Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34122 Publications

CFD validation against slug mixing experiment

Moretti, F.; Melideo, D.; Del Nevo, A.; D’Auria, F.; Höhne, T.; Lisenkov, E.

A commercial CFD code was applied, for validation purposes, to the simulation of a slug mixing experiment carried out at OKB “Gidropress” scaled facility in the framework of a TACIS project: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet”. Such experimental model reproduces a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor and is aimed at investigating the in-vessel mixing phenomena. The addressed experiment involves the start-up of one of the four reactor coolant pumps (the other three remaining idle), and the presence of a tracer slug on the starting loop, which is thus transported to the reactor pressure vessel where it mixes with the clear water. Such conditions may occur in a boron dilution scenario, hence the relevance of the addressed phenomena for the nuclear reactor safety.
Both a pre-test and a post-test CFD simulation of the mentioned experiment were performed, which differ in the definition of the boundary conditions (based either on nominal quantities or on measured quantities, respectively). The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared against the measured data in terms of space and time tracer distribution at the core inlet. The improvement of the results due to the optimization of the boundary conditions is evidenced, and a quantification of the simulation accuracy is proposed.

Keywords: CFD; Validation; Slug; Mixing; Experiment

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11483
Publ.-Id: 11483


Deep level defects in a nitrogen-implanted ZnO homogeneous p-n junction

Gu, Q.; Ling, C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Hsu, Y.; Djurisic, A.; Zhu, C.; Fung, S.; Lu, L.

Nitrogen ions were implanted into undoped melt grown ZnO single crystals. A light-emitting p-n junction was subsequently formed by postimplantation annealing in air. Deep level transient spectroscopy was used to investigate deep level defects induced by N+ implantation and the effect of air annealing. The N+ implantation enhanced the electron trap at E-C-(0.31 +/- 0.01) eV (E3) and introduced another one at E-C-(0.95 +/- 0.02) eV (D1), which were removed after annealing at 900 and 750 degrees C, respectively. Another trap D2 (E-a = 0.17 +/- 0.01 eV) was formed after the 750 degrees C annealing and persisted at 1200 degrees C.

  • Applied Physics Letters 92(2008)22, 222109

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11482
Publ.-Id: 11482


CFD post test calculation of pressurized air / water TOPFLOW hotleg experiments

Höhne, T.; Vallée, C.; Beyer, M.

Stratified two-phase flow regimes can occur
-in the main cooling lines of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR)
-Chemical plants
-Oil pipelines
The slug flow regime is characterized by an acceleration of the gaseous phase and by the transition of fast liquid slugs, which carry a significant amount of liquid with high kinetic energy. It is potentially hazardous to the structure of the system due to the strong oscillating pressure levels formed behind the liquid slugs as well as the mechanical momentum of the slugs.
State of the art:
1D system codes validated, but:
geometry and scale dependant
no access to local parameters

CFD codes for application in multiphase flows:
the investigation of the feasibility of numerical prediction of stratified two phase flow with existing multiphase flow models in ANSYS CFX
to prove the understanding of the general fluid dynamic mechanism
to identify the critical parameters (like e.g. slug length, frequency and propagation velocity, pressure drop, CCFL)
to improve the multiphase flow modeling (interfacial momentum transfer, turbulence at the free surface et.)
experimental data required for the validation

Keywords: slug flow; Hot leg; CFD; stratified flow

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th Workshop Multiphase Flows Simulation, Experiment and Application, 24.-26.06.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11481
Publ.-Id: 11481


Dielectron Production in 12C + 12C Collisions at 1 GeV/u and the Solution to the DLS Puzzle

Pachmayer, Y. C.; Dohrmann, F.; Grosse, E.; Kanaki, K.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Sadovsky, A.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zhou, P.; Hades Collaboration

The production of e+e− pairs in 12C + 12C collisions at 1 GeV/u was investigated with the HADES experiment at GSI, Darmstadt. In the invariant-mass region 0.15GeV/c2 Mee 0.5GeV/c2 the measured pair yield shows a strong excess above the contribution expected from hadron decays after freeze-out. The data are in good agreement with the results of the former DLS experiment for the same system and energy.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11480
Publ.-Id: 11480


Chapter 7 - Growth Mechanisms and Structure of Fullerene-like Carbon-based Thin Films: Superelastic Materials for Tribological Applications, in Fullerene Research Advances

Gago, R.; Abrasonis, G.; Jimenez, I.; Möller, W.

In this chapter we review our findings on the bonding structure and growth mechanisms of carbon-based thin solid films with fullerene-like (FL) microstructure. The so-called FL arrangements arise from the curvature and cross-linking of basal planes in graphitic-like structures, partially resembling that of molecular fullerenes. This three-dimensional superstructure takes advantage of the strength of planar pi bonds in sp2 hybrids and confers the material interesting mechanical properties, such as high hardness, high elastic recovery, low-friction and wear-resistance. These properties can be tailored by controlling the curvature, size and connectivity of the FL arrangements, making these materials promising coatings for tribological applications. We have focused our interest mostly on carbon nitride (CNx) since nitrogen promotes the formation of FL arrangements at low substrate temperatures and they are emerging over pure carbon coatings in tribological applications such as protective overcoats in magnetic hard disks. We address structural issues such as origin of plane curvature, nature of the cross-linking sites and sp2 clustering, together with growth mechanisms based on the role of film-forming precursors, chemical re-sputtering or concurrent ion assistance during growth.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Carl N. Kramer: Fullerene Research Advances, New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 2007, 1-60021-824-5, 145-181

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11479
Publ.-Id: 11479


Origin of ferromagnetism in iron implanted rutile single crystals

Talut, G.; Reuther, H.; Grenzer, J.; Zhou, S.

57Fe doped titanium oxide monocrystals, prepared by ion implantation at different temperatures and subsequent thermal treatment, were characterized by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. After implantation at 240 K and room temperature Fe is present in divalent state. Upon annealing in high vacuum Fe2+ is reduced to metallic Fe, while during annealing on air Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+. After implantation at 623 K most iron is in metallic state. During annealing on air Fe is gradually oxidized from Fe2+ to Fe3+.
Depending on preparation conditions and thermal treatment the role of different nanosized secondary phases is discussed in terms of their influence on the magnetic properties of Fe:TiO2. α-Fe nanoparticles are found to be responsible for ferromagnetism observed in TiO2.

Keywords: conversion electron Mössbauer cpectroscopy (CEMS); diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS); Fe doping of Ti oxide; ion beam implantation

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Hungary
    Hyperfine Interactions: Springer
  • Poster
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Hungary

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11478
Publ.-Id: 11478


Digitale Signalverarbeitung von Bariumfluorid- und Germaniumdetektorsignalen am nELBE-Experiment

Hannaske, R.; Beyer, R.; Dammrau, A.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A.; Wagner, A.

Am supraleitenden Elektronen-Linearbeschleuniger ELBE des Forschungszentrums Dresden-Rossendorf induzieren Elektronen in einem Radiator aus flüssigem Blei (γ,n)-Reaktionen und erzeugen Neutronen mit Energien von 50 keV bis 10 MeV [1,2] zur Messung Neutronen-induzierter Reaktionen mit einer Energieauflösung von besser als 1 % (bei 1 MeV) [3]. Die Bestimmung der Wirkungsquerschnitte von (n,γ)- oder (n,n'γ)-Reaktionen dient hierbei der Transmutationsforschung, der nuklearen Astrophysik sowie Anwendungen für Fusions- und Spaltreaktoren. Zum Nachweis der Photonen aus Neutronen-induzierten Reaktionen ist das Target von 42 Bariumfluorid-Szintillationsdetektoren umgeben, die 80 % des gesamten Raumwinkels abdecken.
Ein Hochgeschwindigkeitsabtastsystem (2 GS/s, 10 bit Auflösung) wurde in Betrieb genommen und bezüglich Energie- und Zeitauflösung charakterisiert. Erste Resultate zur digitalen Pulsformanalyse werden vorgestellt.
[1] E.Altstadt, et al., Ann. Nucl. Energy 34, 36 (2007)
[2] J.Klug, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 577, 641 (2007)
[3] R.Beyer, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 575, 449 (2007)
* gefördert durch EU-FP6 / EFNUDAT

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 14.03.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11477
Publ.-Id: 11477


Sächsische Forschung im Herzen Europas: Zu Ursprüngen und Befindlichkeiten

Skorupa, W.

Es werden Ausführungen zur aktuellen Forschungslandschaft in Sachsen mit Ausrichtung auf Aktivitäten am Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf gemacht.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Treffen des Bundesausschusses der FDP zu Fragen der Technologie, 05.07.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11476
Publ.-Id: 11476


Enhanced Hot Electron Localization and Heating in High-Contrast Ultra-Intense Laser Irradiation of Sharp Micro-Cone Targets

Rassuchine, J.; D’Humières, E.; Baton, S. D.; Guillou, P.; Koenig, M.; Fuchs, J.; Audebert, P.; Kodama, R.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozaki, N.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Adams, J.; Korgan, G.; Malekos, S.; Hansen, S. B.; Shepherd, R.; Flippo, K.; Gaillard, S.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.

We report experiments demonstrating enhanced coupling efficiencies employing high contrast laser irradiation of nano-fabricated conical targets. Peak temperatures near 200 eV are observed with modest laser energy (10 J), revealing similarities in hot electron localization and material heating to reduced mass targets. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations attribute this enhancement to self-generated resistive magnetic fields forming within the cone wall, which effectively confine the energetic electrons to heat a reduced volume at the cone tip.

  • Physical Review E 79(2009)3, 036408

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11475
Publ.-Id: 11475


Electrons in Strong Laser Fields: Compton Backscattering

Seipt, D.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ultra High-Intensity Laser Nuclear/Particle Physics, 23.-27.06.2008, Trento, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11474
Publ.-Id: 11474


Non-linear theory of deformable superconductors

Lipavský, P.; Morawetz, K.; Kolácek, J.; Brandt, E. H.

The interaction of the superconducting condensate with deformations of the crystal lattice is formulated assuming the electrostatic potential to be of Bernoulli type and the effect of strain on material parameters. In the isotropic approximation it is shown that within the Ginzburg-Landau theory both contributions can be recast into the local but non-linear interaction term of the free energy.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11472
Publ.-Id: 11472


Generation of Stable, Low-Divergence Electron Beams by Laser Wakefield Acceleration in a Steady-State-Flow Gas Cell

Osterhoff, J.; Popp, A.; Major, Z.; Marx, B.; Rowlands-Rees, T. P.; Fuchs, M.; Geissler, M.; Hörlein, R.; Hidding, B.; Becker, S.; Peralta, E. A.; Schramm, U.; Grüner, F.; Habs, D.; Krausz, F.; Hooker, S. M.; Karsch, S.

Laser-driven, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams of up to ~200 MeV in energy have been observed from steady-state-flow gas cells. These beams emitted within a low-divergence cone of 2.1± 0.5 mrad FWHM display unprecedented shot-to-shot stability in energy (2.5% RMS), pointing (1.4 mrad RMS) and charge (16% RMS) owing to a highly reproducible gas-density profile within the interaction volume. Laser-wakefield acceleration in gas cells of this type provides a simple and reliable source of relativistic electrons potentially suitable for applications such as the production of XUV-undulator radiation.

Keywords: Stable electron acceleration in gas cells; relativistic laser plasma; PACS numbers: 52.38.Kd; 52.38.Hb; 41.75.Jv

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11471
Publ.-Id: 11471


Results of a modified PROMISE experiment

Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Hollerbach, R.; Rüdiger, G.; Szklarski, J.

The PROMISE experiment relies on the fact that the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal flows drastically decreases when the purely axial magnetic field is replaced by a helical one. We report the results of a modified version of this experiments in which the radial electrical boundary conditions are changed. Special focus is laid on the role of the radial jet region where the two Ekman vortices from the top and the bottom meet each other.

  • Astronomische Nachrichten 329(2008)7, 652-658

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11470
Publ.-Id: 11470


Magnetohydrodynamic experiments on cosmic magnetic fields

Stefani, F.; Gailitis, A.; Gerbeth, G.

It is widely known that cosmic magnetic fields, including the fields of planets, stars, and galaxies, are produced by the hydromagnetic dynamo effect in moving electrically conducting fluids. It is less well known that cosmic magnetic fields play also an active role in cosmic structure formation by enabling outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Considerable theoretical and computational progress has been made in understanding both processes. In addition to this, the last ten years have seen tremendous efforts in studying both effects in liquid metal experiments. In 1999, magnetic field self-excitation was observed in the large scale liquid sodium facilities in Riga and Karlsruhe. Recently, self-excitation was also obtained in the French "von Karmann sodium" (VKS) experiment. An MRI-like mode was found on the background of a turbulent spherical Couette flow at the University of Maryland. Evidence for MRI as the first instability of an hydrodynamically stable flow was obtained in the "Potsdam Rossendorf Magnetic Instability Experiment" (PROMISE). In this review, the history of dynamo and MRI related experiments is delineated, and some directions of future work are discussed.

  • Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 88(2008)12, 930-954

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11469
Publ.-Id: 11469


History and results of the Riga dynamo experiments

Gailitis, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.; Stefani, F.

On 11 November 1999, a self-exciting magnetic eigenfield was detected for the first time in the Riga liquid sodium dynamo experiment. We report on the long history leading to this event, and on the subsequent experimental campaigns which provided a wealth of data on the kinematic and the saturated regime of this dynamo. The present state of the theoretical understanding of both regimes is delineated, and some comparisons with other laboratory dynamo experiments are made.

  • Comptes Rendus Physique 9(2008), 721-728

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11468
Publ.-Id: 11468


Führungsverhalten als Einflussfaktor auf Qualität und Effektivität in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen in Deutschland und in der Slowakei

Kozikova, O.

Das Hauptthema der vorgelegten Dissertation betrifft das Führungsverhalten als Einflussfaktor auf Qualität und Effektivität in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen, die im Rahmen der Untersuchung zufällig in Deutschland und in der Slowakei angesprochen wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang wurde die Führungssituation zwischen beiden Ländern verglichen. Obwohl der Titel der Arbeit nur kleine und mittlere Unternehmen behandelt, wurde die Führungssituation auch in einigen großen Unternehmen, Forschungszentren und Einrichtungen der Staatsverwaltung bzw. im öffentlichen Dienst untersucht, um die Richtung der Führung auch in diesen Organisationen festzustellen und diese Tendenz mit der in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen zu vergleichen. Die vorgelegte Dissertation mit 29 Abbildungen, 79 Diagrammen und 15 Tabellen konzentriert sich im Wesentlichen auf zwei Hauptteile – Theorie und Praxis. Neben dem Inhaltsverzeichnis befinden sich Verzeichnisse aller Abbildungen, Diagrammen und Tabellen sowie alle in der Arbeit verwendeten Abkürzungen vor der Theorie. Der theoretische Teil umfasst die ersten vier Kapitel. In der Einführung wird eine kurze Übersicht über die Dissertation mit ihren einzelnen Kapiteln gegeben. Im zweiten Kapitel wird die Recherche über die Ergebnisse einiger Studien bzw. Dissertationen dargestellt, um auf die Bedeutung des Themas, mit der sich diese Dissertation beschäftigt, hinzuweisen. Das Ziel der Dissertation und die Methode zur Aufbereitung des praktischen Teils werden im dritten Kapitel beschrieben. Bestandteil dieses Kapitels ist zugleich die Beschreibung der Befragung mittels Fragebogen, durch die die Untersuchung durchgeführt wurde. Vorliegende theoretische Kenntnisse aus der Literatur werden im vierten Kapitel dargestellt. Der praktische Teil der vorgelegten Dissertation beginnt mit dem fünften Kapitel. Hier wird die Bearbeitung der entwickelten Fragebogen beschrieben und die daraus abgeleiteten Ergebnisse dargestellt. Die Auswertung aller erhobenen Daten, deren Darstellung in grafischer Form sowie deren Interpretationen sind Inhalt des sechsten Kapitels. Der Vergleich der Situation in Deutschland und der Slowakei erfolgt im siebten Kapitel. Der praktische Teil wird durch die Zusammenfassung und den Ausblick im achten Kapitel abgeschlossen. Anschließend an den Untersuchungsteil ist das Verzeichnis aller verwendeten Literaturquellen angegeben. Zur Dissertationsarbeit gehört auch der Anhang (233 S.), der wegen seines großen Umfanges (1194 S.) nur einen kleinen Teil des Verfahrens, durch das die ganze Dissertationsarbeit bearbeitet wurde, darstellt.

  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    Dissertationsarbeit, Fakultät für Werkstoffe und Technologien Trnava
    223 Seiten
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11467
Publ.-Id: 11467


Pygmy dipole strength in 90Zr

Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Tsoneva, N.; Benouaret, N.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Lenske, H.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.

The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus {90}Zr was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV.
We identified 190 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied in order to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from (\gamma,n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution towards energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 MeV to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the Quasi-Particle-Phonon Model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N = Z neutron-proton core, giving rise to a pygmy dipole resonance.

Keywords: Nuclear Structure; statistical nuclear physics; photon scattering; QRPA; QPM

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11466
Publ.-Id: 11466


Thomson scattering at the ELBE linac - status and perspectives

Schramm, U.

Invited talk on the status of the Thomson scattering experiment at ELBE

Keywords: Thomsons scattering; ELBE

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ECT* Workshop on Ultra High-Intensity Laser Nuclear and Particle Physics, 23.-27.6.2008, Trento, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11465
Publ.-Id: 11465


Few-Cycle-Laser-Driven Electron Acceleration

Schmid, K.; Veisz, L.; Tavella, F.; Benavides, S.; Tautz, R.; Herrmann, D.; Buck, A.; Hidding, B.; Marcinkevicius, A.; Schramm, U.; Geissler, M.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.; Habs, D.; Krausz, F.

Laser-driven plasma waves were proposed as compact electron accelerators [1] owing to their ability to produce longitudinal accelerating ¯elds several orders of magnitude higher than those attainable in conventional accelerators. A promising implementation relies on "broken" plasma waves driven by a laser pulse shorter than half the plasma period [2]. In the absence of intense laser pulses of the required duration, previous experiments [3] - [13] drew on longer (several-10-fs) driver pulses. Under these circumstances, monoenergetic electron acceleration is preceded by a nonlinear interaction of the laser pulse with the relativistic plasma [14], which shortens its duration into the required domain. Longer-than-optimal driver pulses compromise e±ciency as well as reproducibility, and result in copious amounts of low-energy electrons accompanying the monoenergetic emission with an exponentially-decaying spectrum, forming a "thermal" background.
Here, we report the first electron accelerator based on high-density plasma waves driven with laser pulses ¯tting in one half of the plasma period. Direct excitation of a broken plasma wave permits monoenergetic electron acceleration virtually free of thermal background for the first time. In our experiments, 5-terawatt, 8-femtosecond laser pulses yield electron bunches up to energies of 25 MeV.
The dramatically reduced °ux of low-energy electrons as compared to earlier experiments also manifests itself in a strongly-reduced secondary radiation emerging from the accelerator and o®ers the potential for enhancing e±ciency and stability with more intense driver pulses.

Keywords: Laser plasma electron acceleration; few cycle laser pulses; bubble regime

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11464
Publ.-Id: 11464


Nanoskalige Biokompositmaterialien zur Eliminierung von Arzneimittelrückständen

Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.

Bis zu 95 % der verabreichten Wirkstoffe von Arzneimitteln werden vom menschlichen Körper wieder ausgeschieden und gelangen über das Abwasser in den Wasserkreislauf. Für gewöhnlich sind die Wirkstoffkonzentrationen sehr gering und werden schnell abgebaut. In einzelnen Fällen handelt es sich jedoch um schwer abbaubare Verbindungen, die in größeren Mengen anfallen und bei denen bereits eine negative Langzeitwirkung umweltrelevanter Konzentrationen auf die Fischgesundheit nachgewiesen wurde. Ein Beispiel dafür ist der Wirkstoff Diclofenac. Derzeit ist kein kostengünstiges Verfahren verfügbar, mit dem derartige Stoffe aus dem Wasser entfernt werden können. Neuartige nanostrukturierte Biokompositmaterialien auf der Basis bakterieller Hüllproteinschichten, sogenannte S-Layer, können hier Abhilfe schaffen. Alle bakteriellen Hüllproteine besitzen die Fähigkeit, an Grenz- und Oberflächen monolagige hochgeordnete Schichten mit zum Teil hoher Stabilität auszubilden. Diese Eigenschaften in Kombination mit der hohen Metallbindungskapazität der Hüllproteine mancher Naturisolate ermöglicht die einfache Herstellung verschiedener dotierter und nicht dotierter Edelmetall- und Metalloxidnanocluster mit hoher katalytischer und fotokatalytischer Aktivität. Ziel ist die Herstellung fotokatalytisch aktiver Biokompositschichten, die bereits bei Tageslicht eine ausreichende hohe Aktivität besitzen, um die Spaltung organischer Reststoffe zu bewirken. Dieses Projekt wird vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung gefördert.

  • Poster
    Biotechnica 2008, 07.-09.10.2008, Hannover, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11463
Publ.-Id: 11463


Probing 3d-4f exchange interactions by high-field magnetization measurements

Skourski, Y.; Kuz’Min, M.; Müller, K.-H.; Wosnitza, J.

In a 4f-3d ferrimagnet the molecular field (a net value expressing the relevant exchange interactions) can be determined from high-field magnetization measurements. If the field is high enough, it breaks the ferrimagnetic ground state and drives the system towards ferromagnetic order via non-collinear intermediate phases. Magnetization curves of Er2Fe17 singe crystal have been measured along the [100] and [001] crystallographic directions in magnetic fields up to 50 Tesla. An unfixed sample, free to rotate, was measured as well. The magnetization measured along the easy magnetization direction shows jumps at 37.5 and 44 Tesla. The first jump was used for the determination of the molecular field (66.4 Tesla). This agrees with the data for the unfixed sample where a kink in the magnetization at 33.5 Tesla yields a molecular field of 65.7 Tesla. The obtained values are in a good agreement with literature data.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Physics of Magnetism ´08, 24.-27.06.2008, Poznan, Poland
  • Open Access Logo Acta Physica Polonica A 115(2009), 178

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11462
Publ.-Id: 11462


Observation of dendritic growth and fragmentation in Ga-In alloys by X-ray radioscopy

Boden, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

Capabilities of the X-ray attenuation contrast radioscopy were utilised to provide a real-time diagnostic technique for observations of dendritic growth and fragmentation during solidification of a Ga-30wt%In alloy. The solidification process was visualised by means of a microfocus X-ray tube providing shadow radiographs at spatial resolutions of about 10 µm. Experiments have been carried out to solidify the Ga-In alloy unidirectional either starting from the bottom or the top of the specimen. The first case is significantly affected by solutal convection, which governs a redistribution of solute concentration. A detachment of dendrite side arms, which is unambiguously caused by melt flow, was not observed. Dendritic fragmentation occurs during the solidification in the reverse top-down direction. Variations of the applied cooling rate excited a transition from a columnar to an equiaxed dendritic growth (CET).

Keywords: solidification; X-ray radioscopy; dendrite growth; dendrite fragmentation

  • International Journal of Cast Metals Research 22(2009), 30-33

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11461
Publ.-Id: 11461


Spectral singularities, brachistochrone dilation and the relevance of the Hessenberg type

Günther, U.; Graefe, E.-M.; Korsch, H.-J.; Niederle, A.; Samsonov, B.

In the first 1/3 of the talk a brief overview over some mathematical aspects connected with the occurrence of spectral singularities (exceptional points, EPs) will be presented. Based on simple matrix models we discuss stratified manifolds in parameter spaces on which the matrix eigenvalues degenerate. We comment on discriminant sets and similarity relations to canonical Jordan structures, demonstrate the mechanism underlying the formation of self-orthogonal (isotropic) eigenvectors, relate it to corresponding projectors.
In the second 1/3, we sketch the basics of some recent findings on the brachistochrone problem of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTSQM) and its embedding into a setup of standard quantum mechanics (SQM) in a higher dimensional Hilbert space. The embedding uses a Naimark dilation/extension technique for positive operator valued measures (POVMs) built over the nonorthogonal eigenvectors of the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian and its adjoint. We demonstrate that in the SQM model the zero-passage time is preserved for a subsystem which is entangled with a second subsystem of strongly dominant type. Applications towards ultrafast quantum computation processes are hypothesized.
In the last 1/3 of the talk, we sketch the specific mathematical structures underlying the unfolding mechanisms of higher-order exceptional points (EPs) in PT-symmetric Bose-Hubbard models as they can be used for the description of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) localized in symmetrically coupled gain/loss potentials. We demonstrate that the basic structure is connected with a nontrivial Jordan block in the spectral decomposition of the Hamiltonian which is perturbed by a small matrix term of a specific upper Hessenberg type. The concrete Hessenberg type of this matrix defines how the spectral branches merge at the EPs and which types of cycles (rings) they form in the vicinity of the EPs. Once this unfolding mechanism of EPs is generic its fundamental role in many other physical models can be anticipated. A few technical aspects of the used Newton polygon technique are discussed.

Keywords: spectral singularity; exceptional point; stratified manifold; PT-symmetric quantum mechanics; quantum brachistochrone problem; Naimark dilation; positive operator valued measure; Bose-Hubbard model; Bose-Einstein condensate; Jordan block; perturbation technique; Hessenberg type; Newton polygon technique

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Quantum Physics with Non-Hermitian Operators (PHHQP VII), 29.06.-11.07.2008, Benasque, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11460
Publ.-Id: 11460


Thermal Analysis of EPOS components

Werner, M.; Altstadt, E.; Jungmann, M.; Brauer, G.; Noack, K.; Rogov, A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.

We present a simulation study of the thermal behaviour of essential parts of the electron-positron converter of the positron source EPOS at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. The positron moderator foil and the upper tube element of the electrostatic extraction einzellens are directly exposed to the primary electron beam (40 MeV, 40 kW). Thus, it was necessary to prove by sophisticated simulations that the construction can stand the evolving temperatures. It was found that thin moderator foils (< 20…40 µm) will not show a too strong heating. Moreover, the temperature can be varied in a wide range by choosing an appropriate thickness. Thus, the radiation-induced lattice defects can at least partly be annealed during operation. The wall of the extraction lens which is made from a stainless steel tube must be distinctly thinned to avoid damage temperatures. The simulations were performed time dependent. We found that the critical parts reach their final temperature after less than a minute.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-499 2008
    ISSN: 1437-322X
  • Open Access Logo Journal of Physics: Conference Series 265(2011), 012028
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/265/1/012028

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11459
Publ.-Id: 11459


Congenital hyperinsulinism: [18F]DOPA PET/CT scan of a focal lesion in the head of the pancreas

Kapoor, R. R.; Gilbert, C.; Mohnike, K.; Blankenstein, O.; Füchtner, F.; Hussain, K.

Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a cause of severe hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period.(1) The histological differentiation of CHI into focal and diffuse disease has radically changed the surgical management of patients with the disease. (2) Correct localisation and limited excision of the focal lesion results in complete cure of the patient. Recent advances in fluorine-18 L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning are beginning to provide greater accuracy in preoperative differentiation of focal and diffuse disease and correct localisation of focal lesions.(3–5) The principle of this test is that, pancreatic islets take up L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and convert it to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase, present in the islet cells. However, the role of dopamine in pancreatic ß-cells remains unclear.

A 3-day-old neonate presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. He failed to respond to all forms of treatment and required further investigations to differentiate diffuse from focal disease. He underwent an integrated [18F]DOPA PET/CT scan. Figure 1 shows more than twofold uptake of [18F]DOPA in the head of the pancreas compared with the body and tail of the pancreas, proving focal disease.(4) A computed tomography (CT) scan combined with the PET scan colocalised the focal lesion in the head of the pancreas at the junction of the portal vein and superior vena cava (size 6.1 mm). At the time of surgery the focal lesion was found exactly where the PET/CT localisation suggested and was excised with complete resolution of the hyperinsulinism. [18F]DOPA PET/CT scanning is now the preferred method for differentiating diffuse and focal CHI.

REFERENCES
1. Hussain K. Congenital hyperinsulinism. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;10:369–76.
2. Rahier J, Guiot Y, Sempoux C. Persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy: a heterogeneous syndrome unrelated to nesidioblastosis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2002;82 F108–12.
3. Otonkoski T, Nanto-Salonen K, Seppanen M, et al. Diagnosis of focal hyperinsulinism of infancy with [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography. Diabetes 2006;55:13–8.
4. Mohnike K, Blankenstein O, Christesen HT, et al. Proposal for a standardized protocol for F-DOPA-PET
(PET/CT) in congenital hyperinsulinism. Horm Res 2006;66:40–2.
5. Hardy OT, Hernandez-Pampaloni M, Saffer JR, et al. Diagnosis and localization of focal congenital
hyperinsulinism by (18)F-fluorodopa PET scan. J Pediatr

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11458
Publ.-Id: 11458


Star-shaped molecule of (Mn4O6)-O-II core with an S-t=10 high-spin state. A theoretical and experimental study with XPS, XMCD, and other magnetic methods

Khanra, S.; Kuepper, K.; Weyhermuller, T.; Prinz, M.; Raekers, M.; Voget, S.; Postnikov, A. V.; de Groot, F.; George, S. J.; Coldea, M.; Neumann, M.; Chaudhuri, P.

We report a comprehensive study of the electronic and magnetic properties of a star-shaped molecule comprising a (Mn4O6)-O-II core. One feature of this compound is weak magnetic coupling constants compared to other similar polyoxo compounds. This leads to complicated low-lying magnetic states in which the ground state is not well separated from the upper-lying states, yielding a high-spin molecule with a giant magnetic moment of up to 20 mu(B)/formula unit. We apply X-ray diffraction and magnetometry as well as other X-ray spectroscopic techniques, namely, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and X-ray emission spectroscopy. We compare our experimental results with ab initio electronic band structure calculations as well as the localized electronic structure around the Mn2+ ions with charge-transfer multiplet calculations.

Keywords: Molecular magnetism; x-ray magnetic circular dichroism; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; electronic structure calculations

  • Inorganic Chemistry 47(2008)11, 4605-4617

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11457
Publ.-Id: 11457


In-situ Measurements on suspended Nanoparticles with X-rays, Visible Laser Light and Infra-red Light

Zänker, H.

One of the aims of the Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is to investigate the transport of environmental contaminants as colloids (nanoparticles). The methods established in the institute that refer to colloid research are:
Characterization of colloids: Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD), microfiltration/ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Studying colloid composition/mineralogy and in-situ binding states of contaminants on colloids: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with synchrotron radiation (Rossendorf Beamline at the ESRF, Grenoble), attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy TRLFS.
Noninvasive methods (i.e. in-situ measurements) are normally preferred to invasive methods. Such non-invasive methods often rely on high energy radiation. Two methods of colloid characterization, PCS and LIBD, and two methods of binding state in-vestigation, EXAFS and ATR-FTIR, are presented in greater detail.
We used PCS to investigate extremely small natural nanoparticles of high concentration as they occur in acid rock drainage solutions. It was shown that the ultrafine nanoparticles are masked by tiny traces of larger particles that dominate light scattering. They can be unmasked by separation steps which makes the small particles detectable. Colloids of extreme low concentration can be detected by LIBD. LIBD on four commercial mineral waters serves as an example.. In the third example the binding state of arsenate onto the small nanoparticles of the acid rock drainage solution mentioned above was studied by EXAFS. It is demonstrated that the arsenate is initially bound as a bidentate binuclear inner-sphere surface complex to the iron-rich ultrafine nanoparticles of the solution. However, the gradual transformation of the colloidal material to a more aggregated precipitate (within months) results in the incorporation of the arsenate into the interior of the Fe hydroxy sulphate crystal structures. Finally, an example is given where the adsorption of uranium(VI) on ferrihydrite colloids in near-neutral mine water in the presence of carbonate, i.e. the formation of uranyl-ferrihydrite and uranyl-carbonate-ferrihydrite surface complexes, was tested by ATR-FTIR.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; environmental contaminants; EXAFS; LIBD; ATR-FTIR

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ladenburger Diskurs der Gottlieb Daimler-Und Karl Benz-Stiftung "Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment", 30.06.-01.07.2008, Ladenburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11456
Publ.-Id: 11456


Anwendung des Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensors zur Vermessung elektromagnetisch beeinflusster Elektrolytströmungen

Büttner, L.; Shirai, K.; Voigt, A.; Neumann, M.; Czarske, J.; Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.

In diesem Beitrag wird erstmals über die Anwendung des Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensors zur Untersuchung von elektromagnetisch beeinflussten Grenzschichten in schwach leitfähigen Fluiden berichtet. Die elektromagnetische Strömungsbeeinflussung wird in Industrie und Forschung mit großem Interesse verfolgt, da damit Strömungsablösungen kontrolliert und Strömungswiderstände reduziert werden können. Da elektromagnetische Kräfte hauptsächlich in den Grenzschichten wirken, ist eine präzise Untersuchung der Grenzschicht für das Verständnis der auftretenden Effekte unerlässlich. In der hier vorgestellten Arbeit kommt der Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensor zum Einsatz, der eine Erweiterung des konventionellen Laser-Doppler-Anemometers (LDA) darstellt, aber zwei überlagerte, entgegengesetzt fächerförmige Streifensystemen verwendet. Dadurch kann zusätzlich die axiale Position von Streuteilchen im Messvolumen aufgelöst und somit eine deutlich höhere Ortsauflösung bei gleichzeitig geringerer Messunsicherheit der Geschwindigkeit erzielt werden, was gerade für Grenzschichtuntersuchungen deutliche Vorteile gegenüber konventionellen LDA bietet. In diesem Beitrag wird über die Untersuchung der ebenen Plattengrenzschicht einer Natronlaugen-Strömung berichtet, deren Geschwindigkeitsprofil durch Lorentzkräfte modifiziert wird. Es werden die generellen Anforderungen an die Messaufgabe und die Adaption des Profilsensors an den Aufbau dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse der Grenzschichtprofilmessungen werden diskutiert und mit PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry)-Daten verglichen.

Keywords: LDA; LDA Profile Sensor; electromagnetic flow control

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Fachtagung "Lasermethoden in der Strömungsmesstechnik", 09.-11.09.2008, Karlsruhe, BRD, 978-3-9805613-4-1, 4.1-4.8

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11454
Publ.-Id: 11454


Colloidal Carbon Nanotubes and their Influence on Dissolved Uranium

Schierz, A.; Zänker, H.

A rapid increase in the application of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in science, technology, medicine and every day life is anticipated. Currently, there is still relatively little knowledge on the behaviour of ENPs in the aquatic environment. Our study was aimed at gaining information on the behaviour of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as potential carriers of pollutants in the case of accidental CNT release to the environment. The experiments showed that pristine CNTs possess little colloidal stability in aquatic suspensions. Also the sorption capacity of the pristine CNTs for uranium is low. However, modification of the CNTs by surface oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4 increased the colloidal stability of the CNTs in near-neutral waters dramatically. Moreover, also the sorption capacity for uranium, which served as an example of a toxic heavy metal, was strongly increased by the surface treatment. Uranium sorption data could best be fit by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The increase in colloidal stability and in sorption capacity was due to the generation of new sorption sites (carboxylic groups) on the surface of CNTs by surface oxidation. These groups could also be detected by FTIR. Another way to elevate colloidal stability is to add small amounts of humic acid to suspensions of the pristine

Keywords: carbon nanotubes; surface oxidation; uranium; sorption; colloidal stability

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Conference on the Environmental Effects of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials, 15.-16.09.2008, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11453
Publ.-Id: 11453


Neue Verfahren der Präzisions-Strahlentherapie

Baumann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Herrmann, T.; Lehmann, D.; Pawelke, J.; Poenisch, F.; Sauerbrey, R.

Das Ziel strahlentherapeutischer Behandlung ist es, Tumoren zu vernichten und dabei das gesunde Gewebe weitgehend zu schonen. Eine Präzisions-Radiotherapie erfordert eine möglichst konforme Bestrahlung des Tumors mit der für die Heilung notwendigen Dosis. Für die heute gebräuchlichsten therapeutischen Strahlenquellen - Elektronen-Linearbeschleuniger, welche Elektronen- und harte Röntgenstrahlen bereitstellen - wurden dafür die Methoden der intensitätsmodulierten und bildgeführten Radiotherapie entwickelt. Der nächste Schritt zur Verbesserung der Tumorkonformität ist die klinische Anwendung von Partikelstrahlen (Protonen, leichte Ionen). Entsprechende Anlagen erfordern einen hohen Investitionsaufwand. Eine Reduktion dieses Aufwandes könnte der Einsatz außerordentlich kompakter Beschleunigungsstrukturen eröffnen, welche auf der Wechselwirkung hochintensiver Laserstrahlen mit Materie beruhen.

Keywords: Strahlentherapie; Präzisionsstrahlentherapie

  • Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Technischen Universität Dresden 57(2008)1-2, 127-133

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11451
Publ.-Id: 11451


PET imaging for treatment verification of ion therapy: implementation and experience at GSI Darmstadt and MGH Boston

Parodi, K.; Bortfeld, T.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Knopf, A.; Paganetti, H.; Pawelke, J.; Shakirin, G.; Shih, H.

Ion beams offer the possibility of improved conformation of the dose delivered to the tumour with better sparing of surrounding tissue and critical structures in comparison to conventional photon and electron external radiation treatment modalities. Full clinical exploitation of this advantage can benefit from in-vivo confirmation of the actual beam delivery and, in particular, of the ion range in the patient. During irradiation, positron emitters like 15O (half-life T1/2 » 2 min) and 11C (T1/2 » 20 min) are formed in nuclear interactions between the ions and the tissue. Detection of this transient radioactivity via Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and comparison with the expectation based on the prescribed beam application may serve as an in-vivo, non-invasive range validation method of the whole treatment planning and delivery chain. For technical implementation, PET imaging during irradiation (in-beam) requires the development of customized, limited angle detectors with data acquisition synchronized with the beam delivery. Alternatively, commercial PET or PET/CT scanners in close proximity to the treatment site enable detection of the residual activation from long-lived emitters shortly after treatment (offline). This paper reviews two clinical examples using a dedicated in-beam PET scanner for verification of carbon ion therapy at GSI Darmstadt, Germany, as well as a commercial offline PET/CT tomograph for post-radiation imaging of proton treatments at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA. Challenges as well as pros and cons of the two imaging approaches in dependence of the different ion type and beam delivery system are discussed.

Keywords: in-beam PET; PET; ion therapy; proton therapy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11450
Publ.-Id: 11450


New THz/VUV Pump Probe Beamline at VUV FEL FLASH

Gensch, M.; Fruehling, U.; Seidel, W.; Wieland, M.; Stojanovic, N.; Schade, U.; Lee, J. S.; Hübers, H.-W.; Semenov, A.; Ploenjes-Palm, E.; Düsterer, S.; Grimm, O.; Hahn, U.; Saldin, E. L.; Kocharyan, V.; Schneidmiller, E.; Rossbach, J.; Feldhaus, J.; Drescher, M.; Yurkov, M. V.

At the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) an infrared (IR) beamline is currently being comissioned that will allow novel pump-and-probe experiments combining coherent IR pulses with the FEL radiation in the VUV spectral range. It provides useful IR, respectively THz, radiation generated by a purpose built undulator over the wavelength range from 200 micron to presently 14 micron. The undulator is implemented “in series” to the VUV undulators of FLASH and the length of the IR beamline can be matched to that of an existing VUV beamline so that overlap with VUV pulses generated by the same electron bunch can be achieved. Hence natural synchronization of the two pulses is expected. First results of the comissioning are shown and an outlook on future experiments and upgrades of the beamline as well as its photondiagnostics will be given.

  • Poster
    MEDSI/Pan-American SRI 2008 Meeting, 10.-13.06.2008, Saskatoon, Saskatchewa, Canada
  • Contribution to proceedings
    MEDSI/Pan-American SRI 2008 Meeting, 10.-13.06.2008, Saskatoon, Saskatchewa, Canada

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11449
Publ.-Id: 11449


Buried melting in germanium implanted silicon by millisecond flash lamp annealing

Voelskow, M.; Yankov, R.; Kups, T.; Pezoldt, J.; Skorupa, W.

Doping of semiconductors by ion implantation is generally associated with the formation of Gaussian-like concentration/depth profiles. This letter describes a method to achieve localized buried melting at a predetermined depth as the basis for the formation of either a pronounced dopant segregation peak or a homogeneous plateau-like dopant distribution. More specifically, Ge ion implantation was used to lower the melting temperature of the implanted zone, and subsequent flash lamp annealing (FLA) to selectively melt this zone.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing; melting; silicon; doping

  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008)15, 151903-1-151903-3

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11448
Publ.-Id: 11448


The prediabetic and diabetic in vivo modification of circulating low density lipoproteins decreases their potential to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis

Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Poster
    114. Internistenkongress, 29.03.-02.04.2008, Wiesbaden, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Medizinische Klinik 103(2008), 42

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11447
Publ.-Id: 11447


Precise measurement of the beta decay and electron capture of Na-22, Au-198, and Au-196 in low-temperature metal hosts, and reexamination of lifetime modifications

Ruprecht, G.; Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Woods, R.; Ruiz, C.; Lapi, S.; Bemmerer, D.

We investigated half-life changes with temperature of 22Na embedded in Al and 198Au/196Au embedded in Au. We do not find any change of the half-life between room temperature and 10 K on the level of 0.04% for 22Na, 0.03% for 198Au, and 0.5% for 196Au in striking disagreement with the first experimental works and predictions. Additionally, the absolute half-life for 198Au has been determined to 2.6937±0.0003 d which is 5 standard deviations below the recommended NIST value but in agreement with other high-precision measurements.

Keywords: Half-life Au-198 Au-196 Na-22 Debye-Hückel model Salpeter screening weakly coupled plasma

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11446
Publ.-Id: 11446


Results of ELBE Window and Coupler Tests with a Resonant Ring

Büchner, A.; Büttig, H.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Winter, A.

A new test bench based on a resonant ring has been built at ELBE to run window as well as coupler tests. The resonant ring is driven by a 10 kW klystron and allows tests with RF power up to 100 kW in CW mode and about 200 kW in pulsed mode. Coupler tests are done with liquid Nitrogen cooling under almost real conditions. The results of warm window and coupler tests in pulsed and CW mode will be presented. Also details about the ring and a special designed coupler tip to rectangular waveguide transition are given.

Keywords: ELBE RF WINDOW COUPLER

  • Contribution to proceedings
    EPAC 2008, 23.-27.06.2008, Genua, Italy
    Proceedings of EPAC 2008, 978-92-9083-315-4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11445
Publ.-Id: 11445


Analysis of hydrogen passivation by sputtered silicon nitride

Catoir, J.; Grisshammer, M.; Wolke, W.; Preu, R.; Trassl, R.; Grambole, D.

An important parameter for a good bulk passivation of silicon solar cells is the hydrogen content of the silicon nitride anti reflexion layer [1,2]. Several studies [3,4] show that the hydrogen diffuses during the silicon nitride (SiN:H) deposion and the contact formation process into the bulk of the solar cell and passivates impurities and defects. In this work we present some results showing the benefit of an optimal hydrogen rate and a plasma pretreatment of the SiN especially for the bulk passivation. Additionally Nuclear Reaction Resonance Analysis measurements and effusion measurements were carried out for a better understanding of the hydrogen diffusion in the silicon nitride and at the boundary layer.

  • Poster
    23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 01.-05.09.2008, Valencia, Spain
  • Contribution to proceedings
    23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 01.-05.09.2008, Valencia, Spain
    Proceedings of the 23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 1530-1533

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11444
Publ.-Id: 11444


New sub-\mu s isomers in 125,127,129Sn and isomer systematics of 124-130 Sn

Lozeva, R. L.; Simpson, G. S.; Grawe, H.; Neyens, G.; Atanasova, L. A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bazzacco, D.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bracco, A.; Brandau, C.; Caceres, L.; Camera, F.; Chamoli, S. K.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Daugas, J.-M.; Detistov, P.; de Rydt, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Fahlander, C.; Farnea, E.; Georgiev, G.; Gerl, J.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Gorska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Hass, M.; Hoischen, R.; Ilie, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lakshmi, S. P.; Lo Bianco, G.; Mallion, S.; Maj, A.; Montanari, D.; Perru, O.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Pinston, J. A.; Podolyak, Z.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rudolph, D.; Rusev, G.; Saitoh, T. R.; Saltarelli, A.; Schaffner, H.; Schwengner, R.; Tashenov, S.; Turzo, K.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Vermeulen, N.; Walker, J.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

New sub-\mu s isomers have been observed in the neutron-rich Sn isotopes. 125,127,129Sn nuclei have been produced in a relativistic fission reaction of 238U on a 9Be target at 750 A MeV and by the fragmentation of 136Xe at 600 A MeV populating high-spin yrast states. In addition to the already known \mu s isomers, three new ones -1 with sub-\mu s half-lives have been observed. These yrast isomers are the high-spin members
of the \nu (d_3/2^-1 h_11/2^-2 ) and \nu h_11/2 ^-n, seniority v = 3 multiplets leading to isomeric (23/2+) and (27/2-) states, respectively. Added to the already known 19/2+ \mu s isomers in this region the current work completes the systematic information of neutron-hole excitations toward the filling of the last h_11/2 orbital a t N = 82.
The results are discussed in the framework of state-of-the -art shell-model calculations using realistic interactions.

Keywords: Nuclear structure; isomers; radioactive ion beams; shell model

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11443
Publ.-Id: 11443


New Insights into the Formation of Radiohaloes: Effects of Artificial Alpha–Irradiation on Cordierite

Krickl, R.; Nasdala, L.; Wildner, M.; Grambole, D.

Radiohaloes showing a markedly altered light absorption behaviour caused by the action of alpha particles are found in a number of minerals, surrounding radioactive inclusions (Ramdohr, 1960). In order to shed light on the processes of radiohalo formation, a study on artificially produced analogues of natural radiohaloes was conducted: Oriented cordierite crystals were implanted with 8.8 MeV He2+ ions, which corresponds to the highest alpha energy commonly encountered in nature. The irradiated areas are characterised by yellow colouration, which is strongly polarised parallel to the crystallographic c axis. Optical absorption spectra show that the colour is mainly caused by the low-wavelength slope of an intense absorption band in the ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the relative changes of metal–metal charge transfer and d–d band intensities as compared to the un-irradiated host reveal significant oxidation of the Fe2+ ions in the cordierite structure.
Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed alteration depth of ~48 µm is in very good agreement with the calculated ranges of the injected particles. However, total intensity and radial intensity distribution of the radio-induced absorption change with increasing irradiation dose. The colouration intensity increases up to doses of 1014 He2+/cm² but fades at higher doses, i.e. a radio-induced colouration reversal is observed.
The change in colour is accompanied by structural damage, caused by the impact of the He2+ ions: Raman spectra show increased broadening of vibrational bands when approaching the penetration depth of the injected particles, indicating a decrease of the short range order due to the accumulation of point defects. However, no indication of amorphisation was observed in cordierite irradiated with up to 1016 He2+/cm². This seems to be in apparent contrast to He-irradiated α-quartz where local amorphisation was detected after implantation with only 1015 He2+/cm² (Krickl et al., 2008).
Furthermore, Raman and infrared spectroscopic investigations yield evidence for a radiochemical transformation of molecular species incorporated in the structural channels of the cordierite structure. Especially the transformation CO2→CO, which was also found in natural radiohaloes, was reproduced artificially and experimentally confirmed. The presence of CO in cordierite may therefore not only be caused by reducing conditions during formation (Khomenko & Langer, 2005) but also by the action of radioactivity.

References
Khomenko VM, Langer K (2005) Carbon oxides in cordierite channels: Determination of CO2 isotopic species and CO by single crystal IR spectroscopy. Am Mineral 90: 1913-1917
Krickl R, Nasdala L, Götze J, Grambole D, Wirth R (2008) Alpha-irradiation effects in SiO2. Eur J Mineral 20 (accepted)
Ramdohr P (1960) Neue Beobachtungen an radioaktiven Höfen in verschiedenen Mineralien mit kritischen Bemerkungen zur Auswertung der Höfe zur Altersbestimmung. Geol Rundschau 49: 253-263

  • Lecture (Conference)
    86th Annual Meeting of the German Mineralogical Society, 14.-17.09.2008, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11442
Publ.-Id: 11442


Plasma-Based Ion Implantation Treatments Under Industrially Relevant Conditions

Ueda, M.; Wei, R.; Reuther, H.

Industrially relevant PIII conditions were applied to H13 and CrNiMo 316 steel as well as in CrCoMo and Ti6Al4V metal alloys. Typically, nitrogen ions were implanted at peak voltages of 10 to 15 kV, 50 to 80 (s pulse durations, and 1 to 2 kHz frequencies, for treatment times of 1 to12h. Case thicknesses of more than 20 μm were achieved in treated H13 steel which resulted in reduced friction and wear. For CrNiMo steel, a wear reduction of as high as 160 times was obtained besides a significant reduction of the coefficient of friction. Much thinner modified layer was obtained for Ti6Al4V but sufficient for an important improvement of the surface hardness.

  • Solid State Phenomena 107(2005), 31-36

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11441
Publ.-Id: 11441


In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 64Cu-labeled bispidine ligands

Juran, S.

Introduction:
The synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel hexadentate bispidine derivatives containing pyridine and/or imidazole units as donor groups are presented. Bispidine ligands (bispidine = 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]-nonane) show unique complexation behaviour towards transition metals [1,2]. The high thermodynamic stability of the complexes of these structurally reinforced ligands with Cu(II) offers the possibility to apply such complexes for diagnostic (64Cu) and therapeutic (67Cu) purposes [3]. Moreover the bispidine structure opens suitable chemical approaches to connect bio-molecules onto the skeleton, an important feature in view of the targeting of such complexes.

Experimental:
The ligands were prepared by two consecutive Mannich condensations according to the known procedure [1]. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were recorded on a BAS 100B instrument with a standard three-electrode cell (glassy carbon electrode, AgNO3/Ag reference electrode, Pt wire with auxiliary electrode) at 25 °C in degassed water in an Ar atmosphere. Bispidines were labelled with 67Cu using 67CuCl2. To 200 µl of the ligand solution (10-4 M ligand in 0.05 M MES/NaOH buffer, pH = 5.4) 250 kBq of 67CuCl2 were added. 67Cu-labelling yields were studied by TLC using RP18 TLC plates which were developed in acetonitrile /water (0.1%TFA) = 4/1.

Results and Discussion:
CV measurements were performed in order to estimate the stability of the copper(II) bispidine complexes. Strongly negative redox potentials were found for all compounds investigated indicating the high stability of the Cu(II) complexes [2]. Labelling experiments of the new bispidines with 67Cu and 64Cu indicate the rapid formation of radiocopper complexes under mild conditions in almost quantitatively yields.

Conclusion:
The radiocopper complexes were found to be stable in the presence of a high excess of competing ligands, and showed a high in vitro stability in rat plasma up to 24 h. Studies on the bioconjugation of the bispidine 64Cu complexes are now in progress.

Acknowledgement:
Roger Schibli (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland) is gratefully acknowledged for providing copper-67.

[1] P. Comba, W. Schiek, Coord. Chem. Rev. 2003, 238-239, 21-29.
[2] C. Bleiholder et al. Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 8145-8155.
[3] M. J. Welch, C. S. Redvanly, Eds., Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals: Radiochemistry and Applications, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2003

  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th Workshop "The Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds", 12.-13.06.2008, Bad Soden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11440
Publ.-Id: 11440


Controlled transport and focusing of laser-accelerated protons with miniature magnetic devices

Schollmeier, M.; Becker, S.; Geißel, M.; Flippo, K. A.; Blazevic, A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Cort Gautier, D.; Grüner, F.; Harres, K.; Kimmel, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Rambo, P.; Schramm, U.; Schreiber, J.; Schütrumpf, J.; Schwarz, J.; Tahir, N. A.; Atherton, B.; Habs, D.; Hegelich, B. M.; Roth, M.

This letter demonstrates the transporting and focusing of laser-accelerated 14 MeV protons by permanent magnet mini quadrupole lenses providing field gradients as high as 500 T/m. The approach is highly reproducible and predictable, leading to a focal spot of (286 × 173) μm full width at half maximum 50 cm behind the source. It decouples the relativistic laser-proton acceleration from the beam transport, paving the way to optimize both separately. The collimation and the subsequent energy selection obtained is perfectly applicable for upcoming high-energy high-repetition rate laser systems.

Keywords: Laser ion acceleration; beam focusing; permanent magnets; miniature magnetic lenses; PACS numbers: 41.75.Jv,52.38.Kd,41.85.Lc,52.59.-f

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11439
Publ.-Id: 11439


ALD of YF3 thin films from TiF4 and Y(thd)3 precursors

Pilvi, T.; Puukilainen, E.; Munnik, F.; Leskelä, M.; Ritala, M.

Yttrium fluoride is a dielectric material with good light transmittance between ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. In this paper we introduce the first use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of YF3 thin films. The films were grown at 175–325 °C. Y(thd)3 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) was used as a cation source and TiF4 as a fluorine precursor. YF3 film growth characteristics as well as structural, optical, and electrical properties were studied. Different methods, such as spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis were applied to characterize the films. Electrical properties were analyzed from Al/YF3/indium-tin-oxide capacitor structures at room temperature. The growth rates of the films were between 1.1 and 1.7 Å/cycle. The films grown below 225 °C were amorphous, otherwise they were polycrystalline. Permittivities of the films were around 6. The surface roughness of the YF3 films increased with the deposition temperatures. The refractive indices were 1.51–1.59 (at λ = 580 nm), and high light transmittance was achieved from UV to IR region with the sample grown at 300 °C.

Keywords: Atomic layer deposition (ALD); Yttrium fluoride (YF3); Optical materials; Thin films

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11437
Publ.-Id: 11437


Applications of cavity transverse modes in accelerators

Janssen, D.; Volkov, V.

Different applications of TE modes in accelerator physics are discussed. In this discussion, the Fourier transform of the squared axial component of magnetic field, Bz2(z), plays an important role. If it turns to be zero, the RF field-particle energy transfer is negligible and the focal length of the TE mode lens is phase independent. Such RF lens focuses continuous beams just as a solenoid. In order to compensate spherical aberrations and emittance growth caused by field nonlinearities of a focusing solenoid, the RF focusing is used also even if the beam space charge is taken into account. If the transform has its maximum, excitations of TE mode resonances and electron beam self-focussing are possible. Furthermore, the RF field of the TE mode can be used to expand the radial acceptance of a FEL for the THz region.

  • Open Access Logo Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 11(2008), 061302

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11436
Publ.-Id: 11436


Beam Diagnostics around the ELBE LINAC at FZD

Schurig, R.; Buechner, A.; Buettig, H.; Gabriel, F.; Jainsch, R.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Proehl, D.; Schneider, C.; Teichert, J.

The ELBE linear electron accelerator (LINAC) was put into operation in 2001. It now consists of a thermionic injector and two superconducting modules, each employing two niobium 9 cell TESLA type cavities. The LINAC is capable of accelerating 1 mA up to 40 MeV. The electron beam is used to generate various types of secondary radiation (IR, Bremsstrahlung, x-rays) and particle beams (neutrons, positrons). Being a multi purpose machine with high demands on beam precision and stability and given the high average cw beam power, sophisticated beam instrumentation and machine protection systems had to be developed. Systems and methods to measure beam position, -loss, -energy and -current, energy spread, bunch length and emittance are described in this paper.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11435
Publ.-Id: 11435


The ELBE Free-Electron Lasers – a user facility for the mid- to far infrared

Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Seidel, W.; Teichert, J.; Wünsch, R.

The Radiation Source ELBE at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in is centered around a superconducting Electron Linear accelerator of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE), constructed to deliver a CW electron beam with up to 1 mA beam current at 40 MeV. The electron beam is used to generate various kinds of secondary radiation, mainly to drive free-electron lasers in the infrared.

First lasing of the mid-IR free-electron laser (U27) at ELBE was achieved in May, 2004. Since then, using electron beam energies from 15 to 35 MeV infrared radiation from 3 to 22 µm wavelength has been produced. At all wavelengths below 20 µm a CW optical power higher than 1 W can be produced with an electron beam of 50 pC bunch charge. The optical pulse width at its minimum was measured to 0.9 ps at 11 µm and could be increased to 4 ps by detuning the optical cavity. The optical bandwidth was in all cases close to the Fourier limit.

In August, 2006 the long-wavelength (U100) FEL was installed and lasing was achieved within a few hours from first beam injection. Equipped with a partially waveguided resonator this FEL covers a range of wavelengths from 20 µm to above 230 µm. Its output power reaches some 10 watts in CW operation.

Since 2005, the FEL is operated as a user facility, being open to users worldwide, provided their scientific proposals have been favorably evaluated by the panel responsible for distribution of beam time. Under the name "FELBE" the facility is a member of the EC funded "Integrating Activity on Synchrotron and Free Electron Laser Science (IA-SFS)", which comprises most synchrotron and FEL facilities in Europe and provides financial support to users from the EC and associated states. A unique scientific opportunity is opened with the beamline coupling the ELBE FELs to the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory allowing magneto-optical experiments with IR and THz radiation under fields that will reach 100 T in the near future.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11434
Publ.-Id: 11434


New Structures for High Resolution THz-Imaging in Medical Applications

Staats, G.; Schade, U.

In the past years new methods for medical and biochemical imaging and microspectroscopy in the THz-range were developed. Naturally in imaging and also in microspectroscopy high spatial resolutions are requested. This is contrary to the relatively long wavelengths in the THz-range and has been lead to nearfield microscopy methods with resolution in the sub-wavelength range. For this method special structures, called coupling structures, are needed to focus the incident Gaussian beam or free space mode on a probe, as shown at Figure 1. At the beginning cones are used for this purpose. This was connected with high transmission losses due the sub-wavelength-regime and the evanescent wave propagation inside the cones.
In a first step invented by Keilmann et al [1] the transmission losses are lowered using a wire in the centre of the cone. With this method it is possible to transform the incident wave in a TEM (transversal electro-magnetic) wave without lower cut-off fre-quency.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11433
Publ.-Id: 11433


Investigation and improvement of beam stability at the ELBE FEL's

Michel, P.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Schurig, R.; Teichert, J.

At the radiation source ELBE in the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf two free electron lasers (3-20 µm and 20-230 µm) are in routine user operation for a wide range of IR experiments for some years. The lasers are driven by a superconducting RF Linac which permits the generation of a cw-beam with high average beam power. For many experiments the frequency and power stability of the laser beam is of outstanding importance. Therefore studies on fluctuations and drifts in different time scales (from µs to hours) were accomplished and possible causes for these instabilities were investigated. To improve the long and short term stability we developed and implemented active feed back controls for electron energy and thus laser wavelength and out-coupled IR-beam power at ELBE.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    30th International Free Electron Laser Conference, 24.-29.08.2008, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11432
Publ.-Id: 11432


Initial Commissioning Experience with the Superconducting RF Photoinjector at ELBE

Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Murcek, P.; Schamlott, A.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Kamps, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.

A radio frequency photo injector with a superconducting acceleration cavity (SRF gun) for installation at the Radiation Source ELBE was developed within a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. The aim of the project is to improve the electron beam quality and to extend the parameter range of the ELBE accelerator. Especially the bunch charge will be increased up to 1 nC and the transverse emittance will be reduced to 1 - 3 mm mrad. At present, the thermionic injector at ELBE delivers bunches of 77 pC at about 8 mm mrad. Furthermore, the SRF gun together with its diagnostic beam line is an excellent test bench for extended studies and improvements of this new and promising injector type. The gun cryostat, the electron diagnostic beamline, and the driver laser with optical beamline were installed in summer and fall 2007. In November the first beam was produced. It will be reported on the experience gained at the first phase of commissioning. Results of rf and beam parameter measurements with Cu and Cs2Te photo cathodes will be presented.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    30th International Free Electron Laser Conference, 24.-29.08.2008, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
  • Contribution to proceedings
    30th International Free Electron Laser Conference, 24.-29.08.2008, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
    Proceedings of the FEL2008, 467-472

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11431
Publ.-Id: 11431


A surface structural model for ferrihydrite II: Adsorption of uranyl and carbonate

Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Rossberg, A.; Ulrich, K.-U.

A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite has been developed. The surface structure and composition are described for ferrihydrite in terms of site densities, molar mass, bulk density and reactive surface area, all linked to ion binding and surface charge development. Singly coordinated surface groups dominate the surface of ferrihydrite. These groups are present in two structural configurations, each linked to different surface patches. The configurations either form bidentate complexes by edge sharing coordination or form double-corner complexes. Both types of configurations react differently in terms of binding of ions such as uranyl and carbonate.
The adsorption of uranyl (UO22+) on ferrihydrite has been evaluated with the Charge Distribution (CD) model. Modeling shows that uranyl forms bidentate innersphere complexes at binding sites that do not react with carbonate ions. This observation is used to develop a surface structural model for ferrihydrite. Uranyl is bound by singly coordinated surface groups present at particular edges of Fe-octahedrons of ferrihydrite while another set of singly coordinated surface groups may form double-corner bidentate complexes with for instance carbonate ions. The uranyl surface speciation strongly changes in the presence of carbonate due to the specific adsorption of carbonate ions as well as the formation of ternary uranyl-carbonate surface complexes. The CD model reveals the formation of a uranyl-triscarbonato surface complex, i.e. ≡ (UO2)(CO3)34-, particularly present in systems with a high pH and carbonate concentration. This finding remarkably differs from results from previous interpretations made in literature. The presence of this surface species agrees quantitatively with a recent interpretation of EXAFS data (Rossberg et al. 2008). In the specific case of a high pH value, but at low carbonate level, as can be prepared in CO2-closed systems, the model suggests the presence of a ternary uranyl-monocarbonato complex. The binding mode (type A or type B complex) is uncertain. At high uranyl concentrations, uranyl will polymerize at the surface of ferrihydrite. The differences and similarities in U(VI) adsorption behavior of goethite and ferrihydrite is discussed from a structural point of view.

Keywords: uranium; uranyl; carbonate; triscarbonato; HFO; ferrihydrite; goethite; hematite; iron; oxide; EXAFS; FTIR; edge; double-corner; adsorption; surface; competition; CD model; MUSIC model

  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73(2009)15, 4437-4451

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11430
Publ.-Id: 11430


Identification of uranyl surface complexes on ferrihydrite: Advanced EXAFS data analysis and CD-MUSIC modeling

Rossberg, A.; Ulrich, K.-U.; Weiss, S.; Tsushima, S.; Hiemstra, T.; Scheinost, A. C.

Previous spectroscopic research suggested that uranium(VI) adsorption to iron oxides is dominated by ternary uranyl-carbonato surface complexes across an unexpectedly wide pH range. Formation of such complexes would have significant impact on the sorption behavior and mobility of uranium in aqueous environments. We therefore re-investigated the identity and structural coordination of uranyl sorption complexes using a combination of U LIII-edge Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and Iterative Transformation Factor Analysis, which enhances the resolution in comparison to conventional EXAFS analysis. A range of conditions (pH, CO2 partial pressure, ionic strength) made it possible to quantify the variations in surface speciation. In the resulting set of spectral data (N=11), the variance is explained by only two components, which represent two structurally different types of surface complexes: (1) a binary uranyl surface complex with a bidentate coordination to edges of Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra, and (2) a uranyl triscarbonato surface complex where one carbonate ion bridges uranyl to the surface. This ternary type B complex differs from a type A complex where uranyl is directly attached to surface atoms, and carbonate is bridged by uranyl to the surface. Both surface complexes agree qualitatively and quantitatively with predictions by a charge distribution (CD) model. According to this model, the edge-sharing uranyl complex has equatorial ligands (–OH2, -OH or one -CO3 group) that point away from the surface. The monodentate uranyl triscarbonato surface complex (type B) is relevant only at high pH and elevated pCO2. At these conditions, however, it is responsible for significant uranyl sorption, whereas standard models would predict only weak sorption. This paper presents the first spectroscopic evidence of this ternary surface complex, which has significant implications for the immobilization of uranyl in carbonate-rich aqueous environments.

Keywords: uranyl; carbonate; sorption; surface complexation; ferrihydrite; EXAFS; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; factor analysis; VARIMAX; CD model

  • Environmental Science & Technology 43(2009)5, 1400-1406
  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Conference on the Chemistry and Migration Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere, 20.-25.09.2009, Kennewick,, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11428
Publ.-Id: 11428


Beam Stabilization at the ELBE electron accelerator and the FELBE infrared user facility

Jainsch, R.; Proehl, D.; Seidel, W.; Lehnert, U.; Justus, M.; Gabriel, F.; Michel, P.

Abstract. The high current SRF electron accelerator facility ELBE started user operation at the Bremsstrahlung facility in 2003, followed straight-line by channelling X-rays and the infrared FEL laboratories. Since then, automated beam stabilization in terms of energy, intensity and also trajectory became a clear necessity for a number of experiments carried out. This contribution describes observed instabilities of the electron beam and the infrared beam at FELBE and alludes to their certain or possible sources. For slow (mHz) beam energy drift compensation, a dispersion based feedback loop was developed and implemented, using strip line beam position monitors and the accelerating RF gradient. Further, the IR beam intensity is measured by a newly developed scatter wire detector system and stabilized via the electron beam current up to the few Hz range. Control theory aspects used to design both solutions are shown, also their implementation into the existing ELBE control landscape and performance characteristics.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11427
Publ.-Id: 11427


The New Superconducting RF Photoinjector at the ELBE Linac

Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Murcek, P.; Schamlott, A.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Kamps, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Matheisen, A.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.; vom Stein, P.

Most of the proposed electron accelerator projects for future FELs, ERLs, or 4th generation light sources require electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high-brightness, low emittance and high average current. For that reason existing electron injectors must be considerably improved or new injector concepts developed. One very promising approach represents the superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun). This injector type combines the advantages of a conventional photoelectron injector with that of superconducting acceleration, i.e. the very low RF losses and simple continuous wave operation. Within a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD and MBI a SRF gun was developed and installed at the FZD for operation at the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator. In November the first beam was produced. First commissioning results have been collected. Besides an improvement of beam quality and parameter range the SRF gun serves as a test bench for further development, evaluation and optimization since it is the first injector of its type which is operating at an accelerator worldwide.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    The IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, Conference Record 3066, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11426
Publ.-Id: 11426


It's a matter of cores

Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; Buess, M.; Kuepper, K.; Fassbender, J.

Using time-resolved X-ray microscopy, it is possible to get an insight into the dynamics of magnetic micro- and nanostructures. A fascinating property of micro-magnetism comes from the possibility to control the domain and vortex configuration through the sample's shape and size. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combinatio of vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single crosstie wall contains three vortex cores that can each point either up or down resulting in a total of 2^3 (=eight) configurations only distinguishable when their dynamics are investigated.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; PEEM; vortex; antivortex; synchrotron

  • Contribution to external collection
    Scott Capper, Fribourg: PSI Scientific Report 2007, Villigen: Paul Scherrer Institut, 2008, ISSN 1662-1719, 12

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11425
Publ.-Id: 11425


LIF based hydrodynamic studies in pilot-scale electrolytic cells

Kryk, H.; Schubert, M.; Hessel, G.; Hristov, H. V.; Friedrich, H.-J.

Carrying out electrochemical processes at high efficiency would require having optimal hydrodynamic conditions of the electrolyte liquids within the cell, forcing high mass transfer rates of the relevant components at the electrodes as well as through the membrane. Hence, the electrolyte residence time distribution (RTD) in the individual compartments is one of the key issues, affecting the performance. For the investigation of RTD and spatially resolved velocity profiles at different compartment levels of technical electrolytic cells, a new laser induced fluorescence (LIF) visualization method has been developed. Back-mixing effects of the electrolytes are quantified by axial dispersion coefficients using adequate dispersion models. Among the description of the measurement setup, the contribution mainly discusses the effects of liquid flow rate, spacer grids and pressure conditions in the compartments as well as the effect of gas evolution on RTD. The measurements provide an informative basis for optimization of the flow textures that diverge from expected symmetric flows. The aim of the research is to get a better understanding regarding the RTD behaviour and to draw conclusions on the cell behaviour as basis for optimization of the cell design as well as of the process parameters. Moreover, the experimental results can prove to be useful to evaluate modelling and simulation of hydrodynamics using CFD methods which is also shown by means of selected examples.

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 80(2008)9, 1314-1314
  • Poster
    ProcessNet Jahrestagung, 07.-09.10.2008, Karlsruhe, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11424
Publ.-Id: 11424


Nuclear Astrophysics At LUNA: Status And Perspectives

Prati, P.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Confortola, F.; Conti, E.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, G.; Gustavino, C.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Alvarez, C. R.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.

The talk will be mainly devoted to the measurement of the cross section of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction which belongs to the p-p chain. Actually, solar neutrino fluxes depend both on astrophysical and on nuclear physics inputs, namely on the cross sections of the reactions responsible for neutrino production inside the Solar core. While the flux of solar 8B neutrinos has been recently measured at Superkamiokande with a 3.5% uncertainty and a precise measurement of 7Be neutrino flux is foreseen in the next future, the predicted fluxes are still affected by larger errors. The largest nuclear physics uncertainty to determine the fluxes of 8B and 7Be neutrinos comes from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction. The uncertainty on its S-factor is due to an average discrepancy in results obtained using two different experimental approaches: the detection of the delayed gamma rays from 7Be decay and the measurement of the prompt gamma emission. The LUNA Collaboration has performed a new high precision experiment with both techniques at the same time. Thanks to the low background conditions of the Gran Sasso LUNA accelerator facility, the cross section has been measured down to 93 keV, the lowest interaction energy ever reached. The S-factors from the two methods do not show any discrepancy within the experimental errors. An extrapolated S(0) = 0.560±0.017 keV barn is obtained. Moreover, branching ratios between the two prompt gamma -transitions have been measured with 3\u20138% accuracy. Recently, the LUNA Collaboration has presented to the Scientific Board of Gran Sasso Laboratory its experimental program for the next five years based on the existing 400 kV accelerator facility. A Letter of Intent addressing the possibility to install a 3 MV machine at Gran Sasso has also been submitted to the Board. The LUNA scientific programs with both the 400 kV and 3 MV accelerator facilities will be illustrated in the final part of the talk.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Frontiers in Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics and Reactions, 10.-14.09.2007, Crete, Greece
    AIP Conference Proceedings Volume 1012: American Institute of Physics, 305-312

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11423
Publ.-Id: 11423


Rhenium and technetium complexes bearing quinazoline derivatives: progress towards a 99mTc biomarker for EGFR-TK imaging

Fernandes, C.; Santos, I. C.; Santos, I.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Künstler, J.-U.; Kraus, W.; Rey, A.; Margaritis, N.; Bourkoula, A.; Chiotellis, A.; Paravatou-Petsotase, M.; Pirmettis, I.

The quinazoline derivatives (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)quinazoline-4,6-diamine (2) and (3-bromophenyl)quinazoline-4,6-diamine (3) were labelled with 99mTc using the “4 + 1” mixed-ligand system [Tc(NS3)(CN-R)] and the tricarbonyl moiety fac-[Tc(CO)3]+. In the “4 + 1” approach the technetium(III) is stabilized by a monodentate isocyanide bearing a quinazoline fragment (L1, L2) and by the tetradentate tripodal ligand tris(2-mercaptoethyl)-amine (NS3). In the “4 + 1” approach, 99mTc-labelling was performed in a two-step procedure, the complexes [Tc(NS3)(L1)] (7a) and [Tc(NS3)(L2)] (8a) being obtained in about 50–70% yield. In the tricarbonyl approach, the fac-[Tc(CO)3]+ unit is anchored by two different monoanionic chelators bearing the quinazoline derivatives (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)quinazoline-4,6-diamine (2) and (3-bromophenyl)quinazoline-4,6-diamine (3). Both chelators have a N2O donor atom set, but one contains a pyrazolyl ring (L5H) and the other contains a pyridine unit (L6H). In both cases the conjugation of the quinazoline to the chelator was done through the secondary amine of the potentially tridentate and monoanionic chelators, the corresponding 99mTc-complexes (10a, 11a) being obtained in quantitative yield. The identities of the 99mTc-labelled quinazolines (7a, 8a, 10a, 11a) were confirmed by comparison with the HPLC profiles of the analogous Re compounds (7, 8, 10, 11). All these Re complexes were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and in some cases by MS and X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro studies indicate that the quinazoline fragments, after conjugation to the cyano group (L1, L2) or to the pyrazolyl containing chelator (L5H), as well as the corresponding Re complexes (7, 8, 10) inhibit significantly the EGFR autophosphorylation and also inhibit A431 cell growth. These two effects were also found for the pyridine-containing chelator (L6H) and corresponding Re complex (11), although to a lesser extent.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11422
Publ.-Id: 11422


Sternentwicklung und Elementsynthese

Wagner, A.

Sternentwicklung und Elementsynthese

  • Lecture (others)
    Hauptseminar Kosmologie, TU Dresden, 13.06.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11421
Publ.-Id: 11421


Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics: Where do the chemical elements come from?

Wagner, A.

  • Lecture (others)
    FZD Lecture, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 13.06.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11420
Publ.-Id: 11420


Effect of substrate temperature on Al-doping of ZnO films

Vinnichenko, M.; Gago, R.; Rogozin, A.; Shevchenko, N.; Cornelius, S.; Jimenez, I.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

Al-doping of ZnO is routinely used to create transparent electrodes, although the mechanisms of incorporation and electrical activation of the doping impurity are not well understood. In order to have a deeper insight into these processes, polycrystalline ZnO and ZnO:Al films were grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering of Zn and Zn:Al targets, respectively. The substrate temperatures (Ts) were spanning in the 40-580 °C range. The films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Hall effect measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The electrical resistivity of ZnO:Al films shows a clear minimum at Ts=350 °C, which correlates with a maximum in crystallinity (grain size). The lower resistivity is due to the increased density and mobility of free electrons according to the Hall effect measurements. At Ts>350 °C, the ZnO:Al film crystallinity significantly deteriorates, while the crystallinity of undoped ZnO films grown at identical conditions always improves by increasing Ts. XANES results show that the poorer film crystallinity and higher resistivity at high Ts can be related to AlOx segregation. Further, the electrical properties correlate with changes in the O(1s) absorption edge, whereas the Zn(2p) edge shows no modification with respect to undoped ZnO films. This result suggests that the Al incorporation increases charge carrier density due to oxygen vacancy formation in ZnO lattice.

Keywords: Al-doped ZnO; reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering; film structure; electrical properties; optical properties

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2008 Spring Meeting, 26.-30.05.08, Strasbourg, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11419
Publ.-Id: 11419


Salty neutrinos from the sun

Wagner, A.

  • Lecture (others)
    Astrophysical Journal Club, FZD, 05.12.2007, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11418
Publ.-Id: 11418


Digitizer Data Acquisition at nELBE

Wagner, A.

Works on modern methods using fast neutrons for research related to the transmutation of nuclear waste

  • Lecture (others)
    FZD Lectures, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 14.02.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11417
Publ.-Id: 11417


Kerne und Sterne

Wagner, A.

Kerne und Sterne - Vom Urknall, der Entstehung der chemischen Elemente und Experimenten im FZD

  • Lecture (others)
    Besuch des Albert-Schweizer-Gymnasiums Erfurt, 29.05.2008, Erfurt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11415
Publ.-Id: 11415


Investigation of planar electron channeling radiation generated in quartz single crystals

Azadegan, B.; Grigoryan, L. S.; Pawelke, J.; Wagner, W.

Measurements of planar channeling radiation generated in a variety of crystallographic planes of a quartz single crystal have been performed at the radiation source ELBE at electron energies of 17, 25 and 32 MeV. The quantum theory of channeling radiation has been applied for the interpretation of the observed spectra. Planar continuum potentials, transverse electron states, transition energies and line widths have been calculated. Taking the population dynamics of states during channeling into account, spectral distributions of the channeling radiation could be simulated, which reveal a good quantitative agreement with the measured spectra.

Keywords: channeling radiation; quartz single crystal

  • Journal of Physics B 41(2008), 235101

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11414
Publ.-Id: 11414


LUNA and the neutrinos from the Sun

Bemmerer, D.

Nuclear reactions that generate energy and synthesize elements take place inside the stars in a relatively narrow energy window: the Gamowpeak. The extremely low value of the cross-section inside the Gamowpeak has always prevented its measurement in a laboratory at the Earth's surface, where the signal to background ratio is too small because of cosmic ray interactions. In order to explore this new domain of nuclear astrophysics LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) started in 1991 its activity by installing a 50 kV electrostatic accelerator underground at the GranSassoLaboratory in central Italy, followed in the year 2000 by a 400 kV one. LUNA still remains the only underground accelerator facility existing in the world. In the seminar I will describe the main
contributions given by LUNA to the study of the pp-chain and the CNO cycle in the Sun, in particular to the precise determination of the solar neutrino spectrum.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    DESY-Seminar, 10.06.2008, Hamburg, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar des DESY-Zeuthen, 11.06.2008, Zeuthen, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    TU Berlin, Seminar Nukleare Astrophysik, 03.11.2008, Berlin, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11413
Publ.-Id: 11413


RPC Prototype Development

Bemmerer, D.; Yakorev, D.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.

The NeuLAND detector at FAIR is designed to detect neutrons of up to 1 GeV kinetic energy with high efficiency. It consists of a layered structure of iron converter material and MRPC units to detect the secondary charged particles. The talk reports on the status of the MRPC prototyping effort for NeuLAND at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Joint R3B/EXL/ELISe Collaboration Meeting on Technical Issues, 21.-24.04.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11412
Publ.-Id: 11412


Irradiation-induced copper precipitation in the FeCu system including vacancy absorption: the V3C model

Birkenheuer, U.; Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.

Rate theory (RT) simulations for two different FeCu model alloys, Fe-0.1%Cu and Fe-0.3%Cu, are reported which have been performed in conjunction with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments for samples neutron-irradiated at four different neutron doses. The newly developed Vacancy Coupled Copper Clustering (V3C) model is introduced and it is demonstrated what with only two fit parameters the whole set of sixteen independent experimental data points could be reproduced. It is also shown that our V3C model allows (in contrast to the RT models discussed in the literature) assessing the chemical composition of the mixed copper-vacancies clusters which are formed, especially in the Fe-0.1%Cu alloy. The experimental trends could be reproduced this way without any re-calibration of the V3C model.

Keywords: rate theory; neutron irradiation; FeCu model alloys; SANS experiments; mixed copper-vacancy clusters

  • Poster
    Final PERFECT Workshop (a project within the 6th European framework program, FP6), 16.-19-06.2008, Moret sur Loing, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11411
Publ.-Id: 11411


Terahertz-Strahlung auf der Basis beschleunigter Ladungsträger in GaAs

Dreyhaupt, A.

kein Abstract vorhanden

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-498 2008
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11410
Publ.-Id: 11410


SANS results of neutron-irradiated VVER-1000 RPV steels and model alloys

Ulbricht, A.; Bergner, F.

The aim of the present poster is to contribute small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data to the experimental database of the integrated project PERFECT. The results serve as database for model validation. The nature of irradiation-induced features in Fe-3wt%Ni was investigated and compared with results for commercially pure Fe. We have observed a three times larger volume fraction of irradiation-induced scatterers for the Fe-Ni alloy than for pure Fe. For VVER-1000 RPV steels matrix damage is the dominant feature in the case of low Cu level, but Cu-rich precipitates significantly contribute for Cu-enriched steels.

Keywords: Small-angle neutron scattering; radiation defects; RPV steel; Fe-Ni alloy

  • Poster
    Final PERFECT Workshop, 16.-19.06.2008, Moret sur Loing, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11409
Publ.-Id: 11409


Improving the Oxidation Resistance of TiAl-Alloys with Fluorine

Donchev, A.; Richter, E.; Schütze, M.; Yankov, R.

The technical TiAl-alloy gamma-MET (Ti-46.5Al-4(Cr, Nb, Ta, B)) was oxidised thermocyclically (24h-cycle-test) at 900 degrees C in wet and dry air. In this paper results of untreated and fluorine treated TiAl-samples are presented. Their oxidation behaviour will be shown. Several methods were used to apply the halogens to the surface, e.g. beamline ion implantation, spraying of or dipping into a halogen containing liquid. A pure protective alumina scale was found, e.g. after treatment with a fluorine containing polymer and thermocyclic oxidation up to 1 year at 900 degrees C in laboratory air. On the other side thick fast growing and non-protective mixed oxide scales were found on the untreated samples.

Keywords: intermetallics; oxidation; metallography; halogen effect; titanium aluminides

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11407
Publ.-Id: 11407


Human S100A12: a novel key player in inflammation?

Pietzsch, J.; Hoppmann, S.

Abstract S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. Human S100A12 is predominantly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes and, therefore, has been assigned to the S100 protein subfamily of calgranulins or myeloid-related proteins. Intracellular S100A12 exists as an anti-parallel homodimer and upon calcium-dependent activation interacts with target proteins to regulate cellular functions. Extracellular S100A12 exists majorily as homodimer and hexamer, respectively, and shows cytokine-like characteristics. It is part of the innate immune response and linked to certain autoimmune reactions. Human S100A12 is markedly overexpressed in inflammatory compartments, and elevated serum levels of S100A12 are found in patients suffering from various inflammatory, neurodegenerative, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders. In this regard, interaction of calcium-activated S100A12 with the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and its soluble form (sRAGE) plays a central pathogenetic role. Recent clinical evidence suggests a high potential of S100A12 as a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker of localized inflammatory processes.

Keywords: Calcium-binding proteins; Canonical EF-hand; Copper-binding proteins; Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules; Inflammatory diseases; Pseudo EF-hand; Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts; Soluble RAGE

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11406
Publ.-Id: 11406


Systematic comparison of two novel thiol-reactive prosthetic groups for 18F labeling of peptides and proteins with the acylation agent succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate [18F]SFB

Wüst, F.; Köhler, L.; Berndt, M.; Pietzsch, J.

A systematic comparison of 4-[18F]fluorobenzaldehyde-O-(2-{2-[2-(pyrrol-2,5-dione-1-yl)ethoxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl)oxime ([18F]FBOM) and 4-[18F]fluorobenzaldehyde-O-[6-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrol-1-yl)-hexyl]oxime ([18F]FBAM) as prosthetic groups for the mild and efficient 18F labeling of cysteine-containing peptides and proteins with the amine-group reactive acylation agent, succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB), is described. All three prosthetic groups were prepared in a remotely controlled synthesis module. Synthesis of [18F]FBOM and [18F]FBAM was accomplished via oxime formation through reaction of appropriate aminooxy-functionalized labeling precursors with 4-[18F]fluorobenzaldehyde. The obtained radiochemical yields were 19% ([18F]FBOM) and 29% ([18F]FBAM), respectively. Radiolabeling involving [18SUP>F]FBAM and [18F]FBOM was exemplified by the reaction with cysteine-containing tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing dimeric neurotensin derivative, and human native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) as model compounds. Radiolabeling with the acylation agent [18F]SFB was carried out using a dimeric neurotensin derivative and nLDL. Both thiol-group reactive prosthetic groups show significantly better labeling efficiencies for the peptides in comparison with the acylation agent [18F]SFB. The obtained results demonstrate that [18F]FBOM is especially suited for the labeling of hydrophilic cysteine-containing peptides, whereas [18F]FBAM shows superior labeling performance for higher molecular weight compounds as exemplified for nLDL apolipoprotein constituents. However, the acylation agent [18F]SFB is the preferred prosthetic group for labeling nLDL under physiological conditions.

Keywords: 18F-labeled prosthetic groups; Peptides; LDL; Apolipoproteins; Positron emission tomography (PET)

  • Amino Acids 36(2009), 283-295

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11405
Publ.-Id: 11405


Effects of pioglitazone and/or simvastatin on low density lipoprotein subfractions in non-diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk: A sub-analysis from the PIOSTAT study

Leonhardt, W.; Pfützner, A.; Müller, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Forst, T.; Karagiannis, E.; Lübben, G.; Hanefeld, M.

Background
We analyzed the efficacy and possible synergistic actions of pioglitazone and simvastatin monotherapy versus their combination on LDL subfractions from a subpopulation from the PIOSTAT three-arm randomized controlled trial. PPARγ agonists, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control and appear to lower the concentration of atherogenic small dense LDL particles. Insulin resistance frequently occurs in non-diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. Statins, such as simvastatin, reduce cardiovascular events by lowering LDL-C. So far, only scarce information exists for comparative efficacy and possible synergistic effects of combination therapy on LDL subfractions, cholesterol particle load, and particle number of atherogenic small dense LDL.

Methods
125 non-diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk were randomized to therapy with pioglitazone 45 mg/day, simvastatin 40 mg/day, or the combination of both, for 12 weeks. In the present sub-study, LDL subfractions from 88 patients were separated by very-fast ultracentrifugation.

Results
Simvastatin monotherapy significantly reduced cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in IDL, LDL1, and LDL2. The lipid concentrations and lipid loads in LDL3 remained unchanged. By contrast, treatment with pioglitazone reduced the cholesterol concentration in LDL3 (density 1.040–1.066 kg/l) from 0.38 to 0.31 mmol/l (p = 0.0004) and of the cholesterol load per particle from 1058 to 934 mol/mol (p = 0.0149). Even greater reductions of cholesterol in LDL3 were observed with the combination of pioglitazone and simvastatin: from 0.38 to 0.29 mmol/l (p = 0.0006) and from 1021 to 903 mol/mol (p = 0.0011), respectively. In addition, combination therapy reduced the particle number of LDL3 from 356 to 316 nmol/l (p = 0.0074).

Conclusions
Simvastatin preferentially lowered LDL1 and LDL2 subfractions, whereas pioglitazone reduced LDL3 cholesterol and cholesterol load. In addition, the combination reduced the LDL3 particle number. Thus, our data suggest a synergistic action of pioglitazone and simvastatin on atherogenicity of small dense LDL particles.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11404
Publ.-Id: 11404


Impact of imatinib mesylate on bone remodeling in the growing skeleton of juvenile mice

Boehme, J.; Bergmann, R.; Fischer, R.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, J.; Bornhäuser, M.; Gasser, J. A.; Suttorp, M.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Workshop for Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 08.-11.05.2008, Köln, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop for Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions, 08.-11.05.2008, Köln, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11403
Publ.-Id: 11403


Scavenger receptors are involved in phagocyte adhesion to endothelial cells stimulated by oxidized and glycoxidized LDL

Kopprasch, S.; Pietzsch, J.; Bornstein, S. R.; Graessler, J.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Atherosclerosis 9(2008), 52
    DOI: 10.1016/S1567-5688(08)70205-8
  • Poster
    77th Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society, 26.-29.04.2008, Istanbul, Turkey

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11402
Publ.-Id: 11402


Modulation of adrenocortical aldosterone and cortisol synthesis by in vitro oxidized low density lipoprotein

Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.; Pietzsch, J.

Objectives:
Oxidative stress is of critical importance in the pathogenesis of endocrinopathies. Since cholesterol serves as a major source of steroid hormone synthesis we investigated the effect of hypochlorite-modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) on aldosterone and cortisol release from human adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells.

Methods:
Native LDL obtained from healthy volunteers was oxidized to varying degrees by sodium hypochlorite. The resulting modified LDL was biochemically characterized by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis. Human NCI-H295R cells were cultured in DMEM/F12. Aldosterone release in supernatants was measured by RIA and cortisol secretion was determined by competitive luminometric assay.

Results:
Incubation of LDL with sodium hypochlorite resulted in increasing concentrations of the apolipoprotein B-100 oxidation markers HAVA, HACA, and 3-chlorotyrosine in dependence on the degree of oxidation. Incubation of adrenocortical cells with 10–100 μg/ml native or oxidized LDL for 24 h stimulated hormone release dose-dependently up to 3-fold. Subsequent stimulation of NCI-H295R cells with the physiological stimulus angiotensin II induced an additional hormone secretion up to 2.9-fold in LDL-pretreated samples. Compared to native LDL, oxidized LDL induced a smaller stimulation of hormone secretion that decreased with increasing degree of oxidation.

Conclusion:
Oxidation of LDL may contribute to endocrine dysfunction by decreasing adrenocortical aldosterone and cortisol release.

  • Poster
    10th European Congress of Endocrinology, 03.-07.05.2008, Berlin, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Endocrine Abstracts 16(2008), P27

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11401
Publ.-Id: 11401


Cluster dynamics simulation of mixed Cu-vacancy clusters in a neutron-irradiated Fe-Cu alloy

Gokhman, A. R.; Bergner, F.

The binary Fe-Cu system as a model system for Cu-containing reactor pressure vessel steels under neutron irradiation was studied by means of cluster dynamics simulations. In these simulations the evolution of the size distribution and composition of mixed Cu-vacancy clusters in the Fe matrix is described. We have found that the kinetics of copper rich precipitates under neutron irradiation is described correctly, if the Cu-rich clusters are considered as traps as well as emitters of single vacancies. The results are compared with SANS experiments on a binary Fe-Cu model alloy reported in the literature. The assumption on the constant composition of copper rich precipitates after the cascade stage was checked.

Keywords: Cluster dynamics; Iron-copper alloy; Neutron irradiation

  • Contribution to external collection
    J.W.P. Schmelzer, G. Röpke, V.B. Priezzhev: Nucleation Theory and Applications, Dubna: JINR, 2008, 978-5-9530-0199-1, 319-325

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11400
Publ.-Id: 11400


A microscopic examination of nanosized mixed Ni-Al hydroxide surface precipitates on pyrophyllite

Livi, K. J. T.; Senesi, G.; Scheinost, A. C.; Sparks, D. L.

The nature of Ni-hydroxide precipitates on pyrophyllite were re-examined by analytical electron microscopy (AEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure XAFS. Analytical analysis of precipitates shows that the precipitate contains about 20% Al. High resolution TEM imaging showed that the precipitate was amorphous and PXRD failed to find any crystalline peaks associated with crystalline Ni-Al layered double-hydroxide (LDH) or α-Ni(OH)2. These results confirm the conclusion from XAFS spectroscopic data that Al co-precipitates with Ni on Al-rich substrates to form Ni-Al hydroxide (LDH) surface precipitates. However, the HRTEM data clarifies that although the bonding environment of the precipitate is like that of Ni-Al LDH, no long range ordering of the structure exists. The study illustrates the need for TEM observations to complement XAFS data and the potential importance of amorphous materials in environmental settings.

Keywords: Layered double hydroxides (LDH); EXAFS; HR-TEM

  • Environmental Science & Technology 43(2009)5, 1299-1304

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11399
Publ.-Id: 11399


Cluster dynamics study of the binary systems in neutron irradiated iron alloys

Gokhman, A.; Bergner, F.; Birkenheuer, U.

Two binary systems are studied in neutron irradiated alloys by cluster dynamics. They are the coupling copper-vacancy system in high content copper-iron alloy and VVER steel and vacancy-interstitial system in commercial pure iron. It is found that the kinetics of copper rich precipitates under neutron irradiation is described correct if they are considered as the sinks as well as emitters of the single vacancies. Long-time behavior of the free vacancies, free interstitials and vacancies clusters and interstitial clusters in pure iron under neutron irradiation is governed by the surface limited regime of kinetics.

Keywords: Cluster dynamics; High copper-iron alloy; pure iron; Neutron irradiation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop Nucleation Theory and Applications, 12.-20.04.2008, Dubna, Russia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11398
Publ.-Id: 11398


Determining role of Krein signature for 3D Arnold tongues of oscillatory dynamos

Kirillov, O.; Günther, U.; Stefani, F.

Using a homotopic family of boundary eigenvalue problems for the mean-field α2-dynamo with helical turbulence parameter α(r)=α0+γΔα(r) and homotopy parameter β ∈[0,1], we show that the underlying network of diabolical points for Dirichlet (idealized, β=0) boundary conditions substantially determines the choreography of eigenvalues and thus the character of the dynamo instability for Robin (physically realistic, β=1) boundary conditions. In the (α0,β,γ)-space the Arnold tongues of oscillatory solutions at β=1 end up at the diabolical points for β=0. In the vicinity of the diabolical points the space orientation of the 3D tongues, which are cones in first-order approximation, is determined by the Krein signature of the modes involved in the diabolical crossings at the apexes of the cones. The Krein space induced geometry of the resonance zones explains the subtleties in finding α-profiles leading to spectral exceptional points, which are important ingredients in recent theories of polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field.

Keywords: oscillatory MHD dynamo; geomagnetic field reversals; exceptional points; Arnold's tongues; perturbation theory; Krein space

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11397
Publ.-Id: 11397


A time dependent analytical approximation solution for a pulsed source problem: P1 transport versus diffusion

Merk, B.

An analytical solution for a pulse of an external source in a homogeneous subcritical reactor problem is developed. The problem is described through an approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation, the Telegrapher's or time dependent P1 equation. The analytical solution to the problem is expressed in terms of a Green's function expansion. The differences between the solution for the Telegrapher's equation and the diffusion equation without separation of space and time are discussed

Keywords: Telegrapher's equation; Neutron Transport; Space-Time Dependent Transport; Accelerator Driven Systems; Pulsed Source

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
    IEEE Conference Record, 978-1-4244-2715-4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11396
Publ.-Id: 11396


Stable Mode‐Locked Pulses from Mid‐Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers

Wang, C. Y.; Kuznetsova, L.; Diehl, L.; Kärtner, F.; Belkin, M.; Schneider, H.; Liu, H. C.; Capasso, F.

We report direct evidence of active mode‐locking of quantum cascade lasers from second‐order interferometric autocorrelation measurements with a non‐linear quantum well infrared photodetector. A FWHM of 3ps was deduced for the stable train of pulses.

Keywords: quantum cascade laser; QCL; modelocking; QWIP; autocorrelation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 04.-09.05.2008, San Jose, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11395
Publ.-Id: 11395


Methods for an Automatic Analysis of Motion Tracking Data in PET

Langner, J.; Oehme, L.; Pötzsch, C.; Dittrich, S.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; van den Hoff, J.

Due to the constantly improving spatial resolution of PET systems, patient motion increasingly limits the achievable image quality in PET. Especially for tracer kinetic analysis in dynamic PET, as well as for the analysis of small spatial regions of interests (ROI), patient motion represents a severe obstacle. Therefore, different methods for the tracking and correction of patient movement have been investigated in the past. Generally, suitable motion threshold values have to be deduced from the motion data to identify significant motion and to reduce the amount of computation time for motion compensation methods. Therefore, an objective analysis of the motion data has to be performed. Motion data is usually provided in the form of three translations along, and three rotations around, the coordinate axes. These raw parameters, however, proof to be unsuited for a direct assessment of the magnitude of 3D motion. Rather, it is necessary to execute the spatial transformations defined by the six parameters for each point within the ROI. Therefore, we developed procedures for an automated analysis of motion tracking data which address these problems. The raw motion data from the tracking device is automatically processed via methods based on the 'R' statistics toolkit. Parameters are calculated for the general stability of the motion tracking. Furthermore, the translation and rotation parameters are analysed and graphically displayed. Time dependent transformation matrices relative to the acquisition start are also calculated. For the quantitative analysis of head motion, we translate the motion information onto the surface of a virtual sphere with a diameter comparable to that of a human brain (~20 cm). By transforming each point of a grid on the sphere with the available motion parameters, the 3D-Euclidean distance of each grid point from its original position is calculated. If the distance of any of these points exceeds a certain threshold (~3 mm), the motion is considered to be significant.
Furthermore, a target ROI (e.g. the striatum) can be specified. This analysis allows the objective identification of all time points where significant motion occurred. This enables optimised settings for motion correction algorithms, notably avoiding time intensive redundant computations.
Furthermore, this data enables an intuitive quality control by providing pseudo 3D plots of the motion on the reference sphere. Finally, a report page is provided yielding summary information concerning the areas of largest/smallest motion as well as an automatic motion score of the study as a feedback for the physicians.

  • Poster
    EANM'08, Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S333
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11394
Publ.-Id: 11394


Cell cycle regulating kinase Cdk4 as a potential target for tumour visualisation in vivo

Treite, F.; Köhler, L.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, J.

Aim
Loss of growth control in tumour cells is a result of alterations in regulatory pathways of the cell cycle, in particular, the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade. Inhibition of this G1/S transition regulating pathway using, e.g., selective Cdk4 inhibitors provides a promising approach for cancer treatment.
We hypothesise that potent Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable for imaging of cell proliferation processes and tumour visualisation by PET in vivo. Therefore, biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characteristics of a selected Cdk4 inhibitor (CKIA, 8-Cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one) was examined.

Materials & Methods
Cell growth and cell cycle studies were performed in human tumour cell lines (HT-29, FaDu, THP-1). Cdk4 specific pRb phosphorylation at Ser780 was analysed in cell lysates by western blotting. mRNA expression of the pRb affected genes E2F-1 and PCNA was measured with quantitative RT-PCR. Further, cell uptake studies were performed using iodine-124 radiolabelled CKIA ([124I]CKIA).

Results
Tumour cell growth studies indicate a significantly reduced cell proliferation in all cell lines after 48 h of treatment with 0.1 (< 50%) and 1 µM (< 15%) CKIA. This effect is confirmed by cell cycle studies. Already 24 h after incubation with CKIA the percentage of tumour cells in G1 phase showed a concentration dependent increment up to 90%. pRb phosphorylation is decreased three- to tenfold after 24 h of treatment with 0.1 and 1 µM CKIA in all cell lines. Further, a downregulation of E2F-1 and PCNA mRNA expression could be demonstrated.
Preliminary experiments with [124I]CKIA indicate an adequate stability of this compound in various buffers (pH 4.2, 7.4, 9.0), cell culture media, and rodent plasma samples. In vitro cell uptake studies in adherent tumour cells using [124I]CKIA showed a substantial uptake in HT-29 (1,649±117 %ID/mg protein) and FaDu cells (1,033±84 %ID/mg protein) after 2 h at 37°C.

Conclusion
Our data demonstrate a definite and specific inhibition of tumour cell proliferation when incubating with CKIA due to an arrest of tumour cells in G1 phase. The repression of G1 progression is achieved by CKIA induced inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway. The stability of [124I]CKIA in physiological buffers and plasma, and the cell uptake observed in human tumour cells are a promising prerequisite for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies to further support our hypothesis that radiolabelled CKIA and corresponding compounds are suitable tracers for visualisation of tumours using PET.

  • Poster
    EANM'08, Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S325
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11393
Publ.-Id: 11393


PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer Systemfor Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Hofmann, M.; Kambor, S.; Schmidt, C.; Grambole, D.; Rentsch, J.; Glunz, S. W.; Preu, R.

A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing) and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal) were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted fromquasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) measurements above 680mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell’s internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF) and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVDONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell’s rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11392
Publ.-Id: 11392


A novel embedding technique for multimodality imaging of xenotransplanted tumor models

Strobel, K.; Meister, S.; Bergmann, R.; van den Hoff, J.; Pietzsch, J.

Introduction
Multimodality imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI/MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and autoradiography) of xenotransplanted or syngene tumors on the legs of mice requires the solving of two main problems:
a) the magnetic field inhomogeneity in the tumor periphery caused by the transition of the magnetic field from tissue to the surrounding air, which makes MRS in the tumor periphery difficult or impossible and
b) reproducible positioning for subsequent histological sectioning of the separated tumor.

The aim of the present study was to find an embedding of tumors to solve these two problems simultaneously.

Materials and Methods
Phantom studies were performed using balloons filled with a water/ethanol mixture. Animal experiments were performed using 7-14-week-old NMRI mice. We used a 7 Tesla magnetic resonance tomograph. Chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed to detect magnetic field inhomogeneities. For phantom embedding, three different materials were used: i) alginate, ii) gelatin, and iii) a mixture (“dough”) of wheat flour, sodium chloride, and potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate. For tissue/tumor embedding alginate was used. The animals were placed in an animal bed including position markers which are visible in MR, PET, and CT images. Prior to histological sectioning the embedded phantoms and tumors were shock frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Results
The easy handling of alginate was superior to that of gelatin and dough. Gelatin disrupted during freezing and did not yield improvement of magnetic field homogeneity. Dough showed improvement of magnetic field homogeneity, but was not completely frozen and therefore not suitable. Alginate showed improvement of magnetic field homogeneity. Also histological sectioning after freezing succeeded very well. Therefore, we selected alginate for tumor embedding. The embedding with alginate showed a significant improvement of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the water peak in the peripheral rim of the tumor in comparison to the FWHM of the spectra without embedding (21+/-8 Hz vs. 54+/-29 Hz).


Discussion and conclusion
Our investigation showed that alginate exhibits the properties needed for multimodality investigations with MRS and histological sectioning simultaneously, namely easy handling, magnetic field homogeneity, and the consistency required for histological sectioning. Freezing immediately after imaging, especially after PET imaging is necessary, to avoid dislocation of radioactivity before and after sectioning.

  • Poster
    ESMRMB 25. Annual Scientific Meeting, European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, 02.-04.10.2008, Valencia, Spain
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine 21(2008)Suppl. 1, 267

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11391
Publ.-Id: 11391


Real-time evolution of electrical properties and structure of indium oxide and indium tin oxide during crystallization

Rogozin, A.; Vinnichenko, M.; Shevchenko, N.; Kreissig, U.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

Indium oxide and tin-doped indium oxide amorphous films grown by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering were annealed in vacuum. The film structure and properties were studied using in-situ X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and four point probe measurements. The electrical properties of the indium oxide film change mainly before the crystallization outset. In contrast, the crystallization of tin-doped indium oxide caused a resistivity decrease due to Sn donor activation with an estimated efficiency of 40%.

Keywords: indium oxide; tin-doped indium oxide; annealing; in situ characterization

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11390
Publ.-Id: 11390


Factors affecting the specific activity of [18F]fluoride from a [18O]water target

Füchtner, F.; Preusche, S.; Mäding, P.; Zessin, J.; Steinbach, J.

Aim:
Characterisation of the influence of different polymeric tube materials of a water target system, used for the production of 18F activity, on the specific activity of radiotracers.

Material, methods:
Target water samples taken from different locations of the 18F water target system of a Cyclone® 18/9 cyclotron, equipped with Teflon® (PTFE) or polypropylene (PP) tubes, were analyzed for non-radioactive [19F]fluoride content. [19F]Fluoride content was measured by ion chromatography (IC20, Dinoex) with suppressed conductivity detection. Both the ion chromatographic results and the amount of 18F activity produced were used for the calculation of the specific activity (SA) of [18F]fluoride at the start of the labelling synthesis. To check these results, the SA of the labelled receptor ligand [18F]ZK811460 was also determined by using the different tubing materials.

Results:
Dose-exposed PTFE tubes of the target dispensing (loading) system were identified to be a major source of [19F]fluoride contamination.

Conclusion:
By replacing PTFE tubes of the target dispensing system with PP tubes, the content of 19F was reduced considerably resulting in an increase of SA of the radiotracer [18F]ZK811460 by factor of two.

Keywords: Production of 18F; [18F]fluoride; [19F]fluoride; specific activity; [18O]water target

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11389
Publ.-Id: 11389


PET-CT after 50-60 Gy in NSCLC as a means of planning dose escalation

Gillham, C.; Zips, D.; Pönisch, F.; Evers, C.; Abolmaali, N.; Zöphel, K.; Steinbach, J.; Kotzerke, J.; Herrmann, T.; Baumann, M.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Poster
    6th Annual BTOG (British Thoracic Oncology Group) Meeting 2008, 23.-25.01.2008, Dublin, Ireland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Lung Cancer 60(2008)94, S30

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11388
Publ.-Id: 11388


Field-focusing imaging sensor for visualization of multiphase flows

Da Silva, M. J.; Thiele, S.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

We introduce a novel sensor modality for imaging of multiphase flows based on capacitance measurements. The basic idea of the new approach is to place a multitude of electrodes at two opposing walls of a vessel whereby the walls are parallel and each plane of electrodes are positioned perpendicular to each other. This arrangement combined with a special excitation-sensing scheme realizes a focusing of the electrical field in a given region of the interrogating volume allowing images to be generated.

Keywords: multiphase flow; flow visualization; capacitance measurement

  • Contribution to proceedings
    EUROSENSORS XXII, 07.-10.09.2008, Dresden, Germany
    Proceedings of EUROSENSORS XXII, Duesseldorf: VDI, 978-3-00-025217-4, 736-739
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EUROSENSORS XXII, 07.-10.09.2008, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11387
Publ.-Id: 11387


Creation of Nanohillocks on CaF2 Surfaces by Single Slow Highly Charged Ions

El-Said, A. S.; Heller, R.; Meissl, W.; Ritter, R.; Facsko, S.; Lemell, C.; Solleder, B.; Gebeshuber, I. C.; Betz, G.; Toulemonde, M.; Möller, W.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks on the (111) surface of a CaF2 single crystal. Our investigations reveal a surprisingly sharp and well-defined threshold of potential energy for hillock
formation which can be linked to a solid-liquid phase transition.

Keywords: Highly Charged Ions

  • Physical Review Letters 100(2008)23, 237601

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11386
Publ.-Id: 11386


Wechselwirkung und Transport von Actiniden im natürlichen Tongestein unter Berücksichtigung von Huminstoffen und Tonorganika - Verbundprojekt "Actinidenmigration im natürlichen Tongestein"

Bernhard, G.

- wird nachgereicht

  • Lecture (others)
    8. Projektstatusgespräch zur Forschungsförderung zur Entsorgung gefährlicher Abfälle in tiefen geologischen Formationen, 06.-07.05.2008, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11385
Publ.-Id: 11385


Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) as building blocks for photocatalytic nanocomposites

Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.; Marquard, A.; Scholz, A.

Nanoscaled materials comprised of organic and inorganic components are becoming more and more important in nanotechnology due to the diversity of applications. Self-assembling organic systems as part of such a hybrid material can be used as template for the fabrication of arrays of inorganic nanoparticles. Especially the proteinaceous bacterial surface layers (S-layers) that envelop bacterial cells are attractive for fabricating and patterning of nanostructures. These proteins are composed of protein monomers with the ability to self-assemble into two-dimensional arrays. The regular distributed pores of these paracrystalline arrays work as binding sites for various metals and offer ideal structures for the formation of regular distributed metallic nanoclusters of a defined size [1]. Such arrays are very attractive for technical applications ranging from the development of novel catalysts to biomedical applications, the programmed assembly of nanometre scale electronic devices, and optical industry [2]. Another approach is the embedding of S-layer proteins into ceramics thus producing metal binding functionalized nanocomposites [3].
Here we present the synthesis and characterization of S-layer templated ZnO-nanoclusters of a size of 16 nm. The photocatalytic properties of ZnO-particles are interesting for the application as nanoscaled catalytic material. We used these nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of the parmaceutical Diclofenac at a wavelength of 365 nm. The widespread occurrence of pharmaceutical residues such as Diclofenac in the environment has been reported in numerous investigations [4], thus establishing these compounds as a new class of pollutants. Therefore, the need of novel technologies for removal of these compounds has become evident. Our future work will concentrate on the development of photocatalytic active nanocomposites by the use of S-Layer produced ZnO-particles.

  • Poster
    NanoBioEurope2008, 09.-13.06.2008, Barcelona, Spain
  • Contribution to proceedings
    NanoBioEurope2008, 09.-13.06.2008, Barcelona, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11384
Publ.-Id: 11384


The Impact of Microorganisms on the Behaviour of Actinides in Natural Environments

Selenska-Pobell, S.

The behaviour of uranium and other actinides in the environment is strongly influenced by a broad range of biogeochemical factors and also by their own, often very complex chemistry. The major biotic factors in the radioactively polluted environments are the unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria and archaea) which, in contrast to the other forms of life on Earth, possess fascinating robustness to these extremely harsh and life-unfriendly surroundings. Microorganisms have developed very effective protection mechanisms against radionuclides and other heavy metals which are based on their ability for oxidative or reductive biotransformations, bioaccumulation, and/or biomineralization of these toxic elements (1 - 3).
...

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Actinide XAS 2008, 15.-17.07.2008, Soleil, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11382
Publ.-Id: 11382


Coordination of U(IV) and U(VI) sulfate hydrate in aqueous solution

Hennig, C.; Tsushima, S.; Brendler, V.; Ikeda, A.; Scheinost, A. C.; Bernhard, G.

Sulfuric acid has been used to perform in situ leaching of uranium ore at several sites in the world, among them in Königstein/Germany. The remaining leaching solvents cause questions concerning their environmental problems. The actual thermodynamic data, describing the species distribution in aqueous solution, are not sufficient because typical leaching solutions easily exceed the limit of ionic strengths where conventional models provide trustful results. The application of spectroscopic techniques may help to provide the required data. Therefore, the coordination of U(IV) and U(VI) sulfate in aqueous solutions with high ionic strengths has been recently investigated by several spectroscopic techniques (mainly EXAFS) combined with XRD studies and DFT calculations. The observed results expand the actual knowledge of the aquatic chemistry which is based mainly on thermodynamic data. The recent results are summarized in this contribution.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Conference Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology, 14.-18.09.2008, Freiberg, Germany
  • Contribution to external collection
    Broder J. Merkel, Andrea Hasche-Berger: Uranium, Mining and Hydrogeology, Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2008, 978-3-540-87745-5, 603-613

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11381
Publ.-Id: 11381


A new database on upwards air-water flow in a large pipe

Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Kussin, J.; Schütz, P.

A new database for stationary upward air-water flows in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 195.3 mm using the wire-mesh sensor technology is presented. During the experiments the sensor was always mounted on the top of the test section while the distance between gas injection and measuring plane was varied to up to 18 different L/D by using gas injection chambers at different vertical positions. The gas was injected via holes in the pipe wall. The pressure was kept at 0.25 MPa (absolute) at the location of the active gas injection while the temperature was constant at 30°C +-1K. This procedure exactly represents the evolution of the flow along the pipe, as it would be observed for an injection at a constant height position and a shifting of the measurement plane. The experiments were done for 48 combinations of air and water superficial velocities varying from 0.04 m/s to 1.6 m/s for water and 0.0025 m/s to 3.2 m/s for air. From the raw data time averaged data as: radial gas volume fraction profiles, bubble size distributions, radial volume fraction profiles decomposed according to the bubble size and the radial profiles of the gas velocity were calculated. All data were checked regarding their plausibility. They are characterized by a high resolution in space what makes them suitable for the development and validation of closure models for CFD-codes (e.g. for models on bubble forces or on coalescence and break-up) as well as for the test and validation of approaches for poly-dispersed flow.

Keywords: multiphase flow; bubbly flow; churn turbulent flow; annular flow; bubble size; pipe flow

  • Lecture (Conference)
    46th European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, 28.-30.05.2008, Pisa, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11380
Publ.-Id: 11380


Magnetization dynamics of Landau structures: tuning the response of mesoscopic magnetic objects using defects

Kuepper, K.; Wintz, S.; Raabe, J.; Buess, M.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Bischoff, L.; Quitmann, C.; Fassbender, J.

Magnetic vortex cores are interacting with and can be annihilated by artificial defects, such as holes. We report the imaging of the magnetic excitation spectrum in presence of holes, fabricated by focussed ion beam milling, in the magnetic domains, domain walls, and the center of Landau structures by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). Due to the very high lateral and temporal resolution the magnetization dynamics, which is characteristic for the vortex-hole interaction, is investigated in detail. We find that the vortex as well as domain walls can be trapped by small holes. As a consequence the frequency vortex gyrotropic motion is enhanced with a significant lower amplitude in case of non centric holes in domain walls. Non centric holes in domains lead to no frequency shift, but a higher amplitude of the vortex gyration due to attractive vortex-hole interaction. The experimental results are compared to micromagnetic simulations.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; vortex; defects; magnetic domain; XMCD; simulations

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11379
Publ.-Id: 11379


Controlled generation of ferromagnetic martensite from paramagnetic austenite in AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel

Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Surinach, S.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.

The strain-induced austenite (gamma) to martensite (alpha') transformation in AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, either in powders or bulk specimens, has been investigated. The phase transformation is accomplished by means of either ball milling processes (in powders) –dynamic approach– or by uniaxial compression tests (in bulk specimens) –quasi-static approach–. Remarkably, an increase of the strain rate causes opposite effects in each case: (i) it increases the amount of transformed alpha' in ball milling procedures, but (ii) it decreases the amount of alpha' in pressed samples. Both the microstructural changes (e.g., crystallite size refinement, microstrains or type of stacking faults) in the parent gamma phase and the role of the concomitant temperature rise during deformation seem to be responsible for these opposite trends. Furthermore, the results show the correlation between the gamma to alpha' phase transformation and the development of magnetism and enhanced hardness.

Keywords: phase transformation; steel; strain; ball milling; compression

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11378
Publ.-Id: 11378


Surface energy and magnetocapacitance of superconductors under electric field bias

Morawetz, K.; Lipavsky, P.; Kolacek, J.; Brandt, E. H.

A superconducting layer exposed to a perpendicular electric field and a parallel magnetic field is considered within the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approach. The GL equation is solved near the surface and the surface energy is calculated. The nucleation critical field of superconducting state at the surface depends on the magnetic and electric fields. Special consideration is paid to the induced magnetic-field effect cause d by diamagnetic surface currents. The latter effect is strongly dependent on the thickness of the sample . The effective inverse capacitance determines the effective penetration depth. It is found that the capacitance exhibits a jump at the surface critical field. An experiment is suggested for determining the change in the effective capacitance of the layer.

Keywords: Superconducting surfaces; magneto-capacitance

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11377
Publ.-Id: 11377


Atomistic simulation of amorphous germanium

Gabriel, A.; Posselt, M.

Electrical doping of Ge is usually performed by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. In many cases ion bombardment leads to formation of an amorphous layer. During annealing the layer recrystallizes by solid-phase epitaxial regrowth. In order to investigate this process by classical molecular dynamics simulations, first of all amorphous Ge with realistic properties must be prepared. This is the subject of the present work. The atomistic simulations use the Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential with a parameter set that yields correct or reasonable structural, thermodynamic and defect properties of diamond-structure Ge. In the first simulation step liquid Ge is prepared. Then, the system is cooled down slowly to 300 K using the method of Luedtke and Landman which was applied to simulate amorphous silicon. Finally, an equilibration at 300 K and zero pressure is performed. The characterization of amorphous Ge obtained in this manner includes density and cohesive energy, radial distribution function and static structure factor, coordination number, bond-angle distribution, distribution of interatomic distances as well as melting temperature and heat of fusion. The simulation results show very good agreement with experimental data and are consistent with previous theoretical investigations.

Keywords: amorphous Germanium; atomistic simulation

  • Poster
    E-MRS 2008 Spring Meeting, Symposium J: Beyond Silicon Technology: Materials and Devices for Post-Si CMOS, 26.-30.05.2008, Strasbourg, France
  • Poster
    9th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES 2008), 12.-17.10.2008, Beijing, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11376
Publ.-Id: 11376


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