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Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows

Vallee, C.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Carl, H.


Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation.

The Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC) is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the instable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary sensibly with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases.

The second channel is built in the pressure vessel of the TOPFLOW facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264°C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at 1:3. The investigations focus on the flow regimes observed in the region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber, which are equipped with glass side walls. An overview of the experimental methodology and of the acquired data is given. These cover experiments without water circulation, which can be seen as test cases for CFD development, as well as counter-current flow limitation experiments, representing transient validation cases of a typical nuclear reactor safety issue.

Keywords: two-phase flow; stratified flow; horizontal flow; high-speed video observation; image processing; hot leg

  • Contribution to proceedings
    XCFD4NRS - Experiments and CFD Code Applications to Nuclear Reactor Safety, 10.-12.09.2008, Grenoble, France
    Paper HOR-05
  • Poster
    XCFD4NRS - Experiments and CFD Code Applications to Nuclear Reactor Safety, 10.-12.09.2008, Grenoble, France
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 240(2010), 2347-2356
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.11.011
    Cited 13 times in Scopus