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Depth profiled ion implantation doping using an energy filter based on Si membrane

Akhmadaliev, S.; Krippendorf, F.; Bezerra, E. B. D.; von Borany, J.; Csato, C.; Rüb, M.; Zowalla, A.


An important step during fabrication of modern semiconductor devices is doping of the material by means of ion implantation. For some applications in power or optoelectronics also special non-Gaussian shaped buried implantation profiles are required. The conventional way to create accurate shaped doping profiles by using multiple implantations of mono-energetic ions with subsequent thermal annealing is quite time consuming. An alternative approach is the application of an ion beam exhibiting the desired energy and flux distribution. For applications of less accuracy metallic foils with various thicknesses have been applied as energy filters (EF). A relatively new method is a filter made of micro-mechanically manufactured silicon membranes with modulated thickness which changes the energy of the initially mono-energetic ion beam from an accelerator and converts quasi-Gaussian shaped implantation profile into the specified one [1]. An example of such an EF shown in Fig.1 which can be used for homogeneous buried box-like doping profiles covering a doping depth of several micrometers. The ions with equal energies Eo will have different energies after the filter depending on the local thickness of the material and the resulting ion ranges are in different depth in the substrate.
There are some challenges by using this technique. Besides the reliable and reproducible fabrication of the energy filter, aspects like thermal stability, ion beam sputtering or geometrical constrains have to be considered. Another difficulty of this method is the monitoring of the ion flux after the EF in order to control the implanted dose. A Faraday cup setup cannot be directly applied because of the recharging of the ions by the EF and their undefined charge state after the filter, so the process needs precise calibration for each ion type and energy. A Si EF fabricated at Ernst-Abbe Hochschule was calibrated and taken for the doping of 4” wafers using the wafer-handler with the mechanical scanning system at 3 MV tandem accelerator at HZDR [2]. The experiments deliver promising results and demonstrate the possibility of application this method for doping purposes.
[1] M. Rüb, DE Patent App, 2012, DE102011075350 A1
[2] C. Csato et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 365 (2015) 182

Keywords: SiC; energy filter; ion implantation

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