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Realizing the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si via non-equilibrium material processing

Liu, F.; Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Yuan, Y.; Liu, Y.; Heller, R.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.


We report on the insulator-to-metal transition in Se-hyperdoped Si layers driven by manipulating the Se concentration via non-equilibrium material processing, i.e. ion implantation followed by millisecond-flash lamp annealing. Electrical transport measurements reveal an increase of the carrier concentration and conductivity with the increasing Se concentration. For the semi-insulating sample with Se concentrations below the Mott limit, quantitative analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity indicates a variable-range hopping mechanism with an exponent of s  =  1/2 rather than 1/4, which implies a Coulomb gap at the Fermi level. The observed insulator-to-metal transition is attributed to the formation of an intermediate band in the Se-hyperdoped Si layers.

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