Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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33397 Publications

The Radiation Source ELBE and its Research Programm in Nuclear Physics

Lehnert, U.
kein Abstract vorhanden
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Third Sandanski Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Science, 26.-30.09.2005, Albena, Bulgary

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8316
Publ.-Id: 8316


Experiments at the mixing test facility ROCOM for benchmarking of CFD-codes

Kliem, S.; Sühnel, T.; Rohde, U.; Höhne, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.
For the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes experimental data with high resolution in time and space are needed.
ROCOM (Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model) is a test facility for the investigation of coolant mixing in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors. This facility describes the primary circuit of a German KONVOI type reactor. All important details of the reactor pressure vessel are modelled in a linear scale of 1:5. The facility is characterized by flexible possibilities of operation in a wide variety of flow regimes and boundary conditions. The flow path of the coolant from the cold legs through the downcomer until the inlet into the core is equipped with high resolution measurement technique. Especially, wire mesh sensors in the downcomer of the vessel with a mesh of 64 x 32 measurement positions and in the core inlet plane with one measurement position for the entry into each fuel assembly allow to carry out high-level CFD code validation. The measured data can contribute significantly to the validation of the CFD-codes.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    OECD/NEA & IAEA Workshop: "Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety", 05.-07.09.2006, Garching, Germany
    Proceedings CD-ROM paper A4-17, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France: OECD NEA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    OECD/NEA & IAEA Workshop: "Benchmarking of CFD Codes for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety", 05.-07.09.2006, Garching, Germany
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 238(2008), 566-576
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2007.02.053

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8315
Publ.-Id: 8315


Ion beam induced destabilization of icosahedral structures in gas phase prepared FePt nanoparticles

Dmitrieva, O.; Acet, M.; Liedke, M. O.; Rellinghaus, B.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Multiply twinned FePt nanoparticles with icosahedral structures were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering in argon. The icosahedral structure of these particles is known to be very stable against structural transformations into both the face-centered cubic phase (fcc, A1) and the chemically ordered tetragonal L10 phase upon in-flight or post-deposition thermal annealing. Irradiation of these multiply twinned FePt particles with 5 keV He ions, however, resulted in a transformation into predominantly single crystalline fcc particles at high ion fluences of f>1017 ions/cm2. Adjacent particles were observed to coalesce under the effect of He irradiation, and the size of individual particles was found to be slightly reduced, which indicates a high atomic mobility owing to temporarily enhanced defect concentrations caused by the ion bombardment. Strikingly, there was no indication for the occurrence of L10 ordered FePt nanoparticles upon ion irradiation in these samples.
Keywords: magnetism, nanoparticles, FePt, hard magnetic materials, He ion irradiation, structural phase transformation
  • Journal of Applied Physics 97(2005), 10N112

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8314
Publ.-Id: 8314


The multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW: an overview on experimental capabilities, instrumentation and results

Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Manera, A.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Weiß, F.-P.
A new multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW (TwO Phase FLOW) was built and put into operation at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf in 2002 and 2003. Since then, it has been manly used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena and the development and validation of models of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes in the frame of the German CFD initiative. The advantage of TOPFLOW consists in the combination of a large scale of the test channels with a wide operational range both of the flow velocities as well as of the system pressures and temperatures plus finally the availability of an special instrumentation that is capable in high spatial and temporal resolving two phase flow phenomena, for example the wire-mesh sensors.
Keywords: two-phase flow; wire-mesh sensor; TOPFLOW; emergency condenser; CCFL
  • Kerntechnik 71(2006)4, 163-173

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8313
Publ.-Id: 8313


Solid-state nanocluster formation of praseodymium compounds in silicon and silicon dioxide

Kögler, R.; Mücklich, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Posselt, M.; Reuther, H.; Skorupa, W.
Nanocluster of Pr compounds were formed in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure by ion beam synthesis. The processes of ion-induced atomic mixing, phase segregation, texturing, and nanocluster formation were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. After annealing at 900°C an array of Si precipitates is formed in SiO2. The size distribution of Si precipitates corresponds to the concentration profile of excess Si atoms in SiO2. Implanted Pr atoms are trapped at the Si/SiO2 interface around the Si precipitates and decorate them. During annealing at 1100°C crystalline nanocluster of Pr9.33Si6O26 or Pr2Si2O7 silicate are formed. In the top-Si-layer a narrow layer of Pr compound nanocluster is formed by self-organization rather equidistant of the Si/SiO2 interface. Pr oxide (Pr2O3), the most desired high-k material, was not definitely verified. The predominant process in solid-state synthesis of Pr compounds is Pr silicate formation. It provides both, a high atomic package density and a low reordering energy.
Keywords: Ion beam synthesis, high-k materials, Pr compounds, Si, nanocluster
  • Journal of Applied Physics 100(2006), 104314

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8312
Publ.-Id: 8312


Evaluation of a limited angle scanned electron beam X-ray CT approach for two-phase pipe flows

Bieberle, M.; Hampel, U.
We investigated the imaging capability of a fast linearly scanned electron-beam X-ray tomography approach with respect to the phase structure recovery for two-phase flows in a cylindrical pipe. As a consequence of the suggested linear electron beam deflection pattern we need to solve an inverse problem of the limited-angle type which introduces some artefacts in the reconstructed images. To reduce these artefacts we have devised a modified iterative image reconstruction algorithm denoted as binary ART including a level-set based image smoothing operation. To assess the achievable quality of spatial phase structure recovery from the limited-angle data we performed a simulation study on three-dimensional flow data sets obtained with a fast and high-resolution conductivity wire-mesh sensor under real two-phase flow conditions. The simulations revealed that the reconstruction error remains below 2% for up to 1% of Gaussian noise in the projection data and even for up to 5% noise in the case of the bubble diameters below 3 mm.
Keywords: limited-angle tomography, two-phase flow, scanned electron beam, fast tomography
  • Measurement Science and Technology 17(2006), 2057-2065

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8311
Publ.-Id: 8311


The coordination of uranium in solution –what can we learn from EXAFS spectroscopy?

Hennig, C.
EXAFS gives average values of all neighbor distances as a radial distribution function. The determination of the coordination number has a relative high error (10-25%), therefore the structure interpretation is strongly focused onto distance determination (delta R ± 0.01Å). EXAFS combined with Factor analysis allows separation of different species from solutions. EXAFS allows to korrelate structural features to thermodynamically proposed solution species.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Molecular Design and Synthesis Group, 2.3.2006, Leuven, Belgium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8310
Publ.-Id: 8310


On the application of CFD modeling for the prediction of the degree of mixing in a PWR during a boron dilution transient

Lycklama À. Nijeholt, J.-A.; Höhne, T.
In a Pressurized Water Reactor, negative reactivity is present in the core by means of Boric acid as a soluble neutron absorber in the coolant water. The main functions of the boric acid are to compensate for the fuel burn up and Xenon poisoning during normal operation and to provide the required sub-criticality of reactor shutdown during refueling and maintenance. During a so called Boron Dilution Transient (BDT), the borated coolant water is diluted by mixing with unborated water. The resulting decrease in the boron concentration leads to an insertion of positive reactivity in the core, which may lead to a reactivity excursion. The associated power peak may damage the fuel rods.

The most severe BDT involves scenarios in which a slug of unborated water has been formed in a cold leg in a stationary (Main Coolant Pumps are down) primary circuit. An inadvertent start-up of the MCP of the affected loop causes the transport of the unborated slug into the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The resulting positive reactivity insertion in the core is governed by the degree of mixing of the unborated slug and the borated water in the cold leg, the downcomer and the lower plenum. This mixing of borated and unborated water is an important process, because it mitigates and determines the degree of reactivity insertion.

The objective of the present study is to develop a validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the prediction of the boron concentration distribution in the RPV as function of time during a BDT. This CFD model has been validated using the measurement data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) experiment. The ROCOM test facility represents the primary cooling system of a KONVOI type of PWR (1300 MWel). The linear scale of the ROCOM experimental facility is 1:5. The RPV is connected with four circulation loops. Various experiments on boron dilution scenarios have been performed. For the pump start-up experiments the following boundary conditions were varied: the length of the pump ramp, the final mass flow rate of the loop with the start–up pump, the volume of the deborated slug and initial position in the cold leg and the status of the unaffected loops.

A detailed CFD model of the RPV including the inlet nozzles, the downcomer, and the lower plenum has been developed to predict the mixing of deborated and borated water in this RPV. The validation of the model has been achieved by comparison of the calculated and measured relative boron concentration at the core inlet plane as function of time. For code validation a slug mixing experiment with 14 s ramp length, 185 m³/h final flow rate, 4 m³ slug volume and 10 m initial slug position was taken. The unaffected loops were open. In spite of the complicated spatial, temporal, and geometrical aspects of the flow in the RPV, the agreement between the calculated and the experimental data is good. The minimal relative boron concentration measured at the core inlet is 64% and the calculated minimum value is 60%.
Keywords: PWR, Boron Dilution, CFD
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ICAPP ’06, 04.-08.06.2006, Reno, United States
    Proceedings, paper 6155
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICAPP ’06, 04.06.2006, Reno, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8309
Publ.-Id: 8309


Structural and magnetic properties of Mn-implanted Si

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Mücklich, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Schell, N.; Grötzschel, R.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Geiger, D.
Structural and magnetic properties in Mn-implanted, p-type Si were investigated. High resolution structural analysis techniques such as synchrotron x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of MnSi1.7 nanoparticles already in the as-implanted samples. Depending on the Mn fluence, the size increases from 5 nm to 20 nm upon rapid thermal annealing. No significant evidence is found for Mn substituting Si sites either in the as-implanted or annealed samples. The observed ferromagnetism yields a saturation moment of 0.21µB per implanted Mn at 10 K, which could be assigned to MnSi1.7 nanoparticles as revealed by a temperature-dependent magnetization measurement.
Keywords: Diluted magnetic semiconductor; Si; Ion implantation

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8308
Publ.-Id: 8308


CFD für Sicherheitsventile und andere Anwendungen

Höhne, T.
Mit dem CFX-Code wurden Nachrechnungen von Durchsatzparametern eines Leser Sicherheitsventils mit einem Gitter von 1 Million Hexaeder Zellen vorgestellt. Sehr gute Übereinstimmung wurde bei den Durchsatzkennlinien der vom Hersteller angegebenen Charakteristiken für Luft und Wasser erzielt, es existierte jedoch eine systematische Abweichung bei Luft im Falle hoher Ansprechdrücke durch Realgasverhalten und das Auftreten hohe Ma-Zahlen. Eine CFX-Rechnung mit einem Zweiphasengemisch bei 2 bar Überdruck, 1 mm Blasendurchmesser und 4% Gasanteil ergab eine realistische Erhöhung des Volumenanteils der Gasphase in Abhängigkeit von der Druckabsenkung. Weitere Untersuchungen, insbesondere das Verhalten bei Sattdampf und bei Stoffgemischen im Vergleich mit Experimenten sind geplant.
Keywords: Sicherheitsventil, CFD
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    GVC-Arbeitsausschuß “Sicherheitsgerechtes Auslegen von Chemieapparaten“ 61. Sitzung, 08.-09.03.2006, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8307
Publ.-Id: 8307


CFD-Analysen zur Kühlmittelvermischung in DWR

Höhne, T.; Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.; Weiß, F.-P.
Auftriebsgetriebene Strömungen in Druckwasserreaktoren stellen sich in einer Vielzahl von sicherheitsrelevanten Szenarien, insbesondere unter Naturumlaufbedingungen z.B. nach einem postulierten Leckstörfall bzw. bei “pressurized thermal shocks (PTS)” Szenarien, wie der Einspeisung von kaltem Notkühlwasser in die noch heissen Loops in, ein. Bei der Untersuchung dieser Klasse von Strömungen mit numerischen Tools zeigte sich, dass vor allem die vorhandenen Turbulenz- und Zweiphasenmodelle noch weiterzuentwickeln sind. Die umfangreichen Messdaten der Versuchsanlage ROCOM bieten eine Grundlage für die Validierung von CFD-Codes. Zur Bewertung der Güte der Modelle wurden quantitative Vergleiche zwischen Rechnung und Messung durchgeführt.

Im ersten Teil des Vortrages erfolgt eine Vorstellung von Nachrechnungen dichtegetriebener Experimente an der ROCOM-Versuchsanlage. Im zweiten Teil wird näher auf Simulationen eines Auffüllvorganges eines Notkühlbehälters mit deborierten Kühlmittel eingegangen.

Hierbei werden Fortschritte in der CFD-Modellierung der letzten Jahre, der Einbezug von sogenannten Best Practice Guidelines in der CFD-Modellierung in der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung aber auch bestehender Forschungsbedarf und Grenzen der Modellierung dargestellt.
Keywords: Born Dilution, PWR, Safety tank, CFD, ROCOM
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fachtagung der KTG-Fachgruppen "Sicherheit kerntechnischer Anlagen„ „Thermo- und Fluiddynamik“ und "Betrieb von kerntechnischen Anlagen", 03.-04.04.2006, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Fachtagung der KTG-Fachgruppen "Sicherheit kerntechnischer Anlagen„ „Thermo- und Fluiddynamik“ und "Betrieb von kerntechnischen Anlagen", 03.-04.04.2006, Dresden, Germany
    Wissenschaftlich-technische Berichte FZR 455, 1437-322X, III-14

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8306
Publ.-Id: 8306


Diffusion of humic acid in compacted clay

Mibus, J.; Sachs, S.; Krepelova, A.
Clay minerals and organic substances are common components of soils, sediments, and rocks. Little is known, however, on the migration behavior of humic substances in clay formations. Here, we studied the diffusion of humic acid (HA) in clay at different porosities to understand the migration of organic colloids in narrow pore systems.
The migration behavior of HA in compacted clay has to be understood as the diffusion of a size distributed matter, which is affected by filtration effects, size exclusion, the conformity of HA as a function of pH, and probably the distribution of functional groups in the different molecular fractions.
Keywords: humic acid, clay, diffusion
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Bridging Clays, 03.-07.06.2006, Ile d'Oléron, France
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Bridging Clays, 03.-07.06.2006, Ile d'Oléron, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8305
Publ.-Id: 8305


Strahlungsdetektoren für astrophysikalische Messungen

Crespo, P.; Erhard, M.
In diesem Vortrag sollte dargestellt werden, mit welchen Methoden sich die Astrophysik Information über den Kosmos beschafft und welche Vor- und Nachteile erdgebundene gegenüber weltraumgestützten Beobachtungen haben. Dabei wurde insbesondere auf den Nachweis elektromagnetischer Strahlung und kosmischer Teilchen eingegangen.
Ein Teil des elektromagnetischen Spektrums wird durch die Erdatmosphäre absorbiert und geladene Teilchen werden bis zu einer bestimmten Energie durch das Erdmagnetfeld abgelenkt. Hochenergetische Teilchen können jedoch in der Atmosphäre Teilchenschauer auslösen, die mit verschiedenen Detektortypen am Erdboden nachgewiesen werden können, wobei unterschiedliche physikalische Prozesse ausgenutzt werden. Als Beispiele wurde die Funktionsweise von Radioantennen, CCD-Kameras (Charge-Coupled Device), des Chandra-Röntgenteleskops und EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) für den Nachweis elektromagnetischer Strahlung, sowie des AMS-Experimentes (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) mit seinen vielfältigen Detektortypen zum Nachweis kosmischer Teilchen vorgestellt.
Ohne die Resultate dieser Messungen wäre die Entwicklung kosmolgischer Modelle nicht möglich. Gleichzeitg werden dadurch neue Fragen aufgeworfen, die Anstoß zur Verbesserung und Entwicklung neuer Detektortypen liefern.
  • Lecture (others)
    Lehrerfortbildung 2005/2006 - Astrophysik, 17.02.2006, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8304
Publ.-Id: 8304


VVER-1000 radial reflector modeling by diffusion nodes

Petkov, P. T.; Mittag, S.
The two commonly used approaches to describe the VVER radial reflectors in diffusion codes, by core-reflector albedos and by a ring of diffusion assembly size nodes, are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the first approach are presented first, then the Koebke's equivalence theory is outlined and its implementation for the VVER radial reflectors is discussed. Results for the VVER-1000 reactor are presented.
  • Progress in Nuclear Energy 48(2006), 764-772

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8303
Publ.-Id: 8303


Growth of sputter-deposited Ni-Ti thin films: effect of a SiO2 buffer layer

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Mahesh, K. K.; Silva, R. J. C.; Fernandes, F. M. B.
In-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) during the growth of Ni-Ti thin films was chosen in order to investigate their texture development using a deposition chamber installed at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Near-equiatomic films were co-sputtered from Ni-Ti and Ti targets. The texture evolution during deposition is clearly affected by the substrate type and the ion bombardment of the growing film. On naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates the NiTi B2 phase starts by stacking onto (h00) planes, and as the thickness increases evolves into a (110) fiber texture. For the deposition on thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates, this pronounced cross-over is only observed when a substrate bias voltage (-45 V) is applied. The oxide layer plays an important role on the development of the (100) orientation of the B2 phase during deposition on heated substrates (≈ 470ºC). If this layer is not thick enough (naturally oxidized Si substrate) or if a bias voltage is applied, a cross-over and further development of the (110) fiber texture is observed,which is considered as an orientation that minimizes surface energies. Electrical resistivity measurements showed different behaviour during phase transformation for the NiTi film deposited on thermally oxidized Si without bias and those on thermally oxidized Si(100) with bias and on naturally oxidized Si(100) without bias. This is related to stresses resultant from the fact that the NiTi films are attached to the substrates as well as with the existence of distinct textures.
Keywords: Ni-Ti; Sputter deposition; In-situ x-ray diffraction; Texture development
  • Applied Physics A 84(2006)3, 285-289

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8302
Publ.-Id: 8302


Migration von Actiniden im System Ton, Huminstoff, Aquifer

Bernhard, G.
- wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Forschungsförderung zur Entsorgung gefährlicher Abfälle in tiefen geologischen Formationen - 7. Projektstatusgespräch, 03.-04.05.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8301
Publ.-Id: 8301


Experimente an der Versuchsanlage ROCOM zur Kühlmittelvermischung bei Wiederanlauf der Naturzirkulation

Kliem, S.; Sühnel, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.
Ein kleiner Leckstörfall kann im Druckwasserreaktor unter bestimmten Bedingungen zum Abriss der einphasigen Naturzirkulation in einer oder mehrerer Schleifen führen. Bei einem bestimmten Druckniveau ist der Massenstrom der Noteinspeisung groß genug, um die Leckverluste wieder zu kompensieren. Der Primärkreislauf wird aufgefüllt und der einphasige Naturumlauf springt wieder an. Minderborierte Kondensatpfropfen, die sich in der vorhergehenden Reflux-Condenser-Phase gebildet haben, werden in Richtung Reaktorkern transportiert. Basierend auf aus PKL-Experimenten abgeleiteten Randbedingungen wurden an ROCOM Experimente zur Quantifizierung der Vermischung innerhalb des Druckbehälters durchgeführt.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    KTG-Fachtag "Aktuelle Themen der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung in Deutschland", 03.-04.04.2006, Dresden, Germany
    Tagungsband FZR-455, 1437-322X, I-6
  • atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power (2007), 352-360
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    KTG-Fachtag "Aktuelle Themen der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung in Deutschland", 03.-04.04.2006, Dresden, Germany

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8300
Publ.-Id: 8300


Ultraschnelle optoelektronische und Materialeigenschaften von Stickstoff-haltigem GaAs

Sinning, S.
no abstract available
  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-450 2006

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8299
Publ.-Id: 8299


Reactive ion plasma immersion implantation for surface passivation

Möller, W.; Shevchenko, N.; Yankov, R. A.; Rogozin, A.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.; Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    8th International Workshop on Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition, 18.-22.09.05, Chengdu, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8298
Publ.-Id: 8298


Ion-induced stress release in hard coatings

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    14th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron, and Ion Technologies, 12.-16.09.05, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8297
Publ.-Id: 8297


Plasma immersion ion implantation: Process, promises and prospects

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    15th International Colloquium on Plasma Processes, 05.-09.06.05, Autrans, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8296
Publ.-Id: 8296


Ion bombardment for stress release in cubic boron nitride thin films

Möller, W.; Abendroth, B.; Gago, R.; Kolitsch, A.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, 02.-06.05.05, San Diego, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8295
Publ.-Id: 8295


Ion beam synthesis of nanostructures with keV/amu ions

Möller, W.; Heinig, K.-H.; Müller, T.; Röntzsch, L.; Schmidt, B.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Indo-German Workshop "Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Materials by Energetic Ion Beams", 21.-24.02.05, New Delhi, India

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8294
Publ.-Id: 8294


Plasma surface interaction and ion bombardment

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International School "Nanostructuring by Ion Beams", 18.-19.02.05, New Delhi, India

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8293
Publ.-Id: 8293


Ion-based materials research at FZR

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Lecture (others)
    Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, University of Lanzhou, 23.09.05, Lanzhou, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8292
Publ.-Id: 8292


Fast ions for nano technology

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Lecture (others)
    Fraunhofer Center of Nanoelectronic Technologies, 13.10.05, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8291
Publ.-Id: 8291


Deposition and characterization of nitride MAX phase thin films

Möller, W.
no abstract available
  • Lecture (others)
    CSIC-ICMM, 13.12.05, Madrid, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8290
Publ.-Id: 8290


EPOS - An intense positron beam project at the ELBE radiation source in Rossendorf

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Sachert, S.; Brauer, G.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.
EPOS, the acronym of ELBE Positron Source, describes a running project to build an intense pulsed beam of mono-energetic positrons (0.2-40 keV) for materials research. Positrons will be created via pair production at a tungsten target using the pulsed 40 MeV electron beam of the superconducting electron linac with high brilliance and low emittance (ELBE) at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (near Dresden, Germany). The chosen design of the system under construction is described and results of calculations simulating the interaction of the electron beam with the target are presented, and positron beam formations and transportation are also discussed.
Keywords: Positron beam, Intense positron source

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8289
Publ.-Id: 8289


Influence of bacteria on migration of uranium from uranium mining wastes

Selenska-Pobell, S.
Our studies on bacterial diversity in waters, sediments and soils of different uranium mining wastes and repositories in Germany and in the USA demonstrated that these extreme environments are populated by dense groups of various bacteria, most of which are site-specific [14, 16, 17]. Recently we have found that these bacterial populations respond very vigorously to the addition of uranyl or sodium nitrate to their natural habitats [5, 6]. The predominant bacterial groups in the original, untreated samples, which contained about 26 mg U/kg, were rapidly replaced after the supplementations by bacteria, which were underrepresented in the untreated samples. The shifting in the structure of the natural bacterial community was dependent on the salt solution added, on the aeration conditions, and on the duration of the experiments...
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fachdiskussion: "Mikrobiologie in Halden und Absetzanlagen", 09.02.2006, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8288
Publ.-Id: 8288


Synthesis and evaluation of Ga-68 labeled Y2-selective peptides for in vivo receptor targeting using small animal PET

Zwanziger, D.; Khan, I.; Schlesinger, J.; Bergmann, R.; Beck-Sickinger, A.
Peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide amide that belongs to the PP-hormone family. It selectively binds to at least two G-protein coupled receptors named Y2- and Y5-receptor. These receptors are overexpressed in various tumors like neuroblastomas and nephroblastomas. With regard to clinical applications, NPY2 and NPY5 receptors may act as in vivo targets for receptor-directed therapy and diagnosis of the tumors, however there are specific and in vivo stabile ligands still required. The aim of the work was to synthesize receptor ligands, which could be radioloabeled with the positron emitting nuclides Ga-68 for small animal positron emission tomography (PET).
PYY derivatives were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, characterized by HPLC/MALDI techniques, purified by preparative HPLC and linked to DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N, N´,N´´,N´´´tetraacetic acid) as chelator for the 68Ga(III). The in vitro binding affinity of the peptides was studied in SMS-KAN cells expressing NPY2 receptors by competitive receptor binding assays. Two Ga-68 labeled derivatives were studied in vivo by small animal PET in rats and mice. The activity was fast eliminated into the urine. One hour after injection was only in the kidneys remaining activity detected.
Optimized Y2-selective and in vivo stabile peptides will be developed and tested for tumor targeting.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd Fabisch Symposium for Cancer Research and Molecular Cell Biology, 30.03.-01.04.2006, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8287
Publ.-Id: 8287


Optimierung einer Zellmarkierungs-Strategie für die Magnetresonanzbildgebung

Wolf, G.; Strobel, K.; Gruener, S.; Koch, A.; Abolmaali, N.
Mit Hilfe moderner Scannertechnologien und hohen Magnetfeldstärken erreicht die Magnetresonanzbildgebung (MRT) eine nahezu zelluläre Auflösung. Damit bietet sie eine zerstörungsfreie, nicht-invasive und wiederholbare Möglichkeit zur Verfolgung einzelner Zellen oder kleiner Gruppen von Zellen nach deren Transplantation oder Injektion in lebende Organismen. Dafür müssen die Zellen mit einem geeigneten MRI-Kontrastmittel (KM) markiert sein, um sie in vivo vom umgebenden Gewebe unterscheiden zu können.
In der vorliegenden Studie haben wir MRT-Messungen an KM-markierten Zellen des nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinoms (NSCLC) bei Magnetfeldstärken von 1,5 T und 7 T durchgeführt. Systematisch bestimmten wir die Zellmarkierungseffizienz von gadolinium- und Mangan-basierten KM in Abwesenheit und gegenwart verschiedener Transfektionsmittel (TM). Das Ziel der Studie war, diejenige Kombination von KM und TM zu finden, welche den besten Kontrast in der MRT liefert.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15. Symposium "Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie", 02.-04.03.2006, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    15. Symposium "Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie", 02.-04.03.2006, Dresden, Germany, ISSN 1432-864X, 165

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8285
Publ.-Id: 8285


Optimization of a Cell Labeling Strategy for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Wolf, G.; Strobel, K.; Gruener, S.; Koch, A.; Hietschold, V.; Abolmaali, N.
With the currently available scanner technology and high field strengths, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a near cellular resolution and, thus, provides a non-invasive and repetitive means of tracking single cells or small groups of cells after their transplantation or injection in living organisms. Therefore, cells need to be labeled with a suitable MRI contrast agent (CA) in order to differntiate them from surrounding tissue in vivo. Using CA labeled tumor cells it would be possible to follow tumor progression over time with MRI after transplantation or injection.
  • Poster
    ISMRM 14. Scientific Meeting & Exhibition, 06.-12.05.2006, Seatle, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 14. Scientific Meeting, 06.-12.05.2006, Seatle, USA
    Proceedings of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 14, 1864

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8284
Publ.-Id: 8284


Two- and Threefold Intramolecular Bridging p-tert- Butylcalix[8]arene Triphosphates – Synthesis, Structure and Stereochemistry

Gloede, J.; Ozegowski, S.; Keitel, I.; Gruner, M.; Costisella, B.; Pritzkow, W.; Stephan, H.; Bartoschek, M.
The phosphorylation of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene (1) with phosphorus pentachloride and hydrolysis gives intramolecular bridging tert-butylcalix[8]arene triphosphates. The reactivity (esterification, dehydratisation, complexation), the structure (nmr and x-ray), and stereochemical behaviour of the phosphates will be discussed.
  • Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie (2006)632, 123-132

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8283
Publ.-Id: 8283


Hunting Medium Modifications of the Chiral Condensate

Thomas, R.; Zschocke, S.; Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.
With QCD sum rule evaluations, spectral changes of hadrons inside nuclear matter are considered, which shed light on QCD condensates and thus on the non-perturbative structure of the QCD ground state. For some light quark configurations, omega meson and nucleon, the relevance of four-quark condensates is compared; the D meson as a representative of heavy-light quark systems is also briefly discussed.
Keywords: QCD Sum Rules, Chiral Condensate
  • Contribution to proceedings
    44th International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics, 29.01.-05.02.2006, Bormio, Italy
  • Lecture (others)
    Int. Wintermeeting on Nuclear Physics, 20.01.-05.02.2006, Bormio, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8282
Publ.-Id: 8282


The growth and microstructure of magnetron sputtered Ti2AlN MAX phase thin films characterized by in-situ x-ray diffraction

Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R. M. S.; Mücklich, A.; Möller, W.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT), 12.-16.09.2005, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8281
Publ.-Id: 8281


Amorphous-crystalline ripple formation in ion beam induced Si wafers

Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U.; Grenzer, J.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    348. Heraeus-Seminar "Ions at Surfaces: Patterns and Processes", 19.-23.06.2005, Bad Honnef, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8280
Publ.-Id: 8280


Modelling of differential pressure buildup during flow through beds of fibrous materials

Grahn, A.; Krepper, E.; Alt, S.; Kästner, W.
The present paper reports on our efforts in modelling the pressure drop buildup across beds of fibrous materials at strainers. Special attention is drawn to the compressibility of the fibrous filter cake. The influence of penetration depth of sludge particles onto the overall pressure drop in conjunction with the thin-bed effect has been investigated. Numerical results are compared with pressure drop measurements.
Keywords: pressure drop, strainer blockage, fibrous filter cakes, compressible filter cakes

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8279
Publ.-Id: 8279


Formation of Au nanocrystals in TiO2, SrTiO3 and MgO by ion implantation

Fromknecht, R.; Linker, G.; Sun, K.; Zhu, S.; Wang, L. M.; van Veen, A.; van Huis, M. A.; Weimann, T.; Wang, J.; Niemeyer, J.; Eichhorn, F.; Wang, T.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th Int. Symposium on Advanced Physical Fields (APF-10) "Nano-Fabrication and Nano-Characterization of Nanomaterials", 07.-10.03.2005, Tsukuba, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8278
Publ.-Id: 8278


Molecular structure and electronic properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene)

Zen, A.; Saphiannikova, M.; Neher, D.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.; Asawapirom, U.; Scherf, U.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 04.-09.03.2005, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8277
Publ.-Id: 8277


On the stability of boundary layer flows controlled by Lorentz forces

Albrecht, T.; Mutschke, G.; Grundmann, R.
We investigate numerically the transition to turbulence in a flat-plate boundary layer controlled by electromagnetic forces. The fluid considered is incompressible, Newtonian and low conductive. Similar to boundary layer suction, when applying a steady, wall-parallel, and streamwise orientated Lorentz force as suggested by Gailitis and Lielausis [1] in the early 1960s, the Blasius velocity profile is transformed to an exponential one gaining a critical Reynolds number which is increased by two orders of magnitude.

Two and three dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of both linear and nonlinear stages of the transition process were performed, as well as a linear stability analysis (LSA) of the intermediate velocity profiles. DNS and also LSA results confirm the expected increased stability of the controlled flow. Depending on Lorentz force strength transition to turbulence is delayed or even stopped by either damping primary instability, or, in the nonlinear case, by suppressing the emerge of Omega-vortices which usually preceeds the breakdown to turbulence. Surprisingly, both DNS and LSA results suggest interesting linear stability characteristics of the intermediate velocity profiles.

In DNS (Re based on inflow displacement thickness is 360), to initiate transition, small amplitude disturbances are introduced near the inflow boundary, forming Tollmien-Schlichting waves (TSW) which grow and decay in uncontrolled case corresponging to linear stability theory. When applying a Lorentz force, all investigated TSW are damped. The decay rate is maximum in a region near the onset of control and decreases as the velocity profile evolves towards the exponential shape. This observation could suggest that in the intermediate region there are profiles more stable than the exponential one, although we are aware that from these decay rates one cannot conclude directly the stability of a velocity profile, notably its critical Reynolds number. However, our assumption is confirmed by LSA results where critical Reynolds numbers of intermediate profiles are found to be larger than for the exponential profile.

References:

1. A. Gailitis, O. Lielausis , „On a possibility to reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of a plate in an electrolyte,“ Applied Magnetohydrodynamics, Reports of the Physics Institute Riga, v. 12, p. 143-146, 1961
Keywords: boundary layer, flow stability, flow control, magneto-hydrodynamics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 16.-22.07.2006, Los Angeles, California, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8276
Publ.-Id: 8276


Observation of the growth and microstructural development of MAX phase Ti2AlN thin films during magnetron sputtering using synchrotron radiation

Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Martins, R. M. S.; Mücklich, A.; Möller, W.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    AVS 52nd International Symposium & Exhibition, 30.10.-04.11.2005, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8275
Publ.-Id: 8275


Electromagnetic control of separation at hydrofoils

Mutschke, G.; Weier, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Albrecht, T.; Grundmann, R.
Lorentz forces originating from surface-mounted actuators of permanent magnets and electrodes in weakly conducting fluids like seawater can be used to control flow separation at hydrofoils [1].
As induction effects are typically weak, external currents have to be applied to achieve control. An alternating arrangement of electrodes and magnets is considered which creates a mainly streamwise Lorentz force that is exponentionally decaying in wall-normal direction. As spanwise influences are supposed to be small, the problem is treated as two-dimensional in the following.
We investigate control by steady forcing at the suction side and by oscillatory forcing near the leading edge of symmetric foils, mostly in the post-stall regime. Similarities to the onventional method of oscillatory blowing for separation control do exist [2].
The numerical results presented cover direct numerical simulations based on a highly accurate spectral element method in the laminar flow regime in order reveal basic control phenomena as well as simulations using turbulence modelling at higher Reynolds numbers which are closer to possible naval application.
Although strong-enough steady control is able to suppress separation completely, appropriate time-periodic control turns out to be more effective for finite lift-enhancement when comparing the energetical effort. Optimum control frequencies are found, typical flow structures are analyzed, and "lock-in" phenomena with the natural shedding process are discussed [3]. The scaling behaviour of the energetical effort is compared with recent experimental results [4].

References:

1. T.Weier, G.Gerbeth, G.Mutschke, O.Lielausis, G.Lammers, "Control of Flow Separation using electromagnetic Forces",
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 71 (2003) 5-17.
2. D.Greenblatt, I.J.Wygnanski, "The control of flow separation by periodic excitation",
Prog. Aero. Sci. 36 (2000) 487-545.
3. G.Mutschke, G.Gerbeth, T.Albrecht, R.Grundmann, "Separation Control at Hydrofoils using Lorentz
Forces", European Journal of Mechanics/B - Fluids, 2006, in press.
4. T.Weier, G.Gerbeth, "Control of separated Flows by time-periodic Lorentz Forces",
European Journal of Mechanics/B - Fluids 23(2004) 835-849.
Keywords: flow control, magneto-hydrodynamics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics., 16.-22.07.2006, Los Angeles, California, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8274
Publ.-Id: 8274


Comparing the growth of magnetron sputter deposited Ti-Al-N and Ni-Ti thin layers by in-situ x-ray diffraction

Martins, R. M. S.; Beckers, M.; Mücklich, A.; Schell, N.; Silva, R. J. C.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EUROMAT 2005, 05.-08.09.2005, Prague, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8273
Publ.-Id: 8273


Characterization of magnetron Sputtered Ni-Ti thin films by in-situ x-ray diffraction and complementary ex-situ techniques

Martins, R. M. S.; Beckers, M.; Mücklich, A.; Schell, N.; Silva, R. J. C.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EUROMAT 2005, 05.-08.09.2005, Prague, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8272
Publ.-Id: 8272


In-situ observation of Ni-Ti thin film growth by synchrotron radiation scattering

Martins, R. M. S.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MATERIALS 2005 (III International Materials Symposium), 20.-23.03.2005, Aveiro, Portugal

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8271
Publ.-Id: 8271


Structural in-situ investigations of shape memory alloy (SMA) Ni-Ti thin films

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.
Kein Abstract vorhanden.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ESRF User's Meeting 2005, 08.-09.02.2005, Grenoble, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8270
Publ.-Id: 8270


Microstructure of expended austenite in ion-nitride AISI 316L single crystals

Reviere, J. P.; Templier, C.; Declermy, A.; Redjal, O.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Abrasonis, G.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: stainless steel, singel crystal, ion nitriding
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Conference on Surface Modification of Materials by Ion Beams, 05.-09.09.2005, Kusadasi, Turkey

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8269
Publ.-Id: 8269


Analysing the growth of metal nanoparticles by in-situ ellipsometry

Oates, T. W. H.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, in-situ ellipsometry
  • Lecture (others)
    J.A. Woolham Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Application Seminar, 11.-12.10.2005, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8268
Publ.-Id: 8268


Optical properties of silver nanoparticles on polymer films

Oates, T. W. H.; Mücklich, A.
wid nachgereicht
Keywords: silver films, in situ ellipsometry
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Workshop on Polymer/Metal nanocomposites, 11.09.2005, Geesthacht, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8267
Publ.-Id: 8267


In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of morphological and electronic properties of plasma deposited untra-thin metal films

Oates, T. W. H.; Mücklich, A.; Ryves, L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Mcculloch, D. G.; Burgmann, F. A.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: metal films, in-situ ellipsometry
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, 04.-09.05.2005, San Diego, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8266
Publ.-Id: 8266


Ultrathin metal film physical propertiesdetemined by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

Oates, T. W. H.; Ryves, L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Mücklich, A.; Mckenzie, D. R.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: metal film properties, in-situ ellipsometry
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual Meeting, 18.03.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8265
Publ.-Id: 8265


Aromatic clustering processes in C and CNx thin films during ion beam sputtering and ion beam deposition

Abrasonis, G.; Gago, R.; Czigany, Z.; Mücklich, A.; Jimenez, I.; Radnoczi, G.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: CNx
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th Biennal Workshop "Fullernes and Atomic Clusters", 27.06.-01.07.2005, St. Peterburg, Rußland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8264
Publ.-Id: 8264


Deposition by ion beam sputtering of CNx thin films: the influence of the composition of the sputering ion beam and temperature

Abrasonis, G.; Gago, R.; Vinnichenko, M.; Kreissig, U.; Mücklich, A.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
Abtrakt wird nachgereicht
Keywords: ion beam sputtering, CNx
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop "Oberflächentechnologie mit Plasma- und IOnenstrahlprozessen", 16.-18.03.2005, Mühlleithen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8263
Publ.-Id: 8263


Synthesis and in-situ ellipsometric monotoring of Ti/C nanostructured multilayers uisng a high-current, dial source pulsed cathodic arc

Ryves, L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Oates, T. W. H.; Tarrant, R. N.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Burgmann, F. A.; Mcculloch, D. G.
Multilayered materials have been shown to enhance mechanical properties compared to single-phase materials. In this paper, we describe the deposition of Ti/C multilayered systems using a novel high current pulsed cathodic arc system with dual cathodes. We have chosen this system because titanium forms a ductile crystalline layer (which can be hardened by alloying with carbon) and carbon forms an amorphous layer (which can be tailored from soft sp2 to hard sp3 material). The mechanical properties of both layers can thus be varied over a wide range. The multilayer deposition was monitored with in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to accurately determine the thickness and optical constants of the individual layers. Important information regarding film nucleation and growth in the interfacial regions is deduced from the ellipsomteric data. The film thicknesses determined from the ellipsometric analysis are compared with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images.
Keywords: TiC, cathodic arc, in-situ ellipsometry
  • Thin Solid Films 482(2005), 133-137

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8262
Publ.-Id: 8262


Ion-implantation induced phase transformation in carbon and boron nitride thin films

Oates, T. W. H.; Ryves, L.; Burgmann, F. A.; Abendroth, B.; Bilke, M. M. M.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Mcculloch, D. G.
The mechanism behind energetic ion impact induced stress reduction in highly stressed tetrahedral amorphous carbon and cubic boron nitride thin films is investigated by real time in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex situ electron microscopy. Highly stressed carbon and boron nitride films were grown by filtered cathodic vacuum arc and RF magnetron sputtering, respectively. The films were then implanted by 5–10 keV argon ions and the film optical properties and thickness monitored in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry. In both cases the films were observed to expand due to a reduction in the density of the ion-modified layer. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy of the carbon films showed that this reduction in density is associated with a conversion of diamond-like bonding to graphite-like bonding. In situ stress measurements performed on the boron nitride films revealed a simultaneous reduction in stress with expansion of the material.
Keywords: phase transformation, CN, BN, iom implantation
  • Diamond and Related Materials 14(2005)8, 1395-1401

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8261
Publ.-Id: 8261


Accurate determination of optical and electronic properties ol ultra-thin silver films for biosensor applications

Oates, T. W. H.; Ryves, L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Mckenzie, D. R.
Ultra-thin metal films are widely utilised for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface adsorption spectroscopy. We present in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry investigations of the growth of ultra-thin silver films, from island growth through percolation and continuous film growth. Silver films are deposited using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc, which provides precise control and reproducibility of the film growth conditions. Plasmon polariton resonances are determined for the growing islands below the percolation threshold. As the surface coverage increases a second oscillator, attributed to bulk plasma resonances, is required to accurately model the ellipsometric data. Post-deposition optical and electronic changes are observed for island films and the origins of these changes are investigated using the ellipsometric data.
Keywords: biosensors, silver
  • Sensors and Actuators B 109(2005), 146-152

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8260
Publ.-Id: 8260


Cross linking polyurethane coatings on vascular stents for enhanced X-ray contrasts

Kondyurin, A.; Romanova, V.; Begishev, V.; Kondyurina, I.; Günzel, R.; Maitz, M. F.
A coating of polyurethaneurea was made from a solution on the surface of metal stents. The influence of cleaning, etching, chemical and ion beam modification (plasma immersion ion implantation) of the metal surface on the adhesion strength of the polyurethaneurea was analysed. Polyurethaneurea films imbedded with tantalum particles as a radiopaque filler maintained their strength and elasticity and produced clear X-ray contrast images of vascular stents
Keywords: stenst, x-ray contrast, polyurethane
  • Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 20(2005), 77-93

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8259
Publ.-Id: 8259


Efficient oxidation protection of gamma-TiAl alloys by ion implantation of halogens

Yankov, R.; Richter, E.; Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: ion implantation, TiAl alloys, halogene, oxidation resistance
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Novel Applications for Surface Modification, 18.-21.09.2005, Chester, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8258
Publ.-Id: 8258


Phase formation, corrosion behaviour and mechanical properties of boron implanted near-alpha titanium alloy

Tsyganov, I.; Richter, E.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: titanium alloys, ion implantation, boron, phase formation
  • Poster
    14.th International Conference on Surface Modification of Materials by Ion Beams, 05.-09.09.2005, Kusadasi, Turkey

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8257
Publ.-Id: 8257


Ion-irradiation-induced chemical ordering of intermetallic alloys – Predictions based on atomistic simulations

Heinig, K.-H.; Röntzsch, L.; Bernas, H.
The L10 transition temperatures for chemical ordering in FePd and FePt intermetallic alloys may be substantially reduced by ion irradiation [1]. Alignment of the strong magnetic axis normal to the surface layer was achieved. Recently, we showed via kinetic Monte Carlo simulations [2] that (i) ion-beam-induced reduction of the L10 transition temperature may be understood in terms of vacancy-assisted atomic ordering and that (ii) superstructure alignment results from a small initial directional short range order (DSRO).
In this contribution (i) we present systematic studies of the ion-irradiation-induced L10 ordering in thin layers, (ii) we predict the evolution of chemical ordering in layers with well-designed initial DSRO, (iii) we study in non-stoichiometric alloys (e.g. Fe1-xPdx) the competition of L10 ordering (FePd) with L12 ordering (Fe3Pd), (iv) we extend our atomistic simulations of ion-irradiation-induced ordering to more complex systems like Heusler alloys and (v) we evaluate the influence of interfaces in nanostructures on the ordering process.
[1] D. Ravelosona, C. Chappert, V. Mathet and H. Bernas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (2000) 236.
[2] H. Bernas, J.-Ph. Attane, K.-H. Heinig, D. Halley, D. Ravelosona, A. Marty, P. Auric, C. Chappert, Y. Samson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 77203.
Keywords: ion irradiation, chemical ordering, intermetallic alloys, kinetic Monte Carlo simulation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM), 04.-10.09.2004, Monterey, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8256
Publ.-Id: 8256


Multi-dot floating-gates in MOSFETS for nonvolatile memories – their ion beam synthesis and morphology

Müller, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Bonafos, C.; Coffin, H.; Benassayag, G.; Schamm, S.; Zanchi, G.; Claverie, A.; Tencé, M.; Colliex, C.
Scalability and performance of current flash memories can be improved substantially by novel devices based on Multi-Dot Floating Gate MOSFETs. The multi-dot layer in the very thin gate oxide can be fabricated CMOS-compatibly by ion beam synthesis (IBS). Here, we present both experimental and theoretical studies on IBS of multi-dot layers consisting of Si nanocrystals (NCs). The NCs are produced by ultra low energy Si+ ion implantation, which causes a high Si supersaturation in the shallow implantation region. During post-implantation annealing, this su-persaturation leads to phase separation of the excess Si from the SiO2. Till now, the study of this phase separation suffered from the weak z contrast between Si and SiO2 phases in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Here, this imaging problem is solved by Energy Filtered Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFSTEM). Additionally, kinetic lattice Monte Carlo simula-tions of Si phase separation have been performed and compared with EFSTEM images. It has been predicted theoretically that the morphology of the multi-dot Si floating gate changes with increasing ion fluence from isolated, spherical NCs to percolated spinodal Si pattern. These pattern agree remarkably with EFSTEM images. However, the predicted fluence for spinodal pattern is lower than the experimental one. Because oxidants of the ambient atmosphere penetrate into the as-implanted SiO2, a substantial fraction of the implanted Si is lost due to oxidation.
Keywords: ion beam synthesis, nonvolatile memories, process simulation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Conference, Regensburg, 08.-12.03.2004, Regensburg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8255
Publ.-Id: 8255


Domain structure during magnetization reversal of PtMn/CoFe exchange bias micro-patterned lines

Liedke, M. O.; Potzger, K.; Bothmer, A.; Hillebrands, B.; Rickart, M.; Freitas, P. P.; Fassbender, J.ORC
The magnetic domain configuration and the magnetization reversal behavior of micropatterned exchange bias elements were investigated by means of magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the unidirectional anisotropy the shape anisotropy determines the overall magnetization reversal behavior. In order to modify the ratio between both anisotropy contributions the exchange bias field strength was reduced by means of 5 keV He+ ion irradiation. For the as-prepared samples a mono-domain magnetization state with the magnetization direction aligned along the exchange bias field direction was found regardless of the element shape. After irradiation the unidirectional anisotropy contribution is reduced and hence the previously homogeneous magnetization state brakes up into small domains with 360° domain walls in between. The appearance of these domain walls, which was mainly observed for the descending branch of the magnetization reversal, is found to depend strongly on the structure width and orientation.
Keywords: exchange bias, pattering, ion irradiation
  • Poster
    Frühjahrstagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 27.-31.03.2006, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Journal of Applied Physics 100(2006)043918
    DOI: 10.1063/1.2335805

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8254
Publ.-Id: 8254


Computer experiments of nanoshaping

Heinig, K.-H.
Abstract not available.
Keywords: heavy-ion irradiation, nanometal shaping, atomistic computer simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Workshop on Ion Beam Shaping of Nanometals, 17.12.2004, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8253
Publ.-Id: 8253


Atomistic simulations of nanofabrication with ion beams

Heinig, K.-H.; Müller, T.; Röntzsch, L.
Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo (KLMC) simulations can predict reaction pathways for the ion-beam-assisted fabrication of functional nanostructures. Three examples will be presented, which are based on different kinds of ion-solid-interaction: (i) High-dose ion implantation of species which are immiscible within the surface layer produces a far-from-equilibrium state. A post-implantation thermal treatment activates phase separation. According to predictive simulations the location and size of the nanoclusters can be controlled by boundary conditions (i.e. interfaces) and annealing parameters. (ii)Ion irradiation through an interface between immiscible phases leads to a thin interface film of an unstable alloy which is formed by collisional mixing. KLMC simulations of phase separation in this film predicts a self-organised/self-aligned nanocluster formation . (iii) Ion irradiation can produce chemical order in intermetallic alloys at low temperature. KLMC simulations show that chemical ordering requires mobile vacancies. Without irradiation the formation of vacancies requires high temperatures at which the ordered phase might be unstable. Thus, thermally activated ordering of some intermetallics like Heusler alloys is difficult, whereas ion irradiation orders them.
Process simulations of phase separation in Si implanted gate oxides and at ion irradiated Si/SiO2 interfaces have been performed in the framework of an European GROWTH, where a novel non-volatile memory transistor was developed. Irradiation-induced ordering studies are focussed on future magnetic recording materials (FePt) and materials for spintronics.
Keywords: nanostructures, ion beam processing, atomistic computer simulations
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    7th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES), 28.06.-02.07.2004, Helsinki, Finland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8252
Publ.-Id: 8252


Manipulating magnetic nanostructures by ion irradiation: patterning and ordering

Bernas, H.; Chappert, C.; Devolder, T.; Ravelosona, D.; Ferre, J.; Jamet, J. P.; Chen, Y.; Samson, Y.; Marty, A.; Halley, D.; Attane, J.; Heinig, K.-H.; Strobel, M.; Kaitasov, O.; Gautrot, S.
Abstract not available.
Keywords: Magnetic nanostructures, ion irradiation, atomistic computer simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    IWINP Conference, 11.-13.03.2004, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8251
Publ.-Id: 8251


Self-organisation of nanostructures driven by ion irradiation

Möller, W.; Heinig, K.-H.; Müller, T.; Röntzsch, L.; Schmidt, B.
For the generation of nanostructures for novel applications such as in electronics and optics, self-organisation under large-area processing appears to be the most promising way in terms of cost-efficiency. However, so far it has turned out to be extremely difficult to fulfil the requirements of macroscopic-range ordering, narrow particle size distribution, and, in the case of buried nanostructures, in-depth location control. The introduction of ion beams, which are widely established in industrial production, into this area is challenging but hampered by the statistical processes of ion slowing down and the physico-chemistry of precipitation and ripening during ion beam synthesis. These processes will, in general, result in disorded rather than ordered structures.
In the present paper it is demonstrated that, nevertheless, ion beam techniques may contribute to ordering. Different mechanism of ion-driven self-organisation are available for this purpose: (i) For ensembles of nanoclusters in a matrix material, ion-beam mixing may cause an inversion of the Ostwald ripening effect and thus drive the system towards a narrow particle size distribution. (ii) Processes of ion mixing, diffusion and precipitation at interfaces may result in a well-defined location of a nanocluster sheet close to the interface. (iii) Ordering of intermetallic nanostructures may be achieved at low temperature by ion-induced generation of mobile point defects.
For these phenomena, both theoretical predictions and experimental evidence will be presented. In addition, the results will be related to promising applications, such as for new non-volatile memories and novel media for magnetic recording.
Keywords: nanostructures, ion irradiation, inverse Ostwald ripening, theory
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    IWINP Conference, 11.-13.03.2004, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8250
Publ.-Id: 8250


Manipulation of 2D arrays of Si nanocrystals embedded in thin SiO2 layers by low energy ion implantation

Bonafos, C.; Carrada, M.; Cherkashin, N.; Coffin, H.; Chassaing, D.; Benassayag, G.; Claverie, A.; Müller, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.; Dimitrakis, P.; Normand, P.
In silicon nanocrystal based metal–oxide–semiconductor memory structures, tuning of the electron tunneling distance between the Si substrate and Si nanocrystals located in the gate oxide is a crucial requirement for the pinpointing of optimal device architectures. In this work it is demonstrated that this tuning of the ‘‘injection distance’’ can be achieved by varying the Si1 ion energy or the oxide thickness during the fabrication of Si nanocrystals by ultralow-energy silicon implantation. Using an accurate cross-section transmission electron microscopy ~XTEM! method, it is demonstrated that two-dimensional arrays of Si nanocrystals cannot be positioned closer than 5 nm to the channel by increasing the implantation energy. It is shown that injection distances down to much smaller values ~2 nm! can be achieved only by decreasing the nominal thickness of the gate oxide. Depth profiles of excess silicon measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Si nanocrystal locations determined by XTEM are compared with Monte-Carlo simulations of the implanted Si profiles taking into account dynamic target changes due to ion implantation, ion erosion, and ion beam mixing. This combination of experimental and theoretical studies gives a safe explanation regarding the unique technological route of obtaining Si nanocrystals at distances smaller than 5 nm from the channel: the formation of nanocrystals requires that the interface mixing due to collisional damage does not overlap with the range profile to the extent that there is no more a local maximum of Si excess buried in the SiO2 layer.
Keywords: Si nanocrystals, ion implantation, nonvolatile memories, process modelling
  • Journal of Applied Physics 95(2004)10, 5696-5702

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Publ.-Id: 8249


Growth and Taming of Nanostructures with Ion Beams

Heinig, K.-H.
Nanocluster ensembles and nanowires can be synthesised in surface layers of various substrates by high dose ion implantation. A detailed understanding of the complex processes like ion deposition and subsequent phase separation has been achieved by atomistic computer simulations. This understanding helps to tailor nanostructures for applications. Examples are the synthesis of very narrow Si nanocluster layers in SiO2 for nanodot memories and of ion-beam-shaped metallic nanorods for photonics. Recently it has been demonstrated that ion beams can be also used to change properties of nanostructures drastically. Thus, at elevated temperatures, irradiation of nanocluster ensembles results in a narrowing of the size distribution, which can be described as “inverse Ostwald ripening”. Irradiation of single-crystalline but chemically disordered nanostructures assists chemical ordering of alloys like FePt, which has a very high magnetic anisotropy and is, therefore, a favorite material for future magnetic recording.
Keywords: Nanostructures, ion beam synthesis, inverse Ostwald ripening, nanowires, atomistic computer simulation
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar at the RWTH, 26.01.2006, Aachen, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8248
Publ.-Id: 8248


Ion Beam Synthesis and Processing of Nanostructures

Heinig, K.-H.
An overview of our recent research on ion beam synthesis and processing of nanostructures will be presented. Predictions of atomistic simulations on reaction pathways of nanostructure formation and processing will be compared with experimental results. (i) delta-layers of nanoclusters were formed by ion beam mixing and phase separation at interfaces. In an industrial environment, these delta-layers have been proven to be good candidates as distributed charge storage centers in future FLASH memories. (ii) Nanowires formed by focussed ion implantation and other techniques can be processed into nanocluster chains and other functional structures for electronics and photonics. (iii) Metallic nanospheres can be shaped by swift heavy ions into rods and wires, which may have interesting applications in photonics.
Keywords: Ion beam synthesis, nanostructures, atomistic computer simulation
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar an der Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 15.11.2005, Darmstadt, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8247
Publ.-Id: 8247


Ion beam shaping of nanometals

Vredenberg, A.; Polman, A.; Kooi, B. J.; Vandillen, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Toulemonde, M.
We present a novel type of ion-beam-induced deformation of metal nano-objects. Under heavy-ion irradiation Au nanospheres in a silica matrix first elongate, and at higher dodes combine into nanowires that continue to grow under the ion beam. Such anisotropically shaped metal nanoparticles may have great potential in a wide range of fields. For example, nanorods exhibit a split plasmon resonance, with one of the bands shifting as far as the infrared. Arrays of such nanoparticles have great potential as nanophotonic guides in the (infra)red, an important telecom wavelength regime, but outside the range of plasmon resonances of spherical particles. Our samples consist of Au spheres (15 nm) in a single plane 150 nm below the surface of the silica matrix. At low dose (2x10^14 cm^-2) the nanospheres elongate into nanorods, with their long axis oriented in the beam direction (also verified by changing the ion incidence angle). At high doses, nanowire form, still parallel with the ion path. This intriguing effect (the wires must have formed from many primary particles) will be discussed in detail, along with the elongation mechanism, based on kinetic Monte Carlo computer experiments. We also observe a clear threshold in the electronic energy loss. This threshold can be explained, assuming that the ion track have to be continuous for elongation to occur.
Keywords: ion irradiation, shaping of nanoparticles, atomistic computer simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Materials Research Society 2005 FALL Meeting, Symp. OO: Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, 28.11.-01.12.2005, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8246
Publ.-Id: 8246


Halogen PIII for high-temperature oxidation protection of TiAl

Richter, E.; Yankov, R.; Möller, W.; Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: TiAl high temprature oxidation resistance, plasma immersion ion implantation, halogen
  • Poster
    8th International Workshop on Plasma-Based Ion implantation and Deposition, 20.-25.09.2005, Chengdu, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8245
Publ.-Id: 8245


Modelling of ion-driven nanostructures

Heinig, K.-H.
Recently it has been demonstrated that ion irradiation of nanostructures, interfaces and ultrathin magnetic films can modify substantially the nanocluster size distribution [1], the spatial nanocluster alignment [2], the nanocluster shape [3] and the chemical order of metal alloys [4]. Furthermore, low-energy ion-erosion of semiconductor [5] and metal [6] surfaces can result in the formation and self-organization of nanostructures.
For all phenomena listed above (disregarding chemical ordering), ion-irradiation-activated interface/surface processes have been identified as the driving force. Thus, a fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms of the interface/surface evolution under ion-irradiation might allow a controlled growth and a taming of properties of nanostructures.
This contribution will review theoretical studies and atomistic computer simulations which demonstrate that the above listed phenomena have the same origin: a competition of surface erosion or interface mixing on the one hand and diffusional processes on the other. The far-from-equilibrium processing of nanostructures can lead to exotic properties like “negative interface energy” and “inverse Ostwald ripening”.
[ 1] K.-H. Heinig, T. Müller, B.Schmidt, M. Strobel, W. Möller, Appl. Phys. A 77, 17–25 (2003).
[ 2] L. Röntzsch, K.-H. Heinig, and B. Schmidt, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Proc. 7, 357 (2004).
T. Müller, K.H. Heinig, and W. Möller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2373 (2002).
T. Müller, K.H. Heinig, W. Möller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Assayag,
S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, C. Colliex, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2373 (2004).
[ 3] K.-H. Heinig, in Proc. Workshop „Ion Beam Shaping of Metal Nanoparticles“, ed. A. Polman, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Dec17 (2004).
[ 4] H. Bernas, J.-Ph. Attane, K.-H. Heinig, D. Halley, D. Ravelosona, A. Marty, P. Auric, C. Chappert, Y. Samson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 077203 (2003).
[ 5] S. Facsko et al., Science 285, 1551 (1999).
[ 6] M. Strobel, K.H. Heinig, T. Michely, Surf. Sci. 486, 136 (2001).
T. Michely, M. Kalff, G. Comsa, M. Strobel, K.H. Heinig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2589 (2001).
Keywords: Nanostructures, ion irradiation, atomistic computer simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    14th Int. summer school on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT2005), 12.-16.09.2005, Sunny Beach, Bulgarien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8244
Publ.-Id: 8244


Improvement of the oxidation behaviour of TiAl-alloys by halogen treatment

Donchev, A.; Yankov, R.; Richter, E.; Schütze, M.
wird nachgereicht
Keywords: halogen effect, TiAl, high temperature oxidation resistance
  • Poster
    European congress on advanced materials and processing EUROMAT´05, 05.-08.09.2005, Praha, Tchech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8243
Publ.-Id: 8243


Structural and optical properties of iron silicide formed by ion beam mixing

Ayache, R.; Boubelleou, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Richter, E.
  • Poster
    E-MRS Fall Meeting, 11.09.2005, Warsawa, Poland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8242
Publ.-Id: 8242


Fabrication of Si nanocrystals for nonvolatile memories using ion beams

Müller, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Röntzsch, L.; Stegemann, K.-H.
Abstract is not available.
Keywords: ion implantation, nanocluster, atomistic computer simulations, nonvolatile memory
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Intern. Workshop on Semiconductor Nanocrystals (SEMINANO), 10.-12.09.2005, Budapest, Hungary

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8241
Publ.-Id: 8241


Growth and taming of nanostructures with ion beams

Heinig, K.-H.; Müller, T.; Röntzsch, L.; Möller, W.
Nanocluster ensembles and nanowires can be synthesised in surface layers of various substrates by high dose ion implantation. Atomistic computer simulation lead to a detailed understanding of ion deposition and subsequent precipitation [1]. Recently it has been demonstrated that ion beams can be also used to change properties of nanostructures drastically. Thus, at elevated temperatures, irradiation of nanocluster ensembles results in a narrowing of the size distribution, which can be described as “inverse Ostwald ripening” [2]. Irradiation of single-crystalline but chemically disordered nanostructures assists chemical ordering of alloys like FePt, which has a very high magnetic anisotropy in its well-ordered state and is, therefore, a favorite material for future magnetic recording [3]. And finally, metallic nano-spheres in SiO2 can be shaped into rods or even wires by high-energy ion irradiation [4].
This contribution will review theoretical studies and atomistic computer simulations on the phenomena listed above. It will be shown that all this phenomena have a common origin: the competition between ion beam induced disordering (interface mixing, defect generation, …) which drives the system far from equilibrium, and diffusion processes, which drives the system back towards the thermodynamic equilibrium.
[1] M. Strobel, K.-H. Heinig, W. Möller, Phys. Rev. B 64, 245422 (2001).
T. Müller, K.H. Heinig, and W. Möller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2373 (2002).
T. Müller, K.H. Heinig, W. Möller, C. Bonafos, H. Coffin, N. Cherkashin, G. Assayag,
S. Schamm, G. Zanchi, A. Claverie, M. Tencé, C. Colliex, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2373 (2004).
[2] K.-H. Heinig, T. Müller, B.Schmidt, M. Strobel, W. Möller, Appl. Phys. A 77, 17–25 (2003).
[3] H. Bernas, J.-Ph. Attane, K.-H. Heinig, D. Halley, D. Ravelosona, A. Marty, P. Auric, C. Chappert, Y. Samson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 077203 (2003).
[4] A. Vredenberg et al.; K.-H. Heinig, in Proc. Workshop „Ion Beam Shaping of Metal Nanoparticles“, ed. A. Polman, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Dec17 (2004).
Keywords: ion irradiation, nanostructures, atomistic computer simulation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Symposium on Trends in Nanoscience: Structure and Functions, 08.-12.10.2005, Irsee, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8240
Publ.-Id: 8240


Ion-irradiation-induced chemical ordering of intermetallic alloys: predictions based on atomistic simulations

Heinig, K.-H.; Bernas, H.
The L10 transition temperatures for chemical ordering in FePd and FePt intermetallic alloys may be substantially reduced by ion irradiation [1]. Alignment of the strong magnetic axis normal to the surface layer was achieved. Recently, we showed via kinetic Monte Carlo simulations [2] that (i) ion-beam-induced reduction of the L10 transition temperature may be understood in terms of vacancy-assisted atomic ordering and that (ii) superstructure alignment results from a small initial directional short range order (DSRO). In this contribution (i) we present systematic studies of the ion-irradiation-induced L10 ordering in thin layers, (ii) we predict the evolution of chemical ordering in layers with well-designed initial DSRO, (iii) we study in non-stoichiometric alloys (e.g. Fe1-xPdx) the competition of L10 ordering (FePd) with L12 ordering (Fe3Pd), and(iv) we evaluate the influence of interfaces in nanostructures on the ordering process.
[1] D. Ravelosona, C. Chappert, V. Mathet and H. Bernas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (2000) 236.
[2] H. Bernas, J.-Ph. Attane, K.-H. Heinig, D. Halley, D. Ravelosona, A. Marty, P. Auric, C. Chappert, Y. Samson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 77203
Keywords: atomistic computer simulation, intermetallic alloy, ion irradiation, chemical ordering
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Conference, 04.-09.03.2005, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8239
Publ.-Id: 8239


Mechanisms of ion beam shaping of metal nanoparticals

Heinig, K.-H.
The functionality of nanoparticles can be extended further by shape anisotropy. Thus, for future hard disks, rod-like nanomagnets are more resistant against thermally activated spin flipping than spheres, and, for photonics, light is guided as surface plasmon-polariton along a chain of rods with less damping than along a chain of spheres.
Recently it has been shown [1] that Au nanospheres embedded in SiO2 can be shaped into rods (and even wires) by swift heavy ion irradiation. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Van Dillen has proven [2] that the Trinkaus model [3], which describes successfully the ion beam shaping of dielectrics/semiconductors, can not be applied to ion beam shaping of metal nanoparticles.
Here, a consistent mechanism of ion beam shaping and nanowire ripening will be presented. Using the temperature-time profiles of ion tracks in SiO2 as delivered by Toulemonde [4], atomistic computer experiments performed with kinetic Monte-Carlo and Molecular Dynamics codes reproduce the experimental results [5]. Our comprehensive numerical studies facilitate a further optimisation of ion beam shaping.
[1] A. Vredenberg et al., Int. Conf. “Ion Beam Modification of Materials”, Monterey (USA), Sept. 5-10, 2004.
[2] T. van Dillen, Int. Workshop on “Ion Beam Shaping”, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Dec. 17, 2004.
[3] H. Trinkaus, J. Nucl. Mater. 223, 196 (1995).
[4] M. Toulemonde, Nucl. Instr. and Methods B66/67, 903 (2000), and private comm..
[5] K.-H. Heinig, Int. Workshop on “Ion Beam Shaping”, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Dec. 17, 2004.
Keywords: atomistic computer simulation, nanocluster, ion irradiation, shaping
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials Research Society 2005 FALL Meeting, Symp. OO: Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, 28.11.-01.12.2005, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8238
Publ.-Id: 8238


Ion Beam Shaping of Nanometals

Vredenberg, A.; Polman, A.; Kooi, B. J.; Vandillen, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Toulemonde, M.
An abstract is not available.
Keywords: ion irradiation, nanocluster, shaping
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Sixth International Symposium Swift Heavy Ions in Matter, 28.-31.05.2005, Aschaffenburg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8237
Publ.-Id: 8237


Manipulation of 2D Arrays of Si Nanocrystals by Ultra Low Energy Ion Beam Synthesis for non volatile memories applications

Bonafos, C.; Cherkashin, N.; Carrada, M.; Coffin, H.; Ben Assayag, G.; Schamm, S.; Dimitrakis, P.; Normand, P.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.; Muller, T.; Heinig, K. H.; Argawal, A.; Claverie, A.
In silicon nanocrystal (nc) based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory structures a fine control of the Si nc location in the gate oxide is required for the pinpointing of optimal device architectures. In this work, we show how to manipulate and control the depth-position, size and surface density of two dimensional (2D) arrays of Si ncs embedded in thin (<10 nm) SiO2 layers, fabricated by ultra-low-energy (typically 1 keV) ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Particular emphasis is placed upon the influence of implantation and annealing conditions and oxide thickness on the nanocrystal characteristics (e.g. size, density) and the charge storage properties of associated MOS structures. Structural investigation is performed by using specific characterization methods including Fresnel imaging for the measurement of the injection distance between the substrate and the nc band, as well as spatially resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy using the spectrum-imaging mode of a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope to evaluate the size distribution and density of the ncs.
Keywords: Nanocrystal ion-beam-synthesis memories
  • Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 830(2005), D5.2.1-D5.2.6

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8236
Publ.-Id: 8236


Hydrogen release and defect formation during heat treatments of SiNx:H/a-Si:H double passivation layer on c-Si substrate

Ulyashin, A. G.; Bentzen, A.; Diplas, S.; Suphellen, A.; Gunnaes, A. E.; Olsen, A.; Svensson, B. G.; Marstein, E. S.; Holt, A.; Grambole, D.; Sauar, E.
The quality and temperature stability of surface passivation of silicon by a double layer consisting of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film capped by a silicon nitride anti-reflection coating are studied. It is established that the passivation effect of the double layer can be significantly enhanced after short annealing for temperatures up to about 500 °C, whereas annealing at higher temperatures results in degradation of the passivation properties. It is found that the increased effective recombination lifetime after annealing at temperatures below 500 ºC results from hydrogen redistribution in the interface region. Furthermore, presence of interfacial structural defects formed due to hydrogen release at temperatures around 600 ºC, is believed to be the cause of the lifetime decrease after heat treatments at higher temperatures.
  • Poster
    2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 05.-12.05.2006, Hawaii, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 05.-12.05.2006, Hawaii, USA
    IEEE Catalog Number 06CH37747C, 1-4244-0017-1, 1354-1357

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8234
Publ.-Id: 8234


Brillouin scattering and x-ray photoelectron studies of germanium nanoclusters synthesized in SiO2 by ion implantation

Zuk, J.; Krzyanowska, H.; Clouter, M. J.; Bromberek, M.; Bubert, H.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.
Brillouin scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to characterize Ge+-implanted thermal SiO2 layers on a Si substrate with subsequent annealing at 500 °C and 1100 °C. Sputtering depth profiling in conjunction with XPS studies have been applied to identify the chemical state of elemental Ge and GeO2 precipitations in the SiO2 matrices. The presence of a subsurface GeOx zone as predicted in kinetic 3-dimensional lattice simulations has been confirmed. It is concluded that the intermediate step of Ge oxide formation seems necessary for the creation of Ge nanoclusters. The Ge atomic concentrations obtained from XPS were used to compute the bulk and shear moduli, and consequently the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocities, for the Ge/GeO2/SiO2 systems. These calculations confirm the character of SAW velocity softening as determined from the Brillouin scattering investigations.
  • Journal of Applied Physics 96(2004)9, 4952-4959

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8233
Publ.-Id: 8233


A new flash lamp apparatus for applications to millisecond heat treatments

Anwand, W.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HeT-SiC-05, International topical workshop on heteroepitaxy of 3C-SiC on silicon and its application to sensor devices, 26.04.-01.05.2005, Krippen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8232
Publ.-Id: 8232


Positron annihilation investigation in ion-implanted Yttria-stabilized zirconia

Grynszpan, R. I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.
Implantation with a variety of sub-MeV ions (He, Ar, Xe, O, and I) were performed on cubic single crystals of yttria-stabilized zirconia in order to assess the capability of such material to withstand high fluences as a confinement matrix for nuclear waste. In this work, we confronted the results of both Doppler Broadening using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (DB-SPIS) and the Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling spectroscopy (RBS-C) which are sensitive to lattice defects almost opposite in nature. In spite of their difference in defect specific sensitivity, and except for a precursory damage production stage almost exclusively exhibited by SPIS for very low doses (< 0.1 dpa), either techniques show a similar fluence dependence, which exhibits 3 stages starting respectively around 0.1, 2 and 3 dpa, regardless of the damaging ion. However, owing to the stage I plateau displayed in the variation of the DB-SPIS lineshape parameter, we were able to estimate an ion-mass dependence of the critical size of open-volume defects reached before the production of new predominant defects.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    MRS Fall Meeting 2005, 28.11.-02.12.2005, Boston/MA, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    MRS Fall Meeting 2005, 28.11.-02.12.2005, Boston/MA, USA
    Growth, Modification and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale 2006, 908E

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8231
Publ.-Id: 8231


P-type doping of zinc oxide obtained by arsenic ion implantation

Braunstein, G.; Muraviev, A.; Saxena, H.; Dhere, N.; Richter, V.; Kalish, R.; Benndorf, G.; Wenckstern, V. H.; Lorenz, M.; Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials Research Society (MRS), 2005 Fall Meeting, 28.11.-02.12.2005, Boston/MA, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8230
Publ.-Id: 8230


The (upcoming) digital real-time positron lifetime measurement of EPOS

Krille, A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Becvar, F.; Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Scientific Workshop “The application of high intensity positron beam techniques and digital lifetime positron spectroscopy in materials science”, 17.11.2005, Bergen, Netherlands

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8229
Publ.-Id: 8229


The intense positron source EPOS at Research Center Rossendorf

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.; Sachert, S.; Krille, A.; Bondarenko, V.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Scientific Workshop “The application of high intensity positron beam techniques and digital lifetime positron spectroscopy in materials science”, 17.-18.11.2005, Bergen, Netherlands

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8228
Publ.-Id: 8228


Slow positron implantation spectroscopy - a tool to characterize vacancy-type damage

Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    First Humboldt-institute-partnership workshop an der Universität Göttingen (Institut für Materialphysik), 24.-26.10.2005, Göttingen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8227
Publ.-Id: 8227


Indications for a low quartz structure at the SiO2/Si interface revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopies

Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    First Humboldt-institute-partnership workshop an der Universität Göttingen (Institut für Materialphysik), 24.-26.10.2005, Göttingen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8226
Publ.-Id: 8226


Die intensive Positronenquelle EPOS an der Strahlungsquelle ELBE im FZ Rossendorf

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.
nicht vorhanden
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Arbeitstreffen „Komitee für Forschung mit Sonden und Ionen (KFSI)“, 06.-07.10.2005, Neubiberg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8225
Publ.-Id: 8225


Optimization of In-Beam Positron Emission Tomography for Monitoring Heavy Ion Tumor Therapy

Crespo, P.
In-beam positron emission tomography (in-beam PET) is currently the only method for an in-situ monitoring of highly tumor-conformed charged hadron therapy. In such therapy, the clinical effect of deviations from treatment planning is highly minimized by implementing safety margins around the tumor and selecting proper beam portals. Nevertheless, in-beam PET is able to detect eventual, undesirable range deviations and anatomical modifications during fractionated irradiation, to verify the accuracy of the beam portal delivered and to provide the radiotherapist with an estimation of the difference in dosage if the treatment delivered differs from the planned one. In a first study within this work, a set of simulation and fully-3D reconstruction routines shows that minimizing the opening angle of a cylindrical camera is determinant for an optimum quality of the in-beam PET images. The study yields two favorite detector geometries: a closed ring or a dual-head tomograph with narrow gaps. The implementation of either detector geometry onto an isocentric, ion beam delivery (gantry) is feasible by mounting the PET scanner at the beam nozzle. The implementation of an in-beam PET scanner with the mentioned detector geometries at therapeutic sites with a fixed, horizontal beam line is also feasible. Nevertheless, knowing that previous in-beam PET research in Berkeley was abandoned due to detector activation (Bismuth Germanate, BGO), arising most probably from passive beam shaping contaminations, the proposed detector configurations had to be tested in-beam. For that, BGO was substituted with a state-of-the-art scintillator (lutetium oxyorthosilicate, LSO) and two position sensitive detectors were built. Each detector contains 32 pixels, consisting of LSO finger-like crystals coupled to avalanche photodiode arrays (APDA). In order to readout the two detectors operated in coincidence, either in standalone mode or at the GSI medical beam line, a multi-channel, zero-suppressing free, list mode data acquisition system was built.The APDA were chosen for scintillation detection instead of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) due to their higher compactness and magnetic field resistance. A magnetic field resistant detector is necessary if the in-beam PET scanner is operated close to the last beam bending magnet, due to its fringe magnetic field. This is the case at the isocentric, ion beam delivery planned for the dedicated, heavy ion hospital facility under construction in Heidelberg, Germany. In-beam imaging with the LSO/APDA detectors positioned at small target angles, both upbeam and downbeam from the target, was successful. This proves that the detectors provide a solution for the proposed next-generation, improved in-beam PET scanners. Further confirming this result are germanium-detector-based, spectroscopic gamma-ray measurements: no scintillator activation is observed in patient irradiation conditions. Although a closed ring or a dual-head tomograph with narrow gaps is expected to provide improved in-beam PET images, low count rates in in-beam PET represent a second problem to image quality. More importantly, new accelerator developments will further enhance this problem to the point of making impossible in-beam PET data taking if the present acquisition system is used. For these reasons, two random-suppression methods allowing to collect in-beam PET events even during particle extraction were tested. Image counts raised almost twofold. This proves that the methods and associated data acquisition technique provide a solution for next-generation, in-beam positron emission tomographs installed at synchrotron or cyclotron radiotherapy facilities.
Keywords: PET, radiation therapy, radiotherapy, ion therapy, LSO, APD
  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-444 2006
  • Lecture (others)
    Zentrum für Innovationskompetenz Oncoray, 12.12.2005, Dresden, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8224
Publ.-Id: 8224


Acceptor formation by ion implantation of nitrogen into ZnO

Braunstein, G.; Hamad, O.; Benndorf, G.; Wenckstern, V. H.; Lorenz, M.; Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Workshop on Oxide Electronics (WOE-12),, 02.-05.10.2005, Cape Cod/MA, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8223
Publ.-Id: 8223


Positron depth profiling in ion-implanted zirconia stabilized with trivalent cations

Grynszpan, R. I.; Saude, S.; Mazerolles, L.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.
Slow positron implantation spectroscopy has been performed on a series of (ZrO2)(1-x)(M2O3), solid solutions, either stabilized in the cubic phase (with M:Y, Dy or Er and x = 0.095, 0.16 or 0.16, respectively) or in the tetragonal metastable phase (M:Y and x = 0.03). Stabilization induces native oxygen-vacancy complexes, which lead to saturation trapping of positrons in the cubic crystals, regardless of the cation type. The positron diffusion length in the tetragonal phase (L+ approximate to 60 nm, vs. approximate to 2.5 nm in the cubic phase) suggests that Y atoms segregate around antiphase boundaries formed in the lattice. Implantations of helium and oxygen ions induce new defects, more trapping effective than the native defects. However, their production rate and temperature stability seem primarily dependent on the crystal structure, hence on the concentration of trivalent cations, irrespective of their chemical nature.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-8), 04.-09.09.2005, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Radiation Physics and Chemistry 76(2007)2, 333-336

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8222
Publ.-Id: 8222


Positron annihilation at SiO2/Si interface

Kuriplach, J.; Melikhova, O.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.
not available
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-8), 04.-09.09.2005, Coimbra, Portugal

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8221
Publ.-Id: 8221


Basic positron properties of oxides: a computational study

Kuriplach, J.; Melikhova, O.; Brauer, G.
In this contribution we concentrate on two selected oxides, MgO and BeO, and examine theoretically their basic positron characteristics. In particular, we calculate the bulk positron lifetime and affinity and determine the positron distribution in defect free systems. Both self-consistent and non-self-consistent computational methods are used in calculations. Obtained characteristics are then discussed in terms of the structure and bonding properties of oxides and are compared to experimental data available. The issue of electron-positron correlations in insulating materials is also mentioned.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-8), 04.-09.09.2005, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Radiation Physics and Chemistry 76(2007)2, 101-105

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8220
Publ.-Id: 8220


Characterization of various crystalline structures at the SiO2/Si interface by positrons

Brauer, G.; Kuriplach, J.; Anwand, W.; Becvar, F.; Skorupa, W.
The nature of the interface of the Si (001) surface with grown, native oxide is examined by a slow-positron beam equipped with coincidence Doppler broadening (DB). Measurements are combined with theoretical calculations of high-momentum DB profiles of Si, divacancy in Si, Brazilian quartz and the interface itself. From this comparison, the conclusion is drawn that an ordered structure exists at the interface. This structure resembles low quartz or a SiO2 structure with a lower density than low quartz.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Workshop on Positron and Positronium Chemistry (PPC-8), 04.-09.09.2005, Coimbra, Portugal
  • Radiation Physics and Chemistry 76(2007)2, 195-199

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8219
Publ.-Id: 8219


Structure and ferromagnetism of Mn+ ion implanted ZnO thin films on sapphire

Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Schmidt, H.; Diaconu, M.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.
Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS), based on the generation, implantation and subsequent annihilation of mono-energetic positrons in a sample, has been used to study depth dependent vacancy-type damage in three ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-plane sapphire. Doping was achieved by implantation of 250 keV Mn+ ions at 300 ◦C with three different fluences—1016, 3 × 1016, and 6 × 1016 cm−2, and subsequent thermal annealing in air. Evolution of the open volume damage, its depth distribution, and the magnetic behavior was investigated by
SPIS and Magnetic Force Microscopy. No indication of magnetic domain formation was found in any of the three films after implantation and the first annealing at 500 ◦C, whereas after the second annealing at 750 ◦C the two samples having the higher fluence showed stripe-like magnetic domains.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, 31.05.-03.06.2005, Strasbourg, France
  • Superlattices and Microstructures 39(2006), 41-49

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8218
Publ.-Id: 8218


Defects in nanocrystalline Nb films: effect of sputtering temperature

Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Prochazka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.
Thin niobium (Nb) films (thickness 350–400 nm) were prepared on (1 0 0)Si substrate in a UHV chamber using the cathode beam sputtering. The sputtering temperature Ts was varied from 40 up to 500 8C and the influence of the sputtering temperature on the microstructure of thin Nb films was investigated. Defect studies of the thin Nb films sputtered at various temperatures were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) with measurement of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation line. SPIS was combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have found that the films sputtered at Ts = 40 8C exhibit elongated, column-like nanocrystalline grains. No significant increase of grain size with Ts (up to 500 8C) was observed by TEM. The thin Nb films sputtered at Ts = 40 8C contain a high density of defects. It is demonstrated by shortened positron diffusion length and a high value of the S parameter for Nb layer compared to the well-annealed (defect-free) bulk Nb reference sample. A drastic decrease of defect density was found in the films sputtered at Ts ≥ 300 8C. It is reflected by a significant increase of the positron diffusion length and a decrease of the S parameter for the Nb layer. The defect density in the Nb layer is, however, still substantially higher than in the well-annealed reference bulk Nb sample. Moreover, there is a layer at the interface between the Nb film and the substrate with very high density of defects comparable to that in the films sputtered at Ts < 300 8C. All the Nb films studied exhibit a strong (1 1 0) texture. The films sputtered at Ts < 300 8C are characterized by a compressive macroscopic in-plane stress due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. Relaxation of the in-plane stress was observed in the films sputtered at Ts ≥ 300 °C. The width of the XRD profiles of the films sputtered at Ts ≥ 300 °C is significantly smaller compared to the films sputtered at lower temperatures. This is most probably due to a lower defect density which results in reduced microstrains in the films sputtered at higher temperatures.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-10), 19.-25.03.2005, Doha, Qatar
  • Applied Surface Science 252(2006), 3245-3251

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8217
Publ.-Id: 8217


Defect studies of hydrogen-loaded thin Nb films

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.; Bähtz, C.; Knapp, M.
Hydrogen interaction with defects in thin niobium (Nb) films was investigated using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thin Nb films on Si substrates were prepared using cathode beam sputtering at room temperature. Initially, the microstructure of the virgin (hydrogen-free) films was characterized. Subsequently, the films were step-by-step electrochemically charged with hydrogen and the evolution of the microstructure with increasing hydrogen concentration was monitored. Hydrogen loading leads to a significant lattice expansion which was measured by XRD. Contrary to free-standing bulk metals, thin films are highly anisotropic. The in-plane expansion is prevented because the films are clamped on the elastically hard substrate. On the other hand, the out-of-plane
expansion is substantially higher than in the bulk samples. Moreover, an enhanced hydrogen solubility in the a-phase was found in nanocrystalline Nb films. It was found that most of positrons in the films are trapped at open-volume defects at grain boundaries (GBs). These defects represent trapping sites also for hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen trapping at vacancy-like defects like GBs leads to a local increase of the electron density and is reflected by a pronounced decrease of the S parameter in the hydrogen-loaded samples. In addition, it was found that new defects are introduced at higher concentrations of hydrogen due to the formation of NbH (b-phase) particles.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-10), 19.-25.03.2005, Doha, Qatar
  • Applied Surface Science 252(2006), 3237-3244

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8216
Publ.-Id: 8216


EPOS – an intense positron beam project at the Research Center Rossendorf

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Sachert, S.; Brauer, G.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.
EPOS, the acronym of ELBE Positron Source, describes a running project to build an intense pulsed beam of mono-energetic positrons (0.2-40 keV) for materials research. Positrons will be created via pair production at a tungsten target using the pulsed 40 MeV electron beam of the superconducting electron linac with high brilliance and low emittance (ELBE) at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (near Dresden, Germany). The chosen design of the system under construction is described and results of calculations simulating the interaction of the electron beam with the target are presented, and positron beam formations and transportation are also discussed.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Invited talk, 10th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-10), 19.-25.03.2005, Doha, Qatar
  • Applied Surface Science 252(2006), 3106-3110

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-8215
Publ.-Id: 8215


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