben, H.; Fritsch, A.; Gillitzer, A.; Hesselbarth, D.; Jaekel, R.; Karsch, L.; Kilian, K.; Kuhlmann, E.; Marcello, S.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Morsch, H. P.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plettner, C.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Schoenmeier, P.; Schroeder, W.; Schulte-Wissermann, M.; Steinke, M.; Sun, G. J.; Ullrich, W.; Wenzel, R.; Wintz, P.; Wagner, M.; Wilms, A.; Wirth, S.; Zupranski, P.;
The reaction pp→ppω was investigated with the TOF spectrometer, which is an external experiment at the accelerator COSY (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany). Total as well as differential cross sections were determined at an excess energy of 93 MeV (pbeam=2950 MeV/c). Using the total cross section of (9.0±0.7±1.1) μb for the reaction pp→ppω determined here and existing data for the reaction pp→ppphi, the ratio Click to view the MathML source turns out to be significantly larger than expected by the Okubo–Zweig–Iizuka (OZI) rule. The uncertainty of this ratio is considerably smaller than in previous determinations. The differential distributions show that the ω production is still dominated by S-wave production at this excess energy, however higher partial waves clearly contribute. A comparison of the measured angular distributions for ω production to published distributions for phi production at 83 MeV shows that the data are consistent with an identical production mechanism for both vector mesons.
Keywords: Vector meson production; pp→ppω; Cross sections; Angular distributions; OZI-violation; Strangeness of the nucleon

Publ.-Id: 10165 - Permalink

Impact of interface formation on intersubband transtitions in MBE GaInAs:Si/AlAsSb multiple coupled DQWs
Biermann, K.; Kuenzel, H.; Tribuzy, C. V.-B.; Ohser, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.;
The impact of indium segregation and diffusion of antimony on intersubband transition (IST) wavelengths in AlAsSb/GaInAs multiple quantum well (MQW) and double quantum well (DQW) structures has been evaluated. By means of 8-band k·p calculations the effect of non-abrupt interfaces on IST wavelengths in such structures is elucidated. Comparison of measured and calculated absorption spectra reveals the sacrificial character of AlAs interfacial layers for diffused or segregated atoms and allows for estimating the limits of the intersubband approach as regards short wavelength relaxation transitions.
Keywords: intersubband transition, quantum well, AlAsSb/GaInAs, diffusion, segregation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'07), 14.-18.05.2007, Matsue, Japan
  • Contribution to proceedings
    19th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM'07), 14.-18.05.2007, Matsue, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10164 - Permalink

Modelling of plasma-target interaction during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN
Möller, W.; Güttler, D.;
The nitrogen incorporation at the target during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN is described by a simple stationary global model of the magnetron plasma, in combination with an analytical two-layer stationary surface model or dynamic collisional computer simulation (TRIDYN) of the surface processes. Results are shown for different nitrogen gas additions in Ar/N2 and Xe/N2 gas mixtures at a total pressure of 0.3 Pa and a magnetron current of 0.3 A. The nitrogen incorporation predicted by the analytical model significantly less than obtained from computer simulation. The computer simulation yields nitrogen depth profiles which extend to about 2.5 nm, exhibiting a quasi-rectangular shape in case of stoichiometric saturation with an integrated nitrogen areal density of ~1.25•1016 N/cm2. The stationary-state nitrogen incorporation results from the balance of surface adsorption in connection with recoil implantation, direct ion implantation, and re-sputtering. The most relevant species are nitrogen gas molecules for adsorption, molecular nitrogen ions for implantation, and inert gas ions for recoil implantation and sputtering. The model results are in good agreement with experiment provided that unity sticking of nitrogen gas molecules is assumed on the unsaturated surface. The analytical surface model is preferable, which favours the picture of a continuous transition to bulk and surface saturation rather than discrete local saturation which is inherent in TRIDYN. Also the relative nitrogen incorporation for Xe/N2 versus Ar/N2 gas mixtures is well described.
Keywords: Magnetron sputtering, Modelling, Plasma surface interaction, Target poisoning
  • Journal of Applied Physics 102(2007), 094501

Publ.-Id: 10163 - Permalink

Multicellular Tumor Spheroids as a Model System for the Evaluation of PET Radiotracer Uptake
Oswald, J.; Marschner, K.; Kunz-Schughart, L. A.; Schwenzer, B.; Pietzsch, J.;
Three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) of tumor cell lines are a promising model system which reflects the in vivo situation of tumor microregions with increasing accuracy compared with conventional monolayer culture. In this study we quantified the uptake of radiotracers [18F]FDG and [18F]FMISO in various types of MCTS at different diameters and after defined times in culture.

Material and Methods:
Human tumor cell lines FaDu, HT-29, MCF-7 and EJ-28 and the murine line B16-F10 were cultured in 96 well plates. Culturing was performed in the presence of 0.24% methylcellulose for 3 to 7 days and with seeding densities of 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 30,000 cells per well. Diameters of individual spheroids were assessed and cellular uptake of [18F]FDG and [18F]FMISO was recorded after an incubation interval of 2 to 4 hours. MCTS were then harvested, washed onto filters and the individual uptake per spheroid was measured with a gamma counter.

Between day 3 and day 7, spheroids of a starting concentration of 10,000 cells showed an increase in diameter of 1.4-fold for HT-29, 1.2-fold for FaDu, 1.3-fold for MCF-7 and 1.1-fold for both EJ-28 and B16-F10 cells. In all cell lines, we observed a good correlation between uptake of [18F]FDG and spheroid diameter and protein content, respectively. With an experimental setting of 10.000 initiated cells and 3 days of culturing, the highest [18F]FDG uptake was achieved in B16-F10 cell spheroids with a value of 1.46±0.41 percent injected dose per MCTS (%ID/MCTS). In comparison, FaDu uptake was 0.63±0.15%ID/MCTS and 0.38±0.05%ID/MCTS in HT-29. EJ-28 and MCF-7 exhibited less than 0.2%ID/MCTS. In parallel, a different uptake pattern was observed for [18F]FMISO. Highest uptake was documented in B16-F10 with 0.23±0.11%ID/MCTS, whereas all other cell lines showed an uptake of 0.03%ID/MCTS or less. These data indicate larger areas of hypoxia in the cores of B16-F10 spheroids compared to other cell lines.

Our data show a spheroid-type specific increase in the uptake of both [18F]FDG and the hypoxia marker [18F]FMISO as a function of the spheroid diameters which is indicative for an increasing amount of metabolically active cells and an increment of hypoxic areas in growing spheroids. We conclude (i) that radiotracer uptake is a promising approach to monitor the pathophysiological situation in MCTS and (ii) that MCTS are a valuable tool to study the uptake of new radiotracers in a pathophysiological tumor milieu.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EANM 2007 - Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, 13.-17.10.2007, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 34(2007)Suppl. 2, S138

Publ.-Id: 10162 - Permalink

Actinides in Biosystems - Complexation studies with relevant bioligands
Glorius, M.;
Biosystems such as microorganisms, plants, algae’s etc. are influencing for instance the migration of actinides in the environment. It is important to include these processes in the risk assessment of potential high level nuclear waste disposal sites and other affected areas. In general, the overall interaction process of actinides with microbes can be divided into a) direct interaction path ways such as biosorption, bioaccumulation and biotransformation/bioreduction and b) indirect interaction paths such as complexation with released bioligands. The potential of microbes to mobilize actinides by means of the formed bioligands is less investigated.

Our approach is focused on the investigation of selected bioligands having relevant functionalities for a better understanding of the complex actinide interaction processes in biological systems on a molecular level. To achieve this goal a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and/or absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) wavelength range will be applied depending on the nature of the actinide element and the bioligand.
The presentation gives an overview about our ongoing research in this area especially the studies about the complexation of uranium with hydroxamic acids.

This work was funded by the BMWA under contract number 02E9985.
Keywords: uranium, complexation, hydroxamic acids, spectroscopy
  • Lecture (others)
    Institutsseminar, 28.-29.06.2007, Köln, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10161 - Permalink

Comparing Long Term Operation Experience Of Large PV-Systems
Becker, G.; Rehm, W.; Kumerle, G.; Bächler, M.; Rindelhardt, U.;
The aim of this work is to compare the operation experiences of large grid connected PV systems in the Megawatt class. Two systems with a total power of more than 2000 kWP are located on the roofs of the new Munich Trade Fair Centre, the two others are situated in West Saxonia near Leipzig (5000 kWp ) and Meerane (1000 kWp). In November 1997 the 1016 kWP solar roof on the new Munich Trade Fair was connected to the grid. Since then, until the end of December 2006, more than 8.900 MWh of solar electricity on the AC-side have been fed into the local 20-kV-medium-voltage-grid. The photovoltaic generator consists of 7812 modules, each one showing a nominal power of 130 WP. System voltages up to 600 V DC are applied. The cables on the DC-side show cross-sections up to 600 mm². One central inverter - three 330-kVA-units in master-slave-operation - transforms the DC energy into AC. The neighbour system, which was installed 5 years after the first PV system, shows a nominal power of 1056 kWP. Although equipped with key components such as modules and inverters from the same manufacturers as the first system, it shows some differences coming from the lessons learned from the first system. After some initial problems (over temperature in the inverter rooms, grid fluctuations causing inverter shut downs and damages, faulty isolation measurements, poor designed string fuses) the systems now operates highly reliable and at superior performance. The Saxon systems were put into operation in 2004. In both plants central inverters are used in master-slave operation. The generators of both systems are mounted on ground of former waste sites. It is the purpose of this work to compare the operation of these PV plants. First, a detailed comparison of the yields will be done. Where do the differences come from? Which are the influences of irradiation, modules and their tilt angle, inverters and their operation mode, maintenance etc? In the next step the operation experiences will be compared. Have there been any severe damages? Are there any lessons learned from initial operation? What about the long term behavior of modules, cables, boxes, inverters? As a conclusion recommendations will be given to improve the long term behavior of large PV systems.
Keywords: PV plants, performance
  • Contribution to proceedings
    22. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy, 3-936338-22-1, 2956-2959
  • Lecture (Conference)
    22. European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 03.-07.09.2007, Milano, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10160 - Permalink

Speciation analysis using lasers
Geipel, G.;
Lasers in speciation analysis are used mainly as excitation source for spectroscopic methods.
Laser-induced methods as Laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPAS), Laser-induced thermal lensing spectroscopy (TLS) and laser-induced fluorescence (luminescence) spectroscopy (LIF) as well as the laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIF) are common methods for elemental speciation analysis.
The main advantages of these methods are:
Non-invasive methods
Low detection limits
Especially the last advantage has great importance in actinide chemistry, due to the radioactivity of these elements.
TLS has no great importance in speciation analysis due to the use of an additional probe laser, which has to be aligned with the pump laser beam.
Due to the destruction of species laser ablation combined with spectroscopic methods will not considered in this chapter
The chapter will review the application of both methods (LIPAS and TRLFS) to determine the elemental speciation mainly of lanthanides and actinides in solution. Examples for speciation analysis in solids will be given, here namely focussed to the assignment of some uranium minerals. In the chapter excitation wavelength (spectra) as well as the emission properties will be reviewed.
Additionally shortly the application of TRLFS to determine organic species will be taken into consideration. However, due to the numerous organic species only a short introduction with few examples can be given.
Keywords: Laser, speciation, elements
  • Book chapter
    in: Lasers in Chemistry,Volume One: Probing, Weinheim: VCH Wiley, 2008, 978-3-527-31997-8, 423-439

Publ.-Id: 10159 - Permalink

Complex Formation of Uranium(VI) with L-Phenylalanine and 3-Phenylpropionic Acid Studied by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Barkleit, A.; Foerstendorf, H.; Heim, K.; Sachs, S.; Bernhard, G.;
Uranyl complexes with phenylalanine and the analogous ligand phenylpropionate were investigated in aqueous solution by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The assignment of the observed bands to vibrational modes was accomplished using spectra of the pure ligands recorded at different pH values and spectra of the 15N labeled analogous compounds of the amino acid. The results presented in this work provide a detailed description of the binding states of the uranyl complexes in solution. A bidentate binding of the carboxylate group to the actinide ion was observed by the characteristic shifts of the carboxylate modes. From the spectra the presence of the protonated amino group in the actinide complex can be derived. Due to these findings, contributions of the amino group to the binding to the uranyl ion in the amino acid complex can be ruled out.
Keywords: Uranyl; Complexation; Amino acid; Infrared spectroscopy; IR spectroscopy; Attenuated total reflection; ATR; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; FT-IR spectroscopy; Phenylalanine; Phenylpropionate.

Publ.-Id: 10158 - Permalink

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates steroidogenesis induced by native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein
Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.;
Oxidative stress with resulting oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a critical role in the atherogenesis. Since hypertension and dyslipidemia are associated with hormonal dysregulation we examined the effect of oxidatively modified LDL on adrenocortical aldosterone and cortisol synthesis.

LDL obtained from healthy volunteers by very fast ultracentrifugation was oxidized in vitro by sodium hypochlorite resulting in molar oxidant to LDL ratios of 272:1 (oxLDL-272, minimally oxidized LDL), 543:1 (oxLDL-543, mildly oxidized LDL), and 2716:1 (oxLDL-2716, heavily oxidized LDL). Human NCI-H295R adrenocortical cells were cultured in DMEM/F12. Cell proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE (10%) and immunoblotted with a polyclonal antibody against pERK 1/2 (1:1000). Aldosterone was measured by RIA and cortisol release was determined by competitive luminometric assay.

Incubation of adrenocortical cells with 10 to 100µg/mL native LDL (natLDL) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) for 24h stimulated aldosterone release dose-dependently up to 3-fold. Subsequent stimulation of NCI-H295R cells with angiotensin II induced an additional aldosterone secretion up to 2.9-fold in LDL-pretreated samples. Similar effects were observed for cortisol release. Compared to natLDL, oxLDL induced a smaller hormone release. The ability of oxLDL to induce hormone release decreased with increasing degree of LDL oxidation. NatLDL and oxLDL induced ERK phosphorylation with a maximum at 5min poststimulation. Blocking ERK activation with U0126, the inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK, markedly reduced aldosterone release.

Oxidative modification of LDL decreases adrenocortical aldosterone and cortisol release. The ERK signalling cascade is critically involved in LDL-induced hormone release.
  • Poster
    51st Annual Meeting of the German Society of Endocrinology (DGE) and 12th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 07.-10.03.2007, Salzburg, Österreich
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 115(2007)Suppl 1, S75

Publ.-Id: 10157 - Permalink

Hydromagnetische Dynamos in und auf der Erde
Stefani, F.;
Im Vortrag werden sowohl die sehr frühen Vorstellungen zur Entstehung des Erdmagnetfeldes als auch die moderne Theorie des Geodynamos vorgestellt. Es folgt eine kritische Diskussion der Dynamoexperimente in Riga, Karlsruhe und Cadarache sowie des PROMISE-Experiments zum Nachweis der Magnetorotationsinstabilität.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Geophysikalisches Kolloquium, 12.06.2007, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10156 - Permalink

Das alpha und das Omega experimenteller Dynamos
Stefani, F.;
Im Vortrag werden sowohl die frühen Vorstellungen zur Entstehung des Erdmagnetfeldes vorgestellt als auch die moderne Dynamotheorie, die ganz massgeblich von Professor Fritz Krause in den 60er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts entwickelt worden war. Es folgt eine Diskussion der Experimente zum Nachweis des alpha-Effektes sowie der Dynamoexperimente in Riga, Karlsruhe und Cadarache.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ehrenkolloquium zum 80. Geburtstag von Professor Fritz Krause, 05.06.2007, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10155 - Permalink

Wie entsteht das Magnetfeld der Erde?
Stefani, F.;
Der Vortrag spannt einen Bogen von den sehr frühen Vorstellungen zur Entstehung des Erdmagnetfeldes
bis hin zur modernen Theorie des Geodynamos. Die Dynamoexperimente in Riga, Karlsruhe und Cadarache sowie das PROMISE-Experiment zum Nachweis der Magnetorotationsinstabilität werden vorgestellt.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Abschlusskolloquium der Forschergruppe "Magnetofluiddynamik", 31.05.-01.06.2007, Ilmenau, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10154 - Permalink

Characterization of ZnO nanorods by AFM
Hou, Y.; Andreev, A.; Teichert, C.; Brauer, G.; Djurisic, A.;
  • Poster
    E-MRS 2007 Spring Meeting, SYMPOSIUM M, 28.05.-01.06.2007, Strasbourg, France
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials Today Asia, 03.-05.09.2007, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 10153 - Permalink

THz sources: from the large to the small
Helm, M.;
I will describe a large source dedicated to research, the Dresden IR & THz free-electron laser, and a compact, scalable emitter, which is a photoconductive antenna with an interdigitated electrode structure.
Keywords: free electron laser, THz sources, THZ antenna
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4th meeting of GDR-E THz: Semiconductor sources and detectors for THz radiation, 01.-02,06.2007, Bombannes, France

Publ.-Id: 10152 - Permalink

Quality of performance assessment of PV plants based on irradiance maps
Drews, A.; Beyer, H.-G.; Rindelhardt, U.;
For the estimation of the expected annual energy yield and the month-by-month check of a PV system’s performance, methods based on irradiance maps published by weather services, both general or dedicated to solar energy application, are in use. Examples for this type of information for Germany are the annual and monthly radiation maps as published by the German Weather Service DWD, the data bank of hourly irradiance data with continuous spatial coverage prepared by the University of Oldenburg, and the radiation data products of the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility CMSAF assembled by a consortium of European Weather Services.
To assess the validity of these data sets for the aforementioned tasks, a case study for a region covering the German federal state of Saxony is performed using data for the year 2005. For this region a set of ground-measured irradiance data from meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service DWD is available. The comparison of hourly information on radiation sums is on one hand performed by the monthly analysis of the bias and the RMS-error for the Oldenburg data bank of hourly values versus the ground station data. For an additional inter-comparison of the different data sources, the annual maps presenting the estimates of the irradiance sums for 2005 are analyzed, giving information of data accuracy with respect to the spatial structure of the irradiance field.
The assessment of the end use accuracy of the irradiance data is made by investigating a set of monthly energy yield data of grid-connected PV systems. This is done via the estimation of the energy yield using a PV system simulation applying the irradiance data generated at the University of Oldenburg.
Keywords: PV system, solar radiation, monitoring

Publ.-Id: 10151 - Permalink

Stromgewinnung aus regenerativer Wasserkraft - Potenzialanalyse
Wagner, E.; Rindelhardt, U.;
Ausgehend vom derzeitigen Nutzungsstand wird das vorhandene Wasserkraftpotenzial in Duetschland bewertet. Eine zusätzliche und maximal mögliche jährliche Stromgewinnung durch Neubau, Erweiterung und Erneuerung von Anlagen, wird von den Ländern derzeit mit etwa 2,4 TWh angenommen. Damit würde sich eine Stromgewinnung von insgesamt gut 22 TWh ergeben.
Die Verfasser halten Zuwächse von etwa 1 TWh pro Jahrzehnt für möglich. Im Jahr 2015 könnte demnach etwa 21 TWh Wasserkraftstrom zur Verfügung stehen. Das setzt auskömmliche wirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen für die Anlagenbetreiber voraus. Allerdings steht das Umweltrecht/Wasserhaushaltsgesetz dem Bau von Anlagen an bisher nicht genutzten Standorten schwerwiegend entgegen.
Das gesamte technisch nutzbare Potenzial regenerativer Wasserkräfte beziffern die Verfasser auf etwa 25,5 TWh. Die derzeitige Nutzung dieses Potenzials erfolgt demnach zu etwa 78%.
Keywords: Wasserkraft, regenerative Energie, Potenzial
  • EW : Das Magazin für die Energiewirtschaft (2008)1-2, 78-81

Publ.-Id: 10150 - Permalink

Stromgewinnung aus regenerativer Wasserkraft in Deutschland – Überblick
Wagner, E.; Rindelhardt, U.;
Die Stromgewinnung aus regenerativer Wasserkraft erfolgt in Deutschland wesentlich aus Laufwasser- und Speicherkraftwerken. Derzeit beträgt deren Leistung etwa 3.960 MW, davon Speicherkraftwerke 350 MW. Die Stromgewinnung aus diesen Anlagen einschließlich der aus natürlichen Zuflüssen in "Pumpspeicher-Kraftwerken mit natürlichem Zufluss" (etwa 0,6 TWh/a) beträgt - Stand 2005 - als Wert des Regelarbeitsvermögens, gleichbedeutend dem Wert der Erzeugung im Regeljahr, etwa 20 TWh. Die Leistung aller Pumpspeicher-Kraftwerke wird bei der Beurteilung der Möglichkeiten der Nutzung regenerativer Wasserkräfte nicht berücksichtigt.
In den zurückliegenden drei Jahrzehnten ist ein durchschnittlicher Anstieg der Stromerzeugung aus regenerativer Wasserkraft von etwa 1 TWh pro Jahrzehnt erkenntlich.
Keywords: Wasserkraft, Stromgewinnung
  • EW : Das Magazin für die Energiewirtschaft 106(2007)25-26, 52-57

Publ.-Id: 10149 - Permalink

Greifswald VVER-440 RPV investigations: Neutron dosimetry and material tests
Konheiser, J.; Viehrig, H.-W.; Rindelhardt, U.; Noack, K.; Gleisberg, B.;
The Greifswald NPP was operated between 1973 and 1990. The units are of Russian WWER-440-230 type. Now trepans from the RPV were gained to investigate the post mortem properties of the material.
The paper describes the results of weld metal originating from the critical weld of the RPV of unit 1. The RPV of this unit was annealed after 14 years of operation, followed by two additional years of operation.
The neutron dosimetry was based on fluence calculations as well as retrospective Nb dosimetry. Both approaches are shortly described. A decrease of 60% through the thickness of the RPV was found by both methods.
The ongoing material test results comprise Charpy-V, tensile and fracture toughness parameters. The main interest is focussed on the comparison of assessment codes applied in Russia and other European countries where WWER-440 reactors are operated. An additional aspect is the comparison of results determined on sub-size Charpy specimens after the annealing procedure. The RPV of Greifswald Unit 1 is uncladded. After the annealing templates of weld metal were taken from the inner RPV wall. The toughness of the weld metal was measured with sub size Charpy specimens.
Keywords: Reactor pressure vessel, neutron embrittlement
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th International Conference: Safety Assurance of NPP with WWER, 29.05.-01.06.2007, Podolsk, Russia
    Conference Proceedings, paper 137
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Conference: Safety Assurance of NPP with WWER, 29.05.-01.06.2007, Podolsk, Russia

Publ.-Id: 10148 - Permalink

Best Practice Guidelines for the Use of CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications
Mahaffy, J.; Chung, B.; Dubois, F.; Ducros, F.; Graffard, E.; Heitsch, M.; Henriksson, M.; Komen, E.; Moretti, F.; Mori, T.; Mühlbauer, P.; Rohde, U.; Scheuerer, M.; Smith, B. L.; Song, C.; Watanabe, T.; Zigh, G.;
The document provides an internally compltete set of guidelines for a range of single phase applications of CFD to NRS problems. However, it is not meant to be comprehensive. The document should provide direct guidance on the key considerarions in known single phase applications, as nodalization, model selection and validation, and general directions for resolving renmaining details. It is intended to serve as a template for further applicationb specific BPG documents.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, nuclear reactor saftey, best practice guidelines
  • Other report
    Issy-les-Moulineaux: OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 2007
    166 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 10147 - Permalink

Ab Initio atomic simulations of antisite pair recovery in cubic silicon carbide
Gao, F.; Du, J.; Bylaska, E. J.; Posselt, M.; Weber, W. J.;
The thermal stability of an antisite pair in cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) is studied using ab initio
molecular dynamics within the framework of density functional theory. The lifetime of the antisite
pair configuration is calculated for temperatures between 1800 and 2250 K, and the effective
activation energy for antisite pair recombination is determined to be 2.52 eV. The recombination
energy path and static energy barrier are also calculated using the nudged elastic band method along
with the dimer method to accurately locate the transition states. The consistency of the results
suggests that the antisite pair cannot be correlated with the DI photoluminescence center, as
proposed previously by theoretical interpretations. An extended exchange mechanism is found for
the antisite pair recombination.
Keywords: SiC, defects, ab-initio simulation

Publ.-Id: 10145 - Permalink

Phenomenology of brane-world cosmological models
Günther, U.; Zhuk, A.;
We present a brief review of brane-world models — models in which our observable Universe with its standard matter fields is assumed as localized on a domain wall (three-brane) in a higher dimensional surrounding (bulk) spacetime. Models of this type arise naturally in M-theory and have been intensively studied during the last years. We pay particular attention to the covariant projection approach, the Cardassian scenario, to induced gravity models, self-tuning models and the Ekpyrotic scenario. A brief discussion is given of their basic properties and their connection with conventional FRW cosmology.
Keywords: M-theory, string theory, cosmology, brane-worlds, Cardassian scenario, Ekpyrotic scenario, Friedman-Robertson-Walker cosmology
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Astrophysics And Cosmology After Gamow - Theory And Observations: Gamow Memorial International Conference Dedicated To The 100th Anniversary of George Gamow, 08.-14.08.2004, Odessa, Ukraine
    Astrophysics and Cosmology after Gamow: Theory and Observations, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scientific Publishers Ltd, UK, 978-1-904868-38-5, 79-98

Publ.-Id: 10144 - Permalink

Magnetic properties of ion implanted diamond
Höhne, R.; Esquinazi, P.; Heera, V.; Weishart, H.;
Single crystalline diamond samples of type IIa were implanted with boron and CVD diamond samples with fluorine or iron ions. Defect rich surface layers extending to a depth of about 300 nm for boron and 1 μm for fluorine and iron were produced by multiple energy implantation. The ion concentrations at the implanted regions were between 30 and 600 ppm for iron and fluorine and 0.5 to 1.5 at.% for boron. In all samples the magnetic properties were dominated by the diamagnetism of pure diamond. The main influence of iron and fluorine implantation on the magnetic properties of diamond is the creation of paramagnetic centres induced by disorder. Whereas diamond implanted with boron at a temperature of 900 °C does not show detectable paramagnetism. After subtraction of the linear background all implanted samples show small ferromagnetic-like loops. Although these signals are clearly above the detection limit and appear to be caused by ferromagnetism, we show that the measured loops are mainly caused by a SQUID artefact. We did not find any evidence for the existence of superconductivity in boron-doped diamond samples prepared under the used conditions.
Keywords: Diamond; Ion implantation; Magnetic properties; Irradiation effects

Publ.-Id: 10143 - Permalink

Confinement of paramagnetic ions under magnetic field influence: Lorentz- versus concentration gradient force based explanations
Weier, T.; Eckert, K.; Mühlenhoff, S.; Cierpka, C.; Bund, A.; Uhlemann, M.;
Concentration variations observed at circular electrodes with their axis parallel to a magnetic and normal to the gravitational field have previously been attributed elsewhere to the concentration gradient force only. The present paper aims to show that Lorentz force driven convection is a more likely explanation.
Keywords: magnetoelectrochemistry, Lorentz force, concentration gradient force, particle image velocimetry, synthetic schlieren, interferometry

Publ.-Id: 10142 - Permalink

Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamics – astrophysical relevance and engineering applications
Gerbeth, G.; Grants, I.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.;
Magnetic fields influence the motion of liquid metals, but the melt motion modifies magnetic field distributions as well. Eventually, melt motions are able to create a magnetic field, known as the dynamo effect.
We present various laboratory experiments demonstrating this interaction between the flow and magnetic fields.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, 15.-19.08.2007, Shanghai, China
  • Contribution to external collection
    F.G. Zhuang, J.C. Li: New Trends in Fluid Mechanics Research, Peking: Tsinghua-Springer, 2007, 690-693

Publ.-Id: 10141 - Permalink

Projective Hilbert space structures at exceptional points and their extension to line bundles over spectral Riemann surfaces
Günther, U.; Rotter, I.; Samsonov, B.;
A non-Hermitian complex symmetric 2×2 matrix toy model is used to study projective Hilbert space structures in the vicinity of exceptional points (EPs). The bi-orthogonal eigenvectors of a diagonalizable matrix are Puiseux-expanded in terms of the root vectors at the EP. It is shown that the apparent contradiction between the two incompatible normalization conditions with finite and singular behavior in the EP-limit can be resolved by projectively extending the original Hilbert space. The complementary normalization conditions correspond then to two different affine charts of this enlarged projective Hilbert space. Geometric phase and phase jump behavior are analyzed and the usefulness of the phase rigidity as measure for the distance to EP configurations is demonstrated. The EP-related quantum brachistochrone problem of PT-symmetrically extended Quantum Mechanics is discussed. Finally, aspects of a smooth globally defined line bundle structure over spectral Riemann surfaces are sketched.

The talk is partially based on arXiv:0704.1291v2 [math-ph] and includes newer findings going beyond this e-print.
Keywords: exceptional points, branch points, projective Hilbert space, geometric phase, singularities, PT-symmetric Quantum Mechanics, quantum brachistochrone problem, spectral Riemann surface, line bundle
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Analytic and algebraic methods III, 19.06.2007, Prague, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 10140 - Permalink

On the interaction of molecular hydrogen with diamonds: An experimental study using nuclear probes and thermal desorption
Shiryaev, A. A.; Grambole, D.; Rivera, A.; Herrmann, F.;
Hydrogen behavior in monocrystalline diamonds with different concentrations and types of nitrogen defects was studied using Nuclear Reaction and micro-Elastic Recoil Detection Analyses and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy. Diamonds were studied in as-received state, after HPHT treatment and after hydrogenation in molecular hydrogen. A considerable amount of hydrogen was found to be bonded to diamond surfaces. Kinetics of surface hydrogen desorption is similar to what was reported for plasma-hydrogenated diamonds. The solubility of hydrogen in type IIa diamonds is very low. The efficiency of hydrogen traps in diamond bulk varies with the dominant type of nitrogen-related defects. The cross-section of traps decreases in row Ib > IaA > IaB diamonds, though binding energy in type IaB crystals may be higher, than in type IaA. Dislocations may promote hydrogen diffusion. A marked dependency of the hydrogen content and diffusivity between diamond growth sectors were observed for some samples. The total hydrogen content is higher in octahedral sectors.
Keywords: Diamond crystal; Diffusion; Defect characterization; Hydrogen
  • Diamond and Related Materials 16(2007), 1479-1485

Publ.-Id: 10139 - Permalink

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