Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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35810 Publications

Magnetism and structural changes in Fe60Al40 films under Ne+ irradiation

Smekhova, A.; Szyjka, T.; Eggert, B.; Cöster, B.; La Torre, E.; Walecki, D.; Salamon, S.; Ollefs, K.; Bali, R.; Lindner, J.; Rogalev, A.; Weschke, E.; Banerjee, R.; Sanyal, B.; Schmitz-Antoniak, C.; Wende, H.

XANES, EXAFS and XMCD techniques have been applied to probe substantial changes in Fe magnetic moments and the local environment in Fe60Al40 films along the order-disorder phase transition caused by Ne+ irradiation of different fluence and energies. An increased magnetic polarization, drastic changes of coercivity, a rearrangement in the expanded unit cell and structural distortions were observed.

  • Poster
    Eighth Joint BER II and BESSY II User Meeting, 07.-09.12.2016, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24504
Publ.-Id: 24504


Driving properties of magnetic nanostructures

Mazalski, P.; Kisielewski, J.; Jakubowski, M.; Kurant, Z.; Tahir, N.; Bali, R.; Wojciechowski, T.; Sveklo, I.; Fassbender, J.; Wawro, A.; Spiridis, N.; Maziewski, A.

No abstract available.

  • Poster
    European XFEL Users' Meeting 2016, 27.-29.12.2016, Hamburg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24503
Publ.-Id: 24503


Life Cycle Assessment of Metallurgical Processes Based on Physical Flowsheet Models

Scheidema, M.; Reuter, M. A.; Roine, A.

Simulation combined with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used to quantify the environmental impact of metals production processes. The results for different processing options, as well as the effect of having the same plant at different locations can be evaluated and compared. HSC SIM 8, which is linked with GaBi, or other LCA software can be used to carry out this work. The material flows are calculated using HSC SIM, and they are then converted to environmental indicators. The refining of silver using the High Current Density (HCD) electrorefining process is used as an example in this paper in order to show the link between simulation software and LCA.

Keywords: Process Modeling; Environmental Footprints; LCA; Recycling

  • Book chapter
    Apelian, D., Blanpain, B., Howarter, J., Kvithyld, A., Meskers, C., Mishra, B., Olivetti, E., Spange: REWAS 2016, Schweiz: Springer International Publishing, 2016, 978-3-319-48768-7, 179-185
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48768-7_26

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24502
Publ.-Id: 24502


Eco-efficiency indicator framework implemented in the metallurgical industry: part 1 - a comprehensive view and benchmark

Rönnlund, I.; Reuter, M. A.; Horn, S.; Aho, J.; Päällysaho, M.; Ylimäki, L.; Pursula, T.

The purpose of this work was to develop an indicator framework for the environmental sustainability benchmarking of products produced by the metallurgical industry. Sustainability differentiation has become an important issue for companies throughout the value chain. Differentiation is sometimes not attainable, due to the use of average data, lack of comparative data, certain issues being overshadowed by others, and a very narrow palette of indicators dominating the current sustainability assessments. There is a need for detailed and credible analyses, which show the current status and point out where improvements can be made. The indicator framework is developed to give a comprehensive picture of eco-efficiency, to provide methods that enable relevant comparisons as well as the tools for communicating the results. In this way, the methodology presented in this study aims to make differentiation easier and thus aid companies in driving the development toward more sustainable solutions.
Methods

The framework is based on the existing indicator framework Gaia Biorefiner, which is primarily intended for bio-based products. In this work, the framework was further developed for application in the metallurgical industry. The indicator framework is built by first looking at the issues, which are critical to the environment and global challenges seen today and which the activities of the metallurgical industry may have an impact on. Based on these issues, suitable indicators are chosen if they exist and built if they do not. The idea is that all indicators in a group form a whole, showing areas of innovation while refraining from aggregating and weighting, which often compromise a comprehensive and objective view. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are included. The indicators are constructed following the criteria set by the EU and OECD for building indicators. Each indicator further has a benchmark. The rules for building the benchmark are connected to the indicators. Suitable data sources and criteria for the benchmark and the indicators are gathered from literature, publicly available databases, and commercial LCA software. The use of simulation tools for attaining more reliable data is also studied.
Results and discussion

The result is a visual framework consisting of ten indicator groups with one to five indicators each, totaling up to 31 indicators. These are visualized in a sustainability indicator “flower.” The flower can be further opened up to study each indicator and the reasons behind the results. The sustainability benchmark follows a methodology that is based on utilization of baseline data and sustainability criteria or limits. A simulation approach was included in the methodology to address the problem with data scarcity and data reliability. The status of the environment, current production technologies, location-specific issues, and process-specific issues all affect the result, and the aim of finding relevant comparisons that will support sustainability differentiation is answered by a scalable scoping system.
Conclusions

A new framework and its concise visualization has been built for assessing the eco-efficiency of products from the metallurgical industry, in a way that aims to answer the needs of the industry. Since there is a baseline, against which each indicator can be benchmarked, a sustainability indicator “flower” can be derived, one of the key innovations of this methodology. This approach goes beyond the usual quantification, as it is also scalable and linked to technology and its fundamental parameters. In part 2, a case study “A case study from the copper industry” tests and illustrates the methodology.

Keywords: Benchmarking; Circular economy; Indicator; Metallurgy; Process and system simulation; Product environmental footprint; Resource efficiency; Sustainability

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24500
Publ.-Id: 24500


Linking dissipation-induced instabilities with nonmodal growth: The case of helical magnetorotational instability

Mamatsashvili, G.; Stefani, F.

The helical magnetorotational instability is known to work for resistive rotational flows with comparably steep negative or extremely steep positive shear. The corresponding lower and upper Liu limits of the shear are continuously connected when some axial electrical current is allowed to flow through the rotating fluid. Using a local approximation we demonstrate that the magnetohydrodynamic behavior of this dissipation-induced instability is intimately connected with the nonmodal growth and the pseudospectrum of the underlying purely hydrodynamic problem.

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24499
Publ.-Id: 24499


Phased Array Ultrasound System for Planar Flow Mapping in Liquid Metals

Mäder, K.; Nauber, R.; Galindo, V.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Eckert, S.; Czarske, J.

Research in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) aims at a better understanding of the interaction of conductive fluids and time-varying magnetic fields. Controllable magnetic fields can be used to optimize flows in technical and industrial processes involving liquid metals in order to improve quality and yield. However, necessary experimental studies for the investigations on physical models at room temperature are often limited by the performance of flow instrumentation for opaque liquids. With the phased array ultrasound Doppler velocimeter (PAUDV) we present a modular research platform for flow mapping in liquid metals. It consists of a modular electronics unit capable to interface ultrasound arrays with up to 256 channels. Each channel can be individually configured regarding the excitation pattern (three-level quantization, 64 samples) and the delay (1.6 ns resolution). With the individual addressing of channels the phased array technique to dynamically focus the ultrasound beam can be employed. This allows to resolve smaller flow structures in planar measurements compared to fixed-beam sensors. In addition, it enables the use of receive beamforming and plane wave transmission, which allows to significantly increase the time resolution and to perform 2d flow mapping with only one acoustical access via the cross beam technique. Fast electrical traversing of the measurement volume allows to obtain and visualize turbulence statistics. The capabilities of this research platform are demonstrated on measurements in the alloy gallium-indium-tin at room temperature. 2d velocity measurements of a flow in a cubic vessel influenced by a rotating magnetic field (RMF) are shown and compared to results of a semi-analytical simulation. Furthermore, two-point correlation functions of the velocity field for different magnitudes of the RMF are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Ultrasound Velocimeter; Liquid Metals; Rotating Magnetic Fields

  • Open Access Logo IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 64(2017)9, 1327-1335
    Online First (2017) DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2017.2693920

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24498
Publ.-Id: 24498


Scattering-type scanning near-field infrared microscopy at low temperatures

Lang, D.; Döring, J.; Kuschewski, F.; Kehr, S. C.; Eng, L. M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.

We present a combination of a versatile low-temperature scattering-type near-field infrared microscope (LT-s-SNIM ) with a tunable infrared free-electron laser (FEL). Our s-SNIM operates over a broad temperature range from 15 - 300 K and is unique in being tunable over a broad frequency range, thanks to the FEL. The over-all LT-s-SNIM functionality down to lowest temperature was tested on both standard gold and structured silicon dioxide samples, revealing net near-field contrasts and no topography cross-talk. Secondly, we investigated several ferroelectric phase transitions in barium titanate single crystals at 273 K and 193 K, allowing to associate clear near-field resonances to every phase and each ferroelectric domain; here, the clear benefit of our LT-s- SNOM pays off, being able to record s-SNOM, PFM, KPFM and topographic data with one and the same tip from every sample surface spot. Thirdly, we used the Jahn-Teller-Transition in the piezoelectric material GVS to quantify the local temperature increase under the AFM tip upon IR irradiation.

Keywords: infrared; spectroscopy; low-temperature; s-SNOM; FEL; near-field; microscopy; phase transition

  • Poster
    Smaller and Faster: Infrared and Terahertz Spectral-Imaging at the Nanoscale with Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser Sources, 01.-02.12.2016, Trieste, Italia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24497
Publ.-Id: 24497


Product-Centric Simulation-based design for recycling: case of LED lamp recycling

Reuter, M. A.; van Schaik, A.

This paper will illustrate how a product-centric simulation approach to recycling is core to Design for Recycling (DfR) & Design for Resource Efficiency. This approach is underpinned by rigorous recycling rate calculations, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of classical minerals, and metallurgical processing. Process simulation and design tools such as the commercial HSC Sim software are applied to quantify critical DfR rules for a particular product as well as to quantify the recycling rates of all materials and elements in a product. The ten DfR rules we have developed for Waste Electric and Electronic Waste recycling in a study performed for NVMP/Wecycle (the Netherlands) are applied to light emitting diode (LED) lamps. The results produced include recycling and recovery rates, as well as recyclate qualities and quantities, and losses and emissions of materials during recycling for various LED lamp redesigns. Metallurgical processing is also briefly discussed, showing that, in many cases, element recoveries are reduced to zero due to product complexity and ppm levels in the products. Simulation models are linked to life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergy, demonstrating how the applied simulation basis provides the detail to innovate the system. In addition, rigorous environmental assessment is a further outcome of the approach, while at the same time revealing the development that has to occur in LCA databases to improve their value for Ecodesign.

Keywords: Product-centric design for recycling; WEEE system design; Greenprinting; Metallurgy; LED lamp; Ecodesign; Simulation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24495
Publ.-Id: 24495


Simulation-based design for resource efficiency of metal production and recycling systems: Cases - copper production and recycling, e-waste (LED lamps) and nickel pig iron

Reuter, M. A.; Gediga, J.; van Schaik, A.

Purpose
This paper illustrates how a product-centric approach to recycling, building on the extensive expertise, knowhow and tools of the mineral-centric classical minerals and metallurgical processing, should be core to Design for Resource Efficiency (DfRE).

Methods
Process simulation (HSC Sim 1974-2014, Outotec's design tool) and environmental software (GaBi 2014) are applied to quantify resource efficiency (RE) in a rigorous manner. These digitalisation tools are linked and will be used to show how the environmental performance of copper primary production, the processing of residues and the recycling of e-waste, e.g. light emitting diode (LED) lamps as well as the production of nickel pig iron can be evaluated. The paper also shows how technologies can be compared relative to a precise thermodynamic and techno-economic baseline.

Results
The results include simulation-based environmental indicators, exergy, recycling and recovery rates, as well as the qualities and quantities of the recyclates, losses and emissions of materials during production recycling. The complete mass and energy balance simulation provides the mineralogical detail of all streams (both mineral and recyclate as well as offgas and dust) to define and improve environmental assessment, while at the same time revealing the aspects of LCA databases and their results that require improvement. Furthermore, this paper presents an approach for industry to implement life-cycle methods in practice. It shows that the DfRE is all about predicting stream grades and thus is equivalent to Design for Recyclate grade and quality (as this determines whether a recyclate or product stream has economic value and can be treated or processed further). DfRE also reveals especially the grade, composition, minerals etc. of the leakage streams, i.e. diffuse emissions, thus permitting a more precise evaluation of environmental impact.

Conclusions
The prediction of recyclate and stream compositions and grade makes the environmental analysis of systems more precise and will help to expand the detail that defines these flows on environmental databases. This is especially valuable for DfR, where the methodological rigour suggested in this paper is a very necessary addition and requirement for estimating the true environmental impact of product redesigns and the resource efficiency of processing technology and complete recycling systems. The methodology produces mass- and energy-consistent, economically viable best available technique (BAT) process blocks, the inclusion of which on environmental databases will be invaluable in benchmarking technology and systems in terms of estimating the achievable resource efficiency baseline.

Keywords: Copper production and scrap recycling; Design for Resource Efficiency; E-waste and WEEE; Greenprinting; LED lamp recycling; Nickel pig iron (NPI) production; Process metallurgy; Product-centric Design for Recycling (DfR); System design; Ecodesign; LCA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24494
Publ.-Id: 24494


Arbeiten am und für den Grenzbereich

Joehnk, P.

Der experimentelle Nachweis von Hypothesen der Grundlagenphysik ist oftmals nur mit einem gigantischen technologischen Aufwand zu erreichen; CERN in der Schweiz mit seinem Large Hadron Collider ist ein beredtes Beispiel dafür. Die Errichtung und der (sichere) Betrieb solcher Anlagen stellen Forschungszentren und beteiligte Unternehmen vor völlig neue Anforderungen hinsichtlich des Entwurfs wie auch des Betriebs solcher großen Forschungsgeräte. Wenn nicht bereits bei der Planung der sichere Alltagsbetrieb berücksichtigt wurde, bleibt es offen, ob solche Anlagen in der Praxis noch beherrschbar sind bzw. was man tun muss, damit die Risiken für die Betreiber überschaubar bleiben.

Keywords: Wissenschaftliche Großanlagen; Beherrschbarkeit von Technik sicherer Betrieb von Anlagen

  • Book chapter
    in: BeHerrscht die Technik!? Band 3, Reihe: Arbeit und Technik im Wandel, Aachen: Shaker Verlag, 2016, 978-3-8440-4781-3, 55-64

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24493
Publ.-Id: 24493


Instabilities and spin-up behaviour of a rotating magnetic field driven flow in a rectangular cavity

Galindo, V.; Nauber, R.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.

This study presents numerical simulations and experiments considering the flow of an electrically conducting fluid inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The investigations are focused on the spin-up, where a liquid metal (GaInSn) is suddenly exposed to an azimuthal body force generated by the RMF, and the subsequent flow development. The numerical simulations rely on a semi-analytical expression for the induced electromagnetic force density in an electrically conducting medium. Velocity distributions in two perpendicular planes are measured using a novel dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter (UADV) with continuous data streaming, enabling long term measurements for investigating transient flows. This approach allows to identify the main emerging flow modes during the spontaneous transition from a stable flow to unstable flow regimes with exponentially growing velocity oscillations using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method.
Characteristic frequencies in the oscillating flow regimes are determined in the super critical range above the critical magnet Taylor number Ta_c=1.3x10^5 , where the transition from the steady double vortex structure of the secondary flow to an unstable regime with exponentially growing oscillations is detected.
The mean flow structures and the temporal evolution of the flow predicted by the numerical simulations and observed in experiments are in very good agreement.

Keywords: Rotating magnetic field; spin-up; flow instabilities; square container

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24492
Publ.-Id: 24492


Hyperdoping by Ion Implantation for Extended Infrared Si p-n Photodiodes

Berencen, Y.; Prucnal, S.; Liu, F.; Wang, M.; Rebohle, L.; Zhou, S.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

The development of room-temperature extended infrared Si photodetectors is of great interest for integrated photonics, optical communications, sensing and medical imaging applications [1]. The typical peak photoresponse of traditional Si photodetectors is between 700 and 900 nm, which is mostly limited by the 1.12 eV-Si indirect band gap. Nevertheless, such intrinsic material limitation can be circumvented by introducing transition metals or chalcogens into the Si band gap at concentrations far above those obtained at equilibrium conditions [1, 2]. Ion implantation and short-time annealing have been the adopted methods in those approaches. This new class of hyperdoped materials with a donor impurity band has been postulated as a promising route to extend the Si photoresponse at the short-wavelength infrared spectral region [3].
In this work, we report steady-state room-temperature extended infrared p-n photodiodes at the two primary telecommunication wavelengths from single-crystalline Si hyperdoped with Se concentrations as high as 9×1020 cm-3, which are introduced by a robust and reliable non-equilibrium processing consisting of ion implantation followed by millisecond-range flash lamp annealing (FLA). The FLA approach in the millisecond range allows for a solid-phase epitaxy that has been reported to be superior to liquid-phase eExtended infrared photodetektorpitaxy induced during pulsed laser annealing [2]. The success of our devices is primarily based on the high quality of the developed n-type hyperdoped material, which is single-phase single crystal with high electrical activation, without surface segregation of Se atoms and with an optically flat surface. A detailed description of the working principle and performance of the photodiodes as well as the main features in the studied wavelength region is provided.
[1] J. P. Mailoa, A. J. Akey, C. B. Simmons, D. Hutchinson, J. Mathews, J. T. Sullivan, D. Recht, M. T. Winkler, J. S. Williams, J. M. Warrender, P. D. Persans, M. J. Aziz, and T. Buonassisi, Nat. Commun. 5, 3011 (2014).
[2] S. Zhou, F. Liu, S. Prucnal, K. Gao, M. Khalid, C. Baehtz, M. Posselt, W. Skorupa, and M. Helm, Sci. Rep. 5, 8329 (2015).
[3] I. Umezu, J. M. Warrender, S. Charnvanichborikarn, A. Kohno, J. S. Williams, M. Tabbal, D. G. Papazoglou, X. C.Zhang, and M. J. Aziz, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 213501 (2013).

Keywords: extended infrared Si photodetector; flash lamp annealing; pulsed laser annealing selenium; doping; ion implantation; solid phase epitaxy; liquid phase epitaxy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Ion Beam-Enabled Nanoscale Fabrication and Advanced Materials Synthesis, Symposium PM1 at MRS Fall Mtg. 2016, 28.11.-02.12.2016, Boston MA, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24491
Publ.-Id: 24491


Corrosion phenomena at and nanoscale anticorrosion treatments of pipe organ metallic materials using ion beam based methods

Pelic, B.; Skorupa, W.; Eule, D.

Historical pipe organs with their unique sound and beautiful housing are important objects of the European cultural heritage dating back to the 15th century for the oldest ones being playable yet. But new instruments are built permanently up to the present time. The instruments contain mostly a considerable number of metallic pipes (flute and reed types), which are sometimes prone to heavy corrosion attack, resulting finally in a loss of their voice. Under certain conditions, the atmospheric corrosion of reed pipe tongues as well as flute pipe foots consisting of Cu-Zn alloys (brass) and PbSn-based alloys, respectively, is strongly enhanced by traces of volatile organic compounds (especially acetic acid vapor) and other corrosive gases.
Experiments have been undertaken to explore the corrosion resistance of CuZn and PbSn-based alloys against vapour from an aqueous solution containing high acetic acid concentration (2 – 5 v/v%), by deposition of protective films of either Al2O3 or Al on the nanoscale using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering (MS). Afterwards, in order to improve the adhesion between the deposited layer and the substrate as well as to perform a kind of nitridation of the coatings, the samples were implanted with nitrogen ions using the plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) process.
Such a nanoscale coating (~50 nm) is then able to withstand stresses and vibrations due to sound generation in organ pipes. Moreover it produces a barrier to volatile organic acids and water vapour. The laboratory corrosion test of the applied protective treatment for lead-tin and brass samples were combined with the field work studies to approach the best conditions for the samples research in real environment. Some of the samples were exposed for 15 months in a small North-German church with a harmful (corrosive) indoor environment.
Modifying the surface of metals and thin film properties on the nanoscale using fundamental phenomena based on ion-solid interactions as well as standard conventional methods can create new technological applications in restoration and conservation to preserve our historical and modern cultural heritage.

Keywords: Ion implantation; Plasma immersion implantation; Brass; Pb-Sn-alloys; Nanotechnology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology, Symposium TC3 at MRS Fall Mtg. 2016, 28.11.-02.12.2016, Boston MA, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24490
Publ.-Id: 24490


The effect of melt flow on dendritic solidification in Ga–In alloys

Shevchenko, N.; Keplinger, O.; Hoppe, D.; Eckert, S.

Simultaneous study of solidification phenomena on different length scales (dendrite networks - microscale and flow structure - mesoscale) is a main advantage of a conventional X-ray radiography. This work is focused on new benchmark experiments with different modes of melt convection and their effect on the dendritic growth in metallic alloys. The directional solidification of Ga-In alloy within a Hele-Shaw cell was investigated in situ. The visualization experiments with sufficient spatial resolution (5-10 µm) deliver simultaneous information of both the dendrite structure and the flow patterns especially in the mushy zone and ahead of the solidification front. Our results show that convection alters the solutal field near the solidification front, leading to different microstructures or even the formation of freckle defects. Flow patterns, solute concentration, the mushy zone morphology and permeability, dendrite growth velocities were quantified by image analysis. Particular attention was paid to the temporal dynamics of equiaxed grain growth, which plays an important role in grain structure formation in solidifying alloys. Small equiaxed grains frequently appeared in the undercooled melt near a continuous strong plume. Two mechanisms are under discussion: (i) crystal fragments transported by the ascending flow from the mushy zone; (ii) the equiaxed dendrites nucleated in the vicinity of the ascending plume due to modification of the the temperature/ solutal fields. We explored experimentally the size, the velocity and the conditions of formation of these equiaxed dendrites.

Keywords: X-ray radiography; melt convection; directional solidification; equiaxed grains

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th Decennial Conference on Solidification Processing (SP17), 25.-28.07.2017, Old Windsor, UK

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24489
Publ.-Id: 24489


Hydrodynamics in cellular grid packed bubble columns disclosed with ultrafast X-ray tomography

Wagner, M.; Möller, C.-O.; Hessenkemper, H.; Bieberle, M.; Hampel, U.; Schlüter, M.

The chemical industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and resources. Therefore, process intensification is a field of high interest. Although the chemical reactor is only part of a highly integrated process, its design can significantly affect the overall process efficiency. A very common reactor type is the bubble column in which a liquid and a gas phase react with each other. The mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface is a crucial parameter regarding the process efficiency and should be as high as possible. It can be increased by higher interfacial area and better mixing of the phases. In the past, various internals like static mixers and structured packings were tested in order to control the bubble hydrodynamics in the column. Recent investigations of the authors showed that periodic open cellular structures (POCS) tend to increase the mass transfer significantly. These internals are three-dimensional regular grids with various geometries.
At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf the ultrafast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is used to provide insights into the hydrodynamics of such bubble column internals. This imaging technique produces up to 8,000 cross-sectional images per second and provides a spatial resolution of about 1 mm for gas-water contrast. Two simultaneously scanned measurement planes allow determining vertical velocities and with that the extraction of quasi three-dimensional data sets from the original cross-sectional image data. For varying POCS geometries and gas flow rates, the axial bubble velocities, time-averaged gas hold-ups and the Sauter mean diameter are quantified and compared to measurements of unpacked bubble columns.

Keywords: packed bubble column; ultrafast X-ray CT

  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th WORLD CONGRESS ON INDUSTRIAL PROCESS TOMOGRAPHY, 26.-29.09.2016, Foz do Iguaçu, Brasil
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Hydrodynamics in cellular grid packed bubble columns disclosed with ultrafast X-ray tomography, 27.09.2016, Foz do Iguaçu, Brasil

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24488
Publ.-Id: 24488


Combining in-situ synchrotron X-ray techniques to study the dendrite morphology in solidifying Ga–In alloys

Shevchenko, N.; Grenzer, J.; Keplinger, O.; Rack, A.; Hoppe, D.; Eckert, S.

The processes involved in the formation of different dendrite morphologies are rather complex and still far from being fully understood. To verify existing micro-structural models in situ, in high resolution, in time and space, X-ray techniques are needed. In this work, in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography and diffraction methods have been combined to study the evolution of dendritic microstructures during the solidification of Ga - In alloys. The in situ directional solidification experiments were performed at the ID19 beamline (ESRF, France) at a high spatial resolution of < 1 µm. The dendritic growth and essential dynamics of the sidearm development were quantified. Melt flow induces various effects on the dendrite and grain morphology primarily caused by the convective transport of the solute. Usually, the morphologies of these dendrites differ from those developing under purely diffusive condition. Our observations show a facilitation of the growth of primary trunks or lateral branches, a suppression of side branching, dendrite remelting and fragmentation. The dendrite morphologies with their random character are difficult to analyse by means of the 2D radiographic projections. The flow-induced variations of the local solute concentration may result in the changes of dendrite crystal orientations. The coupling of in situ X-ray imaging with X-ray diffraction provides additionally information of the crystallographic orientation of the growing dendrites. These measurements show that the Indium dendrites grow along the <110> orientation, typically observed in body-centered metals. The analysis of the diffraction patterns with its complex morphology show that further improvements towards a 3D imaging experiment are needed. These first results demonstrate that the combination of different X-ray techniques can provide new data about the solidification process and help to validate different solidification models.

Keywords: dendritic microstructure; crystallographic orientation; synchrotron X-ray radiography; X-ray diffraction

  • Poster
    6th Decennial Conference on Solidification Processing (SP17), 25.-28.07.2017, Old Windsor, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24487
Publ.-Id: 24487


X-ray radiography studies of melt convection effects on dendritic evolution in Ga – In alloy

Shevchenko, N.; Roshchupkina, O.; Eckert, S.

X-ray radiography technique is a powerful tool for investigating solidification processes in metallic alloys. In particular, in-situ X-ray visualization enables a general, intuitive understanding of flow phenomena and dendrite formation in opaque systems. Our work is devoted to the in situ investigation of the dendritic growth during a bottom-up solidification of a Ga-25wt%In alloy under natural and forced convections. Natural convection occurs during the bottom-up solidification because a lighter solute is rejected during crystallization. Forced convection has been produced by a specific electromagnetic pump. The direction of forced melt flow is almost horizontal at the solidification front.
Melt flow induces various effects on the dendrite morphology primarily caused by the convective transport of solute. Our investigations show a facilitation of the growth of primary trunks or lateral branches, suppression of side branching, dendrite remelting, fragmentation or freckle formation. Typical radiographs of stabilized segregation freckles are shown in Fig. 1. We demonstrate that the actual manifestation of all phenomena depends sensitively on the dendrite orientation, the local direction and intensity of the flow. Forced flow eliminates solutal plumes and damps local fluctuations of solute. A preferential growth of the secondary arms occurs at the upstream side of the dendrites, whereas high solute concentration at the downstream side inhibits the formation of secondary branches. Flow patterns and local solute concentration were quantified by image analysis and related to the experimental conditions. These in situ experiments provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of dendritic growth or channel segregations.

Keywords: X-ray radiography; solidification; dendrites; segregation; convection; electromagnetic stirring

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 4th International Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining (CSSCR2016), 11.-15.05.2016, Xi’an, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24486
Publ.-Id: 24486


Morphology and orientation of growing dendrites in GaIn alloy characterized by synchrotron X-ray techniques

Shevchenko, N.; Grenzer, J.; Roshchupkina, O.; Baehtz, C.; Eckert, S.

The dendrite growth kinetics and morphology have been of great interest in the solidification science and casting industry. A detailed analysis of the particular solidification phenomena requires techniques with a better spatial and temporal resolution. High resolution experimental data are also very important for verification of the existing microstructural models. We demonstrate an advantage of the synchrotron X-ray sources, which allows the unique combination of in situ synchrotron X-ray radiography with a spatial resolution of less than 0.5 µm and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The directional solidification experiments of Ga–25wt%In alloys were performed at the ROBL beam line (BM20, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble) at an energy of 28.5 keV. The study is especially focused on the sidearm evolution, refraction and detachment, dendrite morphology and orientation. Typical radiographs of sidearm evolution of an indium dendrite are shown in Fig. 1. The development of sidearms is quantified by an image analysis in a manner appropriated for comparison to simulations. Furthermore, we report on first attempt of reconstruction of crystallographic orientation of growing dendrites by using the CaRIne crystallography software.

Keywords: synchrotron X-ray radiography; GaIn alloys; directional solidification; X-ray diffraction; sidearm evolution

  • Poster
    The 4th International Symposium on Cutting Edge of Computer Simulation of Solidification, Casting and Refining (CSSCR2016), 11.-15.05.2016, Xi’an, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24485
Publ.-Id: 24485


Metalle: Aktivatoren von Kreislaufwirtschaft und Recycling 4.0

Reuter, M. A.

Aktuell stammen etwa 70 % der weltweiten Zinkproduktion aus primärem Bergbau und der Rest aus Recycling und sekundärem Zink (Zn). Der Recyclinganteil steigt von Jahr zu Jahr gemeinsam mit der Technologie von Zn-Produktion und -recycling (Reuter et al. 2015a). Mehr als 50 % des Zinks wird heute aus Produkten am Ende ihrer Lebensdauer (EoL) zurückgewonnen. Beim Pb-Recycling werden etwa 60 % der gesamten Produktionsmenge erreicht (Reuter et al. 2015a). Vom Element Gold (Au) wurde im Zeitfenster von 1995 bis 2014 rund ein Drittel der gesamten Umsatzmenge rezykliert (Hewitt et al. 2015).

Keywords: Recycling; Zink

  • Book chapter
    Kausch, P., Matschullat, J., Bertau, M., Mischo, H.: Rohstoffwirtschaft und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung, Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016, 978-3-662-48854-6, 73-98
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-48855-3

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24484
Publ.-Id: 24484


Thermodynamics of Palladium (Pd) and Tantalum (Ta) Relevant to Secondary Copper Smelting

Shuva, M. A. H.; Rhamdhani, M. A.; Brooks, G. A.; Masood, S. H.; Reuter, M. A.

The slag-to-metal distribution ratios of palladium (Pd), Ls/mPd, in the range of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) from 10−10 to 10−7 atm at 1473 K to 1623 K (1200 °C to 1350 °C); distribution ratios of tantalum (Ta), Ls/mTa, in the range of pO2 from 10−16 to 10−12 atm at 1673 K and 1873 K (1400 °C and 1600 °C), have been determined in this study. The Ls/mPd in FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO and copper at 1573 K (1300 °C) and pO2 = 10−8 atm is dependant strongly on basicity of slag, i.e. (CaO + MgO)/SiO2 or optical basicity. The current results suggest that Pd presents in the FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO slag predominantly as Pd2+. The activity coefficient of PdO in the slag at 1573 K (1300 °C) and pO2 = 10−8 atm was calculated to be in the range of 3.89 × 10−3 to 2.63 × 10−2. The Ls/mPd was also found to increase with increasing of pO2 and with decreasing of temperature. It was observed that Ta mostly partition to slag phase and very small amount of Ta was found in liquid copper at the high temperature and reduced condition studied. It can be suggested that to promote recovery of palladium from Pd-containing e-waste, a slag with lower silica content and basic flux based, high temperature with reducing atmosphere, is highly desired particularly in secondary copper smelting.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24483
Publ.-Id: 24483


Mining of critical and strategic metals in socially and environmentally sensitive areas in Namibia

Tesh, D.; Barakos, G.; Musiyarira, H.; Mischo, H.

Namibia has a rapidly growing minerals industry and is a primary source for numerous valuable commodities, among which are many strategic metals; rare earth elements, tantalum and niobium. The insatiable global demand for such critical and strategic elements can therefore give Namibia an opportunity to become a major player in the market. The country has adopted a mining friendly policy that can attract investments and encourage the development of mining projects. Alongside this, some areas in Namibia are sensitive in terms of cultural heritage both socially and environmentally, whilst tourism grows as part of the competitive industry sectors. Thus, the potential exploitation of rare earths and respective metals may raise issues due to the presence of radioactivity, the use of hazardous chemical compounds and the treatment of their tailings. Under such controversial circumstances, future mining plans require thorough assessments and closer considerations with respect to the special boundary conditions that govern this specific sector of the mining industry. This paper investigates the mineability of three different deposits that are located in respective sensitive areas in Namibia with the use of evaluation indicators. Furthermore, suggestions are made in order to ensure the sustainability of the mining projects while fully satisfying the competing industries and preserving the environmental and cultural balance.

Keywords: Rare earth elements; niobium; strategic metals; environmental sustainability; mining in Namibia

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    24th World Mining Congress - Mining in a World of Innovation, 18.-21.10.2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    Proceedings of the 24th World Mining Congress, Rio de Janeiro: IBRAM

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24482
Publ.-Id: 24482


Electron microprobe petrochronology ofzite-bearing garnet micaschists in the Oetztal-Stubai Complex (Alpeiner Valley, Stubai)

Schulz, B.; Krause, J.; Zimmermann, R.

Monazite dating in metapelites is an emerging method to investigate polymetamorphic areas A protocol for Th–U–Pb dating of monazite by electron microprobe was adopted for a JEOL JXA-8530F. It was applied to the Variscan and Early- Alpine metamorphic Austroalpine Oetztal-Stubai Complex (OSC). In the Alpeiner Valley in the Stubai region, the Schrankogel complex is the eastern succession of the Central Metabasite Zone. In this part, metabasites are alternating with metapelites. In 4 samples from micaschist lenses, dominantly Carboniferous monazite isochrone ages at 335 ± 4 Ma, 320 ± 4 Ma; 319 ± 4 Ma and 319 ± 4 Ma were obtained. The micaschist samples with diverse modal compositions and variable bulk rock Ca contents of calculated assay, display distinct monazite microstructures, as quantified by automated SEM-MLA (mineral liberation analysis) routines. Clusters of small monazite could indicate new crystallization and yielded isochrones at 313 and 304 Ma. In contrast, corona structures of apatite and allanite around large monazites with isochrones between 350 and 315 Ma suggest a decomposition during decreasing temperature. Garnets in metapelitic assemblages display growth zonations with low pyrope contents in the cores and pyrope-rich rims. A prograde metamorphism with high pressure amphibolite-facies peak conditions at * 12 kbar and * 680 °C, and a post Pmax path with decompression to 4 kbar and 640–600 °C was estimated from the micaschists and from zoned Ca-amphiboles in retrogressed amphibolitized eclogites. The P–T path entered the monazite stability field during the decompression. This signals a Carboniferous age of the metamorphism. A minor population in one sample is composed of sporadic Permian single monazite ages. A Creta- ceous monazite population is lacking. In the wide parts of the Austroalpine basement with Carboniferous-to-Cretaceous mica mixing ages, monazite age populations allow to discriminate a distinct Permian metamorphic event.

Keywords: Th–U–Pb-monazite dating; Geothermobarometry; Automated SEM mineral liberation analysis; Variscan; Austroalpine basement; Eastern Alps

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24481
Publ.-Id: 24481


Tracing the Gouy phase shift of focused, radially polarized THz pulses

Kaltenecker, K. J.; König-Otto, J. C.; Mittendorff, M.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Helm, H.; Walther, M.; Fischer, B. M.

THz microscopic imaging is used to extract the Gouy phase shift of the transverse and longitudinal field components of a tightly focused, radially polarized beam. We demonstrate that the applied THz time domain approach allows to observe directly the evolution of the geometric phase as the wave propagates through the focus. Our method yields a Gouy phase shift of 2π for the transverse component and of π for the longitudinal component. In addition, we apply our method to the well-known case of a focused, linearly polarized beam and pinpoint a fundamental connection between the field components of tightly focused, radially and linearly polarized light. The applied procedure is universal and may even allow to determine the geometric phase of arbitrary shaped and polarized propagating waves.

Keywords: Terahertz; Gouy phase

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 25.-30.09.2016, Kopenhagen, Denmark
  • Contribution to proceedings
    41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 25.-30.09.2016, Kopenhagen, Denmark, 1-3
    DOI: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2016.7758577

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24480
Publ.-Id: 24480


On the experimental investigation of gas-liquid flow in bubble columns using ultrafast X-ray tomography and radioactive particle tracking

Azizi, S.; Yadav, A.; Lau, Y. M.; Hampel, U.; Roy, S.; Schubert, M.

Several techniques have been developed in the past to measure gas and liquid phase dynamics; however, reported data were mostly gathered individually for either liquid velocity, or volume fraction (phase holdup), but never when both are measured in the same system. In this work, arguably for the first time, bubble column hydrodynamics have been investigated using two complementary advanced non-invasive measurement techniques, namely Ultrafast X-ray Computed Tomography (UXCT) and Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT). The UXCT experimental data in terms of gas phase structure is used in a supportive way to explain the liquid velocity profiles of the RPT data. Results of both experimental techniques are verified in a complementary manner using the mass conservation calculation. The results show good agreement. It is envisioned that the presented data would be helpful in the development and validation of numerical models for better predicting the flow profiles in bubble columns.

Keywords: Gas-liquid flow; Bubble column; Radioactive particle tracking; Ultrafast X-ray computed tomography

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICMF 2016 International Conference on Multiphase Flow, 22.-27.05.2016, Firenze, Italy
  • Chemical Engineering Science 170(2017), 320-331
    Online First (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2017.02.015

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24479
Publ.-Id: 24479


Relation between Bubble Dispersion and Liquid Flow Field in Bubble Columns: A Complementary Study using Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography and Radioactive Particle Tracking

Azizi, S.; Yadav, A.; Yuk Man, L.; Roy, S.; Schubert, M.

Bubble column reactors are widely used in chemical and petrochemical industries due to their simple design and beneficial mass and heat transfer rates. The design of bubble columns requires thoughtful information about the complex gas-liquid hydrodynamics. The bubble size distribution, which results from bubble-liquid interactions, has a crucial impact on the reactor performance. Furthermore, reliable modeling of bubble columns requires validated hydrodynamic information.
In the present work, Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) and Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography (XRT) were applied for the first time at one bubble column setup to study the liquid velocity field and the corresponding bubble size distributions at different axial positions. In particular, the relation between the bubble dispersion, i.e. size and velocity, and the liquid flow field will be discussed. The velocity distribution of the liquid phase influences the bubble breakup and coalescence rates and accordingly the bubble size. In turn, turbulence and recirculation of the liquid phase depend on the bubble sizes. This mutual interaction will be revealed based on experiments with different distributer designs.

Keywords: RPT; XRT; Experiment; Bubble column

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Agglomerations- und Schüttguttechnik, Mehrphasenströmungen und Computational Fluid Dynamics, 29.02.-02.03.2016, Bingen, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24478
Publ.-Id: 24478


Multiphase CFD activities at HZDR

Lucas, D.

The poster gives an overview on the main working fields of the CFD department of HZDR.

Keywords: CFD; multiphase; multi-fluid

  • Poster
    14th Multiphase Flow Conference & Short Course, 08.-10.11.2016, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Poster
    16th Multiphase Flow Conference and Short Course, 13.-16.11.2018, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24477
Publ.-Id: 24477


Validation of the baseline model for poly-disperse bubbly flows

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Rzehak, R.

During the last years a modelling framework for CFD-simulations of poly-disperse bubbly flows using the Euler-Euler approach was formulated at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf (HZDR). The main idea behind is to achieve a consolidation of multiphase CFD by having a fixed set of closures applicable for a range of expected local flow conditions (Lucas et al., 2016). The corresponding closures concern the momentum transfer between liquid and gaseous phases, the influence of gas on the liquid phase turbulence and models for bubble breakup and coalescence (Rzehak et al., 2015, Liao et. al 2015). This baseline model was applied to a large variety of bubbly flows as round and rectangular bubble columns, bubble plumes, airlift reactors and upwards vertical pipe flow with different pipe diameter without any modification or tuning. In the results a good or at least acceptable agreement was found for most of the cases, but for some other cases also clear deviations were observed. Such deficiencies have to be investigated more in detail to improve the models step by step.
In this work the model is applied to co-current upward, counter-current and co-current downward vertical pipe flows recently measured at the HZDR TOPFLOW facility using ultrafast X-ray tomography. The results are discussed in detail.

Keywords: CFD; bubbly flow; downward; counter-current; baseline model; poly-disperse

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Application of CFD/CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety and Design and their Experimental Validation (CFD4NRS-6), 13.-15.09.2016, Cambridge, USA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Application of CFD/CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety and Design and their Experimental Validation, 13.-15.09.2016, Cambridge, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24476
Publ.-Id: 24476


Nuclear Laboratories and Experiments: Overview and HZDR

Bemmerer, D.

I provide an overview of experimental nuclear astrophysics research in Germany. In addition, I review related recent progress at HZDR Dresden.

Keywords: Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Nuclear Astrophysics in Germany - A Community Meeting in Darmstadt, 15.-16.11.2016, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24475
Publ.-Id: 24475


Nuclear Astrophysics in Germany

Bemmerer, D.

I review the status of nuclear astrophysics in Germany, with a focus on recent experimental progress

Keywords: Nuclear Astrophysics; Origin of the Elements

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Astroteilchenphysik in Deutschland, Strategietreffen, 24.-25.11.2016, Bad Honnef, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24474
Publ.-Id: 24474


Nuclear Astrophysics at HZDR Dresden

Bemmerer, D.

I review recent nuclear astrophysics work at HZDR Dresden, both related to the LUNA underground accelerator in Italy and independently from it.

Keywords: Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics; Felsenkeller; ELBE

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Silver Moon, 01.-02.12.2016, Assergi, Italien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24473
Publ.-Id: 24473


Overview of the results from HZDR/IRE in the EcoMetals Project

Barthen, R.; Karimzadeh, L.; Gründig, M.; Schymura, S.; Kulenkampff, J.; Mansel, A.; Lippold, H.; Grenzer, J.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

This talk gives an overview of the results obtained by Institute of Resource Ecology of the HZDR in the German-French Project EcoMetals

  • Lecture (others)
    EcoMetals General Meeting 6, 07.-09.12.2016, Hannover, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24472
Publ.-Id: 24472


Formation of InxGa1-xAs nanocrystals in thin Si layers by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

Wutzler, R.; Rebohle, L.; Prucnal, S.; Grenzer, J.; Hübner, R.; Böttger, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

The integration of high-mobility III-V compound semiconductors emerges as a promising route for Si device technologies to overcome the limits of further down-scaling. In this paper, a non-conventional approach of the combination of ion beam implantation with short-time flash lamp annealing is employed to fabricate InxGa1-xAs nanocrystals and to study their crystallization process in thin Si layers. The implantation fluence ratio of Ga and In ions has been varied to tailor the final nanocrystal composition. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses verify the formation of ternary III-V nanocrystals within the Si layer. Transmission electron microscopy reveals single-crystalline precipitates with a low number of defects. A liquid epitaxy mechanism is used to describe the formation process of III-V nanocrystals after melting of the implanted thin Si layer by flash lamp annealing. The fabricated InxGa1-xAs nanocrystals are mainly Ga-rich with respect to the implanted Ga/In ratio.

Keywords: ion implantation; flash lamp annealing; III-V integration into silicon; nanostructure; InGaAs; liquid phase epitaxy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24471
Publ.-Id: 24471


Electron sources and polarization

Xiang, R.; Teichert, J.

In this presentation the present electron sources and the relevant issues will be discussed. For the electron positron colliders and accelerator based light sources, the electron gun and injector design, are arguably the most critical part. There are a variety of electron source designs: DC guns, normal-conducting RF guns, superconducting RF gun and hybrid guns. All variants have their own ad-vantages and difficulties. We will overview the typical sources around the world, and compare their advantages and main challenges. The polarization production will also be discussed.

Keywords: injector; electron gun

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    58th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Luminosity Circular e+e- Colliders, 24.-27.10.2016, Cockcroft Institute at Daresbury Laboratory, UK
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    the 58th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Luminosity Circular e+e– Colliders, 24.-27.10.2016, Daresbury, UK
    Proceedings of the 58th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Luminosity Circular e+e– Colliders

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24470
Publ.-Id: 24470


SAXS: From data to pictures. Key aspects of iterative reconstruction algorithms.

Zacharias, M.; Knespel, M.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Debus, A.; Widera, R.

We present an overview of iterative reconstruction schemes for Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) and also Positron Emission Tomography (PET) that we implemented. Aspects of such algorithms and details about their implementation that we think will be crucial for making visible the electron dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments are highlighted.

Keywords: SAXS; PET; reconstruction

  • Poster
    EUCALL Annual Meeting, 31.08.-02.09.2016, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24469
Publ.-Id: 24469


Gold – a Key Enabler of a Circular Economy: Recycling of WEEE

Reuter, M. A.; van Schaik, A.

Gold Ore Processing: Project Development and Operations, Second Edition, brings together all the technical aspects relevant to modern gold ore processing, offering a practical perspective that is vital to the successful and responsible development, operation, and closure of any gold ore processing operation. This completely updated edition features coverage of established, newly implemented, and emerging technologies; updated case studies; and additional topics, including automated mineralogy and geometallurgy, cyanide code compliance, recovery of gold from e-waste, handling of gaseous emissions, mercury and arsenic, emerging non-cyanide leaching systems, hydro re-mining, water management, solid–liquid separation, and treatment of challenging ores such as double refractory carbonaceous sulfides. Outlining best practices in gold processing from a variety of perspectives, Gold Ore Processing: Project Development and Operations is a must-have reference for anyone working in the gold industry, including metallurgists, geologists, chemists, mining engineers, and many others.

  • Book chapter
    M. Adams: Gold Ore Processing, Project Development and Operations, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, 9780444636584, 937-956

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24468
Publ.-Id: 24468


Recycling processes

Hack, K.; Reuter, M. A.; Petersen, S.; Arnout, S.

In the context of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) recycling covers processes at the end of the lifetime (EoL) of mechanical, electronic, or other components of machines and devices. Depending on the state in which they exist as EoL material they can either be used directly for new material production. This chapter provides a short overview of materials that are being recycled today and the methods applied. It focuses on computational methods applied in the field of recycling, the foremost being methods of computational thermochemistry since mutual solubilities, phase transformations, and reactions as well as heat balances play the most important part in recycling just as they do in standard production. The chapter discusses materials-centric recycling, product-centric recycling, physical separation methods and chemical separation methods. It shows various aspects and phenomena that affect the final recovery of all elements from a product, including the residence time of materials in the market, and subsequent metallurgical processing.

Keywords: chemical separation methods; computational thermochemistry; heat balances; integrated computational materials engineering; material production; materials-centric recycling; metallurgical processing; phase transformations; physical separation methods; product-centric recycling

  • Book chapter
    Eds. Georg J. Schmitz, Ulrich Prahl: Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, Berlin: Wiley, 2016, 978-3-527-33902-0, 247-268

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24467
Publ.-Id: 24467


Spin wave propagation in ion-induced FeAl conduits

Osten, J.; Hula, T.; Bali, R.; Potzger, K.; Schultheiss, H.

Spin waves, the eigen-excitations of ferromagnets, are promising candidates for spin transport in lateral devices. Fe60Al40 films in the B2 phase is paramagnetic. Starting from a FeAl film in the paramagnetic state the incident ions randomize the site occupancies and, thereby, transform it to the chemically disordered, ferromagnetic A2 phase. The aim is to investigate spin wave propagation in this ferromagnetic material in free standing structure as well as in structure within a paramagnetic matrix. By using Helium-Ion microscopy it is possible to create well defined disordered FeAl conduits with resolution down to nm range. Two di↵erent ferromagnetic stripes were implanted in a microstructure paramagnetic FeAl. A free-standing 2 μm width stripe. And a stripe of the same width with was additionally embedded in the paramagnetic FeAl. For the excitation of spin waves we processed a microwave antenna on top of these stripes. To observe Spin wave behavior Billouin light scattering microscopy was applied. We show that the spin wave behaviour is influenced by the surrounding paramagnetic material due to a di↵erent internal field distribution. In addition the normalized transversal mode widths of spin waves in the embedded systems are wider than in the free standing stripes.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Deutsche Physikerinnentagung, 03.-06.11.2016, Hamburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24466
Publ.-Id: 24466


The Why and How of Amino Acid Analytics in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

Manig, F.; Kuhne, K.; von Neubeck, C.; Schwarzenbolz, U.; Yu, Z.; Kessler, B. M.; Pietzsch, J.; Kunz-Schughart, L. A.

Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine. Also, transformed cells are often more susceptible to local shortage of essential amino acids such as methionine than normal tissues. This offers new points of attacking unique metabolic features in cancer cells. To better understand these processes, highly sensitive methods for amino acid detection and quantification are required. Our review summarizes the main methodologies for amino acid detection with a particular focus on applications in biomedicine and cancer, provides a historical overview of the methodological pre-requisites in amino acid analytics. We compare classical and modern approaches such as the combination of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/LC-MS). The latter is increasingly applied in clinical routine. We therefore illustrate an LC-MS workflow for analyzing arginine and methionine as well as their precursors and analogs in biological material. Pitfalls during protocol development are discussed, but LC-MS emerges as a reliable and sensitive tool for the detection of amino acids in biological matrices. Quantification is challenging, but of particular interest in cancer research as targeting arginine and methionine turnover in cancer cells represent novel treatment strategies.

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24465
Publ.-Id: 24465


Gender Differences in Neural Networks for Color Processing in Mice: A PET/MR Study

Njemanze, P. C.; Kranz, M.; Amend, M.; Wehrl, H.; Brust, P.

Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for Blue/Yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. The present study measured the blood-flow related accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping during light stimulation with Blue and Yellow filters compared to darkness condition.
PET revealed a reverse pattern compared to previous human studies: Male mice presented with left visual cortex dominance for blueON-channels through the right eye, while female mice presented with right visual cortex dominance for blueON-channel through the left eye. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to examine gender differences in activated architectonic areas within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex and their cortico-cortical connections and sub-cortical networks that lead to the striatum, medial thalamus and other brain areas. The connectivity evoked by Blue stimulation spread through a wide range of brain structures implicated in viscerosensory and visceromotor systems in the left intra-hemispheric regions in male mice, but in the right-to-left inter-hemispheric regions in female mice. Spatial and chromatic opponency was maintained using a yellowON-OFF push-pull interaction in male mice, but a blueON-ON push-forward interaction in female mice. Color functional ocular dominance plasticity was noted in the right eye in male mice but in the left eye in female mice. This animal model could be used in the study of color processing mechanisms and gender complementarity in normal and pathological brain conditions.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24464
Publ.-Id: 24464


Comparison between the transition velocities in both core and annulus of bubble columns based on a modified Shannon entropy

Nedeltchev, S.; Schubert, M.

Bubble columns (BC) are frequently used in chemical, petroleum and biochemical industries due to their simple construction, ease of temperature control and good heat and mass transfer characteristics. Their hydrodynamics depend on the prevailing flow patterns (regimes) which in turn depend mainly on the superficial gas velocity Ug, the gas distributor design and column diameter. At low Ug values the bubbly flow (homogeneous) regime prevails, which is characterized with relatively small and uniform bubbles and a gentle agitation of the gas-liquid dispersion. The bubble size distribution (BSD) is very narrow and it is only influenced by the gas distributor. A relatively uniform gas holdup profile and a rather flat liquid velocity profile are observed. When the gas distributor is not effective, a gas maldistribution instead of the bubbly flow is observed. The transition regime is characterized by large eddies and a widened BSD due to bubble coalescence. It has been found that the occurrence and the persistence of the transition regime depend largely on the quality of the aeration. The transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous (churn-turbulent flow) regime is a gradual process.
In the churn-turbulent flow regime large bubbles start to form whose wakes cause gross circulation patterns. This flow regime is characterized by a wide BSD, vigorous mixing and by the existence of a radial gas holdup profile, which causes liquid circulation, as well. Both bubble coalescence and break-up occur. The gas sparger has little effect on the hydrodynamics.
In particular, the circulation zones give rise to the assumption that regime transitions in different regions occur at different operating conditions. Thus, the primary objective of this work is to compare the main transition velocities Utrans in both the core and annulus of two different BCs based on the modified Shannon entropy (SE). The ratio of the minimum-to-maximum SE in a time-dependent signal can be used successfully for position-dependent flow regime identification in BCs.
The modified SE algorithm has been applied to gas holdup time series data obtained by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor (fs=2000 Hz, sensor’s axial position: 1.3 m). Two different BCs operated with an air-deionized water (clear liquid height: 2.0 m) system were used. Both facilities were equipped with perforated plate distributors having the same opening diameter (Ø 4.0×10-3 m). The gas sparger in the small BC (0.15 m in ID) consisted of 14 holes, while the one in the large BC (0.4 m in ID) consisted of 101 holes. In both cases the open area was 1 %.
The SE quantifies the degree of uncertainty involved in predicting the output of a probabilistic event. In the case of fully predictable outcome of an event, the SE will be zero. The definition of the probability in the SE algorithm (Zhong et al., 2009) was modified. Then, the total number of points (60,000) in the signal was divided into six segments (each consisting of 10,000 points) and the modified SE in each of them was calculated. It was found that the ratio of the minimum-to-maximum (SEmin/SEmax) modified SE in every time series at various Ug values can be used for the flow regime identification.
It was found that the dimensionless SEmin/SEmax ratio in the annulus (r/R=0.88) of the small BC (0.15 m in ID) was characterized with two local minima, which corresponded to the two main Utrans values (0.045 and 0.089 m/s). These two boundaries delineated the ranges of the three main hydrodynamic regimes: gas maldistribution (Ug≤0.045 m/s), transition (0.0450.089 m/s). The existence of the gas maldistribution regime in both BCs has been visualized by Nedeltchev et al. (2015).
The SEmin/SEmax in the core (r/R=0) of the small BC (0.15 m in ID) was also capable of identifying the two main Utrans values. At Ug=0.034 m/s the onset of the transition flow regime was identified, whereas at Ug=0.089 m/s the second minimum in the SE ratio distinguished the formation of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The same Utrans values for the whole cross-section of the small BC have been reported by Nedeltchev et al. (2015). It is noteworthy that the minima in the core are much deeper and very well pronounced.
The results in Figure 2 exhibit further that the gas maldistribution ends at lower Ug value in the core of the small BC. The second Utrans value is independent of the radial position. A similar comparison between the Utrans values in both zones of the large BC will be presented. The effect of the radial position on the Utrans values will be studied since it will give an information about the BSD.

Keywords: Bubble columns; Gas holdup time series; Modified Shannon entropy; Flow regime identification; Core; Annulus

  • Poster
    13th International Conference on Gas–Liquid and Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactor Engineering (GLS-13), 20.-23.08.2017, Bruxelles, Belgium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24462
Publ.-Id: 24462


Extraction of both information and reconstruction entropies from ultrafast x-ray tomography data in a bubble column

Nedeltchev, S.; Hampel, U.; Schubert, M.

Due to the complex hydrodynamics of bubble columns, there are no reliable methods for identification of both main transition velocities. In addition, it is not clear which type of signal is most suitable for flow regime identification. In this work, both the information entropies (IE) and reconstruction entropies (RE) have been extracted for the first time from tomographic raw images obtained by means of ultrafast X-ray tomography. The time series have been recorded with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system under ambient conditions. The main transition velocities Utrans in two semi-rings from the cross-section of the bubble column have been identified based on both the IE and RE values calculated from 5 signal reconstructions. In each semi-ring the RE algorithm has been applied to two different cases for signal’s processing. In the centrally located smaller semi-ring the two main Utrans values were successfully identified at 0.04 and 0.1 m/s. In the surrounding larger semi-ring the onsets of the transition and heterogeneous regimes occurred at 0.03 and 0.09 m/s. The results imply that following the above-described approaches the main transition velocities can be extracted from any part of the column’s cross-section.
In summary, this work demonstrates that the ultrafast X-ray tomography data can be used for flow regime identification in a bubble column provided that the hidden information in the time series is quantified by both the IE and RE algorithms.

Keywords: Bubble columns; Information entropies; Reconstruction entropies; Ultrafast X-ray tomography; Hydrodynamic regimes; Transition velocities

  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th International Conference on Gas–Liquid and Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactor Engineering (GLS-13), 20.-23.08.2017, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • Chemical Engineering Science 170(2017), 225-233
    Online First (2017) DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2017.03.020

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24461
Publ.-Id: 24461


Simulations for the precession experiment at HZDR

Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Vogt, T.; Stefani, F.; Herault, J.

The project DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies) conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) provides a new platform for a variety of liquid sodium experiments devoted to problems of geo- and astrophyscal magnetohydrodynamics.
Most ambitious experiment will be a precession driven dynamo experiment which consists of a large cylindrical cavity lled with liquid sodium that will simultaneously rotate around two axis.
The experiment is motivated by the idea of a precession-driven ow as a complementary energy source for the geodynamo or the ancient lunar dynamo. My presentation addresses corresponding numerical examinations aimed at an optimization of the precession driven ow with regard to improve the dynamo process in the planned experiment.

Keywords: Dynamo; DRESDYN

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHDDAYS 2016, 30.11.-02.12.2016, Goettingen, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24460
Publ.-Id: 24460


Determination of the entropy radial minimum and the various transition velocities in an air-water bubble column

Nedeltchev, S.; Schubert, M.

The bubble column hydrodynamics are complex and the macroscopic flow structure is different in the column core and annulus due to both the bubble coalescence and breakup phenomena as well as the gross liquid circulation. In this work, for the first time the local Kolmogorov entropy (KE) minima at different superficial gas velocities Ug were identified. It was found that there is an agreement between the local KE minima (occurring around r/R=0.63) and the inversion point (dimensionless radius=0.7) for the axial liquid velocity reported by both Chen et al. (1994) and Wu and Al-Dahhan (2001).
The KE radial profiles were also used to confirm the chaotic similarities between the flow patterns in the bubble bed at three different Ug values (0.089, 0.134 and 0.146 m/s) belonging to the heterogeneous regime. This implies that the flow patterns and the degrees of turbulence at these Ug values are also identical. The same similarity was also found between the KE profiles at Ug = 0.056 and 0.067 m/s, which belong to the transition flow regime. These results imply that the flow patterns in the bubble bed repeat (especially at different Ug values falling into the same flow regime).
Based on the KE profiles as a function of Ug , the effect of the dimensionless radial position on the various transition velocities was studied. It was found that the end of the gas maldistribution regime is shifted to slightly higher Ug value in the column core and annulus. In most of the cases, the onset of the churn-turbulent regime occurs at Ug = 0.101 m/s.

Keywords: Bubble columns; Kolmogorov entropy; Entropy radial minimum; Transition velocities identification; Flow pattern similarities

  • Lecture (Conference)
    13th International Conference on Gas–Liquid and Gas–Liquid–Solid Reactor Engineering (GLS-13), 20.-23.08.2017, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • Chemical Engineering Science 170(2017), 234-240
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2017.03.031

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24459
Publ.-Id: 24459


New method for flow regime identification in a bubble column based on ultrafast x-ray tomography data

Nedeltchev, S.; Hampel, U.; Schubert, M.

Bubble columns (used for absorption, oxidation, chlorination, hydrogenation, waste water treatment, etc.), operate in different hydrodynamic regimes (homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous). It is essential to identify the boundaries between these flow regimes since most of the correlations for prediction of the main design parameters (gas holdup, interfacial area, mass transfer coefficients, etc.) are valid only within a certain flow regime. In the past three decades different methods of data analysis (statistical, spectral, fractal, chaotic, wavelet, etc.) have been developed for flow regime identification. However, they can identify successfully only the first transition velocity (from homogeneous to transition regime). The bubble column hydrodynamics are very complex and usually more than two regime transitions occur. They could be detected by means of some new and more powerful method of data analysis. In this work, we introduce a new dimensionless parameter based on the division of the X-ray tomography data into many state vectors. Some routines from nonlinear chaos analysis (Schouten et al., 1994) are used.
The bubble column had an inner diameter of 0.1 m and was equipped with a perforated plate distributor (55 holes, ø 0.5×10-3 m). The gas-liquid system consisted of air and deionized water. The clear liquid height Ho was set at 0.66 m. Superficial gas velocities Ug ranging from 0.01 up to 0.10 m/s were employed. The data used for the new method were recorded by means of ultrafast X-ray tomography (scan level=0.5 m). The time series consisted of 29,000 points and were sampled with a frequency of 1000 Hz.
Every reconstructed image was divided into the same semi-rings. In this work the pixel values in a specific semi-ring (inner radius=10×10-3 m ; outer radius=15×10-3 m) were used for further analysis. The data were divided into state vectors consisting of 50 elements and then the distance between pre-selected vector pairs was estimated. For this purpose, the maximum norm (Schouten et al., 1994) was used, i.e. the vector distance was equal to the maximum absolute difference between two elements from the vector pair. The number of vector pairs with distance smaller than some pre-selected criterion (three times the average absolute deviation (AAD)) was used as a basis for the new method for flow regime identification in a bubble column.
It was found that the ratio of the number of vector pairs (with a distance smaller than 3AAD) found in the second part of the signal divided by the one in the first part of the signal can be used for identifying three transition velocities Utrans. They correspond to three well-pronounced local minima. At Ug=0.02 m/s the gas maldistribution regime transforms itself into homogeneous (bubbly) regime. This flow regime is stable up to Ug=0.04 m/s. Beyond this critical gas velocity begins the transition flow regime. The onset of the heterogeneous (churn-turbulent) regime occurs at Ug=0.06 m/s.
When the reconstruction entropies (RE) (Nedeltchev, 2015) are extracted from the vector pairs (meeting the criterion about the vector distance) in both the first and second parts of the signal and the ratio between them is calculated, the same three Utrans values are identified. It was illustrated that the three local minima occur at Ug=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 m/s, respectively.
In the full-length contribution, based on the above-mentioned new approach, the transition velocities Utrans in many different parts from the column’s cross-section will be identified. A comparison between the transition velocities in the column core and annulus will also be shown.

Keywords: Bubble column; Air-water system; Transition velocities; Ultrafast X-ray tomography; State vectors; Reconstruction entropy

  • Poster
    Third International Symposium on Multiscale Multiphase Process Engineering, 08.-11.05.2017, Toyama City, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24458
Publ.-Id: 24458


Effect of heat exchanger internals on the main transition velocities in a bubble column

Nedeltchev, S.; Möller, F.; Hampel, U.; Schubert, M.

The application of bubble columns to industrial processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and liquid-phase methanol synthesis, often involves a large amount of heat generation. That is why, heat exchangers are installed to remove the generated heat. However, the bubble dynamics in bubble columns with dense internals is still not well understood.
In this work, for the first time a flow regime identification in a bubble column with internals (dense vertical heat exchanger tubes) was performed. The bubble column had an inner diameter of 0.1 m and was equipped with a perforated plate distributor (55 holes, ø 0.5×10-3 m). The gas-liquid system consisted of air and deionized water. The clear liquid height Ho was set at 1.1 m. Superficial gas velocities Ug ranging from 0.01 up to 0.15 m/s were employed. The bubble column was equipped with 37 heat exchanger tubes having a square pitch with a diameter of 8×10-3 m and a clearance of 3×10-3 m. Gas holdup fluctuations were recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor installed at an axial position of 0.715 m. The time series (60,000 points, sampling frequency (fs)=2000 Hz) were further treated based on the non-linear chaos theory (Schouten et al., 1994; Nedeltchev et al., 2014).
For comparison, the two main transition velocities Utrans in the empty bubble column (Ho=0.66 m) counterpart were also identified. The information entropies were extracted from X-ray data (29,000 points, fs=1000 Hz) recorded by the ultrafast tomographic facility. It was shown that in a bubble column with internals two main transition velocities Utrans can be identified by means of the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) profile. The flow regime boundaries are identifiable on the basis of the sudden change in the decreasing KE rate. It is interesting to note that well-pronounced local KE minima (Nedeltchev et al., 2014), known from empty bubble columns, are not observed in a bubble column with internals.
At Ug=0.05 m/s the bubbly flow (homogeneous) regime transforms itself into the transition regime. The rate of the KE decrease in both flow regimes is different. At Ug=0.11 m/s the heterogeneous regime (mixture of churn-turbulent and slug flow regimes) is formed. It is characterized with constant KE values. The existence of the slug flow regime in the column core is explainable with the relatively small diameter of the column at which, according to Wilkinson et al. (1992), the effect of the column wall is still present.
In an empty bubble column, two well-pronounced local minima of the information entropy values denote the two main Utrans values. The first transition velocity occurs earlier at Ug=0.04 m/s as compared to the column with internals, which means that the presence of internals stabilizes the bubbly flow regime. The second transition velocity (the onset of the heterogeneous flow regime) is unaffected by the internals.
In the full-length contribution, the time-dependent nature of the main transition velocities as well as the effect of the axial height on the Utrans values in bubble columns with and without internals will also be discussed in a comparable manner. A comparison between the transition velocities in the column core and annulus will also be shown.

Keywords: Bubble column with internals; Transition velocities; Kolmogorov entropy; Gas holdup fluctuations; Wire-mesh sensor; Ultrafast X-ray tomography

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Third International Symposium on Multiscale Multiphase Process Engineering, 08.-11.05.2017, Toyama City, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24457
Publ.-Id: 24457


Comparison Between the Boundaries of the Main Flow Regimes Identified by Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography in Different Parts from the Cross-Section of a Bubble Column

Nedeltchev, S.; Schubert, M.

Bubble columns are characterized by an effective phase contact, high heat and mass transfer coefficients, low maintenance and operating costs due to the absence of moving parts and low column pressure drop. Due to their numerous advantages bubble columns are used extensively in many applications (oxidation, chlorination, waste water treatment, etc.). Therefore, it is essential to have detailed knowledge about the hydrodynamic behavior of these gas-liquid contactors. The identification of the boundaries of the main hydrodynamic regimes is important for improvement of the design, operation and control of bubble columns. The main objective of our work is to apply a new identification method (based on the modified Shannon entropy) to x-ray tomography data for accurate determination of the boundaries of the main hydrodynamic regimes (homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous).
The time series (extracted from reconstructed raw images) were measured by means of ultrafast x-ray tomography (sampling frequency=1000 Hz) in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) and they were subsequently treated by the modified Shannon entropy algorithm developed by Nedeltchev et al. (2016). The raw time series give very good information about the x-ray attenuation and they are measure for the density distribution and the fraction of gas phase in different regions from the column’s cross-section. The column was equipped with a perforated plate distributor (55 holes, Ø 0.5×10-3 m) and operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. The tomographic scans were performed at an axial height of 0.5 m.
The data were organized in groups of 100 points and their sums were calculated. These sums were needed for the calculation of the probabilities of appearance of a particular value in the time series and the local Shannon entropies. It was found that the maximum sum can be used as a flow regime identifier. It was shown that two well-pronounced minima can be distinguished in the maximum sum values extracted at different superficial gas velocities Ug in the central part of the column’s cross-section. The first local minimum occurs at Ug=0.03 m/s and identifies the end of the homogeneous regime. The onset of the heterogeneous regime occurs at Ug=0.07 m/s. It was illustrated that the information entropy extracted from the data in the entire cross-section is capable of identifying the two main transition velocities at 0.025 m/s and 0.085 m/s. So, it was concluded that the heterogeneous regime starts somewhat earlier in the center of the cross-section. The homogeneous regime in the center and the entire cross-section ends at practically the same Ug value (0.025-0.03 m/s). It is noteworthy that for air-water system the theoretical prediction (0.029 m/s) by the correlation of Reilly et al. (1994) is very close to our experimental results.
Such a comparison has been performed at 20 different segments of the column’s cross section. The approach enables the preparation of a radial profile of the transition velocities. Flow regime identification results based on the maximum sums, information amounts and Shannon entropies are compared and discussed.

Keywords: Bubble column; x-ray tomography; Shannon entropy; flow Regime identification

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ASME 2016 Heat Transfer, Fluids Engineering & Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels Conference, 10.-14.07.2016, Washington DC, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24456
Publ.-Id: 24456


LC-MS supported studies on the metabolism of the sigma-1 receptor ligand (–)-(S)-[18F]fluspidine

Ludwig, F.-A.; Fischer, S.; Houska, R.; Hoepping, A.; Patt, M.; Wünsch, B.; Sabri, O.; Steinbach, J.; Brust, P.

Objectives: In an ongoing clinical study (–)-(S)-[18F]fluspidine (1, 2) is being investigated for imaging of sigma-1 receptors in patients with major depression by PET. Beside estimation of the fraction of unchanged radiotracer in plasma and urine, radiometabolites formed should be detected and their structures elucidated.
Methods: (–)-(S)-[18F]Fluspidine or unlabelled reference were incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM) in presence of NADPH and/or activated glucuronic acid (UDPGA) at 37°C. Metabolites were detected by radio-HPLC or LC-MS and characterized by aid of reference compounds or structural elucidation using different MS methods (EPI, MS3). Plasma (10, 20, 30 min p.i) and urine (90 min p.i.) samples of human subjects receiving 268 (245-290) MBq (–)-(S)-[18F]fluspidine i.v. were investigated and compared to results from HLM incubations.
Results: By incubation with HLM mainly 3 hydroxylation products and one debenzylation product were formed. The product hydroxylated at the alkyl side chain was glucuronidated subsequently. Plasma samples (10, 20, 30 min p.i.) obtained from human showed 97.7%, 93.8%, and 88.6% (SD=2.6-7.9, n=6-8) of unchanged tracer. In urine (90 min p.i.) the fraction of tracer was 0–7.8% (average of 2.3%, n=10) and up to 3 main radiometabolites were detected (Figure 1). The one with the highest intensity, also found in plasma, matched the glucuronide formed in vitro. Debenzylation of the parent tracer was detected with a small proportion.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate an appropriate metabolic stability of (–)-(S)-[18F]fluspidine for the application as PET ligand. The structure of the major radiometabolite found in plasma and urine could be assigned by means of in vitro studies. Routes of metabolism are currently investigated in more detail. 302
References:
[1] German Clinical Trial Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00008321
[2] Fischer et al. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2011, 38, 540–551

  • Poster
    International Symposium On Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (ISRS), 14.-19.05.2017, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Open Access Logo Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 60(2017)1, 385
    DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.3508

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24455
Publ.-Id: 24455


Non-linear quantum dynamics in strong and short electromagnetic fields

Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, B.; Hosaka, A.; Takabe, H.

In our contribution we give a brief overview of two widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.m.) (e.g.\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that at small and moderate laser field intensities the shape and duration of the pulse are very important for the probability of considered processes. However, at high intensities the multi-photon interactions of the fermions with laser field are decisive and completely determined all aspects of subthreshold electron-positron pairs and photon production

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24452
Publ.-Id: 24452


The impact of the revised 17O(p,α)14N reaction rate on 17O stellar abundances and yields

Straniero, O.; Bruno, C. G.; Aliotta, M.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Ciani, G. F.; Corvisiero, P.; Cristallo, S.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Piatti, D.; Piersanti, L.; Prati, P.; Samorjai, E.; Strieder, F.; Szucs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.

Context. Material processed by the CNO cycle in stellar interiors is enriched in 17O. When mixing processes from the stellar surface reach these layers, as occurs when stars become red giants and undergo the first dredge up, the abundance of 17O increases. Such an occurrence explains the drop of the 16O/17O observed in RGB stars with mass larger than 1.5 M_\solar. As a consequence, the interstellar medium is continuously polluted by the wind of evolved stars enriched in 17O . Aims. Recently, the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) collaboration released an improved rate of the 17O(p,alpha)14N reaction. In this paper we discuss the impact that the revised rate has on the 16O/17O ratio at the stellar surface and on 17O stellar yields. Methods. We computed stellar models of initial mass between 1 and 20 M_\solar and compared the results obtained by adopting the revised rate of the 17O(p,alpha)14N to those obtained using previous rates. Results. The post-first dredge up 16O/17O ratios are about 20% larger than previously obtained. Negligible variations are found in the case of the second and the third dredge up. In spite of the larger 17O(p,alpha)14N rate, we confirm previous claims that an extra-mixing process on the red giant branch, commonly invoked to explain the low carbon isotopic ratio observed in bright low-mass giant stars, marginally affects the 16O/17O ratio. Possible effects on AGB extra-mixing episodes are also discussed. As a whole, a substantial reduction of 17O stellar yields is found. In particular, the net yield of stars with mass ranging between 2 and 20 M_\solar is 15 to 40% smaller than previously estimated. Conclusions. The revision of the 17O(p,alpha)14N rate has a major impact on the interpretation of the 16O/17O observed in evolved giants, in stardust grains and on the 17O stellar yields.

Keywords: Nuclear Astrophysics

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24451
Publ.-Id: 24451


Active and passive electronics for smart implants

Makarov, D.

The portable consumer electronics necessitates functional elements to be lightweight, flexible, and wearable [1-4]. The unique possibility to adjust the shape of the devices offered by this alternative formulation of the electronics provides vast advantages over the conventional rigid devices particularly in medicine and consumer electronics. There is already a remarkable number of available flexible devices starting from interconnects, sensing elements towards complex platforms consisting of communication and diagnostic components.
We developed shapeable magnetoelectronics [5] – namely, flexible [6-8], printable [9,10], stretchable [11,12] and even imperceptible [13] magnetosensitive large area elements, which were completely missing in the family of flexible electronics, e.g. for smart skin applications. On the other hand, we realized self-assembled compact tubular microchannels based on strain engineering [14] with integrated passive sensory elements [15-17] and communication antenna devices [18] for on-chip and bio-medical applications, e.g. smart implants [19,20].
Combining these two research directions carried out at different length scales into a single truly interdisciplinary topic opens up the novel field of smart biomimetics [20]. In this respect, we demonstrated mechanically and electrically active compact biomimetic microelectronics, which can serve as a base for realization of novel regenerative neuronal cuff implants with unmatched functionalities. The biomimetic microelectronics can mechanically adapt to and impact the environment possessing the possibility to assess, adopt and communicate the environmental changes and even stimulate the environment electrically.
In my talk, these recent developments will be covered.

[1] M. G. Lagally, MRS Bull. 32, 57 (2007).
[2] J. A. Rogers et al., Nature 477, 45 (2011).
[3] S. Bauer et al., Adv. Mater. 26, 149 (2014).
[4] M. Kaltenbrunner et al., Nature 499, 458 (2013).
[5] D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. 3, 011101 (2016).
[6] G. Lin, D. Makarov et al., Lab Chip 14, 4050 (2014).
[7] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1274 (2015).
[8] N. Münzenrieder, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Electron. Mater. (2016), 10.1002/aelm.201600188.
[9] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 880 (2015).
[10] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 24, 4518 (2012).
[11] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 1333 (2015).
[12] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Nano Lett. 11, 2522 (2011).
[13] M. Melzer, D. Makarov et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 6080 (2015).
[14] O. G. Schmidt et al., Nature 410, 168 (2001).
[15] I. Mönch, D. Makarov et al., ACS Nano 5, 7436 (2011).
[16] C. Müller, D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 022409 (2012).
[17] E. J. Smith, D. Makarov et al., Lab Chip 12, 1917 (2012).
[18] D. D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., NPG Asia Materials 7, e188 (2015).
[19] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 6582 (2015).
[20] D. Karnaushenko, D. Makarov et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 6797 (2015).

Keywords: shapeable magnetoelectronics; magnetic field sensors

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    MRS Fall Meeting 2016, 27.11.-02.12.2016, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24450
Publ.-Id: 24450


Observations on surface magnetic order in FeGe and FeSi

Makarov, D.; Streubel, R.; Perez Rodriguez, N.; Pierce, D. T.; Unguris, J.; Pofahl, S.; Schäfer, R.; Schmidt, M.; Baenitz, M.; Kronast, F.; Wilhelm, H.; Rößler, U. K.

The twisted magnetization textures in chiral magnets are inherently frustrated, similarly to the mesophases in chiral liquid-crystals. The twisted basic texture can become dramatically altered by the penetration of secondary twists over larger lengths and the formation of defects. Hence, a well-ordered and smooth texture like a simple spiral may be twisted or defected. In chiral liquid-crystal systems, the frustration results in the formation of defects like the disclination networks of blue phases or twisted-grain-boundary phases. Such states can easily be shaped and transformed under the influence of competing anisotropies, e.g., by applied fields in the bulk and by anchoring the molecules of a liquid crystal at surfaces.
We investigated surfaces of FeGe single crystals with the cubic B20 structure using various magnetic imaging techniques and found a ferromagnetic order above the magnetic ordering transition in the bulk. This ferromagnetic order is seen by magnetic optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy as a simple ferromagnetic domain structure of an Ising-like magnet at room-temperature. Scanning electron microcopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) allowed us to follow the evolution of a fine-structure in this ferromagnetic surface upon lowering the temperature, when the bulk of the FeGe crystal orders into the spiral ground-state.
We discover a static defect-ordered state with a network of line-defects emerges near the surface under the influence of a particular surface-magnetic ordering transition. These defects of the helical magnetic order are topologically necessary lines where the magnetic order becomes singular or passes through zero at elevated temperatures. This ferromagnetic skin has a strong uniaxial anisotropy and frustrates the helimagnetic texture by anchoring it to the surface. In the spiral below the Neel temperature at 279 K, conical modulations in the ferromagnetic surface layer are observed that prove the formation of a network of dislocations because the propagation direction of the surface-modulation deviates from the propagation direction in the bulk. Near magnetic ordering temperature a coexistence of bubble-like circular domains and stripes is observed in the surface layer. This illustrates the appearance of complex three-dimensional textures with defects, double-twists and spiral-like kinks near the surface and related to the particular surface-magnetic ordering. Hence, at the first-order transition between the precursor state and spiral order in zero magnetic field of FeGe, a co-existence of helical and skyrmionic textures is revealed. Ab initio calculations have been used to motivate the existence of enhanced spin-moments at the surfaces of FeGe and an increased effect of spin-orbit coupling. This explains the experimental observations of a surface-magnetic ordering in FeGe, which acts like a strongly uniaxial ferromagnetic film with an Ising-like character on the underlying spiral bulk state.
Similar experiments using MOKE and XPEEM on the isostructural compound FeSi give evidence of a fragile magnetic ordering at the surface of this anomalous paramagnetic semiconductor, too. This may mean that the FeSi surfaces may behave like strongly anisotropic ultrathin magnetic films, while no magnetic long-range ordering takes place in the bulk.

Keywords: FeGe; FeSi; skyrmions

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    MRS Fall meeting 2016, 27.11.-02.12.2016, Boston, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24449
Publ.-Id: 24449


Argonne: Curved magnetic nanomembranes

Makarov, D.

While conventionally magnetic films and structures are fabricated on flat surfaces, the topology of curved surfaces has only recently started to be explored and leads to new fundamental physics as well as applied device ideas [1]. In particular, novel effects occur when the magnetization is modulated by curvature providing a new degree of freedom that leads to new magnetization configurations (see for instance [2,3]) and is predicted to have major implications on the spin dynamics due to topological constraints for instance in circular tubes and rolls [4].
Advances in this novel field solely rely on the understanding of the fundamentals behind the modifications of magnetic responses of 3D-curved magnetic thin films. The lack of an inversion symmetry and the emergence of a curvature induced effective anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are characteristic of curved surfaces [5-7], leading to curvature-driven magnetochiral effects [8-10] and topologically induced magnetization patterning [7, 11], including unlimited domain wall velocities in hollow tubes [4], chirality symmetry breaking [7-10] and Cherenkov-like effects for magnons [12]. In addition to these rich physics, the application potential of 3D-shaped objects is currently being explored as magnetic field sensorics for magnetofluidic applications [13], spin-wave filters [14], magneto-encephalography devices [15] and high-speed racetrack memory devices [4]. To this end, the initially fundamental topic of the magnetism in curved geometries strongly benefited from the input of the application-oriented community, which among others explores the shapeability aspect of the curved magnetic thin films. These activities resulted in the development of the family of shapeable magnetoelectronics [16], which already includes flexible [17], printable [18], stretchable [19] and even imperceptible [20] magnetic field sensorics.
These recent developments starting from the theoretical predictions to the fabrication and characterization of 3D-curved magnetic thin films and their application potential are in the focus of this talk.
References
[1] R. Streubel, DM et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. vol. 49, pp. 363001, 2016.
[4] M. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 104, pp. 057201, 2010.
[5] Y. Gaididei et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 112, pp. 257203, 2014.
[6] O. V. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 114, pp. 197204, 2015.
[7] O. V. Pylypovskyi, DM et al., Sci. Rep. vol. 6, pp. 23316, 2016.
[8] R. Hertel, SPIN vol. 03, pp. 1340009, 2013.
[9] M. Yan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 100, pp. 252401, 2012.
[10] J. A. Otalora et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 100, pp. 072407, 2012.
[11] V. P. Kravchuk, DM et al., Phys. Rev. B vol. 85, pp. 144433, 2012.
[12] M. Yan et al., Phys. Rev. B vol. 88, pp. 220412, 2013.
[13] I. Mönch, DM et al., ACS Nano vol. 5, pp. 7436, 2011.
[14] F. Balhorn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 104, pp. 037205, 2010.
[15] D. Karnaushenko, DM et al., Adv. Mater. vol. 27, pp. 6582, 2015.
[16] D. Makarov et al., Appl. Phys. Rev. vol. 3, pp. 011101, 2016.
[17] M. Melzer, DM et al., Adv. Mater. vol. 27, pp. 1274, 2015.
[18] D. Karnaushenko, DM et al., Adv. Mater. vol. 27, pp. 880, 2015.
[19] M. Melzer, DM et al., Nano Lett. vol. 11, pp. 2522, 2011.
[20] M. Melzer, DM et al., Nature Commun. vol. 6, pp. 6080, 2015.

Keywords: curved magnetic thin films; chiral interactions

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar at Argonne National Lab, 28.11.2016, Lemont, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24448
Publ.-Id: 24448


New data for cosmogenic 53Mn and 60Fe in iron meteorites

Smith, T.; Leya, I.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Pavetich, S.; Fröhlich, M.; Wallner, A.; Fifield, K.; Tims, S.; Korschinek, G.; Faestermann, T.

Cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites can provide information on cosmic ray exposure (CRE) histories. In space, meteoroids are irradiated by galactic cosmic ray particles, inducing the production of cosmogenic nuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 60Fe). Meteorites are routinely measured for 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl. However the database for 53Mn and 60Fe is scarce due to the low availability of high-MV accelerators and the debate over the half-lives of 53Mn and 60Fe. We Report new 53Mn and 60Fe data for iron meteorites measured at Canberra (53Mn, 60Fe) and Munich (60Fe). Among these radionuclides, 53Mn has the longest half-life, thus is least influenced by terrestrial ages. The advantage of 53Mn and 60Fe isotopes is that only two (Fe, Ni) and one (Fe) target element(s), respectively, dominate production, overcoming the problem of inhomogeneous S and P distribution. Our new 60Fe data almost doubles that present in the literature. We measured 53Mn in seven subsamples of the iron meteorite Twannberg. The new 53Mn and 60Fe data, with 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and the noble gases, will better constrain the CRE histories of meteorites and will also serve as benchmarks to validate and improve Monte-Carlo model calculations.

Keywords: AMS; meteorite; cosmogenic; exposure age; accelerator mass spectrometry

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (AMOP), 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24447
Publ.-Id: 24447


Spin torque switching in nanopillars with antiferromagnetic reference layer

Arora, M.; Fowley, C.; Mckinnon, T.; Kowalska, E.; Sluka, V.; Deac, A. M.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

Spin-transfer-torque induced switching is investigated in 200 nm diameter circularly shaped, perpendicular magnetized nanopillars. A synthetic antiferromagnet, consisting of two Co/Ni multilayers coupled anti-ferromagnetically across a Ru layer, is used as a reference layer to minimize the dipolar field on the free layer. The free layer is a single 4x[Co/Ni] multilayer. The use of Pt and Pd was avoided to lower the spin-orbit scattering in magnetic layers and intrinsic damping in the free layer, and therefore, reduce the critical current required for spin-transfer-torque switching. The intrinsic Gilbert damping of a continuous 4[Co/Ni] multilayer film was measured by ferromagnetic resonance to be alpha = 0.022, which is significantly lower than in Pt or Pd based magnetic multilayers. In zero magnetic field the critical current required to switch the free layer from the parallel to antiparallel alignment is 5.2 mA, and from antiparallel to parallel alignment is 4.9 mA. Given the volume of the free layer, V_FL = 1.011022 m3, the switching efficiency, I_c=(V_FL/µ0H_c), is 5.281020 A/Tm^3, twice as efficient as any previously reported device with a similar structure

Keywords: Spin transfer switching; perpendicular magnetic anisotropy; MRAM

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24446
Publ.-Id: 24446


Mass spectrometry and the evolution of the western Namibian drainage systems

Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.; Merchel, S.; Niedermann, S.; Gerdes, A.; Rugel, G.; Scharf, A.; Le Bras, L.; Hofmann, M.; Zieger, J.

Our multi-method MS study (AMS, noble gas MS, LA-(MC)-ICP-MS) aims to constrain the evolution of the western Namibian drainages since the last ca. 40 Ma. Therefore, fluvial sediments of several rivers and their precursors were sampled. In order to obtain precise Surface exposure ages of the various terrace levels, the routinely used cosmogenic nuclides 10Be, 21Ne, 26Al (quartz), and 36Cl (calcite) were applied either on surface samples or on depth-profiles consisting of 3 to 5 samples each. U-Pb small scale isochrone (SSI) ages of calcareous matrices were also used for terrace dating. Sedimentary provenances were revealed by detrital zircon (ZrSiO4) geochronology using U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systematics. They indicate varying detrital zircon patterns through time. Our approach facilitates the recognition of changes in the fluvial sediment provenance at certain points in time. Such combined studies have a huge potential for revealing the palaeohydrological history, and to estimate amplitudes and processing Speeds of past events or changing sizes of catchment areas, which is of particular interest for modelling the palaeoclimate and palaeogeography.

Keywords: AMS; accelerator mass spectrometry; palaeoclimate; LA-ICP-MS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (AMOP), 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24445
Publ.-Id: 24445


Generic zinc corrosion studies at PWR LOCA conditions

Harm, U.; Kryk, H.; Wiezorek, M.; Hampel, U.

During the sump recirculation phase after loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors (PWR), coolant spilling out of the leak in the primary cooling circuit is collected in the reactor sump and recirculated to the reactor core by residual-heat removal pumps. The long-term contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized containment internals (e.g. grating treads, supporting grids of sump strainers) may cause corrosion of the corresponding materials influencing the cooling water chemistry.
Generic investigations regarding such zinc corrosion processes, changes of the coolant chemistry and possible resulting in-core effects are subject of joint research projects of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), TU Dresden (TUD) and Zittau/Görlitz University of Applied Sciences (HSZG). Lab-scale experiments at HZDR and TUD were focused on elucidation of physico-chemical corrosion and precipitation processes as well as resulting clogging effects [1-2].
Recent results of generic experiments in a lab-scale corrosion test facility led to further information regarding the main parameters determining the zinc corrosion rates and the whole corrosion process in such scenarios.
Main influences on the zinc corrosion rates were identified as the impact of the coolant jet onto the corroding surface and the particular flow conditions around submerged zinc surfaces.
In contrast, variations of the coolant temperature in the range between 25 °C and 70 °C as well as small changes in the boric acid concentration have no significant influence on the corrosion rates during the first stage of the corrosion process.
Further lab-scale experiments at realistic time-dependent LOCA parameters like calculated temperature courses in the sump and inside the reactor core are planned to evaluate, if zinc corrosion processes with subsequent zinc borate precipitations could lead to considerable clogging effects inside the reactor core.
The results obtained at lab-scale were complemented by corresponding experiments in semi-technical test facilities of the project partner HSZG.

[1] Seeliger, A.; Alt, S.; Kästner, W.; Renger, S.; Kryk, H., Harm, U. : Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors - thermo- and fluid-dynamic effects. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 2016, 305, 489-502
[2] Hoffmann, W.; Kryk, H.; Seeliger, A.; Kästner, W.; Alt, S. & Renger, S.: Zinc corrosion after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors - physicochemical effects. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 2014, 280, 570-578

  • Contribution to proceedings
    48. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik (Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology / AMNT 2017), 16.-17.05.2017, Berlin, Deutschland
    Generic Zinc Corrosion Studies At PWR LOCA Conditions, Berlin: INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgenossenschaft mbH, 978-3-926956-96-5
  • Lecture (Conference)
    48. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik (Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology / AMNT 2017), 16.-17.05.2017, Berlin, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24444
Publ.-Id: 24444


Entwicklung und Überprüfung eines Photonenmodells für die Abstrahlung durch hochenergetische Elektronen

Burau, H.

This diploma thesis extends the open source particle-in-cell code PIConGPU by two new physics modules which incorporate effects of radiation emission and back reaction of highly relativistic electrons in strong electromagnetic background fields into the simulation. The first module involves the treatment of nonlinear Thomson- and Compton-scattering using the synchrotron approximation. It allows for the generation of X-ray and gamma photons in the classical regime as well as in the QED regime including self consistent radiation back reaction. Through simulations of collisions between laser pulses and electron bunches the impact of QED effects on experimental spectra is investigated. The second module covers the scattering of electrons on atomic nuclei including electron deflection and generation of Bremsstrahlung-photons. In a numerical case study it is shown that the analysis of Bremstrahlung can be used as experimental diagnostic for electron dynamics in overdense plasmas.

Keywords: PIConGPU; QED radiation reaction; nonlinear Comptonscattering; Bremsstrahlung

  • Diploma thesis
    TU Dresden, 2016
    Mentor: Prof. Ulrich Schramm, Prof. Tom Cowan, Dr. Michael Bussmann

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24443
Publ.-Id: 24443


Erste Tests für 44Ti-AMS an DREAMS

Scharf, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Ditrói, T.; Khojasteh, N.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Zuber, K.

Das Radionuklid 44Ti (T1/2 = 58,9 a) wird vor allem während Supernovaexplosionen gebildet und spielt eine wichtige Rolle für deren theoretische Modelle und die Nukleosynthese schwerer Elemente. In Supernovaüberresten kann 44Ti mittels &gamma-Astronomie nachgewiesen werden, allerdings befinden sich die Beobachtungen nicht im Einklang mit den theoretischen Modellen. Problematisch dabei ist, dass der Wirkungsquerschnitt der Reaktion 40Ca(&alpha,&gamma)44Ti bisher nur unzureichend bekannt ist [1].
Während bislang nur 44Ti-AMS-Messungen an großen Beschleunigern (ab 10 MV Terminalspannung) durchgeführt wurden [2], sollte es prinzipiell auch möglich sein, an 6-MV-Anlagen dieses Radionuklid zuverlässig zu messen. Wir präsentieren erste Tests an der AMS-Anlage DREAMS des HZDR, die zeigen, dass mithilfe einer Degrader-Folie eine zuverlässige Abtrennung des stabilen Isobars 44Ca und Messung des Radionuklids 44Ti auch bei Beschleunigungsspannungen von 6 MV möglich ist.
Diese ersten Tests dienen dazu, die Machbarkeit von AMS-basierten Messungen des Wirkungsquerschnitts der Reaktion 40Ca(&alpha,&gamma)44Ti an DREAMS auszuloten.
Das Projekt wurde unterstützt vom DAAD.

Ref.: [1] Schmidt et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 025803 (2013)
[2] Nassar et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 96, 041102 (2006)

Keywords: AMS; DREAMS; 44Ti; Supernova; Nukleosynthese

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (AMOP), 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland, 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24442
Publ.-Id: 24442


Experimental investigation on the influence of surfactant concentration on the bubble shape and mass transfer in a small channel

Haghnegahdar, M.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.

In the work presented in this paper, the shape and absorption rate of an individual elongated Taylor bubble of CO2 through contaminated water was measured in millimeter-size channel. The influence of concentration of surfactant on dissolution rate of an individual elongated Taylor bubble of carbon dioxide in water was investigated using high resolution X-ray radiography technique in vertical channels. The bubbles were held stationary in the down-flowing liquid and the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient was determined from microfocus X-ray images.
The experiments cover a range of initial bubble equivalent diameter (deq: sphere-volume equivalent bubble diameter) varying from 6 to 10 mm. The pipe is a glass pipe with 6 mm inside diameter (D). The bubble is unceasingly monitored by holding the bubble stationary using downward flow of liquid. The X-ray method was chosen since it is not dependent on the refractive index; therefore it is the most accurate method in comparison with other conventional optical techniques. This technique was qualified to disclose the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillary and enabled the acquisition of a series of high-resolution radiographic images of nearly stationary Taylor bubbles (Haghnegahdar et al., 2015). The processed images which give volume (and also the interfacial area) of the bubble with high accuracy as a function of time, are used to evaluate the liquid side mass transfer coefficient between bubble and liquid using the mass conservation equation. The liquid phase is milli-pore water contaminated by conventional surfactants and the gas phase is CO2.
The results confirmed the accumulation of surfactants on the tail of the bubbles. Furthermore, applying different concentrations of surfactant reveals that in our case, where surface coverage ratio of surfactant on the bubbles is high, increase of contamination does not have a noticeable influence on the mass transfer coefficient of bubbles.

Keywords: Surfactant concentration; Taylor bubble; Mass transfer coefficient

  • Poster
    14th Multiphase Flow Conference and Short Course:Simulation, Experiment and Application, 08.-10.11.2016, HZDR, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24441
Publ.-Id: 24441


Investigation of surfactant effect on the bubble shape and mass transfer in a milli-channel

Haghnegahdar, M.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.

In the work presented in this paper, the shape and absorption rate of an individual elongated Taylor bubble of CO2 through contaminated water was measured in millimeter-size channel. The influence of presence of trace amount of surfactant on dissolution rate of an individual elongated Taylor bubble of carbon dioxide in water was investigated using high resolution X-ray radiography technique in vertical channels. The bubbles were held stationary in the down-flowing liquid and the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient was determined from microfocus X-ray images.
The experiments cover a range of initial bubble equivalent diameter (deq: sphere-volume equivalent bubble diameter) varying from 6 to 10 mm. The pipe is a glass pipe with 6 mm inside diameter (D). The bubble is unceasingly monitored by holding the bubble stationary using downward flow of liquid. The X-ray method was chosen since it is not dependent on the refractive index; therefore it is the most accurate method in comparison with other conventional optical techniques. This technique was qualified to disclose the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillary and enabled the acquisition of a series of high-resolution radiographic images of nearly stationary Taylor bubbles (Haghnegahdar et al., 2015). The processed images which give volume (and also the interfacial area) of the bubble with high accuracy as a function of time, are used to evaluate the liquid side mass transfer coefficient between bubble and liquid using the mass conservation equation. The liquid phase is milli-pore water contaminated by conventional surfactants and the gas phase is CO2.
The results confirmed the accumulation of surfactants on the tail of the bubbles. Furtheremore, it was shown that the presence of surfactants not only decrease the rate of mass transfer, but also change the bubble shape and liquid film thickness around the bubble.

Keywords: Surfactant; Taylor bubble; Carbon dioxide

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Dynamics of Evolving Fluid Interfaces - DEFI 2016, 12.-13.10.2016, Lyon, France
    Dynamics of Evolving Fluid Interfaces - DEFI 2016
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Dynamics of Evolving Fluid Interfaces - DEFI 2016, 12.-13.10.2016, Lyon, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24440
Publ.-Id: 24440


X-ray tomography studies of Taylor bubbles with mass transfer in small channels

Haghnegahdar, M.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.

For milli- and micro-reactors the bubble shape and relative velocity between two phases are mainly governed by the cross-sectional shape of the channel. For channels with circular cross section (pipes) enormous attention has been paid in the last decades and many studies on hydrodynamics and mass transfer to be found in literature. However other channel cross sections such as square channels were a subject of only a few studies [1]. Concerning the role and importance of square channels in various existing and potential industrial applications such as micro-electromechanical systems, monolith froth reactors, there exist still some gaps particularly in related aspects of transport phenomena in these channels and there needs to be further experimental work to provide detailed heat and mass transfer data for model validation.
In the work presented in this paper, the dissolution rate of a single Taylor bubble of carbon dioxide in water was investigated using high resolution X-ray radiography and tomography technique in vertical channels. The liquid side mass transfer coefficient was calculated by measuring the changes in the size of the bubble at constant pressure. The experiments cover a large range of initial Taylor bubble length varying from 4 to 26 mm. The pipe is a glass pipe with 6 mm inside diameter and square cross section. The bubbles were held stationary using the technique of Schulze and Schluender [2]. The method which is used to measure the variation of the bubble size is X-ray tomography. The X-ray method was chosen since it is not dependent on the refractive index; therefore it is the most accurate method in comparison with other conventional optical techniques. Furthermore this technique allows tomography for square channels, while full 3D shape determination by optical techniques is difficult in square channels. The processed images which give volume (and also the interfacial area) of the bubble as a function of time, are used to evaluate the liquid side mass transfer coefficient between bubble and liquid using the mass conservation equation.
The results for the long term dissolution of single CO2 bubbles show that the dissolution curves for bubbles with different initial size follow the same trend and have relatively constant slope. In addition, it is shown that the measured mass transfer coefficient increases as the equivalent diameter of the bubble (diameter of the sphere having the same volume) decreases. The trend for the change of liquid-side mass transfer coefficient as a function of bubble size is in accordance with the data predictivd by the penetration theory.

Keywords: Mass transfer coefficient; Taylor flow; CO2; small channel

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DFG Priority Programme SPP 1506: Transport Processes at Fluidic Interfaces Abschlusskolloquium, 09.-10.05.2016, RWTH Aachen, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24439
Publ.-Id: 24439


Enzymatic Decolorization of Dye-polluted Water Using Natural Cellular Carriers

Mohammed, I.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.

In the current years increasing efforts have been done to develop sustainable processes with smaller ecological footprint, which is. to decrease the industrial pollution and the environmental impact.
One serious pollutant that results from the textile industry etc. is the increasing usage of dyes. The treatment of dye-polluted water is still challenging since today's methods, such as absorption and membrane filtration, have their limitations.
The application of biocatalysts represents a sustainable solution as it results in nontoxic products at comparable eco-friendly treatment costs. In particular, oxidation enzymes, such as laccase, which can oxidize dye are in the scope. However, direct application of laccase enzyme is not favorable because it requires processes to recover the enzyme, while enzymes, immobilized on a carrier can be re-used as long as the activity is sufficiently high.
Loofa is a natural-grown material of the cucumber family, which provides attractive morphological properties. Moreover, loofa carrier can be decomposed after the process without additional treatment and is inexpensive.
In the contribution, the developed laccase immobilization methodology and the optimization of the immobilization using the Response Surface Methodology (RMS) will be discussed. Furthermore, the capability to degrade dye-polluted water will be evaluated and a novel bioreactor for the water treatment will be suggested

Keywords: Laccase; Enzymatic decolorization; Loofa sponge; Immobilization; Response surface methodology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    66th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference(CSCh2016), 16.-19.10.2016, Quebec, Canada

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24438
Publ.-Id: 24438


In situ, steerable, hardware-independent and data-structure agnostic visualization with ISAAC

Matthes, A.; Hübl, A.; Widera, R.; Grottel, S.; Gumhold, S.; Bussmann, M.

The computation power of supercomputers grows faster than the bandwidth of their storage and network. Especially applications using hardware accelerators like Nvidia GPUs cannot save enough data to be analyzed in a later step. There is a high risk of loosing important scientific information. We introduce the in situ template library ISAAC which enables arbitrary applications like scientific simulations to live visualize their data without the need of deep copy operations or data transformation using the very same compute node and hardware accelerator the data is already residing on. Arbitrary meta data can be added to the renderings and user defined steering commands can be asynchronously sent back to the running application. Using an aggregating server, ISAAC streams the interactive visualization video and enables user to access their applications from everywhere.

Keywords: HPC; in situ; visualization; live rendering; petascale; particle-in-cell; C++11; CUDA; Alpaka; FOSS

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24437
Publ.-Id: 24437


Photon emissivity in the vicinity of a critical point - A case study within the quark meson model

Wunderlich, F.; Kämpfer, B.

The quark meson (linear sigma) model with linearized fluctuations displays at a critical end point the onset of a curve of first-order phase transitions (FOPTs) located at non-zero chemical potentials and temperatures below a certain cross-over temperature. The model qualifies well for an illustrative example to study the impact of the emerging FOPT, e.g. on photon emissivities. Such a case study unravels the tight interlocking of the phase structure with the emission rates, here calculated according to lowest-order tree level processes by kinetic theory expressions. It is the strong dependence of the rates on the effective masses of the involved degrees of freedom which distinctively vary over the phase diagram thus shaping the emissivity accordingly. At the same time, thermodynamic properties of the medium are linked decisively to these effective masses, i.e. a consistent evaluation of thermodynamics, governing for instance adiabatic expansion paths, and emission rates is maintained within such an approach.

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24436
Publ.-Id: 24436


Enzymatic Decolorization of Dye-polluted Water Using Natural Cellular Carriers 66th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference/2016

Mohammed, I.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.

In the current years increasing efforts have been done to develop sustainable processes with smaller ecological footprint, which is. to decrease the industrial pollution and the environmental impact.
One serious pollutant that results from the textile industry etc. is the increasing usage of dyes. The treatment of dye-polluted water is still challenging since today's methods, such as absorption and membrane filtration, have their limitations.
The application of biocatalysts represents a sustainable solution as it results in nontoxic products at comparable eco-friendly treatment costs. In particular, oxidation enzymes, such as laccase, which can oxidize dye are in the scope. However, direct application of laccase enzyme is not favorable because it requires processes to recover the enzyme, while enzymes, immobilized on the carrier can be re-used as long as the activity is sufficiently high.
Loofa is a natural-grown material of the cucumber family, which provides attractive morphological properties. Moreover, loofa carrier can be decomposed after the process without additional treatment and is inexpensive.
In the contribution, the developed laccase immobilization methodology and the optimization of the immobilization using the Response Surface Methodology (RMS) will be discussed. Furthermore, the capability to degrade dye-polluted water will be evaluated and a novel bioreactor for the water treatment will be suggested

Keywords: Laccase; Enzymatic decolorization; Loofa sponge; Immobilization; Response surface methodology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    66th Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference, 16.-19.10.2016, Québec city, Quebec, Canada

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24435
Publ.-Id: 24435


Microbial reduction of uranium by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

Gerber, U.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Arnold, T.; Scheinost, A. C.

The former uranium mine Königstein (Germany) is currently in the process of a controlled flooding for remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches due to the fact, that microorganisms could be used as an alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment.
Flooding water from the former uranium mine was directly sampled and gas-flushed with N2. 10 mM glycerol was added as carbon source. The approaches were incubated for six weeks at 30 °C. Samples were taken three times a week for measuring of the redox potential. Every week samples were taken to investigate the redox state of uranium by XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements. During the incubation time the redox potential decreased from 660 mV to 300 mV. By Iterative Target-Factor Analysis (ITFA) it was determined that 100 % of uranium(VI) was reduced to uranium(IV) within six weeks of incubation. In addition, investigations of the supernatant with UV-vis resulted in the same findings. The results show that naturally occurring anaerobic microorganisms within the flooding water of the former uranium mine Königstein are able to reduce the soluble uranium(VI) into the less soluble uranium(IV). In conclusion, anaerobic microorganisms within the flooding water could be used as an alternative for bioremediation approaches.

Keywords: uranium reduction; bioremediation; sulphate-reducing bacteria

  • Lecture (Conference)
    BioRemid2017, 09.-10.03.2017, Granada, Espana

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24434
Publ.-Id: 24434


Dipolar Relaxation Dynamics at the Active Site of an ATPase Regulated by Membrane Lateral Pressure

Fischermeier, E.; Pospíšil, P.; Sayed, A.; Hof, M.; Solioz, M.; Fahmy, K.

The active transport of ions across biological membranes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P1B-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nanodiscs. Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

Keywords: ATPase; fluorescence; time-resolved; nanodisc; membrane protein

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24433
Publ.-Id: 24433


Multiphase flow measurement

Hampel, U.

The lecture introduces and discusses principles of multiphase flow measurement. In detail it addresses fundamental issues of multiphase fluid dynamics, measureable parameters, hardware and software aspects of measurement techniques, as well as its relation to multiphase flow modelling and CFD code development.

Keywords: multiphase flow; flow measurement; local probes; PIV; tomography

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Iraqi-German Partnership on Multiphase Flow Research and Training (IGP-Multiflow), Summer School, 03.-07.10.2016, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24432
Publ.-Id: 24432


Curvature-Induced Asymmetric Spin-Wave Dispersion

Otálora, A. S.; Yan, M.; Schultheiss, H.; Hertel, R.; Kákay, A.

In magnonics, spin waves are conceived of as electron-charge-free information carriers. Their wave behavior has established them as the key elements to achieve low power consumption, fast operative rates, and good packaging in magnon-based computational technologies. Hence, knowing alternative ways that reveal certain properties of their undulatory motion is an important task. Here, we show using micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations that spin-wave propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes is fundamentally different than in thin films. The dispersion relation is asymmetric regarding the sign of the wave vector. It is a purely curvature-induced effect and its fundamental origin is identified to be the classical dipole-dipole interaction. The analytical expression of the dispersion relation has the same mathematical form as in thin films with the Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya interaction. Therefore, this curvatureinduced effect can be seen as a “dipole-induced Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya-like” effect.

Keywords: nanotubes; spin-wave dispersion; non-reciprocal

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24431
Publ.-Id: 24431


Avoiding pitfalls: Better performance of AMS at DREAMS

Rugel, G.; DREAMS-Users; Khojasteh, B. N.; Merchel, S.; Scharf, A.; Ziegenrücker, R.

Since autumn 2011, the DREsden AMS-facility (DREAMS), is performing routine AMS at the 6MV tandem accelerator of the ion beam centre (IBC) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf [1,2]. In routine operation are measurements of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I for a wide range of applications. Most of the samples are prepared at our own chemistry labs – or in close cooperation with the users – to allow best performance for diverse tasks [3]. Our performance to measure these routine isotopes improved considerably over the last years [2]. This successful approach needs a careful selection of measurement parameters like a propper measurement order, a specific tuning using low-level (traceable) standards and individual setting of detector parameters for each beam time. One example for an additional improvement is the low-background value of 26Al/27Al = 6 × 10−16 reached in blanks from commercial carriers. For 41Ca measurements we get 30% more transmission, while having ten times less background from 41K. Further promising developments include the upgrade to nonroutine
AMS-nuclides like 44Ti [4] and to actinides [5].
Ref.: [1] S. Akhmadaliev et al., NIMB 294 (2013) 5.
[2] G. Rugel et al., NIMB 370 (2016) 94.
[3] S. Merchel, this conference.
[4] A. Scharf, this conference.
[5] Nasrin B. Khojasteh, this conference.

Keywords: AMS; DREAMS; Be-10; Al-26; Cl-35; Ca-41; I-129

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung der Sektion Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (SAMOP), 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24430
Publ.-Id: 24430


Comparing field ionization models in simulations of laser-matter interaction

Garten, M.

Field ionization plays an important role in modeling the interaction of high-power, ultra-short lasers pulses with matter. Many field ionization models exist that have predictive capability at non-relativistic laser intensities and for laser pulse durations that much longer than the atomic time scales. Most existing models take a quasi-static approach to the laser field on atomic dimensions and time scales. Yet, with pulses as short as a few ~10 to ~100 as and intensities of 10 21 W/cm 2 the feasibility of these approximations becomes questionable. Still the exploration of plasma effects in relativistic laser matter interaction requires to test the boundaries of validity for these models. This thesis will take a step to point out the difficulties to be considered when existing ionization models are applied to such extreme cases.

Keywords: ionization; atomic physics; high-power; ultra-short; lasers

  • Bachelor thesis
    TU Dresden, 2013
    Mentor: Thomas Cowan, Ulrich Schramm
    0071 Seiten

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24429
Publ.-Id: 24429


Modelling Field Ionization in PIConGPU

Garten, M.; Huebl, A.; Widera, R.; Pausch, R.; Debus, A.; Burau, H.; Kluge, T.; Huang, L.; Bussmann, M.

It is vital to treat field ionization adequately and validate the different existing models critically in order to obtain trustworthy results from plasma simulations. This poster presents numerical methods for modelling field ionization in laser-plasma interactions. Based on results obtained in earlier Monte-Carlo simulations on CPU and later application to the fully-relativistic particle-in-cell code PIConGPU it is pointed out that different ionization models and the details of modelling field ionization can have a major influence on plasma dynamics.

Keywords: ionization; particle-in-cell; PIConGPU

  • Poster
    Summer School: Atoms and Plasmas in Super-Intense Laser Fields, 12.-22.07.2015, Erice, Italia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24428
Publ.-Id: 24428


Short Wavelength Magnons in Magnetic Vortex Structures

Dieterle, G.; Förster, J.; Gangwar, A.; Wintz, S.

In recent years magnonics has become one of the prime topics in magnetics research. The prospect of possible technological applications has played a major part in this development. The reliable generation of spin waves with short wavelengths is an ongoing challenge in this eld, as it is di cult by means of a patterned stripline antenna. Here we report on the imaging of spiral shaped short wavelength spin waves emitted by a magnetic vortex core in a permalloy disc. We take advantage of the magnetic perturbation generated by the small moving core, 10-20nm in diameter, to generate spin waves of sub-100nm wavelength. Imaging of these waves has been done using Time-Resolved Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy at the MAXYMUS endstation of the BESSY II synchrotron facility. The experimentally derived dispersion relations match with analytical expressions for hybridized modes between Damon-Eshbach and exchange dominated magnons in in nite ferromagnetic lms. This holds as well for our micromagnetic simulations in these vortex structures.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung der Sektion kondensierte Materie, 19.-24.03.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24427
Publ.-Id: 24427


Ultra-fast thermal processing of TCO and other thin films

Rebohle, L.; Schumann, T.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.

Thermal processing in the ms range comprises modern, non-equilibrium annealing techniques which allow various material modifications at the surface without affecting the bulk. Flash lamp annealing (FLA) is one of the most diverse methods of short time annealing with applications ranging from the classical field of semiconductor doping to the treatment of polymers and flexible substrates. The presentation focuses on the FLA of transparent conducting oxides.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing; thin film applications; transparent conducting oxide

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    6. Workshop Transparente leitfähige Materialien, 22.-23.11.2016, Erfurt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24426
Publ.-Id: 24426


Practical demonstration of Eulerian & Lagrangian MPF simulation

Esch, T.; Krepper, E.

The lesson 6 of the "Short Course on Multiphase Flow Modelling" deals with the simulation of a rectangular bubble colum and of a spray. Modeling advices and datasets are given.

Keywords: Bubble column; ANSYS-CFX; ANSYS-FLUENT

  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th Multiphase Flow Conference and Short Course: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 08.-10.11.2016, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24425
Publ.-Id: 24425


Control of the magnetization dynamics through the Magneto- Elastic coupling effect

Finizio, S.; Wintz, S.; Kirk, E.; Suszka-Gorzny, A.; Gilga, S.; Raabe, J.

The magneto-elastic (ME) coupling has recently become of inter- est thanks to its numerous applications, e.g. in the fabrication of magneto-electric multiferroics. This effect has been recently studied quasi-statically on micro- and nanostructured magnetostrictive materials strained using piezoelectric substrates. However, due to limitations in the RF properties of piezoelectric materials, the influence of the ME coupling on the magneto-dynamical processes has not yet been investigated in depth. Here, thanks to a newly-developed approach that allows the in-situ straining of magnetostrictive materials whilst preserving good RF properties of the substrate, we present a first study of the influence of the ME coupling on the gyration dynamics of magnetic vortices in microstructured magnetostrictive elements using time-resolved x-ray magnetic microscopy. In particular, we observe that the application of a strain to the magnetostrictive material leads to a reduction of the gyration eigenfrequency, and to a modification of the orbit of the vortex core, both of which can be controlled by changing the magnitude of the applied strain.

  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung der Sektion kondensierte Materie, 19.-24.03.2017, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24424
Publ.-Id: 24424


Optical double fiber probe for online measurements in multiphase reactors

Meitzner, C.; Schäfer, T.; Hampel, U.; Lange, R.

A variety of measurement techniques already exist to characterize multiphase flows in large scale as well as in mini scale systems. But when looking at smaller dimensions than millimeters and higher flow velocities the amount of available techniques diminishes drastically. Another problem is the capability of existing solutions to be applicable for online measurements even in non-transparent systems. On this account the current work presents a measurement technique based on optical fibers which is comparable to other commonly applied techniques, but additionally works in a running chemical reaction process. The current work deals with the validation of the double fiber system and a detailed comparison to several widely accepted conventional and modern measurement techniques. These are high speed camera, gravimetric analysis and ultrafast X-ray tomography. The experimental work has been performed in a cold flow loop operating setup with a gas-liquid flow. The final aim has been to characterize the multiphase flow in a mini channel system of a monolith. The investigated monoliths have a cell density of 39 cpsi and 400 cpsi and are made of Cordierite, an opaque ceramic material. By using the developed optical fiber system and the mentioned reference techniques parameters like bubble velocity, flow regime, hold-up or phase distribution have been assessed to compare the common techniques with the newly developed fiber system. The presented fiber optic measurement technique allows reliable, reproducible measurements of local phase characteristics. The mounting space of maximum 250 μm realizes a high local resolution even at small scales. In comparison to other techniques high level of agreement has been proven.

Keywords: optical double fiber probe; multiphase reactors; multiphase flow; monolith

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ProcessNet Jahrestreffen der Fachgruppe Reaktionstechnik 2017, 22.-24.05.2017, Würzburg, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ProcessNet Jahrestreffen der Fachgruppe Reaktionstechnik 2017, 22.-24.05.2017, Würzburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24423
Publ.-Id: 24423


Towards a fully atomistic modelling of laser-plasma interaction in PIConGPU.

Garten, M.; Huebl, A.; Burau, H.; Grund, A.; Widera, R.; Zacharias, M.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.

In laser-generated plasmas the free electron density is a crucial parameter for plasma dynamics. Therefore, to model its spatial and temporal evolution the adequate treatment of ionization is vital. This poster presents the work in progress on numerical field ionization methods implemented in the world's fastest 3D3V electromagnetic particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. Thus, computing a value for the systematic error via repeating simulations with varying ionization schemes is in reach. With high performance computing we can give a range of validity for predictions of pump-probe experiments with high power lasers and X-ray free electron lasers.

Keywords: ionization; particle-in-cell; PIConGPU; XFEL

  • Poster
    Annual HZDR PhD Seminar 2016, 17.-19.10.2016, Ahorn Hotel Oberwiesenthal, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24422
Publ.-Id: 24422


Just-in-time Dosimetry using Positron Emission Tomography

Zacharias, M.; Bussmann, M.; Schöne, S.; Widera, R.; Eckert, C.; Zenker, E.

Outline of data acquisition requirements of in-beam dosimetry using Positron Emission Tomography and presentation of the developed GPU code "raptr".

Keywords: raptr PET dosimetry GPU

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Topical Workshop on Parallel Computing for Data Acquisition and Online Monitoring, 07.-08.03.2016, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CSCS-USI Summer School 2016, 17.-28.07.2016, Hotel Serpiano, Schweiz

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24421
Publ.-Id: 24421


Enhancing field ionization modeling in PIConGPU towards a fully atomistic description of laser-matter interaction

Garten, M.; Huebl, A.; Burau, H.; Grund, A.; Widera, R.; Zacharias, M.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.

In laser-generated plasmas the free electron density is a crucial parameter for plasma dynamics. Therefore, to model its spatial and temporal evolution the adequate treatment of ionization is vital. This poster presents the work in progress on numerical field ionization methods implemented in the world's fastest 3D3V electromagnetic particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. Thus, computing a value for the systematic error via repeating simulations with varying ionization schemes is in reach. With high performance computing we can give a range of validity for predictions of pump-probe experiments with high power lasers and X-ray free electron lasers.

Keywords: ionization; particle-in-cell; PIConGPU; XFEL

  • Poster
    EUCALL Annual Workshop 2016, 31.08.2016, HZDR, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24420
Publ.-Id: 24420


Analysis and applications of a multi-field approach for plunging jet configurations

Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Zidouni, F.

A generalized approach developed for the simulation of two-phase flow problems with multi-scale interfacial structures is applied for the simulation of a plunging jet. The GEneralized TwO Phase flow (GENTOP) modeling approach considers different scales in term of interfacial structure. The explicit statistical simulation of the interface between continuous gas and fluid is combined with the Euler/Euler simulation of dispersed gas. For the dispersed gas the Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) approach simulates different bubble sizes. The mass transfer between the bubble sizes is considered by bubble breakup and coalescence models. The gas entrainment during the plunging jet is described by the transition between continuous gas and dispersed gas. Therefor a special sub grid model is applied.
This set of models is applied for the simulation of plunging jet experiments performed by Chanson et al. (2004). In the tests different geometric scales of plunging jet were investigated and here analyzed. The paper shows the capabilities of this approach and identifies weak points which need further development.

Keywords: CFD; two phase flow; Euler/Euler approach; interfacial area; plunging jet

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Application of CFD/CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety and Design and their Experimental Validation, 13.-15.09.2016, Cambridge, USA
    Konferenz-CD
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Application of CFD/CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety and Design and their Experimental Validation, 13.-15.09.2016, Cambridge, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24419
Publ.-Id: 24419


Gamma-ray computed tomography for investigations on centrifugal pumps under gas entrainment conditions

Schäfer, T.

The lecture gives an introduction to high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography and its application for quantitative measurements and visualization of two-phase flow in industrial and scientific applications. Exemplarily, recent results from investigations on an industrial centrifugal pump under several gas entrainment conditions will be presented.

Keywords: gamma-ray computed tomography; two-phase flow; centrifugal pump

  • Lecture (others)
    Iraqi-German Partnership on Multiphase Flow Research and Training (IGP-Multiflow), Summer School 2016, 02.-09.10.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24417
Publ.-Id: 24417


Simulation of an MSLB scenario using the 3D neutron kinetic core model Dyn3D coupled with the CFD software Trio U

Grahn, A.; Gommlich, A.; Kliem, S.; Bilodid, Y.; Kozmenkov, Y.

In the framework of the European project NURESAFE, the reactor dynamics code DYN3D, developed at HZDR, was coupled with the CFD solver Trio_U, developed at CEA France, in order to replace DYN3D’s one-dimensional hydraulic part with a full three-dimensional description of the coolant flow in the reactor core at higher spatial resolution. The present document gives an introduction into the coupling method and shows results of its application to the simulation of an MSLB accident of a PWR.

Keywords: reactor safety; code coupling; thermal hydraulics; computational fluid dynamics; reactor dynamics

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24416
Publ.-Id: 24416


Unsteady single phase natural circulation flow mixing prediction using 3D thermal-hydraulic system and CFD codes

Bousbia Salah, A.; Ceuca, S. C.; Puragliesi, R.; Mukin, R.; Grahn, A.; Kliem, S.; Vlassenbroeck, J.; Austregesilo, H.

Advanced 3D computational tools are increasingly used to simulate complex phenomena occurring during scenario involving operational transients and accidents in nuclear power plants. Among these scenarios, one can mention the asymmetric coolant mixing under natural circulation flow regimes. This issue motivated some detailed experimental investigations carried out within the OECD/NEA PKL projects. The aim of these investigations was, besides the assessment of the mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel, to provide experimental data for computer code validations. In the current study, the ROCOM/PKL-3 T2.3 experimental test is assessed using on one hand thermal-hydraulic system codes with 3D capabilities, and on the other hand a CFD computational tool. The results emphasize the capabilities and the differences between the considered computational tools as well as their suitability for such purposes.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24415
Publ.-Id: 24415


Editorial for special issue on process tomography in flow measurement and instrumentation

Hampel, U.

Analysis and control of industrial processes is inseparably interlinked with appropriate process measurement techniques. Among such distributed sensing, imaging and tomography are emerging technologies, which gain more and more attention, as they have the capability to measure field quantities. Research and application in the field of process tomography is continuously intense and recently many innovative concepts and ideas have been born and demonstrated. Exchange of knowledge within the process tomography community and transfer of knowledge to research and industry are supported by the International Society for Industrial Process Tomography on the basis of regular expert meetings. This special issue is a compilation of the 21 most important contributions from the 7th International Symposium on Industrial Process Tomography ISPT7, held in Dresden, Germany, Sept. 1-4, 2015. It covers a broad range of process tomography technologies but also a broad range of technology readiness levels from very fundamental aspects, such as raw data processing or new methods of analysis of tomographic images, new modalities, such as microwave tomography, up to important industrial applications, such as cyclone separators, bubble column reactors and waste water abatement.

Keywords: process tomography; flow measurement

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24414
Publ.-Id: 24414


Tackling challenges in AMS sample preparation

Merchel, S.; Le Bras, L.; Gurlit, S.; Rugel, G.; Scharf, A.; Opel, T.; Wetterich, S.

Since 2009 the DREAMS (DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) facility offers users to do their own sample preparation for AMS targets. A large number of samples from interdisciplinary research Topics such as astronomy, climate, cosmochemistry and geology could be transformed into BeO, Al2O3, AgCl and CaF2 showing reasonable to excellent performance [Rugel et al., this DPG.]. However, besides our constant approach to become a little better every day, sometimes very new challenges can arise due to the low availability of the sample material, low radionuclide concentration or a possible contamination of the sample with disturbing elements and nuclides. Two examples:
Ice samples are always in our focus. As we were facing Problems with 10Be contamination in "dirty" ground ice, we measured 36Cl and natCl by isotope dilution in permafrost ice wedge samples as heavy as 1.6 kg. The chemical yield of AgCl was only 20-35% (and is a function of total natCl), which might be improved by preconcentration steps.
For the determination of in-situ or atmospheric 26Al in marine and terrestrial sediments [e.g. Gärtner et al., this DPG.], we had sometimes unaccountable low chemical yields, which seems to be partially due to
redissolving aluminium hydroxide in the last washings.
Thanks to A. Gärtner, P. Ludwig, D. Rodrigues and several students for providing/processing samples.

Keywords: AMS; accelerator mass spectrometry

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (AMOP), 06.-10.03.2017, Mainz, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24413
Publ.-Id: 24413


Methoden der Zustandsüberwachung von Transport- und Lagerbehältern für abgebrannte Brennelemente und wärmeentwickelnde hochradioaktive Abfälle bei verlängerter Zwischenlagerung

Hampel, U.

Der Vortrag stellt das vom BMWi geförderte gleichnamige Vorhaben vor. In diesem werden nichtinvasive Prüf- und Überwachunsgmethoden zur Erkennung von Veränderungen des Inventars von Transport- und Lagerbehältern (Typ CASTOR) auf ihre Machbarkeit untersucht. Hintergund ist die in Deutschland absehbare verlängerte Zwischenlagerung abgebrannter Brennelemente in Trockenlägern an den heutigen Kernkraftwerksstandorten. Für Zwischenlagerungszeiträume von mehreren Jahrzehnten ist heue keine verlässliche Aussage über etwaige Zustandsveränderungen an den Brennelementen möglich. Daher kommt nichtinvasiven Monitoringverfahren für den Behälterinhalt ein große Bedeutung zu. Untersucht werden Verfahren auf Basis von Gamma-, Neutronen- und Myonenstrahlung, akustische und schwingungsspektroskopische Verfahren sowie Thermographieverfahren.

Keywords: Nukleare Sicherheit; verlängerte Zwischenlagerung; Brennelemente; Trockenlager; Transport- und Lagerbehälter; CASTOR; Monitoring

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12. Projektstatusgespräch zu BMWi-geförderten FuE-Projekten zur Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfälle, 09.-10.11.2016, Karslruhe, BRD

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24412
Publ.-Id: 24412


Multiphase flow measurement via tomography : fundamentals, challenges and needs

Hampel, U.

The invited lecture discussed and demonstrates the application of tomographic imaging in multiphase flow measurement. Thereby the discussion is guided along prototypical application examples in the fields of oil and gas production, chemical engineering and nuclear engineering. Emphasize is given to open quesions and future needs to improve applicability and significance of tomographic imaging techniques in fundmental and engineering research.

Keywords: multiphase flow; flow measurement; tomograpy; chemical engineering; nuclear engineering; oil and gas production

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    8th World Congress On Industrial Process Tomography, 26.-29.09.2016, Iguassu Falls, Brasilien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24411
Publ.-Id: 24411


Analysis of self-assembled monolayer coating and the influence on dropwise condensation

Unger, S.; Sarker, D.; Hampel, U.

Das Phänomen der Tropfenkondensation, sowie der damit verbundene hohe Wärmeübertragungskoeffizient, haben ein großes Potential für die Optimierung industrieller Kondensationsprozesse. Ein wesentlicher Parameter der Kondensationsoberfläche bei der Tropfenkondensation ist der Kontaktwinkel eines Flüssigkeitstropfens auf einer Oberfläche. Insbesondere bei Arbeitsmedien mit geringen Oberflächenspannungen, sind niedrige Oberflächenenergien notwendig, um Tropfenkondensation zu realisieren. Selbst-aggregierende Monoschichten (SAM) auf der Basis von Phosphonsäure stellen eine Möglichkeit zur Herstellung von hydrophoben Oberflächen dar, welche auch bei Instandhaltung nachträglich aufgebracht oder erneuert werden können. Der Einfluss derartiger Beschichtungen auf das Verhalten von Kondensationssystemen wird untersucht.
Ein hoher Kontaktwinkel kennzeichnet die hydrophobe Eigenschaft einer Oberfläche, welche mit Hilfe von SAM durch ein auf Phosphonsäure basierendes nass¬chemisches Verfahren erzeugt wurde. Durch eine Kombination von künstlich eingestellter Rauigkeit und SAM-Beschichtung ist es möglich Kontaktwinkel in einem weiten Spektrum gezielt einzustellen. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, individuell auf den Kondensationsprozess und Dampfgehalt angepasste Funktionsflächen zu fertigen.
Besonders hohe Kontaktwinkel wurden auf Proben mit hoher Rauigkeit und bei SAM mit langen Kohlenstoffketten gemessen. Aufgrund des nasschemischen Beschichtungsverfahrens können beliebige Geometrien, wie beispielsweise innen-berippte Rohre und Hohlstrukturen, behandelt werden. Dies ermöglicht die gezielte Beeinflussung der Wärmeübertragungseigenschaften und des Kondensat-Ablaufes in einer Struktur. In einem integralen Versuchsstand wird der Einsatz dieser neuartigen Wärmeübertragerflächen mit hoher Auflösung untersucht.

Keywords: dropwise condensation; condensation; heat transfer

  • Poster
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppe Wärme- und Stoffübertragung, 01.-02.03.2016, Kassel, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24410
Publ.-Id: 24410


Bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites by Acidovorax facilis - a microscopic and spectroscopic study

Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Gerber, U.; Steudtner, R.

For remediation of uranium contaminated environments from activities such as uranium mining and uranium processing, microorganisms could be important due to their ability to immobilize radionuclides and heavy metals. To improve bioremediation strategies based on a better understanding of binding mechanisms on the molecular level, we applied uranium interaction experiments with Acidovorax facilis, an aerobic, Gram-negative Betaproteobacteria, which is commonly found in soils. Experiments were performed in batch cultures under aerobic conditions at 25 °C using nutrient broth. The cells were grown to an optical density (OD600) of around 1.5. For sorption experiments UO2(NO3)2 was added to the culture to achieve an initial uranium concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 M, respectively, at a neutral pH range. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) coupled with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) were applied. The results provide spectroscopically and microscopically evidence of uranium sorbed at the outer membrane of Acidovorax f. cells by showing high electron density and uranium ionization intensity peaks. In addition, uranium was detected in the small polyphosphate granules of the cells, indicating the formation of a uranyl-phosphate complex as a result of an intracellular bioaccumulation process. The results support the TRLFS measurements, concluding that uranium is bound on carboxylic functionality groups, e.g., peptidoglycan (R−COO−UO2) and either on phosphoryl groups, e.g., uranyl-lipopolysaccharide-complexes R-O-PO3-UO2 and [R-O-PO3]2-UO22- of the outer membrane [1].
[1] Barkleit, A. et al. (2008). Dalton Transaction 2879-2886.

Keywords: uranium; bioremediation; Acidovorax f; EF-TEM; TRLFS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    BioRemid2017, 09.-10.03.2017, Granada, Espana

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24409
Publ.-Id: 24409


Structure of interfaces in GaN/AlN and Ge/Si multilayered heterosystems by XAFS spectroscopy

Erenburg, S. B.; Trubina, S. V.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Malin, T. V.; Zinovyev, V. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Kuchinskaya, P. A.; Kvashnina, K. O.

III-nitride heterostructures in the form of multilayered quantum wells (MQWs) or quantum dots (QDs) and interacting Ge QDs (“quantum molecules”) are promising candidates for high-speed intersubband (ISB) optical devices relying on the quantum confinement of electrons. Microstructural parameters (interatomic distances, coordination numbers, and Debye–Waller factors) were determined by means of EXAFS spectroscopy based on the Synchrotron Radiation, and the relationship between the variations in these parameters and the morphology of superlattices and symmetric assembles of QDs were established. The EXAFS technique has been used to study the local structure of thin hexagonal GaN/AlN MQWs grown by ammonia MBE at different temperatures. It is shown that the heterointerface intermixing leads to a decrease in the Ga-Al interatomic distance and the Ga–Ga coordination number in MQWs. The degree of intermixing in the boundary layers rises from 30% to 40% with increase of the growth temperature from 795 to 895◦ C. It was found that in the first phase of quantum molecules growth Ge atoms concentration is 25%. With further growth (deposition of the base layers) Ge concentration increases up to 35–45%, depending on the temperature (from 610 to 550◦C) of deposition

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    XXXI International Conference on Equations of State for Matter (ELBRUS2016), 01.03.-06.11.2016, Elbrus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia
    Journal of Physics: Conference Series 774(2016), 012128
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/774/1/012128

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24407
Publ.-Id: 24407


Shape change of biogenic elemental selenium nanomaterials decreases their colloidal stability

Jain, R.; Jordan, N.; Tsushima, S.; Hübner, R.; Weiss, S.; Lens, P.

Selenium is an important element for technology and dietary supplements but it is toxic at slightly higher concentration. Thus, its removal from the wastewaters is important. Microbial reduction of selenium oxyanions in thermophilic bioreactor (55 oC) removed higher selenium when compared to the control mesophilic bioreactor (30 oC). This study demonstrated that the better performance of the thermophilic bioreactor was due to the better settling properties of biogenic elemental selenium nanorods (BioSe-Nanorods) produced in thermophilic conditions compared to biogenic elemental selenium nanospheres (BioSe-Nanospheres) produced in mesophilic conditions. The BioSe-Nanorods were less colloidally stable than the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) capped BioSe-Nanospheres as demonstrated by the former's lesser negative zeta potential values when exposed to elevated concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 as well as better settling in different lake waters. The lower colloidal stability was due to a lesser negative surface charge density of BioSe-Nanorods compared to BioSe-Nanospheres. This study also argued that the EPS were the corona of BioSe-Nanorods as well. Further, this study observed that the formation of BioSe-Nanorods proceeds via BioSe-Nanospheres. This study demonstrates the importance of the shape of nanoparticles in determining their bioremediation effectiveness and the fate in the environment.

Keywords: Surface charge density; ζ-potential; microbial reduction; selenium nanorods; DFT

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24406
Publ.-Id: 24406


Interatomic potential to study the formation of NiCr clusters in high Cr ferritic steels

Bonny, G.; Bakaev, A.; Olsson, P.; Domain, C.; Zhurkin, E. E.; Posselt, M.

Under irradiation NiSiPCr clusters are formed in high-Cr ferritic martensitic steels as well as in FeCr model alloys. In the literature little is known about the origin and contribution to the hardening of these clusters. In this work we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the stability of small substitutional NiCr-vacancy clusters and interstitial configurations in bcc Fe. Based on DFT data and experimental considerations a ternary potential for the ferritic FeNiCr system was developed. The potential was applied to study the thermodynamic stability of NiCr clusters by means of Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. The results of our simulations show that Cr and Ni precipitate as separate fractions and suggest only a limited synergetic effect between Ni and Cr. Therefore our results suggest that the NiCrSiP clusters observed in experiments must be the result of other mechanisms than the synergy of Cr and Ni at thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: interatomic potential; Fe-Cr-Ni alloys; precipitates; clusters

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24405
Publ.-Id: 24405


Terahertz free-electron laser spectroscopy of excitons in III-V semiconductor quantum wells and single quantum dots

Schneider, H.; Stephan, D. R.; Zybell, S.; Winnerl, S.; Bhattacharyya, J.; Eßer, F.; Helm, M.

Using intense, spectrally narrow terahertz pulses from the free-electron laser facility FELBE in Dresden, Germany, we have investigated exciton population dynamics in III-V QWs and single quantum dots. To this end, carriers are optically injected by picosecond near-infrared pulses to populate the lowest excitonic level. Using narrowband terahertz pulses, excitons are resonantly excited into higher levels. Time-dependent photoluminescence measurements based on a streak camera system and on time-correlated photon counting, respectively, then allow us to study the transient population of dipole-allowed higher exciton levels and to access the relaxation dynamics.

Keywords: excitons; GaAs; quantum well; quantum dot; terahertz; free-electron laser; time-resolved photoluminescence

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SPIE Photonics Asia, Symposium on "Infrared, Millimeter Wave, and Terahertz Technologies", 12.-14.10.2016, Beijing, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24404
Publ.-Id: 24404


Terahertz free-electron laser spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

Schneider, H.

This talk reviews recent spectroscopic studies on semiconductor nanostructures using the THz free-electron laser FELBE. Its intense, quasi-continuous, nearly transform-limited ps pulses provide unique research opportunities to advance THz science.

Keywords: spectroscopy; terahertz; free-electron laser

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 8th International Symposium on Ultrafast Phenomena and Terahertz Waves (ISUPTW 2016), 10.-12.10.2016, Chongqing, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24403
Publ.-Id: 24403


MHD sloshing instability in liquid metal batteries

Horstmann, G. M.; Weber, N.; Weier, T.

Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are discussed today as a cheap grid scale energy storage, as required for the deployment of fluctuating renewable energies. LMBs incorporate stratified three-layer fluid systems consisting of two liquid metal electrodes separated by a thin molten salt electrolyte. Due to the high electrical conductivities of the liquid metals, LMBs are highly susceptible for becoming unstable by MHD interactions of magnetic fields induced by internal and external currents. Besides the Tayler instability and the electrovortex instability, the so-called sloshing instability, also known as the metal pad roll instability in aluminum reduction cells, was identified as a key instability mechanism capable to cause short-circuits. Dimensionless stability parameters derived from inviscid two-layer systems can predict the onsets for sloshing and short-circuits with some success for a limited parameter range, but the two-layer description is far from perfect. To quantify the two-layer limitations, a three-layer dispersion relation was derived and deviations from the two-layer system were discussed. On this basis it is planned to extract three-layer stability criteria additionally including viscous damping to predict instability onsets in direct dependence of the geometrical parameters and material properties of LMBs. Further to this, three-layer experiments are under development aiming to measure the interaction and stability of interfacial waves using Doppler Ultrasound Velocimetry (DOP) and Magnetic Field Tomography (MFT) for checking the validity of different stability criteria.

Keywords: MHD; Sloshing; Liquid Metal Battery

  • Poster
    MHD Days 2016, 30.11.-02.12.2016, Göttingen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24402
Publ.-Id: 24402


Long-range interactions in the effective low energy Hamiltonian of Sr2IrO4: a core level resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study

Agrestini, S.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Moretti Sala, M.; Hu, Z.; Kasinathan, D.; Ko, K.-T.; Glatzel, P.; Rossi, M.; Cafun, J.-D.; Kvashnina, K. O.; Matsumoto, A.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Tjeng, L. H.; Haverkort, M. W.

We have investigated the electronic structure of Sr2IrO4 using core level resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The experimental spectra can be well reproduced using ab initio density functional theory based multiplet ligand field theory calculations, thereby validating these calculations. We found that the low-energy, effective Ir t2g orbitals are practically degenerate in energy. We uncovered that covalency in Sr2IrO4, and generally in iridates, is very large with substantial oxygen ligand hole character in the Ir t2g Wannier orbitals. This has far reaching consequences, not only are onsite crystal-field energies determined by the long range crystal-structure, more significantly, magnetic exchange interactions will have long range distance dependent anisotropies in the spin direction. These findings set constraints and show pathways for the design of d5 materials that can host compass like magnetic interactions.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24401
Publ.-Id: 24401


Challenges in QCD matter physics - The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Y.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Y.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, X.; Cálin, M.; Cao, P.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, J.; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, S.; Das, S.; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, W.; Deng, C.; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, H.; Fan, X.; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, S.; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Han, D.; Hartmann, H.; He, S.; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, D.; Huang, G.; Huang, X.; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, D.; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, F.; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, X.; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, P.; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muńoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Y.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, K.; Onishchuk, Y.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, A.; Roy, A.; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, M.; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, S.; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, G.; Song, J.; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Y.; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Z.; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'Skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Y.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, A.; Voronin, A.; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.-W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, G.; Won, S.; Wu, K.-J.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, C.; Xu, N.; Yang, J.; Yang, R.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, S.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, X.; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Zrelov, M.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (sqrt(s_NN) = 2.7 - 4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (mu_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation-of-state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2022, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24400
Publ.-Id: 24400


Nukleare Transmutation: Moderne Alchemie oder Chance für die Kernenergie?

Kögler, T.

Mit Beschluss des Bundestages vom 30. Juni 2011 wird Deutschland bis 2022 seine Kernkraftwerke schrittweise stilllegen. Mit der Energiewende soll bis 2050 ein Großteil der benötigten Energie aus regenerativen Trägern bereitgestellt werden. Bis dahin ist es ein langer und schwieriger Weg, auf welchem noch zahlreiche technologische Probleme gelöst werden müssen.
Im Gegensatz zur Bundesrepublik setzen viele Länder (z.B.: China) weiterhin auf die Kernenergie. Ein Grund dafür: neuartige Reaktorkonzepte (Gen IV) machen diese sicherer und effizienter, vor allem stellen sie Lösungen zur Beseitigung des nuklearen Abfalls vor.
Dieser Vortrag beschäftigt sich mit ausgewählten Aspekten der Energiewende, erläutert die physikalischen Prozesse die zur Erzeugung oder Vernichtung des hochradioaktiven Kernabfalls führen und gibt einen Überblick über zukünftige Reaktortechnologien und Transmutationsanlagen.

Keywords: Nukleare Transmutation; Generation IV Reaktoren; Energiewende; Beschleunigergetriebene Systeme

  • Lecture (others)
    Energie, Resourcen, Umwelt, 06.03.2017, Löbau, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    Löbauer Umweltforum, 18.02.2017, Löbau, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24399
Publ.-Id: 24399


Terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures with a free-electron laser

Schneider, H.

In this talk I will present recent experimental investigations on carrier dynamics in graphene studied via pump-probe spectroscopy, on time-resolved photoluminescence dynamics of single InAs/GaAs quantum dots under pulsed inter-sublevel excitation, and on sub-diffraction limited terahertz imaging by a GaAs-based superlens studied by scattering near-field optical microscopy. The experiments have been carried out using the mid-infrared/terahertz free-electron laser facility FELBE in Dresden, Germany.

Keywords: free-electron laser; terahertz; semiconductor nanostructures

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar, Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, 23.09.2016, Paris, France
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, 18.10.2016, Chengdu, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-24398
Publ.-Id: 24398


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