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Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of agate - a review
Agate - a spectacular form of SiO2 and a famous gemstone - is commonly characterized as banded chalcedony. In detail, chalcedony layers in agates can be intergrown or intercalated with macrocrystalline quartz, quartzine, opal-A, opal-CT, cristobalite and/or moganite. In addition, agates often contain considerable amounts of mineral inclusions and water as both interstitial molecular H2O and silanol groups. Most agate occurrences worldwide are related to SiO2-rich (rhyolites, rhyodacites) and SiO2-poor (andesites, basalts) volcanic rocks, but can also be formed as hydrothermal vein varieties or as silica accumulation during diagenesis in sedimentary rocks. It is assumed that the supply of silica for agate formation is often associated with late-or post-volcanic alteration of the volcanic host rocks. Evidence can be found in association with typical secondary minerals such as clay minerals, zeolites or iron oxides/hydroxides, frequent pseudomorphs (e.g., after carbonates or sulfates) as well as the chemical composition of the agates. For instance, elements of the volcanic rock matrix (Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K) are enriched, but extraordinary high contents of Ge (>90 ppm), B (>40 ppm) and U (>20 ppm) have also been detected. Calculations based on fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope studies point to a range between 20 and 230◦C for agate formation temperatures. The accumulation and condensation of silicic acid result in the formation of silica sols and proposed amorphous silica as precursors for the development of the typical agate micro-structure. The process of crystallisation often starts with spherulitic growth of chalcedony continuing into chalcedony fibers. High concentrations of lattice defects (oxygen and silicon vacancies, silanol groups) detected by cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicate a rapid crystallisation via an amorphous silica precursor under non-equilibrium conditions. It is assumed that the formation of the typical agate microstructure is governed by processes of self-organization. The resulting differences in crystallite size, porosity, kind of silica phase and incorporated color pigments finally cause the characteristic agate banding and colors.
Keywords: agate; quartz; chalcedony; silica minerals; micro-structure; trace elements; O-isotopes; paragenetic minerals
Minerals 10(2020)11, 1037
Online First (2020) DOI: 10.3390/min10111037
Example videos of particles colliding with a rising bubble
These videos are related to the publication "Collision phenomena between inertialess particles and bubbles: An experimental study with 4D PTV and tomographic PIV", submitted on the XXX to the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. They are the underlying raw videos of an exemplary leading and tailing edge collision trajectory which are analzed in Figure 7 and 8, respectivly.
Keywords: Froth Flotation; 4D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV); Bubble-Particle Collision; Rising bubble chain
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-26
Kinetic (Lattice) Monte Carlo for Helical Molecules and Magnetic Substrates
In the investigation of the mutual interaction of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of helical organic molecules with metal surfaces, the goals are both to understand how surface properties, like magnetisation, influence the formation of the SAM and how the ensemble of electron-spin selective molecules influences magnetic properties of the carrier materials, specifically on a buried ferromagnetic layer.
The phenomenology of the effects on both sides can be modelled via kinetic Metropolis Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations in different ways. In both cases, this class of simulations models the kinetics of non-equilibrium systems based on local interaction energies using stochastic cellular automata based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. This stochastic modeling replaces the physical dynamics simulated in, e.g., molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Such a simplification is often necessary when simulating large ensembles required to observe phase ordering processes in order make these simulations possible or achieve sufficient throughput to create parameter maps like phase diagrams.
Keywords: Kinetic Metropolis Monte Carlo; GPU; Self Organization
Contribution to WWW
Spin-SFB-workshop, 13.11.2020, Chemnitz, Germany
Experimental liquid concentration distribution for air-led stripping of isobutyl acetate in sieve tray column
This data contain the outcome of absorbance measurements performed via UV-Spectroscopy on liquid samples containing isobutyl acetate in various concentration. The liquid samples have been taken from several deck positions on a distillation sieve tray to determine the liquid concentration distribution and have been used to determine tray and point efficiency in a post-processing stage.
Keywords: distillation; concentration distribution; sieve tray; point efficiency; tray efficiency
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-26
Magnetic field dependence of low-energy magnons, anisotropic heat conduction, and spontaneous relaxation of magnetic domains in the cubic helimagnet ZnCr2Se4
Inosov, D. S.; Onykiienkko, Y. O.; Tymoshenko, Y. V.; Akopyan, A.; Shukla, D.; Prasai, N.; Doerr, M.; Gorbunov, D.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Voneshen, D. J.; Boehm, M.; Tsurkan, V.; Felea, V.; Loidl, A.; Cohn, J. L.
Anisotropic low-temperature properties of the cubic spinel helimagnet ZnCr2Se4 in the single-domain spinspiral state are investigated by a combination of neutron scattering, thermal conductivity, ultrasound velocity, and dilatometry measurements. In an applied magnetic field, neutron spectroscopy shows a complex and nonmonotonic evolution of the spin-wave spectrum across the quantum-critical point that separates the spin-spiral phase from the field-polarized ferromagnetic phase at high fields. A tiny spin gap of the pseudo-Goldstone magnon mode, observed at wave vectors that are structurally equivalent but orthogonal to the propagation vector of the spin helix, vanishes at this quantum critical point, restoring the cubic symmetry in the magnetic subsystem. The anisotropy imposed by the spin helix has only a minor influence on the lattice structure and sound velocity but has a much stronger effect on the heat conductivities measured parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic propagation vector. The thermal transport is anisotropic at T ≲ 2K, highly sensitive to an external magnetic field, and likely results directly from magnonic heat conduction. We also report long-time thermal relaxation phenomena, revealed by capacitive dilatometry, which are due to magnetic domain motion related to the destruction of the single-domain magnetic state, initially stabilized in the sample by the application and removal of magnetic field. Our results can be generalized to a broad class of helimagnetic materials in which a discrete lattice symmetry is spontaneously broken by the magnetic order.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 184431
Influence of the martensitic transformation kinetics on the magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In
The inverse magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn based Heusler compounds occurs during the magnetostructural transition between low-temperature, low-magnetization martensite and high-temperature, high-magnetization austenite. In this study, we analyze the metamagnetic transformation of a Ni49.8Mn35In15.2 compound by simultaneous adiabatic temperature change ΔTad and strain Δl/l0 measurements in pulsed magnetic fields up to 10 T. We observe a ΔTad of −10 K and a Δl/l0 of −0.22% when the reverse martensitic transition is fully induced at a starting temperature of 285 K. By a variation of the magnetic field-sweep rates between 316, 865, and 1850 T s−1, the transitional dynamics of the reverse martensitic transformation have been investigated. Our experiments reveal an apparent delay upon the end of the reverse martensitic transformation at field rates exceeding 865 T s−1 which is related to the annihilation of retained martensite. As a consequence, the field hysteresis increases and higher fields are required to saturate the transition. In contrast, no time-dependent effects on the onset of the reverse martensitic transformation were observed in the studied field-sweep range. Our results demonstrate that kinetic effects in Heusler compounds strongly affect the magnetic cooling cycle, especially when utilizing a multicaloric “exploiting-hysteresis cycle” where high magnetic field-sweep rates are employed.
Physical Review Materials 4(2020), 111401(R)
Process simulation: NdFeB permanent magnet production
This file contains an HSC model for NdFeB permanent magnet production, from ore processing to magnet production and two possible recycling routes. Data to build the model is found in key literature studies and from internal project data obtained by the various partners in four work packages (rare earth oxide separation, reduction and purification, alloy design, and powder magnet production).
The model was used to perform a resource efficiency, including exergy, and environmental impact (LCA) evaluation of the life cycle of a NdFeB permanent magnet produced from primary and secondary resources. This work has been submitted to JOM, in its special edition “Thermodynamic modeling of sustainable non-ferrous metals production” and has been accepted for publication with a digital object identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04185-6. Detailed information about the literature sources used for developing the model can be found in the original research paper. The model was built using HSC Chemistry version 9.9 (https://www.outotec.com/products-and-services/technologies/digital-solutions/hsc-chemistry/).
Keywords: NdFeB magnet production; resource efficiency; exergetic life cycle assessment; process simulation; geometallurgy; large systems design
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-30
Advanced Magnetic Resonance Studies of Tetraphenylporphyrinatoiron(III) Halides
High-Frequency and -Field EPR (HFEPR) studies of Fe(TPP)X (X = F, Cl, Br; I, TPP2−=meso-tetraphenylporphyrinate dianion) and far-IR magnetic spectroscopic (FIRMS) studies of Fe(TPP)Br and Fe(TPP)I have been conducted to probe magnetic intra- and inter-Kramers doublet transitions in these S = 5/2 metalloporphyrin complexes, yielding zero-field splitting (ZFS) and g parameters for the complexes: Fe(TPP)F, D = +4.67(1) cm−1, E = 0.00(1) cm−1, g⊥ = 1.97(1), g = 2.000(5) by HFEPR; Fe(TPP)Cl, D = +6.458(2) cm−1, E = +0.015(5) cm−1, E/D = 0.002, g⊥ = 2.004(3), g|| = 2.02(1) by HFEPR; Fe(TPP)Br, D = +9.03(5) cm−1, E = +0.047(5) cm−1, E/D = 0.005, giso = 1.99(1) by HFEPR and D = +9.05 cm−1, giso = 2.0 by FIRMS; Fe(TPP)I, D = +13.84 cm−1, E = +0.07 cm−1, E/D = 0.005, giso = 2.0 by HFEPR and D = +13.95 cm−1, giso = 2.0 by FIRMS (the sign of E was in each case arbitrarily assigned as that of D). These results demonstrate the complementary nature of field- and frequency-domain magnetic resonance experiments in extracting with high accuracy and precision spin Hamiltonian parameters of metal complexes with S > 1/2. The spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained from these experiments have been compared with those obtained from other physical methods such as magnetic susceptibility, magnetic Mössbauer spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and variable-temperature and -field magnetic circular dichroism (VT-VH MCD) experiments. INS, Mössbauer and MCD give good agreement with the results of HFEPR/FIRMS; the others not as much. The electronic structure of Fe(TPP)X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) was studied earlier by multi-reference ab initio methods to explore the origin of the large and positive D-values, reproducing the trends of D from the experiments. In the current work, a simpler model based on Ligand Field Theory (LFT) is used to explain qualitatively the trend of increasing ZFS from X = F to Cl to Br and to I as the axial ligand. Tetragonally elongated high-spin d5 systems such as Fe(TPP)X exhibit D > 0, but X plays a key role. Spin delocalization onto X means that there is a spin–orbit coupling (SOC) contribution to D from X•, as opposed to none from closed-shell X−. Over the range X = F, Cl, Br, I, X• character increases as does the intrinsic SOC of X• so that D increases correspondingly over this range.
Applied Magnetic Resonance 51(2020), 1411-1432
Process Simulation: Zinc and Cadmium production, Lead refining
A process simulation model for the production and purification of Zinc via the Roast-Leach-Electrowinning (RLE) process and the subsequent production of its byproduct, Cadmium. It also includes a process for the precipitation of jarosite, and produces residues that can be further processed for the production of Copper and Cobalt. The refining of crude Lead (Pb) bullion is included as a separate stand-alone section.
The simulation was created using flowsheet configurations and operating parameters available in the public domain. Feed and product stream compositions are therefore metallurgically sound and representative of industrial operations that use the processes modelled. The simulation remains an abstraction of reality, however, and should be verified and adopted to the specific operation under consideration.
The model was developed using the HSC Sim Flowsheet Module in HSC Chemistry 10 (version 10.0.0.5).
Note: The authors do not accept responsibility for any errors. The onus is on the user to verify and validate results against the system being investigated, as system configurations and operating parameters differ from site to site.
Keywords: Process Simulation; Metal production; Zinc; Cadmium; Lead; Copper; Cobalt; Jarosite
Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-27
Research Data for: ctmmweb: A graphical user interface for autocorrelation-informed home range estimation
Estimating animal home ranges is a primary purpose of collecting tracking data. All conventional home range estimators in widespread usage, including minimum convex polygons and kernel density estimators, assume independently sampled data. In stark contrast, modern GPS animal tracking datasets are almost always strongly autocorrelated. This incongruence between estimator assumptions and empirical reality leads to systematically underestimated home ranges. Autocorrelated kernel density estimation (AKDE) resolves this conflict by modeling the observed autocorrelation structure of tracking data during home range estimation, and has been shown to perform accurately across a broad range of tracking datasets. However, compared to conventional estimators, AKDE requires additional modeling steps and has heretofore only been accessible via the command-line ctmm R package. Here, we introduce ctmmweb, which provides a point-and-click graphical interface to ctmm, and streamlines AKDE, its prerequisite autocorrelation modeling steps, and a number of additional movement analyses. We demonstrate ctmmweb’s capabilities, including AKDE home range estimation and subsequent home range overlap analysis, on a dataset of four jaguars from the Brazilian Pantanal. We intend ctmmweb to open AKDE and related autocorrelation-explicit analyses to a wider audience of wildlife and conservation professionals.
Keywords: AKDE; animal movement; autocorrelation; ctmm; telemetry; tracking data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-27
Deformation behavior of nanocrystalline body-centered cubic iron with segregated, foreign Interstitial: A molecular dynamics study
In the present work, modified embedded atom potential and large-scale molecular dynamics’ simulations were used to explore the effect of grain boundary (GB) segregated foreign interstitials on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline (nc) iron. As a case study, carbon and nitrogen (about 2.5 at.%) were added to (nc) iron. The tensile test results showed that, at the onset of plasticity, grain boundary sliding mediated was dominated, whereas both dislocations and twinning were prevailing deformation mechanisms at high strain. Adding C/N into GBs reduces the free excess volume and consequently increases resistance to GB sliding. In agreement with experiments, the flow stress increased due to the presence of carbon or nitrogen and carbon had the stronger impact. Additionally, the simulation results revealed that GB reduction and suppressing GBs’ dislocation were the primary cause for GB strengthening. Moreover, we also found that the stress required for both intragranular dislocation and twinning nucleation were strongly dependent on the solute type.
Keywords: iron; molecular dynamics; segregation; dislocation; twinning
Materials 13(2020), 5351
Investigations of internal stresses in high-voltage devices with deep trenches
Hieckmann, E.; Mühle, U.; Chekhonin, P.; Zschech, E.; Gambino, J.
Deep trenches, as essential elements of silicon chips used in electronic high-power and high-frequency devices, are known as starting points for dislocation generation under the influence of internal mechanical stresses resulting mainly from the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between silicon and silicon dioxide. Since the electrical insulation of the devices requires a sequence of mechanical, chemical, and high-temperature processes during the preparation of the deep trenches, including the formation of an amorphous SiO2 edge layer, the emergence of the internal stresses is hardly avoidable. The method of cross correlation backscattered electron diffraction in the scanning electron microscope is used here to quantitatively determine the magnitude and local distribution of internal stresses in silicon around the deep trenches after four different process steps. For this purpose, Kikuchi diffraction images are recorded of the wafer cross section areas along lines perpendicular and parallel to the deep trenches. After Fourier transformation, these images are cross correlated with the Fourier transform of the diffraction image from a stressfree reference sample site. The well-established numerical evaluation of cross correlation functions provides the complete distortion tensor for each measuring point of the line scan, from which the stress tensor can be calculated using Hooke’s law. It is found that the in-plane normal stress component σ11 perpendicular to the long edges of the deep trench is larger than the other stress components. That means it essentially determines the magnitude of the von-Mises stress, which was determined as a general stress indicator for all measuring points, too. A characteristic feature is the local distribution of the stress component σ11 with maximum tensile stresses of some hundred megapascals at transition between Si and amorphous SiO2 on the long edges of the deep trench, and with even higher maximum compressive stresses immediately below the bottom of the deep trench. At a distance of about 2 μm from the edges of a single deep trench, all stress components decrease to negligibly small values so that steep stress gradients occur. The range and distribution of tensile and compressive stresses are in accordance with finite element simulations; however, the measured stresses are higher than expected for all investigated states so that dislocation formation seems to be possible. The influence of the electron acceleration voltage on the determination of the internal stresses is discussed as well.
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 38(2020), 064004
- Secondary publication expected
Data for: Electron-phonon coupling in n-type Ge two-dimensional systems
Summary of degenerate pump-probe experiment on SiGe QWs for nonradiative lifetime estimation
FELBE beamtime 04-07 April 2019
- : alignment and measure of a rectangular structure (2261) featuring intersubband transition above the longitudinal - optical phonon. FEL wavelength 26.5 mm.
- : measure of a rectangular structure (2263) featuring intersubband transition below the longitudinal - optical phonon and of an asymmetric-coupled QWs structure (2217). FEL wavelength 45.8 mm.
- : measure of the same rectangular structure (2263) and of a step well (2264). FEL wavelength 52.6 mm.
- : measure of the same rectangular structure (2263), of the step well (2264) and of another ACQW (2216) at much lower pump intensities. FEL wavelength 45.8 mm and 52.6 mm.
- Electron-phonon coupling in n-type Ge two-dimensional … (Id 31751) has used this (Id 31771) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-24
CdTe refining + photovoltaic manufacturing + recycling HSC model
This file contains an HSC model for cadmium and tellurium refining starting from by-products coming from a copper precious metals refinery, lead and zinc flowsheets, manufacturing of a CdTe photovoltaic module and its recycling process based on data found in literature. The model was used to perform a resource efficiency, including exergy, and environmental impact (LCA) evaluation of the life cycle of a CdTe photovoltaic module. This model was used in the Master’s thesis “Simulation-based assessment of resource efficiency and environmental impacts of a CdTe photovoltaic life cycle” by Magdalena Heibeck and for the publications “The simulation-based analysis of the circular economy – the enabling role of metallurgical infrastructure” published in the “Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy” journal on 08/11/2019 (https://doi.org/10.1080/25726641.2019.1685243) and “Simulation-based Exergy Analysis of Large Circular Economy Systems: Zinc Production Coupled to CdTe Photovoltaic Module Life Cycle” published in the “Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy” on 17/12/2019 (https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-019-00255-5).
Detailed information about the literature sources used for developing the model can be found in the references above.
The model can only be opened with HSC software and was made with HSC version 10.0.0.5 (https://www.outotec.com/HSC).
Keywords: Process Simulation Model; Resource Efficiency; Photovoltaics; Recycling; LCA; Exergy; Digital Twin; Metallurgy
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-26
Unconventional Hall response in the quantum Limit of HfTe5
Galeski, S.; Zhao, X.; Wawrzynczak, R.; Meng, T.; Förster, T.; Lozano, P. M.; Honnali, S.; Lamba, N.; Ehmcke, T.; Markou, A.; Li, Q.; Gu, G.; Zhu, W.; Wosnitza, J.; Felser, C.; Chen, G. F.; Gooth, J.
Interacting electrons confined to their lowest Landau level in a high magnetic field can form a variety of correlated states, some of which manifest themselves in a Hall effect. Although such states have been predicted to occur in three-dimensional semimetals, a corresponding Hall response has not yet been experimentally observed. Here, we report the observation of an unconventional Hall response in the quantum limit of the bulk semimetal HfTe5, adjacent to the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect of a single electron band at low magnetic fields. The additional plateau-like feature in the Hall conductivity of the lowest Landau level is accompanied by a Shubnikov-de Haas minimum in the longitudinal electrical resistivity and its magnitude relates as 3/5 to the height of the last plateau of the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect. Our findings are consistent with strong electron-electron interactions, stabilizing an unconventional variant of the Hall effect in a three-dimensional material in the quantum limit.
Nature Communications 11(2020), 5926
Comparative Studies of Light-Responsive Swimmers: Janus Nanorods versus Spherical Particles
Eichler-Volf, A.; Huang, T.; Vazquez Luna, F.; Alsaadawi, Y.; Stierle, S.; Cuniberti, G.; Steinhart, M.; Baraban, Larysa; Erbe, A.
The shape of objects has a strong influence on their dynamics. Here, we present comparative studies of two different motile objects, spherical Ag/AgCl Janus particles and polystyrene Janus nanorods, that move due to an ionic self-diffusiophoretic propulsion mechanism when exposed to blue light. In this paper, we propose a method to fabricate Janus rodlike particles with high aspect ratios and hemispherical tip shapes. The inherent asymmetry due to the ratio between capped and uncapped parts of the particles as well as the shape anistropy of Janus nanorods enables imaging and quantification of rotational dynamics. The dynamics of microswimmers are compared in terms of velocities and diffusion coefficients. We observe that despite a small amount of the Ag/AgCl reagent on the surface of rodlike objects, these new Janus micromotors reveal high motility in pure water. While the velocities of spherical particles reach 4.2 μm/s, the single rodlike swimmers reach 1.1 μm/s, and clusters reach 1.6 μm/s. The effect of suppressed rotational diffusion is discussed as one of the reasons for the increased velocities. These Janus micro- and nanomotors hold the promise for application in light-controlled propulsion transport.
Langmuir 36(2020)42, 12504-12512
- Secondary publication expected from 14.10.2021
Electron-phonon coupling in n-type Ge two-dimensional systems
Electron-optical phonon interaction is the dominant energy-loss mechanism in low-dimensional Ge/SiGe heterostructures and represents a key parameter for the design and realization of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on this material system compatible with the mainstream Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Here we investigate the intersubband relaxation dynamics of n-type Ge/SiGe multiquantum wells with different symmetry and design by means of single-color pump-probe spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental differential transmittance data as a function of the pump-probe delay with numerical calculations based on an energy-balance rate-equation model, we could quantify an effective value for the optical phonon deformation potential describing the electron-phonon coupling in two-dimensional Ge-based systems. We found nonradiative relaxation times longer than 20 ps even in samples having intersubband energy separations larger than the optical phonon energy, evidencing the presence of a less effective electron-phonon coupling with respect to that estimated in bulk Ge.
- Data for: Electron-phonon coupling in n-type Ge … (Id 31771) HZDR-primary research data are used by this (Id 31751) publication
Physical Review B 102(2020), 205302
- Original PDF 1,4 MB Secondary publication
Multiconfigurational calculations of ground state and excited states of tetravalent uranium complexes
The peculiarities of computational actinide chemistry concerning the ground and excited state require state-of-the-art electronic structure methods. Currently, the most popular one is the CASSCF- method for the inclusion of static correlation in combination with CASPT2 for dynamic correlation and CASSI for spin-orbit coupling. This combination is used for the evaluation of excited state energies and transitions for simulating electronic spectra and comparing with experimental findings. Furthermore, for the evaluation of a proper active space the DMRG method is used for a choice based on objective reasonings. It is found, that the CASSCF+CASPT2+CASSI combination is able to recover experimental values quite well even for a small basis set. However, the DMRG method reveals that the active space could potentially be improved by not only considering the two electrons in the seven 5f-orbitals but also including C-N-pi and corresponding C-N-pi* orbitals.
Keywords: CASSCF; DMRG; electron correlation; actinides; uranium; tetravalent; coordination chemistry
Theory Frontiers in Actinide Sciences, 02.-05.02.2020, Santa Fe, USA
Invited lecture (Conferences)
XIIIth Workshop on Modern Methods in Quantum Chemistry, 02.-05.03.2020, Mariapfarr, Österreich
Multisystem combined uranium resistance mechanisms and bioremediation potential of Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7: Transcriptomics and microscopic study
The potential use of microorganisms in the bioremediation of U pollution has been extensively described.
However, a lack of knowledge on molecular resistance mechanisms has become a challenge for the use of these technologies. We reported on the transcriptomic and microscopic response of Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7 exposed to 100 and 250 μM of U. Results showed that exposure to 100 μM displayed up-regulation of 185 and 148 genes during the lag and exponential phases, respectively, whereas 143 and 194 were down-regulated, out of 3786 genes (>1.5-fold change). Exposure to 250 μM of U showed up-regulation of 68 genes and down-regulation of 290 during the lag phase. Genes involved in cell wall and membrane protein synthesis, efflux systems and phosphatases were up-regulated under all conditions tested. Microscopic observations evidenced the formation of U-phosphate minerals at membrane and extracellular levels. Thus, a biphasic process is likely to occur: the increased cell wall would promote the biosorption of U to the cell surface and its precipitation as U-phosphate minerals enhanced by phosphatases. Transport systems would prevent U accumulation in the cytoplasm. These findings contribute to an understanding of how microbes cope with U toxicity, thus allowing for the development of efficient bioremediation strategies.
Journal of Hazardous Materials 405(2021), 123858
Oxidation of amorphous HfNbTaTiZr high entropy alloy thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering
High entropy alloys represent a new type of materials with a unique combination of physical properties originating from the occurrence of single-phase solid solutions of numerous elements. The preparation of nanostructured or amorphous structure in a form of thin films promises increased effective surface and high intergranular diffusion of elements as well as a high affinity to oxidation. In this work, we studied HfNbTaTiZr thin films were deposited at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering from a single bcc phase target. Films exhibit cellular structure (~100 nm) with fine substructure (~10 nm) made of round-shape amorphous clusters. Films composition is close to equimolar with slight Ti enrichment and without any mutual segregation of elements. Oxidation at the ambient atmosphere leads to the formation of Ti, Zr, Nb, Hf, and Ta oxide clusters in the film up to the depth of 200 – 350 nm out of the total film thickness of 1650 nm. Oxygen absorption takes place preferentially in the large vacancy clusters located in between the amorphous cluster aggregates. The dominant type of defect is small open volumes with a size comparable with vacancy. The distribution of these defects is uniform with depth and is not influenced by the presence of oxygen in the film.
Keywords: positron annihilation spectroscopy; high entropy alloys; defects; monovacancy; HfNbTaTiZr; sputtering
Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2020)
- Secondary publication expected from 21.11.2021
Message from the Guest Editor of the 17th Multiphase Flow Conference Special Issue
Selected contributions of the 17th Multiphase Flow Conference at HZDR were published in a special issue of the Open Access Journal Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow. In this contribution an overview on the conference and a short introduction to the single papers is given.
Keywords: multiphase flow; conference
Abstract in refereed journal
Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow 3(2021)3, 137-138
Data for: Bonding Trends in Tetravalent Th–Pu Monosalen Complexes
[AnCl2(salen)(Pyx)2] (H2salen=N,N′‐bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine; Pyx=pyridine, 4‐methylpyridine, 3,5‐dimethylpyridine) + An(IV) with An=Th, U, Np, and Pu.
EA data, QC calculation results, NMR spectra and data analysis.
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-09-09
- Veröffentlichung im HZDR-Daten-Repository RODARE - Id 585
- Fulltext from chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Measurement of Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier contribution to the self-organized formation of ordered surface patterns on Ge(001)
Normal-incidence 1-keV Ar+ ion bombardment leads to amorphization and ultrasmoothing of Ge at room temperature, but at elevated temperatures the Ge surface remains crystalline and is unstable to the formation of self-organized nanoscale patterns of ordered pyramid-shaped pits. The physical phenomenon distinguishing the high-temperature patterning from room-temperature ultrasmoothing is believed to be a surface instability due to the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for diffusing vacancies and adatoms, which is not present on the amorphous material. This real-time grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering study compares smoothing of a prepatterned Ge sample at room temperature with patterning of an initially flat Ge sample at an elevated temperature. In both experiments, when the nanoscale structures are relatively small in height, the average kinetics can be explained by a linear theory. The linear theory coefficients, indicating surface stability or instability, were extracted for both experiments. A comparison between the two measurements allows estimation of the contribution of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier to the self-organized formation of ordered nanoscale patterns on crystalline Ge surfaces.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 201404(R)
- Original PDF 1,6 MB Secondary publication
Quantification of the Inconvenient Truths about the Circular Economy (CE) Digital Twinning of Very Large Systems
We discuss the limitations to material flows from recycling in the circular economy, using as a case the simulation-based analysis of the CdTe Photovoltaic cells. It is important to use a simulation basis for the analysis, since this permits the quantification of all material losses both in terms of exergy and energy simultaneously i.e. 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics. Harmonizing this with the power supply flowing into the system and minimizing energy usage as well as exergy losses will maximize the resource efficiency.
Contribution to external collection
Dagmar Boedicker, Sebastian Jekutsch, Dietrich Meyer-Ebrecht: FIfF-Kommunikation 3/2020 Technologie und Ökologie, Bremen: FIfF e.V., 2020, 0938-3476, 43-48
Radionuclide transport and retention at the core scale identified by GeoPET analysis and reactive transport modeling
Low-permeability Opalinus clay formations are considered as a potential host rock for the storage of high-level nuclear waste (Nagra 2002). The diffusion of dissolved species is the dominating transport process in this rock type (Van Loon et al. 2003). Stratification and spatial variability of composition cause anisotropic and heterogeneous diffusion patterns, which could significantly speed up diffusive transport compared to commonly assumed homogeneous conditions. Anisotropy of diffusive transport has been studied on oriented samples in diffusion cells and with positron emission tomography (Kulenkampff et al. 2016). The heterogeneity of the diffusive spreading is increased still further due to sandy layers and diagenetic carbonates, affecting the radionuclide migration behavior at the core scale.
Here, we parameterize a reactive transport model by using experimental and analytical data on Eu(III) sorption efficiency at the pore scale. The effective retention coefficients calculated at the pore scale serve as input values for the reactive transport simulation at the core scale. Diffusive transport model parametrization utilizes GeoPET/μCT results on the migration behavior of 22Na+ at the core scale. Numerical simulation is performed using an existing code (Yuan et al. 2019), which contains the reactive transport model for simulating reactive diffusion process at the core scale. The combination of pore-scale reactivity and core scale transport modeling provides critical insight into the radionuclide migration heterogeneity. We discuss these results with a focus on upscaling strategies to the field scale of host rocks.
InterPore 2020, 31.08.-04.09.2020, Qing Dao, China
Convection in Liquid Metal Batteries
The quest for renewable energy sources entails an increasingly intermittent electricity supply.
Transmission grid updates can only partially account for balancing the resulting variations and large-scale stationary storage will gain importance in future energy landscapes dominated by volatile sources.
Today’s battery technologies were, with the notable exception of redox-flow batteries, mainly designed for and driven by mobile applications. Those prioritize properties (energy density, power rating) that are less important for stationary storage. Thus, battery technologies developed from the ground up to meet the needs of stationary storage have the potential to much better address the specifics of huge capacity installations.
Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are a new technology for grid-scale energy storage. They consist of all liquid cells that operate with liquid metals as electrodes and molten salts as electrolytes. The liquids separate into three stably stratified layers by virtue of density and mutual immiscibility. This conceptually very simple and self-assembling structure has the unique advantage to allow for an easy scale-up at the cell level: single-cell cross sections can potentially reach several square-meters. Such cell sizes enable highly favourable and otherwise unattainable ratios of active to construction material because of the cubic scaling (volume) of the former and the quadratic scaling (surface) of the latter. The total costs should therefore largely be determined by those of the active materials.
The talk will start with a general introduction to LMBs and then focus on the fluid mechanics in these devices. Electric currents, magnetic fields, and heat and mass transfer are tightly coupled with the cells’ electrochemistry. First a number of fluid dynamic instabilities will be discussed in relation to operational safety. The remainder of the talk will deal with transport phenomena in the positive electrode. While transport in most modern battery systems is typically dominated by diffusion and migration in micrometer-scale liquid layers and solids, convection - with exception of the aforementioned redox-flow batteries - rarely plays a role. This is in stark contrast to LMBs were mediated by the fully liquid interior fluid flow can be driven by various mechanisms. The influence of solutal convection on the cycling behavior of a cell will be demonstrated. Electromagnetically induced convection can be used to improve mixing thereby mitigating diffusion overpotentials.
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Liquid Metal Technologies, 20.11.2020, Morelia, Mexiko
Accurate determination of quasi-particle electronic and optical spectra of anatase titanium dioxide
The electronic structure and quasi-particle absorption spectra of anatase titanium dioxide has been calculated by employing state of the art density functional theory(DFT) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory methods(MBPT) within the framework of Hybrid Density Functional(HSE). GW methods are used in combination with Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) to determine the Quasi Particle energy levels and the role of excitons in optical absorption spectra. Accurate optical and electronic band gap are determined from these methods. In addition to it an analysis of charge redistribution within the anatase unit cell is also presented within the PBE - DFT to analyze the orbital hybridization patterns and the character of chemical bonds.
Keywords: Anatase Titanium Oxide; Density Functional Theory; Electronic structure; Optical Spectra
AIP Conference Proceedings 2265(2020), 030375
Tailoring Particle-enzyme Nanoconjugates for Biocatalysis at the Organic-organic Interface
Nonaqueous Pickering emulsions (PEs) are a powerful platform for catalysis design, offering both a large interface contact and a preferable environment for water-sensitive synthesis. However, up to now, little progress has been made to incorporate insoluble enzymes into the nonaqueous system for biotransformation. Herein, we present biocatalytically active nonaqueous PEs, stabilized by particle-enzyme nanoconjugates, for the fast transesterification and esterification, and eventually for biodiesel synthesis. Our nanoconjugates are the hybrid biocatalysts tailor-made by loading hydrophilic Candida antarctica lipase B onto hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, resulting in not only catalytically active but highly amphiphilic particles for stabilization of a methanol-decane emulsion. The enzyme activity in these PEs is significantly enhanced, ca. 375-time higher than in the nonaqueous biphasic control. Moreover, the PEs can be multiply reused without significant loss of enzyme performance. With this proof‐of‐concept, we reasonably expect that our system can be expanded for many advanced syntheses using different enzymes in the future.
Keywords: biphasic biocatalysis; nonaqueous Pickering emulsions; solvent-free reactions; enzyme catalysis; nanoconjugates
Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202002121
Mechanosynthesis of polymer-stabilized lead bromide perovskites: insight into the formation and phase conversion of nanoparticles
The application of polymers to replace oleylamine (OLA) and oleic acid (OA) as ligands for perovskite nanocrystals is an effective strategy to improve their stability and durability especially for the solution-based processing. Herein, we report a mechanosynthesis of lead bromide perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by partially hydrolyzed poly(methyl methacrylate) (h-PMMA) and high-molecular-weight highly-branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI-25K). The as-synthesized NP solutions exhibited green emission centered at 516 nm, possessing a narrow full-width at half-maximum of 17 nm and as high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) as 85%, while showing excellent durability and resistance to polar solvents, e.g., methanol. The colloids of polymer-stabilized NPs were directly processable to form stable and strongly-emitting thin films and solids, making them attractive as gain media. Furthermore, the roles of h-PMMA and PEI-25K in the grinding process were studied in depth. The h-PMMA can form micelles in the grinding solvent of dichloromethane to act as size-regulating templates for the growth of NPs. The PEI-25K with large amounts of amino groups induced significant enrichment of PbBr2 in the reaction mixture, which in turn caused the formation of CsPb2Br5-mPbBr23-Cs4PbBr6-nCsBr NPs. The presence of CsPbBr3-Cs4PbBr6-nCsBr NPs was responsible for the high PL QY, as the Cs4PbBr6 phase with a wide energy bandgap can passivate the surface defects of the CsPbBr3 phase. This work describes a direct and facile mechanosynthesis of polymer-coordinated perovskite NPs and promotes in-depth understanding of the formation and phase conversion for perovskite NPs in the grinding process.
Keywords: lead bromide perovskites; mechanosynthesis; polymer ligands; polymer micelles; poly(ethyleneimine)-i
Nano Research (2020)
Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1007/s12274-020-3152-7
Nonlinear IR and THz Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Nanowires
Helm, M.; Fotev, I.; Balaghi, L.; Lang, D.; Rana, R.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Dimakis, E.; Pashkin, A.
We report nonlinear charge-carrier response in GaAs/InGaAs core/shell nanowires that are driven by intense THz pulses. In the first experiment, half-cycle THz pulses emitted from an organic DSTMS crystal lead to a red-shift of the plasmon Peak indicating intervalley transfer of the electrons. In the second experiment, a single, highly electron doped nanowire is investigated by scattering near-field infrared microscopy using intense free-electron laser (FEL) pulses. Here the observed red shift of the mid-infrared plasma resonance depends on the pulse energy and can be explained by heating the electron system in the nonparabolic conduction band.
Keywords: nanowire; THz; infrared; free-electron laser; near-field microscopy; nonlinear
Invited lecture (Conferences)
45th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2020), 08.-13.11.2020, Buffalo, USA
Data for: Nonlinear losses in magnon transport due to four-magnon scattering
We utilized the following methods in order to obtain the presented data: micro focused Brilluoin light scattering (BLS), micromagnetic simulations in MuMax3 and micro focused magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The experimental data were obtained on the sample which is labeled with: 'CoFe_WMI_6'. On that sample, we investigated the structures 'E1' and 'F1' which are essentially rectangular stripes (5 micrometer x 65 micrometer, thickness: 30 nm) out of Co25Fe75 alloy. The metadata for all measurements (including ALL parameters) are included in the uploaded primary data subdirectories. The references to the directory of the measured data within our local IT infrastructure are given along with the files themselves. All scripts that were used for data analysis (in Python) are included as well with a short description.
- Nonlinear losses in magnon transport due to four-magnon … (Id 31050) has used this (Id 31718) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-26
"CFD-grade" Experimental data for Solid-liquid Flow in a Stirred Tank
A solid-liquid flow in stirred tanks occurs frequently in different branches of process engineering where particles need to be suspended in a liquid. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of such flow on industrial scales are feasible if the closure models implemented therein are appropriate. A large number of closure models exist, but due to a lack of data sources for validation, no systematic assessment of these different models has appeared so far. The present dataset aims to accumulate a comprehensive ''CFD-grade'' database based on experiments of the single-phase and two-phase flows in a standardized stirred tank with a diameter of 90 mm. The velocity fields of the liquid (deionized water) and, in the two-phase case, the solid phase were measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Shadow Velocimetry (PSV), respectively. The experiments cover a range of parameters to achieve an extensive database. A narrow particle distribution of nearly neutrally buoyant particles (polyethylene spheres), as well as heavy particles (glass spheres) in the suspension, are considered over a wide range of particle diameter (63µm-500µm), solid volume fraction (0.025 vol% - 0.1vol%), as well as impeller rotation speed (650rpm - 1500rpm). The transient flow field on the plane midway between two baffles was recorded over 50 impeller rotations to achieve statistical significance. The time-averaged (resp. angle-resolved) mean and fluctuation velocities were then obtained by averaging the transient data in the laboratory frame of reference (resp. the frame of reference rotating with the impeller). The data is organized and analyzed as described in the corresponding journal publication "Solid-liquid Flow in Stirred Tanks: ”CFD-grade” Experimental Investigation".
Keywords: stirred tanks; solid-liquid flow; Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV); Particle Shadow Velocimetry (PSV); "Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-grade" database
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-15
Terahertz magneto-optical investigation of quadrupolar spin-lattice effects in magnetically frustrated Tb2Ti2O7
Condensed matter magneto-optical investigations can be a powerful probe of a material's microscopic magnetoelectric properties. This is because subtle interactions between electric and magnetic multipoles on a crystal lattice show up in predictable and testable ways in a material's optical response tensor, which dictates the polarization state and absorption spectrum of propagating electromagnetic waves. Magneto-optical techniques are therefore strong complements to probes such as neutron scattering, particularly when spin-lattice coupling effects are present. Here we perform a magneto-optical investigation of vibronic spin-lattice coupling in the magnetically frustrated pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7. Coupling of this nature involving quadrupolar mixing between the Tb3+ electronic levels and phonons in Tb2Ti2O7 has been a topic of debate for some time. This is particularly due to its implication for describing the exotic spin-liquid phase diagram of this highly debated system. A manifestation of this vibronic effect is observed as splitting of the ground and first excited crystal field doublets of the Tb3+ electronic levels, providing a fine structure to the absorption spectra in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. In this investigation, we apply a static magnetic field along the cubic  direction while probing with linearly polarized THz radiation. Through the Zeeman effect, the magnetic field enhances the splitting within the low-energy crystal field transitions revealing new details in our THz spectra. Complementary magneto-optical quantum calculations including quadrupolar terms show that indeed vibronic effects are required to describe our observations at 3 K. A further prediction of our theoretical model is the presence of a novel magneto-optical birefringence as a result of this vibronic process. Essentially, spin-lattice coupling within Tb2Ti2O7 may break the optical isotropy of the cubic system, supporting two different electromagnetic wave propagations within the crystal. Together our results reveal the significance of considering quadrupolar spin-lattice effects when describing the spin-liquid ground state of Tb2Ti2O7. They also highlight the potential for future magneto-optical investigations to probe complex materials where spin-lattice coupling is present and reveal new magneto-optical activity in the THz range.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 134428
Broad Beam-Induced Fragmentation and Joining of Tungsten Oxide Nanorods: Implications for Nanodevice Fabrication and the Development of Fusion Reactors
Rajbhar, M. K.; Möller, W.; Satpati, B.; Manju, U.; Chaudhary, Y. S.; Chatterjee, S.
In this work, for the first time, fragmentation and joining of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanorods induced by a broad ion beam are reported. Although at low energy (5 keV) and moderate ion fluence, nanorods fragment into smaller pieces along the length, at higher ion energies (50-100 keV), a contrary process occurs, which leads to the joining of the nanorods. A state-of-the-art ion-solid interaction simulation, namely, TRI3DYN, has been invoked to explore the possible mechanisms that reveal subtle contributions of surface defects, ion-beam mixing, and sputtering. High-resolution electron microscopy, photoluminescence study, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy support the observed results and proposed mechanisms. Such modifications have interesting effects on the electrical conductivity of the nanorod assembly. The change in sample color upon ion irradiation from initial white to yellow, light blue, deep blue, light green, and cyan shows an excellent and reversible chromatic response of tungsten oxide nanorods to irradiation. Such a property can be exploited to fabricate radiation sensors. The fragmentation and joining at different energy scales have essential implications in nanodevice fabrication through the bottom-up approach as well as for the development of fusion reactors.
Keywords: electrical conductivity; fusion reactor material; ion irradiation; nanofragmentation; nanojoining; radiation sensor; tungsten oxide nanorods; wettability
ACS Applied Nano Materials 3(2020)9, 9064-9075
Optimization of multi-group energy structures for diffusion analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactors assisted by simulated annealing – Part I: methodology demonstration
This study presents an approach to the selection of optimal energy group structures for multi-group nodal diffusion analyses of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor cores. The goal is to speed up calculations, particularly in transient calculations, while maintaining an acceptable accuracy of the results.
In Part I of the paper, possible time-savings due to collapsing of energy groups are evaluated using 24-group energy structure as a reference. Afterwards, focusing on energy structures with a number of groups leading to significant calculation speedups, optimal grid configurations are identified. Depending on a number of possible energy grid configurations to explore, the optimization is conducted by either a direct search or applying the simulated annealing method. Speedup and optimization studies are performed on a selected case of the Superphénix static neutronic benchmark by using the nodal diffusion DYN3D code. The results demonstrate noticeable improvements in DYN3D performance with a marginal deterioration of the accuracy.
Keywords: Serpent; XS condensation; energy structure optimization; simulated annealing
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-26
A Molecular Octafluoridoneptunate(IV) anion in (NH₄)₄[NpF₈] and Theoretical Investigations of the [MF₈]₄-System (M = Th - Bk)
Olive-green single crystals of ammonium octafluoridoneptunate(IV), (NH₄)₄[NpF₈], were obtained by converting NpO₂ to a green neptunium tetrafluoride hydrate with hydrofluoric acid and subsequent treatment of the fluoride with an aqueous NH₄F solution. The crystal structure of the compound was determined by single-crystal X ray diffraction and observed to be isotypic to the uranium analogue. In (NH₄)₄[NpF₈], molecular [NpF₈]⁴‾ anions, which can either be described as a distorted square-antiprism or a bicapped trigonal prism, are present which are bound to the NH₄⁺ ions via N−H∙∙∙F hydrogen bonds. Quantum-chemical calculations of [MF₈]⁴‾ anions show that the M−F bonds are highly ionic and the energy differences between different ligand arrangements likely can be overcome by lattice energies of different crystal structures in the solid state.
Keywords: actinide; density functional calculations; neptunium; fluorine; single-crystal X-ray diffraction
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 39(2020), 3753-3759
HIM FIBID dataset for Superconducting properties of in-plane W-C nanowires grown by He+ Focused Ion Beam Induced Deposition
HIM images and NPVE dataset created during the preparation of the W(CO)6 nanowires.
Keywords: helium ion microscopy; focused ion beam induced deposition
- Superconducting properties of in-plane W-C nanowires grown … (Id 31703) has used this (Id 31704) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-11
Superconducting properties of in-plane W-C nanowires grown by He+ Focused Ion Beam Induced Deposition
Focused Ion Beam Induced Deposition (FIBID) is a nanopatterning technique that makes use of a focused beam of charged ions to decompose a gaseous precursor. So far, the flexible patterning capabilities of FIBID have been widely exploited in the fabrication of superconducting nanostructures, using the W(CO) 6 precursor mostly in combination with a focused beam of Ga+ ions. Here, the fabrication and characterization of superconducting in-plane tungsten-carbon (W-C) nanostructures by He+ FIBID of the W(CO)6 precursor is reported. A virtually unattainable for Ga+ FIBID patterning resolution of 10 nm has been achieved. When the nanowires are patterned with widths of 20 nm and above, the deposited material is superconducting below 3.5 – 4 K. In addition, 60 and 90 nm-wide nanostructures have been found to sustain long-range controlled non-local superconducting vortex transfer along 3 μm. Overall, these findings strengthen the capabilities of He+ FIBID of W-C in the growth and patterning of in-plane superconducting nanodevices.
Keywords: superconductivity; Helium Ion Microscopy; FIBID; nanowires; vortexdynamics; electrical transport properties
- HIM FIBID dataset for Superconducting properties of … (Id 31704) HZDR-primary research data are used by this (Id 31703) publication
Nanotechnology 32(2020)8, 085301
- Fulltext from iopscience.iop.org
- Secondary publication expected from 10.11.2021
Evolution of cast iron- and copper- corrosion in "400 day-bentonite-microcosms"
Copper and cast iron are potential materials for the storage canisters of high-level radioactive waste. We designed slurry-experiments for analyzing the microbial influence on the corrosion process of these metals. These slurry experiments contain the Bavarian B25 bentonite, synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water or diluted cap rock solution as well as copper- or cast iron plates in various combinations. During an incubation time of 400 days under anaerobic conditions at 37 °C cast iron plates corrode very fast. The respective metal surfaces show the formation of iron oxides and –carbonates which could form a passivating film that protects the cast iron from further corrosion.
iCross annual meeting 2020, 25.-26.11.2020, Dresden-Webinar, Deutschland
PIConGPU setup: PWFA simulations
This is the PIConGPU source code and setup files for generating PWFA simulations. This setup was used to study wake elongation.
Keywords: PIConGPU, PWFA
Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-10
Influence of precursor thin-film quality on the structural properties of large-area MoS2 films grown by sulfurization of MoO3 on c-sapphire
In recent years, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been investigated due to its unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties with a variety of applications. Sulfurization of pre-deposited MoO3 layers is one of the methods of the preparation of large-area MoS2 thin films. The MoO3 layers have been grown on c-sapphire substrates, using two different techniques (rf sputtering, pulsed laser deposition). The films were subsequently annealed in vapors of sulfur at high temperatures what converted them to MoS2 films. The quality of MoS2 is strongly influenced by the properties of the precursor MoO3 layers. The pre-deposited MoO3, as well as the sulfurized MoS2, have been characterized by several techniques including Raman, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Here we compare two types of MoS2 films prepared from different MoO3 layers to determine the most suitable MoO3 layer properties providing good quality MoS2 films for future applications.
Keywords: Molybdenum disulfide; Sulfurization; Sputtering; Pulsed laser deposition; Structural properties
Applied Surface Science 540(2021), 148240
Diffraction techniques in nuclear materials
The presentation is aimed at introducing diffraction techniques and their applications in the field of structural nuclear materials. After a brief introduction, three selected experimental techniques are presented in more detail. These are X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). XLPA is applied to derive microstructure parameters such as crystallite size, dislocation density and twin probability of a nanostructured high-entropy alloy processed by means of high pressure torsion. EBSD is shown to be useful for the characterization of the bainitic microstructure in terms of subunits of the prior austenite grains and their orientation relationship with the parent phase. As an example for the application of SANS, the effects of neutron flux and neutron fluence on the volume fraction and mean size of irradiation-induced solue atom clusters are characterized.
Keywords: Diffraction; Scattering; Nuclear materials; Irradiation effects
Invited lecture (Conferences)
European School on Nuclear Material Science, 09.-13.11.2020, Online, Online
Frequency- and magnetic-field-dependent properties of ordered magnetic nanoparticle arrangements
We present a frequency and magnetic field dependent investigation of ordered arrangements of 20 nm magnetic
nanoparticles (MNPs) consisting of magnetite (Fe3O4) by employing micro Brillouin light scattering
microscopy. We utilized electron beam lithography to prepare hexagonally arranged, circularly shaped MNPassemblies
consisting of a single layer of MNPs using a variant of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. By
comparing the results with non-structured, layered superlattices of MNPs, further insight into the influence
of size and geometry of the arrangement on the collective properties is obtained. We show that at low static
external field strengths, two signals occur in frequency dependent measurements for both non-structured and
structured assemblies. Enlarging the static external field strength leads to a sharpening of the main signal,
while the satellite signal decreases in its intensity and increases in its linewidth. The occurrence of multiple
signals at low external field strengths is also confirmed by sweeping the static external field and keeping the
excitation frequency constant. Micromagnetic simulations unravel the origin of the different signals and their
dependence on the static external field strength, enabling an interpretation of the observed characteristics in
terms of different local environments of an MNPs forming the MNP assembly.
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-11-09
A New Highly Anisotropic Rh-Based Heusler Compound for Magnetic Recording
He, Y.; Fecher, G. H.; Fu, C.; Pan, Y.; Manna, K.; Kroder, J.; Jha, A.; Wang, X.; Hu, Z.; Agrestini, S.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Valvidares, M.; Scurschii, I.; Schnelle, W.; Stamenov, P.; Borrmann, H.; Tjeng, L. H.; Schaefer, R.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Coey, J. M. D.; Felser, C.
The development of high-density magnetic recording media is limited by superparamagnetism in very small ferromagnetic crystals. Hard magnetic materials with strong perpendicular anisotropy offer stability and high recording density. To overcome the difficulty of writing media with a large coercivity, heat-assisted magnetic recording was developed, rapidly heating the media to the Curie temperature Tc before writing, followed by rapid cooling. Requirements are a suitable Tc, coupled with anisotropic thermal conductivity and hard magnetic properties. Here, Rh2CoSb is introduced as a new hard magnet with potential for thin-film magnetic recording. A magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3.6 MJ m−3 is combined with a saturation magnetization of μ0Ms = 0.52 T at 2 K (2.2 MJ m−3 and 0.44 T at room temperature). The magnetic hardness parameter of 3.7 at room temperature is the highest observed for any rare-earth-free hard magnet. The anisotropy is related to an unquenched orbital moment of 0.42 μB on Co, which is hybridized with neighboring Rh atoms with a large spin–orbit interaction. Moreover, the pronounced temperature dependence of the anisotropy that follows from its Tc of 450 K, together with a thermal conductivity of 20 W m−1 K−1, make Rh2CoSb a candidate for the development of heat-assisted writing with a recording density in excess of 10 Tb in.−2.
Advanced Materials 32(2020)45, 2004331
Superconducting Accelerators as Sources for Intense Secondary Radiations
The Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf operates a superconducting electron linear accelerator (named ELBE radiation source) as a driver for secondary beams of electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and positrons. The combination of high-intensity secondary beams, superior timing resolution, and adjustable beam repetition rates allows performing experiments, which are hardly possible using alternative technologies. The facility runs as a dedicated user facility thus serving an international community. Applications range from tunable coherent infra-red radiation from an Free-Electron Laser, coherent super-radiant THz radiation with sub-ps timing, high-energy gamma-rays and neutrons for nuclear physics to secondary positron beams for materials research.
Several recent scientific results will be presented and plans for a successor, the Dresden Advanced Light Infrastructure (DALI), will be shown.
Keywords: ELBE; DALI; positrons; THz; FELBE; TELBE; neutrons; gammas; Felsenkeller; nuclear astrophysics
Physikalisches Kolloquium der Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 05.11.2020, Halle/Saale (virtuell), Deutschland
Rare earth minerals and rare-earth mining
The book chapter is about the geology of rare earth elements, their mineral carrier as well as secondary raw materials.
Prof. Dr. Rainer Pöttgen, Prof. Dr. Christian Strassert, Prof. Dr. Thomas Jüstel: Rare Earth Chemistry, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2020, 978-3110653601, 15-36
Nanoparticle emission by electronic sputtering of CaF2 single crystals
Alencar, I.; Hatori, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Trombini, H.; Grande, P. L.; Dias, J. F.; Papaléo, R. M.; Mücklich, A.; Assmann, W.; Toulemonde, M.; Trautmann, C.
Material sputtered from CaF2 single crystals by 180 MeV Au ions impinging at different incidence angles were collected on high-purity amorphous C-coated Cu grids and Si100 wafer catcher surfaces over a broad angular range. These catcher surfaces were characterized complementary by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and medium energy ion scattering, revealing the presence of a distribution of partially buried CaF2 nanoparticles in conjunction to a thin layer of deposited CaF2 material. Particle size distributions do not follow simple power laws and depend on the angles of ion incidence and particle detection. It is shown that the particle ejection is directly related to the jet-like component of sputtering, previously observed in ionic crystals, contributing significantly to the total yield. This contribution enhances as the impinging ions approach grazing incidence. Possible scenarios for the emission of particles are discussed in light of these observations.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopyCatcher technique; Nanoparticle; Medium energy ion scattering; Electronic sputtering; Swift heavy ions; Transmission electron microscopy
Applied Surface Science 537(2021), 147821
Voltage‐driven motion of nitrogen ions: a new paradigm for magneto‐ionics
de Rojas, J.; Quintana, A.; Lopeandia, A.; Salguero, J.; Muñiz, B.; Ibrahim, F.; Chshiev, M.; Nicolenco, A.; Liedke, M. O.; Butterling, M.; Wagner, A.; Sireus, V.; Abad, L.; Jensen, C.; Liu, K.; Nogues, J.; Costa-Krämer, J.; Sort, J.; Menéndez, E.
Magneto‐ionics, understood as voltage‐driven ion transport in magnetic materials, has largely relied on controlled migration of oxygen ions. Here, we demonstrate room‐temperature voltagedriven nitrogen transport (i.e., nitrogen magneto‐ionics) by electrolyte‐gating of a CoN film.
Nitrogen magneto‐ionics in CoN is compared to oxygen magneto‐ionics in Co3O4. Both materials are nanocrystalline (face‐centered‐cubic structure) and show reversible voltage‐driven ON‐OFF ferromagnetism. In contrast to oxygen, nitrogen transport occurs uniformly creating a plane‐wavelike migration front, without assistance of diffusion channels. Remarkably, nitrogen magnetoionics requires lower threshold voltages and exhibits enhanced rates and cyclability. This is due to the lower activation energy for ion diffusion and the lower electronegativity of nitrogen compared to oxygen. These results may open new avenues in applications such as brain‐inspired computing or iontronics in general.
Keywords: positron annihilation spectroscopy; magneto-ionics; positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; defetcs; nitrogen; Co
Nature Communications 11(2020), 5871
The dithiol-dithione tautomerism of 2,3-pyrazinedithiol in the synthesis of copper and silver coordination compounds
A promising strategy for new electrically conductive coordination polymers is the combination of d10 metal ions, which tolerate short metal···metal distances, with dithiolene linkers, known for their “non-innocent” redox behavior. This study explores the coordination chemistry of 2,3-pyrazinedithiol (H2pdt) towards Cu+ and Ag+ ions, highlighting similarities and differences. The synthetic approach, starting with the fully protonated ligand, allowed the isolation of a homoleptic bis(dithiolene) complex with formal CuI atoms, [Cu(H2pdt)2]Cl (1). This complex was further transformed to a one-dimensional coordination polymer with short metal···metal distances, 1D[Cu(Hpdt)] (2Cu). The larger Ag+ ion directly built up a very similar coordination polymer 1D[Ag(Hpdt)] (2Ag), without any appearance of an intermediate metal complex. The coordination polymer 1D[Cu(H2pdt)I] (4), like complex 1, bears fully protonated H2pdt ligands in their dithione form. Upon heating, both compounds underwent auto-oxidation coupled with a dehydrogenation of the ligand to form the open shell neutral copper(II) complex [Cu(Hpdt)2] (3) and the coordination polymer 1D[Cu2I2(Hpdt)(H2pdt)] (5), respectively. For all presented compounds, crystal structures are discussed in-depth. Furthermore, properties of 1, 3, as well as of the three one-dimensional coordination polymers 2Ag, 2Cu and 4, were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and variable temperature magnetic susceptibility, and DC-conductivity measurements. The experimental results are compared and discussed with the aid of DFT simulations.
Inorganic Chemistry 59(2020)22, 16441-16453
- Secondary publication expected from 22.10.2021
Asphericity of tumor FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer: Reproducibility and implications for harmonization in multicenter studies
Asphericity (ASP) of the primary tumor’s metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in FDG-PET/CT is independently predictive for survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, comparability between PET systems may be limited. Therefore, reproducibility of ASP was evaluated at varying image reconstruction and acquisition times to assess feasibility of ASP assessment in multicenter studies.
This is a retrospective study of 50 patients with NSCLC (female 20; median age 69 years) undergoing pretherapeutic FDG-PET/CT (median 3.7 MBq/kg; 180 s/bed position). Reconstruction used OSEM with TOF4/16 (iterations 4; subsets 16; in-plane filter 2.0, 6.4 or 9.5 mm), TOF4/8 (4 it; 8 ss; filter 2.0/6.0/9.5 mm), PSF + TOF2/17 (2 it; 17 ss; filter 2.0/7.0/10.0 mm) or Bayesian-penalized likelihood (Q.Clear; beta, 600/1750/4000). Resulting reconstructed spatial resolution (FWHM) was determined from hot sphere inserts of a NEMA IEC phantom. Data with approx. 5-mm FWHM were retrospectively smoothed to achieve 7-mm FWHM. List mode data were rebinned for acquisition times of 120/90/60 s. Threshold-based delineation of primary tumor MTV was followed by evaluation of relative ASP/SUVmax/MTV differences between datasets and resulting proportions of discordantly classified cases.
Reconstructed resolution for narrow/medium/wide in-plane filter (or low/medium/high beta) was approx. 5/7/9 mm FWHM. Comparing different pairs of reconstructed resolution between TOF4/8, PSF + TOF2/17, Q.Clear and the reference algorithm TOF4/16, ASP differences was lowest at FWHM of 7 versus 7 mm. Proportions of discordant cases (ASP > 19.5% vs. ≤ 19.5%) were also lowest at 7 mm (TOF4/8, 2%; PSF + TOF2/17, 4%; Q.Clear, 10%). Smoothing of 5-mm data to 7-mm FWHM significantly reduced discordant cases (TOF4/8, 38% reduced to 2%; PSF + TOF2/17, 12% to 4%; Q.Clear, 10% to 6%), resulting in proportions comparable to original 7-mm data. Shorter acquisition time only increased proportions of discordant cases at < 90 s.
ASP differences were mainly determined by reconstructed spatial resolution, and multicenter studies should aim at comparable FWHM (e.g., 7 mm; determined by in-plane filter width). This reduces discordant cases (high vs. low ASP) to an acceptable proportion for TOF and PSF + TOF of < 5% (Q.Clear: 10%). Data with better resolution (i.e., lower FWHM) could be retrospectively smoothed to the desired FWHM, resulting in a comparable number of discordant cases.
EJNMMI Research 10(2020), 134
"Full-Core" VVER-1000 calculation benchmark
This work deals with the \Full-Core" VVER-1000 calculation benchmark which was proposed on the 26th Symposium of AER . Recently, the calculation benchmarks \Full-Core" VVER-440  and its extension  have been introduced in the AER community with positive response [4, 5]. Therefore we have decided to prepare a similar benchmark for VVER-1000. This benchmark is also a 2D calculation benchmark based on the VVER-1000 reactor core cold state geometry, explicitly taking into account the geometry of the radial reflector. The loading pattern for this core is very similar to the fresh fuel loading of cycle 9 at Unit 1 of the Temelin NPP (Czech Republic). This core is filled with six types of fuel assemblies with enrichment from 1.3%w 235U to 4.0%w 235U with up to 9 fuel pins with Gd burnable absorber per FA. The main task of this benchmark is to test the pin-by-pin power distribution in fuel assemblies predicted by macro-codes that are used for neutron-physics calculations especially for VVER reactors. In this contribution we present the overview of available macro-codes results.
Kerntechnik 85(2020)4, 231-244
Tailoring magnetocaloric effect in all- d -metal Ni-Co-Mn-Ti Heusler alloys: a combined experimental and theoretical study
Novel Ni-Co-Mn-Ti all- d -metal Heusler alloys are exciting due to large multicaloric effects combined with enhanced mechanical properties. An optimized heat treatment for a series of these compounds leads to very sharp phase transitions in bulk alloys with isothermal entropy changes of up to 38 J kg−1 K−1 for a magnetic field change of 2 T. The differences of as-cast and annealed samples are analyzed by investigating microstructure and phase transitions in detail by optical microscopy. We identify different grain structures as well as stoichiometric (in)homogenieties as reasons for differently sharp martensitic transitions after ideal and non-ideal annealing. We develop alloy design rules for tuning the magnetostructural phase transition and evaluate specifically the sensitivity of the transition temperature towards the externally applied magnetic fields (dTt/μ0dH) by analyzing the different stoichiometries. We then set up a phase diagram including martensitic transition temperatures and austenite Curie temperatures depending on the e/a ratio for varying Co and Ti content. The evolution of the Curie temperature with changing stoi- chiometry is compared to other Heusler systems. Density Functional Theory calculations reveal a correlation of TC with the stoichiometry as well as with the order state of the austenite. This combined approach of experiment and theory allows for an efficient development of new systems towards promising magnetocaloric properties. Direct adiabatic temperature change measurements show here the largest value of -4 K in a magnetic field change of 1.93 T for Ni35Co15Mn37Ti13.
Acta Materialia 201(2020), 425-434
Photo-neutron cross-section of natDy in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12, 14, 16, 65, and 75 MeV
The flux-weighted average cross-sections of natDy(γ, xn)159,157,155Dy reactions were measured at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 12, 14, 16, 65 and 75 MeV with the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 20 MeV Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany and the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The natDy(γ, xn)157,155Dy reaction cross sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated theoretically using TALYS 1.9 code. Then the flux-weighted average values at different end-point energies were obtained based on the theoretical values of mono-energetic photons. These values were compared with the flux-weighted values of present work and are found to be in general agreement. It was also found that the experimental and theoretical formation cross sections of 159Dy, 157Dy and 155Dy from the natDy(γ, xn) reactions increased from their respective threshold values to a certain energy where other reaction channels opened. After reaching a maximum value, the individual reaction cross-sections slowly decreased with the increase of the bremsstrahlung energy due to the initiation of other competing reactions at higher energy, which indicates the impact of the excitation energy. However, the production cross sections of 157Dy and 155Dy from the natDy(γ, xn) reactions slightly increase in between and then decreased slowly with bremsstrahlung energy, which is due to the contributing reactions of higher mass isotopes.
Keywords: Photonuclear reactions; photoabsorption cross section; photodissociation
European Physical Journal A 56(2020), 264-1-264-12
Dynamic properties of the warm dense electron gas based on ab initio path integral Monte Carlo simulations
Hamann, P.; Dornheim, T.; Vorberger, J.; Moldabekov, Z.; Bonitz, M.
There is growing interest in warm dense matter (WDM), an exotic state on the border between condensed matter and plasmas. Due to the simultaneous importance of quantum and correlation effects, WDM is complicated to treat theoretically. A key role has been played by ab initio path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations, and recently extensive results for thermodynamic quantities have been obtained. The first extension of PIMC simulations to the dynamic structure factor of the uniform electron gas was reported by Dornheim et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 255001 (2018)]. This was based on an accurate reconstruction of the dynamic local field correction. Here we extend this concept to other dynamical quantities of the warm dense electron gas including the dynamic susceptibility, the dielectric function, and the conductivity.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 125150
- Original PDF 2 MB Secondary publication
Ion energy-loss characteristics and friction in a free-electron gas at warm dense matter and nonideal dense plasma conditions
Moldabekov, Z.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.; Ramazanov, T.
We investigate the energy-loss characteristics of an ion in warm dense matter (WDM) and dense plasmas concentrating on the influence of electronic correlations. The basis for our analysis is a recently developed ab initio quantum Monte Carlo– (QMC) based machine learning representation of the static local field correction (LFC) [Dornheim et al., J. Chem. Phys. 151, 194104 (2019)], which provides an accurate description of the dynamical density response function of the electron gas at the considered parameters. We focus on the polarization-induced stopping power due to free electrons, the friction function, and the straggling rate. In addition, we compute the friction coefficient which constitutes a key quantity for the adequate Langevin dynamics simulation of ions. Considering typical experimental WDM parameters with partially degenerate electrons, we find that the friction coefficient is of the order of γ/ωpi=0.01, where ωpi is the ionic plasma frequency. This analysis is performed by comparing QMC-based data to results from the random-phase approximation (RPA), the Mermin dielectric function, and the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander (STLS) approximation. It is revealed that the widely used relaxation time approximation (Mermin dielectric function) has severe limitations regarding the description of the energy loss of ions in a correlated partially degenerate electrons gas. Moreover, by comparing QMC-based data with the results obtained using STLS, we find that the ion energy-loss properties are not sensitive to the inaccuracy of the static local field correction (LFC) at large wave numbers, k/kF>2 (with kF being the Fermi wave number), but that a correct description of the static LFC at k/kF≲1.5 is important.
Physical Review E 101(2020), 053203-1-053203-14
- Original PDF 3,9 MB Secondary publication
Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations of quantum dipole systems in traps: Superfluidity, quantum statistics, and structural properties
We present extensive ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of two-dimensional quantum dipole few-body systems (2≤N≤7) in a harmonic confinement, taking into account both Bose- and Fermi-statistics. This allows us to study the nonclassical rotational inertia, which can lead to a negative superfluid fraction in the case of fermions [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 235301 (2014)]. Moreover, we study in detail the structural characteristics of such systems and are able to clearly resolve the impact of quantum statistics on density profiles and the respective shell structure. Further, we present results for a more advanced center-two-particle correlation function [Phys. Rev. E 91, 043104 (2015)], which allows detection of differences between Fermi and Bose systems even when they are almost absent in other observables like the density. Overall, we find that bosonic systems sensitively react to even small values of the dipole-dipole coupling strength, whereas such a weak interaction is effectively masked for fermions by the Pauli exclusion principle. In addition, the abnormal superfluid fraction for fermions is not reflected by the structural properties of the system, which are equal to the bosonic case even though the moments of inertia diverge from each other. Lastly, we have explored the possibility of fermionic PIMC simulations of quantum dipole systems despite the notorious fermion sign problem, which can be further extended in future investigations in this field.
Physical Review A 102(2020), 023307-1-023307-20
- Original PDF 1,8 MB Secondary publication
Restricted configuration path integral Monte Carlo
Yilmaz, A.; Hunger, K.; Dornheim, T.; Groth, S.; Bonitz, M.
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) belongs to the most accurate simulation techniques for quantum many-particle systems. However, for fermions, these simulations are hampered by the sign problem that prohibits simulations in the regime of strong degeneracy. The situation changed with the development of configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) by Schoof et al. [Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 687 (2011)] that allowed for the first ab initio simulations for dense quantum plasmas [Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015)]. CPIMC also has a sign problem that occurs when the density is lowered, i.e., in a parameter range that is complementary to traditional QMC formulated in coordinate space. Thus, CPIMC simulations for the warm dense electron gas are limited to small values of the Brueckner parameter—the ratio of the interparticle distance to the Bohr radius—rs=r⎯⎯⎯/aB≲1
. In order to reach the regime of stronger coupling (lower density) with CPIMC, here we investigate additional restrictions on the Monte Carlo procedure. In particular, we introduce two different versions of “restricted CPIMC”—called RCPIMC and RCPIMC+—where certain sign changing Monte Carlo updates are being omitted. Interestingly, one of the methods (RCPIMC) has no sign problem at all, but it introduces a systematic error and is less accurate than RCPIMC+, which neglects only a smaller class of the Monte Carlo steps. Here, we report extensive simulations for the ferromagnetic uniform electron gas with which we investigate the properties and accuracy of RCPIMC and RCPIMC+. Furthermore, we establish the parameter range in the density–temperature plane where these simulations are both feasible and accurate. The conclusion is that RCPIMC and RCPIMC+ work best at temperatures in the range of Θ = kBT/EF ∼ 0.1…0.5, where EF is the Fermi energy, allowing to reach density parameters up to rs ∼ 3…5, thereby partially filling a gap left open by existing ab initio QMC methods.
Journal of Chemical Physics 153(2020), 12
Reconstruction of austenite grain boundaries in bainitic reactor pressure vessel steels by EBSD
The reconstruction of austenite grain boundaries in bainitic reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was done on two examples. In the case of VVER-440 RPV steel the reconstruction works very well, while in JFL RPV steel the reconstruction is faulty due to the accented presence of low angle boundaries.
AK-Treffen Mikrostrukturcharakterisierung im REM, 22.10.2020, Freiberg, Germany
Enhanced spin correlations in the Bose-Einstein condensate compound Sr3Cr2O8
Nomura, T.; Scurschii, I.; Quintero-Castro, D. L.; Zvyagin, A. A.; Suslov, A. V.; Gorbunov, D.; Yasin, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Kindo, K.; Islam, A. T. M. N.; Lake, B.; Kohama, Y.
Combined experimental and modeling studies of the magnetocaloric effect, ultrasound, and magnetostriction were performed on single-crystal samples of the spin-dimer system Sr3Cr2O8 in large magnetic fields to probe the spin-correlated regime in the proximity of the field-induced XY-type antiferromagnetic order also referred to as a Bose-Einstein condensate of magnons. The magnetocaloric effect, measured under adiabatic conditions, reveals details of the field-temperature (H, T ) phase diagram, a dome characterized by critical magnetic-fields Hc1 = 30.4, Hc2 = 62 T, and a single maximum ordering temperature Tmax(45 T) = 8 K. The sample temperature was observed to drop significantly as the magnetic field is increased, even for initial temperatures above Tmax, indicating a significantmagnetic entropy associated with the field-induced closure of the spin gap. The ultrasound and magnetostriction experiments probe the coupling between the lattice degrees of freedom and the magnetism in Sr3Cr2O. Our experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a minimalistic phenomenological model of the exchange striction by which sound waves renormalize the effective exchange couplings.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 165144
- Original PDF 2,3 MB Secondary publication
Strong anisotropy of the electron-phonon interaction in NbP probed by magnetoacoustic quantum oscillations
In this study, we report on the observation of de Haas–van Alphen–type quantum oscillations (QOs) in the ultrasound velocity of NbP as well as “giant QOs” in the ultrasound attenuation in pulsed magnetic fields. The difference in the QO amplitude for different acoustic modes reveals a strong anisotropy of the effective deformation potential, which we estimate to be as high as 9 eV for certain parts of the Fermi surface. Furthermore, the natural filtering of QO frequencies and the tracing of the individual Landau levels to the quantum limit allows for a more detailed investigation of the Fermi surface of NbP, as was previously achieved by means of analyzing QOs observed in magnetization or electrical resistivity.
Physical Review B 102(2020), 165156
Detection of manufactured nanomaterials in complex environmental compartments – An expert review
Manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) are materials in which 50% or more of the particles have one or more dimensions between 1 nm and 100 nm. These NMs show interesting properties. However, the same properties that motivate their use in applications are also reason for concern, as NMs can cause toxic reactions and have mobilities in the environment different from bulk materials of the same elements. Despite considerable scientific efforts, the selective detection of manufactured NMs in environmental compartments is still a very complex and challenging task. An expert review of the literature has been conducted to identify relevant methods for nanomaterial detection in complex media in the context of environmental monitoring and a need for action was concluded from the existing body of work.
A literature review was performed using predominantly “Web of Science”. More than 150 scientific publications which themselves refer to more than 10000 sources were evaluated concerning nanoparticle detection methods. The techniques identified through the literature review were evaluated for their capability to detect the relevant NM-related properties such as size, concentration, com- position, shape, etc. of arbitrary NMs in environmental samples.
Evaluating the relevant literature quickly led to the conclusion that while some detection methods will lend themselves more easily towards detection of NMs in a specific environmental compartment, there is no strictly compartment specific method. NMs can be detected with any of the different methods after application of suitable sample preparation techniques. Consequently, a generalized method for NM detection in environmental samples would consist of standardized sampling procedures followed by an extraction step that serves to largely remove the complex matrix followed by a size fractionation step which would then lead into a multi-method analysis depending on the desired information depth.
The need for action for the establishment of routine environmental monitoring of manufactured NMs is thus the development, validation and coupling of suitable extraction, pre-sorting and if necessary pre- concentration procedures, as well, as analysis techniques. One promising combined approach would consist of: CPE, AF4, MALS and sp-ICP-TOF-MS.
Keywords: nanoparticles; detection; environmental compartments
Nanosafe 2020, 16.-20.11.2020, Grenoble, France
Assessing nanoparticle release from waste water treatment using radiolabeled nanoparticles
Schymura, S.; Hildebrand, H.; Neugebauer, M.; Lange, T.; Schneider, P.; Franke, K.
Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) represent an important step in the life cycle of manufactured nanomaterials. A considerable amount of nanoparticles (NPs) that are released from consumer products will end up in WWTPs, so that WWTPs can both serve as a potential end of life point for these nanoparticles, as well as a point of reentry into the environment via the WWTP effluents. It is thus of utmost importance to accurately quantify the fate of manufactured nanomaterials in waste water treatment in order to assess the risk
We used the radiolabeling of nanoparticles to accurately quantify the distribution of nanoparticles between the effluents of a model waste water treatment plant. In order to achieve this TiO2 NP were radiolabeled with V-48 using proton irradiation at our cyclotron. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were radiolabeled with Be-7 via recoil at our cyclotron. CdSe/ZnS Quantum dots were radiolabeled with Zn-65 and Se-75 via radiosynthesis. The radiolabeled NPs were used in batch experiments and model waste water treatment plant experiments.
The radiolabeling allowed us to quantify NP distribution between sludge and water phase in the WWTP and in the WWTP effluents. A distribution of about 10000 : 1 between sludge-associated NPs and free NPs in water is reached in the WWTP already shortly after injection of the NPs. Thus the elimination of the NPs from the WWTP is mainly controlled by the removal of surplus sludge taking place every day of operation. The NPs are eliminated from the WWTP with a half-life of about 6 days reflecting the pre-set sludge age. After about 22 days of operation 10 % of the initial NPs remain in the WWTP. Approximately 1 % of the NPs leave the WWTP via the cleared waste water, mainly associated with non-sedimented sludge particles, such that only about 1 ‰ of the NPs leave the WWTP as free particles via the cleared water. An impact of the NPs on the clearing process, as monitored by chemical oxygen demand of the inflow vs. the outflow, was not observed.
Keywords: nanoparticles; waste water treatment; radiolabeling
Nanosafe 2020, 16.-20.11.2020, Grenoble, France
Radiolabeling as a versatile tool in nanosafety research – accurate quantification in complex media
Schymura, S.; Hildebrand, H.; Rybkin, I.; Fricke, T.; Neugebauer, M.; Freyer, A.; Rijavec, T.; Lapanje, A.; Strok, M.; Lange, T.; Holzwarth, U.; Gibson, N.; Franke, K.
Accurate quantification of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex media remains a considerable challenge when assessing the risk that manufactured nanoparticles pose for humans and environment. The radiolabeling of nanoparticles is a valuable tool for conducting lab-studies with realistic systems and realistically low NP concentrations.
We have developed various methods of introducing radiotracers into some of the most common nanoparticles, such as Ag, carbon, SiO2, CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The labeling techniques are the synthesis of the nanoparticles using radioactive starting materials, the binding of the radiotracer to the nanoparticles, the activation of the nanoparticles using proton irradiation, the recoil labeling utilizing the recoil of a nuclear reaction to implant a radiotracer into the nanoparticle, and the in-diffusion of radiotracers into the nanoparticles at elevated temperatures. Using these methods we have produced [105/110mAg]Ag, [124/125/131I]CNTs, [48V]TiO2, [13/1419Ce]CeO2, [7Be]MWCNT, [64Cu]SiO2, [44/45Ti]TiO2, etc. for accurate quantification in complex media at environmentally relevant low concentrations.
The nanoparticles labeled by our methods can be detected at minimal concentrations well in the ng/L range even with a background of the same element and without complicated sample preparations necessary. The methods are adaptable for a wide range of other nanoparticles. The labeled particles have been successfully used in release studies, environmental mobility studies, fate studies in waste water treatment and plant uptake studies.
Keywords: Radiolabeling; Nanoparticles
Nanosafe 2020, 16.-20.11.2020, Grenoble, France
Series of Tetravalent Actinide Amidinates: Structure Determination and Bonding Analysis.
NMR spectra for the complex series in the publication together with the xyz coordinates of the optimized complexes. An example input-file for ORCA v4.1.2 for the calculation of the wavefunction used for QTAIM is presented as well.
Keywords: actinides; NMR; DFT; QTAIM; NPA; coordination chemistry; transuranium
- Series of Tetravalent Actinide Amidinates: Structure … (Id 31531) has used this (Id 31654) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-09-17
Data for: Spectral X-ray Computed Micro Tomography: 3-dimensional chemical imaging
The files show the data we used for the publication.
Keywords: X-ray computed tomography; Spectral X-ray tomography; Photon counting detector; 3D imaging
- Spectral X-ray Computed Micro Tomography: 3-dimensional … (Id 31354) has used this (Id 31653) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-09-22
Are two-dimensional materials radiation tolerant?
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have many unique properties, which can be exploited in various applications. In particular, electronic devices based on 2D materials should ideally be suited for the operation in outer cosmic space due to their low weight, small size and low power consump- tion. This brings about the issue of their radiation hardness, or tolerance, which has recently been addressed in a number of studies. The results of these investigations are somewhat counterintu- itive: although one can naively expect that atomically thin structures should easily be destroyed by the beams of energetic particles, the devices made from 2D materials were reported to exhibit extraordinary radiation hardness. In this Focus article, an overview of the recent studies on the subject is given, followed by the discussion of the origin of the reported high tolerance, which is inherently related to the response of 2D materials, the systems with the reduced dimensionality, to irradiation. The analysis of the experimental and theoretical data on the behavior of 2D systems under irradiation indicates that although free-standing 2D materials can indeed be referred to as radiation resilient systems under irradiation conditions corresponding to the outer space, this is generally not the case, as the environment, e.g., the substrate, can strongly influence the radiation tolerance of 2D materials and devices based on these systems.
Keywords: 2D materials; irradiation; radiation tolerance
Nanoscale Horizons 5(2020), 1447-1452
- Secondary publication expected from 18.09.2021
Influence of chemical zoning on sandstone calcite cement dissolution: The case of manganese and iron
Chemical zoning of crystals is often found in nature. Crystal zoning can play a role in a mineral's thermodynamic stability and in its kinetic response in the presence of fluids. Dissolution experiments at far-from-equilibrium conditions were performed using a sandstone sample containing calcite cement crystal patches. The surface normal retreat of the calcite crystals was obtained by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) in their natural position in the rock. Dissolution rate maps showed contrasting surface dissolution areas within the crystals, in the same locations where electron microprobe (EMP) maps showed the presence of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) substitutions for calcium in the calcite structure. Iron zoning was only identified in combination with manganese. Maximum registered manganese contents were 1.9(9) wt% and iron were 2(1) wt%. Manganese zoning of only 0.9(5) wt% resulted in around 40% lower dissolution rates than the adjacent pure calcite zones. The combination of both Mn and Fe cation substitutions resulted in one order of magnitude lower dissolution rates compared to pure calcite in the same sample. These results show that mineral zoning can significantly affect reaction rates, a parameter that needs better understanding for the improvement of kinetic geochemical models at the pore scale.
Keywords: Sandstone; Calcite; Dissolution; Zoning; Manganese; Iron
Chemical Geology 559(2020), 119952
Dyke apertures record stress accumulation during sustained volcanism
Thiele, S. T.; Cruden, A. R.; Micklethwaite, S.; Köpping, J.; Bunger, A. P.
The feedback between dyke and sill intrusions and the evolution of stresses within volcanic systems is poorly understood, despite its importance for magma transport and volcano instability. Long-lived ocean island volcanoes are crosscut by thousands of dykes, which must be accommodated through a combination of flank slip and visco-elastic deformation. Flank slip is dominant in some volcanoes (e.g., Kilauea), but how intrusions are accommodated in other volcanic systems remains unknown. Here we apply digital mapping techniques to collect > 400,000 orientation and aperture measurements from 519 sheet intrusions within Volcán Taburiente (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) and investigate their emplacement and accommodation. We show that vertically ascending dykes were deflected to propagate laterally as they approached the surface of the volcano, forming a radial dyke swarm, and propose a visco-elastic model for their accommodation. Our model reproduces the measured dyke-aperture distribution and predicts that stress accumulates within densely intruded regions of the volcano, blocking subsequent dykes and causing eruptive activity to migrate. These results have significant implications for the organisation of magma transport within volcanic edifices, and the evolution and stability of long-lived volcanic systems.
Scientific Reports 10(2020), 17335
High Performance Computing: ISC High Performance 2020 International Workshops
This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of 10 workshops held at the 35th International ISC High Performance 2020 Conference, in Frankfurt, Germany, in June 2020:
First Workshop on Compiler-assisted Correctness Checking and Performance Optimization for HPC (C3PO); First International Workshop on the Application of Machine Learning Techniques to Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis (CFDML); HPC I/O in the Data Center Workshop (HPC-IODC); First Workshop \Machine Learning on HPC Systems" (MLHPCS); First International Workshop on Monitoring and Data Analytics (MODA); 15th Workshop on Virtualization in High-Performance Cloud Computing (VHPC).
The 25 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected. They cover all aspects of research, development, and application of large-scale, high performance experimental and commercial systems. Topics include high-performance computing (HPC), computer architecture and hardware, programming models, system software, performance analysis and modeling, compiler analysis and optimization techniques, software sustainability, scientific applications, deep learning.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; computer hardware; computer networks; computer science; computer systems; distributed computer systems; distributed systems; education; HPC; parallel architectures
Cham: Springer, 2020
The resource potential of mine waste – More than metal concentrations
In the last decade, several national and European funding programs addressed the resource potential of mine wastes (including tailings and metallurgical slag dumps), with a clear focus on the development of new sources for critical raw materials (CRM). The European Commission defined CRMs as highly important for the European high tech industry. European and national resource strategies refer to this definition and include the development of new CRM sources as one of their main objectives. The German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF) funded the program “r3 –strategic metals and minerals – innovative technologies for resource efficiency” that started in 2012. The aim of the program was to ensure the domestic supply of strategically significant metals and minerals. Suitable projects had to act in the fields of recycling and substitution of raw materials as well as in the field of reduced material consumption. Urban mining and the evaluation of resource efficiency were further topics that suited the program. The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology (HIF) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) worked already together in different projects about mine waste characterization and resource extraction in r3.
The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology pursues the objective of developing innovative technologies for the economy so that mineral and metalliferous raw materials become more available, undergo highly efficient processes and recycle in an environmentally
friendly manner. As a part of the national strategy for raw materials in 2011, the German government initiated the HIF. It is a constituent part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and works in close collaboration with TU Bergakademie Freiberg. The HIF is a core member of the European EIT RawMaterials network, having played a decisive role in its establishment. Fraunhofer UMSICHT is a pioneer for sustainable energy and raw materials management by supplying and transferring scientific results into companies, society and politics. The dedicated UMSICHT team researches and develops, together with partners, sustainable products, processes and services. Together with industry and public partners, such as the Geological Survey of Germany (BGR), UMSICHT and HIF founded the r³-mine-waste-cluster in order to determine a realistic mine waste
potential for Germany and give a reliable resource estimation for secondary raw materials. Nowadays, however, there is a political and public interest beyond the potential of valuable metals from mine wastes. After the catastrophic tailings accident in Vales Corrego do Feijão mine, Brazil, the social pressure to lower these risks raised on the mining industry, on the mine waste owners (e.g. states) and on the politics. With the new Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management a new set of guidelines was developed in order to avoid these accidents in the future. “The International Council
on Mining and Metals (ICMM), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) share a commitment to the adoption of global best practices on tailings storage facilities. They have co-convened this global tailings review to establish an international standard.” Their environmental risks and at the same time their high potential as a source for (critical) raw materials make mine waste projects a complex exercise. There is a need for solutions that respect environmental, technical, civil and economic issues and provide holistic and sustainable approaches. In order to validating and adjusting different approaches, the HIF coordinates the recomine-alliance. Local stakeholders representing environmental, technical, scientific, governmental and civil institutions assemble in recomine for a development of holistic mine waste solutions for a worldwide application.
Keywords: re-mining; resources; HIF; tailings; mine waste; mining; CRM; slag dump; mine water; WIR!; r3; recomine; Freiberg; Network; Alliance; BMBF; holistic; remediation; sustainable
- World of Mining - Surface & Underground 72(2020)5, 264-269
A FDG-PET radiomics signature detects esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who do not benefit from chemoradiation
Li, Y.; Beck, M.; Päßler, T.; Lili, C.; Wu, H.; Ha, D.; Amthauer, H.; Biebl, M.; Thuss-Patience, P.; Berger, J.; Stromberger, C.; Tinhofer, I.; Kruppa, J.; Budach, V.; Hofheinz, F.; Lin, Q.; Zschaeck, S.
Detection of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who do not benefit from standard chemoradiation (CRT) is an important medical need. Radiomics using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a promising approach. In this retrospective study of 184 patients with locally advanced ESCC. 152 patients from one center were grouped into a training cohort (n = 100) and an internal validation cohort (n = 52). External validation was performed with 32 patients treated at a second center. Primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and local control (LC). FDG-PET radiomics features were selected by Lasso-Cox regression analyses and a separate radiomics signature was calculated for each endpoint. In the training cohort radiomics signatures containing up to four PET derived features were able to identify non-responders in regard of all endpoints (DFS p < 0.001, LC p = 0.003, OS p = 0.001). After successful internal validation of the cutoff values generated by the training cohort for DFS (p = 0.025) and OS (p = 0.002), external validation using these cutoffs was successful for DFS (p = 0.002) but not for the other investigated endpoints. These results suggest that pre-treatment FDG-PET features may be useful to detect patients who do not respond to CRT and could benefit from alternative treatment.
Scientific Reports 10(2020), 17671
Dissolution of donor-vacancy clusters in heavily doped n-type germanium
Prucnal, S.; Liedke, M. O.; Wang, X.; Butterling, M.; Posselt, M.; Knoch, J.; Windgassen, H.; Hirschmann, E.; Berencen, Y.; Rebohle, L.; Wang, M.; Napoltani, E.; Frigerio, J.; Ballabio, A.; Isella, G.; Hübner, R.; Wagner, A.; Bracht, H.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
The n-type doping of Ge is a self-limiting process due to the formation of vacancy-donor complexes (DnV with n ≤ 4) that deactivate the donors. This work unambiguously demonstrates that the dissolution of the dominating P4V clusters in heavily phosphorus-doped Ge epilayers can be achieved by millisecond-flash lamp annealing at about 1050 K. The P4V cluster dissolution increases the carrier concentration by more than three-fold together with a suppression of phosphorus diffusion. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with secondary ion mass spectrometry, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and theoretical calculations enabled us to address and understand a fundamental problem that has hindered so far the full integration of Ge with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.
Keywords: Ge; vacancies; doping; positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; flash lamp annealing
New Journal of Physics (2020)
Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/abc466
Magnetic-field-assisted electrodeposition towards micro- and nano-structured ferromagnetic layers
Micro- or nano-structured ferromagnetic layers often possess superior electrocatalytic properties but are difficult to manufacture in general. The present work investigates how a magnetic field can possibly support local cone growth on a planar electrode during electrodeposition, thus simplifying fabrication. Analytical and numerical studies were performed on conical structures of mm size to elaborate the influence of the magnetic forces caused by an electrode-normal external field. It is shown that, beside the Lorentz force studied earlier in the case of single cones , the magnetic gradient force enabled by the field alteration near the ferromagnetic cathode significantly supports cone growth. Detailed studies performed for sharp and flat single cones allow conclusions to be drawn on the support at different stages in the evolution of conical deformations. Furthermore, the influence from neighboring cones is studied with arrays of cones at varying distances apart. Nearby neighbors generally tend to mitigate the flow driven by the magnetic forces. Here, the support for cone growth originating from the magnetic gradient force is less heavily affected than that from the Lorentz force. Our results clearly show that the magnetic field has a beneficial effect on the growth of ferromagnetic conical structures, which could also be useful on the micro- and nanometer scales.
Keywords: metal electrodeposition; magnetic field; surface-structured electrode; Lorentz force; magnetic gradient force; numerical simulation
Electrochimica Acta 365(2020), 137374
- Secondary publication expected from 30.10.2021
Data for: Scanning transmission imaging in the helium ion microscope using a microchannel plate with a delay line detector
A detection system based on a microchannel plate with a delay line readout structure has been developed to perform scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in the helium ion microscope (HIM). This system is an improvement over other existing approaches since it combines the information of the scanning beam position on the sample with the position (scattering angle) and time of the transmission events. Various imaging modes such as bright and dark field or the direct image of the transmitted signal can be created by post-processing the collected STIM data. Furthermore, the detector has high spatial and time resolution, is sensitive to both ions and neutral particles over a wide energy range, and shows robustness against ion beam-induced damage. A special in-vacuum movable support gives the possibility of moving the detector vertically, placing the detector closer to the sample for the detection of high-angle scattering events, or moving it down to increase the angular resolution and distance for time-of-flight measurements. With this new system, we show composition-dependent contrast for amorphous materials and the contrast difference between small and high angle scattering signals. We also detect channeling related contrast on polycrystalline silicon, thallium chloride nanocrystals, and single crystalline silicon by comparing the signal transmitted at different directions for the same data set.
Keywords: helium ion microscopy; scanning transmission ion microscopy; delay line detector; channeling; bright field; dark field
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-09-09
Zero-field propagation of spin waves in waveguides prepared by focused ion beam direct writing
Metastable face-centered-cubic Fe78Ni22 thin films are excellent candidates for focused ion beam direct writing of magnonic structures due to their favorable magnetic properties after ion-beam-induced transformation. The focused ion beam transforms the originally nonmagnetic fcc phase into the ferromagnetic bcc phase with additional control over the direction of uniaxial magnetic in-plane anisotropy and saturation magnetization. Local magnetic anisotropy direction control eliminates the need for external magnetic fields, paving the way towards complex magnonic circuits with waveguides pointing in different directions. In the present study, we show that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in transformed areas is strong enough to stabilize the magnetization in the direction perpendicular to the long axis of narrow waveguides. Therefore, it is possible to propagate spin waves in these waveguides in the favorable Damon-Eshbach geometry without the presence of any external magnetic field. Phase-resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering yields the dispersion relation of these waveguides in zero as well as in nonzero external magnetic fields.
Keywords: Ferromagnetism; Magnetic Anisotropy; Magnetic phase transition; Magnetization Dynamics; Spin Dynamics; Spin Waves; Structural Phase transition; Focused ion beam
Physical Review B 101(2020), 014436
- Original PDF 1,7 MB Secondary publication
Performance investigation of bulk photoconductive semiconductor switch based on reversely biased p+in+ structure
We present an investigation of a low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) that is characterized by powerful avalanche domains. The performance of the switch is investigated using a reversely biased p⁺-i-n⁺ structure with 0.625-mm thickness, and the 8.0-kV, 170-ps bulk PCSS that is triggered by a 905-nm laser at the energy of 5.7 nJ is achieved. In the low-energy-triggered mode, it is found experimentally that the reduction of required energy for switching operation is not always kept by the continuous increase of the bias field in the bulk PCSS due to Franz–Keldysh effect. We also analyze the triggering efficiency depending on the laser wavelength numerically, and results indicate that the earlier formation of the powerful avalanche domains is realized by the increased wavelength, which causes lower laser energy for switching operation. Moreover, the prestudy of high-power microwave (HPM) applications is also introduced utilizing bulk PCSS, and we constructed the basic units for ultrawide-band (UWB) pulse and HPM-driven pulse.
Keywords: photoconductive semiconductor switch; avalanche domain; GaAs
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67(2020)11, 4963-4969
Mode-locked short pulses from an 8 μm wavelength semiconductor laser
Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have revolutionized the generation of mid-infrared light. Yet, the ultrafast carrier transport in mid-infrared QCLs have so far constituted a seemingly insurmountable obstacle for the formation of ultrashort light pulses. Here, we demonstrate that careful quantum design of the gain medium and control over the intermode beat synchronization enable transform-limited picosecond pulses from QCL frequency combs. Both an interferometric radio-frequency technique and second-order autocorrelation shed light on the pulse dynamics and confirm that mode-locked operation is achieved from threshold to rollover current. Furthermore, we show that both antiphase and in-phase synchronized states exist in QCLs. Being electrically pumped and compact, mode-locked QCLs pave the way towards monolithically integrated non-linear photonics in the molecular fingerprint region beyond 6 μm wavelength.
Keywords: quantum cascade laser; two-photon QWIP; mid-infrared, frequency comb
Nature Communications 11(2020), 5788
Wire-mesh sensor measurements of single-phase liquid flows at different temperatures
The dataset contains raw data that is related to the investigation "Temperature Compensation for Conductivity-Based Phase Fraction Measurements with Wire-Mesh Sensors in Gas-Liquid Flows of Dilute Aqueous Solutions".
A 16x16 conductivity-based wire-mesh sensor was placed in a single-phase liquid loop with adjustable fluid temperature. The dataset includes the wire-mesh sensor measurements with water at several temperature levels from 12.5°C to 80°C and the corresponding electrical conductivites. Two water samples, namely deionized water and a mixed water sample, were investigated. The latter one is composed of 95% deionized water and 5% local tap water.
Keywords: wire-mesh sensor; temperature compensation; electrical conductivity
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-21
Frequency control of auto-oscillations of the magnetization in spin Hall nano-oscillators
This thesis experimentally demonstrates four approaches of frequency control of magnetic autooscillations in spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs).
The frequency can be changed in the GHZ-range by external magnetic fields as shown in this work. This approach uses large electromagnets, which is inconvenient for future applications.The nonlinear coupling between oscillator power and frequency can be used to control the latter one by changing the applied direct current to the SHNO. The frequency can be controlled over a range of several 100 MHz as demonstrated in this thesis.
The first part of the experimental chapter demonstrates the synchronization (injection-locking) between magnetic auto-oscillations and an external microwave excitation. The additionally applied microwave current generates a modulation of the effective magnetic field, which causes the interaction with the auto-oscillation. Both synchronize over a range of several 100 MHz. In this range, the auto-oscillation frequency can be controlled by the external stimulus. An increase of power and a decrease of line width is achieved in the synchronization range. This is explained by the increased coherence of the auto-oscillations. A second approach is the synchronization of auto-oscillations to an alternating magnetic field. This field is generated by a freestanding antenna, which is positioned above the SHNO.
The second part of the experimental chapter introduces a bipolar concept of SHNOs and its experimental demonstration. In contrast to conventional SHNOs, bipolar SHNOs generate autooscillations for both direct current polarities and both directions of the external magnetic field. This is achieved by combining two ferromagnetic layers in an SHNO. The combination of two different ferromagnetic materials is used to switch between two frequency ranges in dependence of the direct current polarity since it defines the layer showing auto-oscillations. This approach can be used to change the frequency in the GHz-range by switching the direct current polarity.
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-21
Potential microbial influence on the performance of subsurface, salt-based nuclear waste repositories
Microrganisms can influence the performance of nuclear waste repositories through activities or processes that affect radionuclide migration. In the case of subterranean salt-based repositories, the influence of microorganisms may be limited by the unique constraints of such sutes (e.g. high ionic strength, low water activity, nutient supply) coupled with conditions of the repositories themselves (e.g. anoxia,radioactivity, high temperatures). Indigenous extremely halophilic archaea can survive long-term at high ionic strength and may remain viable throughout a repository´s lifetime. However, their ability to affect repository performance through waste and radionuclide transformation is uncertain, as they are mostly arobic and repositories are projected to be anoxic. Microorganisms introduced with waste may contribute to transformations within drums but may not survive high salt concentrations once drums have been breached and inundated with brine. However, both indigenous and introduced organisms may associate with radionuclides and enhance or mitigate radionuclide migration in this capacity.
Jonathan Lloyd, Andrea Cherkouk: The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal 1st Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020
Molecular techniques for understanding microbial abundance and activity in clay barriers used for geodisposal
Mijnendonckx, K.; Monsieurs, P.; Cerna, K.; Hlavackova, V.; Steinova, J.; Burzan, N.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Boothman, C.; Miettinen, H.; Kluge, S.; Matschiavelli, N.; Cherkouk, A.; Jroundi, F.; Larbi Merroun, M.; Engel, K.; Neufeld, J. D.; Leys, N.
Clays are commonly used in design concepts for geological disposal of nuclear waste. It is thus essential to identify and quantify microbial communities in clay-rich samples to study microbial processes during geological disposal. Although advances in culture-independent techiques have enablesd detailed studies of microbial communities in diverse ecosystems, the efficiency and sensitivity of these molecular techniques depend on chartacteristics of the environment studied. Moreover, the outcome of nucleic acid-based approaches depends on the extraction method, prmer specificity, PCR amplification, sequencing artefacts and downstream bioinformatic analyses. Clays are recalcitrant to DNA extraction and are challenging for analysis by standard techniques using viability stains and measurement of metabolic activity. This chapter explores the impact of various sequencing and bioinformatic pipelines used for 16S rRNA gene profiling of microbial communities and compares the efficiency of different DNA extraction methods from clay. Moreover, non-DNA based techniques used to assess microbial activity and viability in clay samples will be also discussed.
Jonathan Lloyd Andrea Cherkouk: The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal 1st Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020
The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal
Lloyd, J.; Cherkouk, A.
The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal is a state-of-the-art reference featuring contributions focusing on the impact of microbes on the safe long-term disposal of nuclear waste. This book is the first to cover this important emerging topic, and is written for a wide audience encompassing regulators, implementers, academics, and other stakeholders. The book is also of interest to those working on the wider exploitation of the subsurface, such as bioremediation, carbon capture and storage, geothermal energy, and water quality.
Planning for suitable facilities in the U.S., Europe, and Asia has been based mainly on knowledge from the geological and physical sciences. However, recent studies have shown that microbial life can proliferate in the inhospitable environments associated with radioactive waste disposal, and can control the long-term fate of nuclear materials. This can have beneficial and damaging impacts, which need to be quantified.
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020
Raw data: CoFeB beamtime overview
Collection of raw data and evaluated data for the CoFeB experiments carried out in collaboration with Stefano Bonetti et al.
Keywords: Spin dynamics; nutation; CoFeB; Terahertz
- Inertial spin dynamics in ferromagnet (Id 29815) has used this (Id 31612) publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-19
Parametric optimization in rougher flotation performance of a sulfidized mixed copper ore
The dominant challenge of current copper beneficiation plants is the low recoverability of oxide copper-bearing minerals associated with sulfide type ones. Furthermore, applying commonly used conventional methodologies does not allow the interactional effects of critical parameters in the flotation processes to be investigated, which is mostly overlooked in the literature. To tackle this issue, the present paper aimed at characterizing the behavior of five key effective factors and their interactions in a sulfidized copper ore. In this context, dosage of collector (sodium di-ethydithiophosphate, 60–100 g/t), depressant (sodium silicate, 80–120 g/t) and frother (methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), 6–10 g/t), pulp pH (7–11) and agitation rate (900–1300 rpm) were examined and statistically analyzed using response surface methodology. Flotation experiments were conducted in a Denver type agitated flotation cell at the rougher stage. The experimental results showed that increasing the pH (from 8 to 10) at low agitation rate (1000 rpm) enhanced the recovery from 80.36% to 85.22%, while at high agitation rate (1200 rpm), a slight declination occurred in the recovery. Meanwhile, increasing the collector dosage at a lower frother value (7 g/t), caused a reduction of about 4.44% in copper recovery owing to the interactions between factors, whereas at a higher frother level (9 g/t), the recovery was almost unchanged. The optimization process was also performed using the goal function approach, and maximum copper recovery of 92.75% was obtained using ~70 g/t collector, 110 g/t depressant, 7 g/t frother, pulp pH of 10 and 1000 rpm agitation rate.
Keywords: sulfidized copper ore; flotation; interaction effects; recovery; optimization
Minerals 10(2020)8, 1-19
Point and extended defects in heteroepitaxial β-Ga2O3 films
Ga2O3 is emerging as an excellent potential semiconductor for high power and optoelectronic devices.
However, the successful development of Ga2O3 in a wide range of applications requires a full understanding of the role and nature of its point and extended defects. In this work, high quality epitaxial Ga2O3 films were grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and fully characterized in terms of structural, optical, and electrical properties. Then defects in the films were investigated by a combination of depth-resolved Doppler broadening and lifetime of positron annihilation spectroscopies and thermally stimulated emission (TSE). Positron annihilation techniques can provide information about the nature and concentration of defects in the films, while TSE reveals the energy level of defects in the bandgap. Despite very good structural properties, the films exhibit short positron diffusion length, which is an indication of high defect density and long positron lifetime, a sign for the formation of Ga vacancy related defects and large vacancy clusters. These defects act as deep and shallow traps for charge carriers as revealed from TSE, which explains the reason behind the difficulty of developing conductive Ga2O3 films on non-native substrates. Positron lifetime measurements also show nonuniform distribution of vacancy clusters throughout the film depth. Further, the work investigates the modification of defect nature and properties through thermal treatment in various environments. It demonstrates the sensitivity of Ga2O3 microstructures to the growth and thermal treatment environments and the significant effect of modifying defect structure on the bandgap and optical and electrical properties of Ga2O3
Keywords: positron annihilation spectroscopy; positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; Doppler broadening; defetcs; Ga2O3
Physical Review Materials 4(2020), 104602
- Original PDF 3 MB Secondary publication
Code, data and supplementary material for: An improved contact method for quantifying the mixing of a binary granular mixture
This material is related to the publication "An improved contact method for quantifying the mixing of a binary granular mixture", submitted on 13.05.2020 to Granular Matter. The original camera video, an intermediate masked video and the final preprocessed video used in the calculations, made from frames 4-1004 of the masked one, are included. The code used for all calculations in the paper and supplementary material, including the implementation of the mixing index evaluation methods, as well as the static artificial images and the generated data, are also included. All images used in the calculations are stored in the required data form. The figures of the paper are also included, as well as two supplementary materials: a version of Figure 12 with the points of the original contact method, and a discussion on the calculation of the minimum modified contact length.
Keywords: binary particle mixing; rotating drum; image analysis; mixing index; contact method; variance method
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-13
The effect of Pd(II) chloride complexes anchoring on the formation and properties of Pd/MgAlOx catalysts
Pd(II) chloride complexes were anchored using magnesium-aluminum layered double
hydroxides (LDHs) with interlayer anions 3 2 and ), which possess different exchange properties, and MgAl mixed oxide during its rehydration. It was shown that the catalysts of the same chemical composition with different size, morphology and electronic state of supported palladium particles can be synthesized by varying the localization of Pd precursor. The properties of Pd/MgAlOx catalysts were studied in aqueous-phase hydrogenation of furfural.
Anchoring of the Pd precursor in the interlayer space of LDHs is accompanied by the formation of non-isometric agglomerated palladium particles which contain less oxidized metal and show a higher activity toward hydrogenation of furfural. Magnesium-aluminum oxides in Pd/MgAlOx catalysts are rehydrated in the aqueous-phase reaction to yield the activated MgAl-LDH species as a support, which promotes the furfural conversion via hydrogenation of the furan cycle.
Journal of Catalysis 392(2020), 108-118
- Secondary publication expected from 08.10.2021
Development of New 14 Cr ODS Steels by Using New Oxides Formers and B as an Inhibitor of the Grain Growth
In this work, new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have been produced by powder metallurgy using an alternative processing route and characterized afterwards by comparing them with a base ODS steel with Y2O3 and Ti additions. Different alloying elements like boron (B), which is known as an inhibitor of grain growth obtained by pinning grain boundaries, and complex oxide compounds (Y-Ti-Zr-O) have been introduced to the 14Cr prealloyed powder by using mechanical alloying (MA) and were further consolidated by spark employing plasma sintering (SPS). Techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the obtained microstructures.
Micro-tensile tests and microhardness measurements were carried out at room temperature to analyze the mechanical properties of the differently developed microstructures, which was considered to result in a better strength in the ODS steels containing the complex oxide Y-Ti-Zr-O. In addition, small punch (SP) tests were performed to evaluate the response of the material under high temperatures conditions, under which promising mechanical properties were attained by the materials containing Y-Ti-Zr-O (14Al-X-ODS and 14Al-X-ODS-B) in comparison with the other commercial steel, GETMAT. The differences in mechanical strength can be attributed to the precipitate’s density, nature, size, and to the density of dislocations in each ODS steel.
Metals 10(2020)10, 1344
Feature extraction for hyperspectral mineral domain mapping: A test of conventional and innovative methods
Hyperspectral (HS) imaging holds great potential for the mapping of geological targets. Innovative acquisition modes such as drone-borne or terrestrial remote sensing open up new scales and angles of observation, which allow to analyze small-scale, vertical, or difficult-to-access outcrops. A variety of available sensors operating in different spectral ranges can provide information about the abundance and spatial location of various geologic materials. However geological outcrops are inherently uneven and spectrally heterogeneous, may be covered by dust, lichen or weathering crusts, or contain spectrally indistinct objects, which is why classifications or domain mapping approaches are often used in geoscientific and mineral exploration applications as a means to discriminate mineral associations (e.g. ore or alteration zones) based on overall variations in HS data. Feature extraction (FE) algorithms are prominently used as a preparatory step to identify the first order variations within the data and, simultaneously, reduce noise and data dimensionality. The most established FE algorithms in geosciences are, by far, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF). Major progress has been conducted in the image processing community within the last decades, yielding innovative FE methods that incorporate spatial information for smoother and more accurate classification results. In this paper, we test the applicability of conventional (PCA, MNF) and innovative FE techniques (OTVCA: Orthogonal total variation component analysis and WSRRR: Wavelet-based sparse reduced-rank regression) on three case studies from geological HS mapping campaigns, including drone-borne mineral exploration, terrestrial paleoseismic outcrop scanning and thermal HS lithological mapping. This allows us to explore the performance of different FE approaches on complex geological data with sparse or partly inaccurate validation data. For all case studies, we demonstrate advantages of innovative FE algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and geological interpretability. We promote the use of advanced image processing methods for applications in geoscience and mineral exploration as a tool to support geological mapping activities.
Keywords: feature extraction; domain mapping; mineral exploration; image processing; hyperspectral imaging; classification
Remote Sensing of Environment 252(2021), 112129
- Secondary publication expected from 22.10.2021
Automated mineralogy particle dataset: apatite flotation
This particle dataset was used for demonstrating the particle-tracking method presented in the paper "Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning", submitted to Minerals Engineering in 08/10/2020, by Lucas Pereira, Max Frenzel, Duong Huu Hoang, Raimon Tolosana-Delgado, Martin Rudolph, Jens Gutzmer from the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology.
This data belongs to the flotation tests performed by Duong Huu Hoang, and presented in:
Hoang, D.H., Kupka, N., Peuker, U.A., Rudolph, M., 2018. Flotation study of fine grained carbonaceous sedimentary apatite ore – Challenges in process mineralogy and impact of hydrodynamics. Miner. Eng. 121, 196–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2018.03.021
For this study, phosphate rock samples from the Lao Cai province, Vietnam, were provided by the Vietnam Apatite Limited Company. The objective of the flotation experiments was to determine the best way to efficiently separate fluorapatite from dolomite, calcite and silicates. After grinding for 8 minutes in a laboratory ball mill to assure a d90 of 67 µm, batch flotation tests were performed in a flotation cell built at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg. Corn starch ((C6H10O5)n) gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used in combination with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to depress gangue minerals. The latter also acts as a fine particle dispersant. Solution pH was kept at 10 using the modifier sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which can also be regarded as a depressant. Berol 2015 was used as the collector. Four concentrate fractions were collected after 0.75 min (CA), 1.50 min (CB), 3.00 min (CC), and 6.00 min (CD). In addition, a final tailings sample was collected (TD). Five replicates of the test were done to ensure reproducibility and produce enough sample mass for detailed characterization. All samples, including the feed, were wet sieved into four size fractions (-20 µm, +20 to -32 µm, +32 to -50 µm, and +50 µm) before characterization by MLA at the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology. Samples were analyzed on a FEI Quanta 650F scanning electron microscope equipped with two Bruker Quantax X-Flash 5030 EDX detectors. The SEM was operated at 25 kV overall electron beam accelerating voltage and Extended BSE Liberation Analysis measurement mode. MLA results were validated with ICP-OES chemical assays. Particles from the flotation product samples (concentrate and tailings) are in the Traindata.csv file, while particles from the feed sample are in the FeedData.csv file. The weight distribution of each sample is given below:
Sample | wt.%
CA -20µm | 6.7
CA 20-32µm | 5.8
CA 32-50µm | 4.6
CA +50µm | 2.2
CB -20µm | 6.4
CB 20-32µm | 5.4
CB 32-50µm | 3.9
CB +50µm | 2.8
CC -20µm | 5.8
CC 20-32µm | 4.3
CC 32-50µm | 3.5
CC +50µm | 2.0
CD -20µm | 4.7
CD 20-32µm | 2.8
CD 32-50µm | 2.3
CD +50µm | 1.1
TD -20µm | 11.3
TD 20-32µm | 7.0
TD 32-50µm | 6.7
TD +50µm | 10.7
Feed -20µm | 36.60
Feed 20-32µm | 23.88
Feed 32-50µm | 21.75
Feed +50µm | 17.78
- Mineral composition: Actinolite, Albite, Almandine, Apatite, Barite, Biotite, Calcite, Chalcopyrite, Clinochlore, Diopside, Dolomite, Fluorite, Hematite, Muscovite, Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Phlogopite, Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Quartz, Rutile, Sanidine, Sphalerite_Fe, Titanite, Zircon.
- Surface composition: Actinolite.surf, Albite.surf, Almandine.surf, Apatite.surf, Barite.surf, Biotite.surf, Calcite.surf, Chalcopyrite.surf, Clinochlore.surf, Diopside.surf, Dolomite.surf, Fluorite.surf, Hematite.surf, Muscovite.surf, Orthoclase.surf, Plagioclase.surf, Phlogopite.surf, Pyrite.surf, Pyrrhotite.surf, Quartz.surf, Rutile.surf, Sanidine.surf, Sphalerite_Fe.surf, Titanite.surf, Zircon.surf
- Size and shape: AspectRatio, Solidity, ECD
- Sample identifier: Class - In this case, particles identified with "CA20", for example, are the particles from the <20µm size fraction of the first concentrate sample, while "TD50" are the particles from the >50µm size fraction of the final tailings sample.
Keywords: Apatite; Froth flotation; Automated mineralogy; Geometallurgy; Particle-tracking
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-08
Raw data: Magnetic field-induced even-order harmonic generation in the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd3As2
Raw files from the TELBE beamtime August 2020 for exchange.
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-06
Interactive results viewer: Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning
This plotting application allows the reader to interact with all results obtained in the case study presented in the publication
"Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning", submitted on 07/10/2020 to Minerals Engineering and currently under review.
The interactive plot displays the flotation kinetics modelling outcome (k, Rmax, km) for single-particles. The user is able to filter particles according to their intrinsic properties (modal composition, surface composition, size, and shape), thus allowing the user to understand the influence of every particle property in their process (i.e. flotation) behavior.
The platform contains a help function to guide the user.
It can be accessed here: Pereira et al. 2021 Flotation kinetics platform.
Keywords: Geometallurgy; Particle-tracking; Froth flotation; Automated mineralogy
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-06
BGM MLA data from grinding kinetics experiments
Datasource from two sets of grinding experiments:
- from top size fraction -1600µm+1250µm
- from top size fraction -425µm+315µm
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2020-10-05
Long-range magnetic order in the S = 1/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet KCeS2
Bastien, G.; Rubrecht, B.; Haeussler, E.; Schlender, P.; Zangeneh, Z.; Avdoshenko, S.; Sarkar, R.; Alfonso, A.; Luther, S.; Onykiienko, Y. A.; Walker, H. C.; Kühne, H.; Grinenko, V.; Guguchia, Z.; Kataev, V.; Klauss, H.-H.; Hozoi, L.; van den Brink, J.; Inosov, D. S.; Büchner, B.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Doert, T.
Recently, several putative quantum spin liquid (QSL) states were discovered in S󠆶 = 1/2 rare-earth based triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAF) with the delafossite structure. In order to elucidate the conditions for a QSL to arise, we report here the discovery of a long-range magnetic order in the Ce-based TLAF KCeS2 below TN = 0.38 K, despite the same delafossite structure. Finally, combining various experimental and computational methods, we characterize the crystal electric field scheme, the magnetic anisotropy and the magnetic ground state of KCeS2.
SciPost Physics 9(2020), 041
2D MOFs: A New Platform for Optics?
With the research on inorganic 2D semiconductors reaching its zenith, the search for new materials beyond these traditional 2D materials is at a rapid pace. In this article, we present an emerging class of 2D semiconductors, so-called metal-organic frameworks, in terms of their synthesis, intrinsic properties, and underlying charge transport mechanisms. Further, we discuss their potential as active elements in optical applications.
Keywords: Metal-organic frameworks; Two-dimensional semiconductors; Photonics; optical applications; photodetectors; high-mobility materials; sensors
Optics and Photonics News 31(2020)10, 36-43
Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1364/OPN.31.10.000036
Protonen als Alternative zur konventionellen Strahlentherapie – Unterschiede und Herausforderungen
Die externe Strahlentherapie ist eine wesentliche Komponente bei der Behandlung von Tumoren. Üblicherweise wird dafür Photonenstrahlung verwendet. Jedoch hat sich die Protonentherapie auf Grund ihrer physikalischen Eigenschaften zu einer attraktiven Alternative entwickelt. Vor allem ihre überlegene Dosisverteilung ermöglicht im Vergleich zur herkömmlichen Strahlentherapie eine bessere Normalgewebsschonung, wodurch potentiell das Risiko von Nebenwirkungen und Toxizitäten sinkt. Wir geben hier einen einleitenden Überblick zu den physikalischen Protoneneigenschaften und den Möglichkeiten der Dosisformierung. Insbesondere werden auch spezielle Herausforderungen in der Protonentherapie und damit verbundene aktuelle Forschungsschwerpunkte vorgestellt.
Keywords: Protonentherapie; Physikalische Grundlagen; Herausforderungen; Forschungsschwerpunkte
Best Practice Onkologie 15(2020)11, 470-478
- Secondary publication expected from 01.11.2021
New reaction rates for the destruction of 7Be during big bang nucleosynthesis measured at CERN/n_TOF and their implications on the cosmological lithium problem
Mengoni, A.; Damone, L. A.; Barbagallo, M.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.
New measurements of the 7Be(n,α)4He and 7Be(n,p)7Li reaction cross sections from thermal to keV neutron energies have been recently performed at CERN/n_TOF. Based on the new experimental results, astrophysical reaction rates have been derived for both reactions, including a proper evaluation of their uncertainties in the thermal energy range of interest for big bang nucleosynthesis studies. The new estimate of the 7Be destruction rate, based on these new results, yields a decrease of the predicted cosmological 7Li abundance insufficient to provide a viable solution to the cosmological lithium problem.
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences 239(2020), 07001
Status and perspectives of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN
Chiaveri, E.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Barbagallo, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Damone, L. A.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.
Since the start of its operation in 2001, based on an idea of Prof. Carlo Rubbia , the neutron time of-flight facility of CERN, n_TOF, has become one of the most forefront neutron facilities in the world for wide-energy spectrum neutron cross section measurements. Thanks to the combination of excellent neutron energy resolution and high instantaneous neutron flux available in the two experimental areas, the second of which has been constructed in 2014, n_TOF is providing a wealth of new data on neutron-induced reactions of interest for nuclear astrophysics, advanced nuclear technologies and medical applications. The unique features of the facility will continue to be exploited in the future, to perform challenging new measurements addressing the still open issues and long-standing quests in the field of neutron physics. In this document the main characteristics of the n_TOF facility and their relevance for neutron studies in the different areas of research will be outlined, addressing the possible future contribution of n_TOF in the fields of nuclear astrophysics, nuclear technologies and medical applications. In addition, the future perspectives of the facility will be described including the upgrade of the spallation target, the setup of an imaging installation and the construction of a new irradiation area.
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences 239(2020), 17001
Measurement of the energy-differential cross-section of the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11B reactions at the n_TOF facility at CERN
Barbagallo, M.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Damone, L. A.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.
Although the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11B reactions are of interest in several fields of basic and applied Nuclear Physics the present knowledge of these two cross-sections is far from being accurate and reliable, with both evaluations and data showing sizable discrepancies. As part of the challenging n_TOF program on (n,cp) nuclear reactions study, the energy differential cross-sections of the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11 B reactions have been measured at CERN from the reaction thresholds up to 30 MeV neutron energy. Both measurements have been recently performed at the long flight-path (185 m) experimental area of the n_TOF facility at CERN using a pure (99.95%) rigid graphite target and two silicon telescopes. In this paper an overview of the experiment is presented together with a few preliminary results.
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences 239(2020), 01045
Measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section from thermal to 500 keV at the Budapest research reactor and CERN n_TOF-EAR1 facilities
Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Mendoza, E.; Quesada, J. M.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.; Krtiička, M.; Belgya, T.; Maróti, B.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Knapova, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; The N_TOF Collaboration
The design and operation of innovative nuclear systems requires a better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes. For the case of capture on 242Pu, a reduction of the uncertainty in the fast region down to 8-12% is required. Moreover, aiming at improving the evaluation of the fast energy range in terms of average parameters, the OECD NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL) requests high-resolution capture measurements with improved accuracy below 2 keV. The current uncertainties also affect the thermal point, where previous experiments deviate from each other by 20%. A fruitful collaboration betwen JGU Mainz and HZ Dresden-Rossendorf within the EC CHANDA project resulted in a 242Pu sample consisting of a stack of seven fission-like targets making a total of 95(4) mg of 242Pu electrodeposited on thin (11.5 μm) aluminum backings. This contribution presents the results of a set of measurements of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section from thermal to 500 keV combining different neutron beams and techniques. The thermal point was determined at the Budapest Research Reactor by means of Neutron Activation Analysis and Prompt Gamma Analysis, and the resolved (1 eV - 4 keV) and unresolved (1 - 500 keV) resonance regions were measured using a set of four Total Energy detectors at the CERN n_TOF-EAR1.
European Physical Journal Web of Conferences 239(2020), 01019
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