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On the insulator-to-metal transition in titanium-implanted silicon

Liu, F.; Wang, M.; Berencén, Y.; Prucnal, S.; Engler, M.; Hübner, R.; Yuan, Y.; Heller, R.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.


Hyperdoped silicon with deep level impurities has attracted much research interest due to its promising optical and electrical properties. In this work, single crystalline silicon supersaturated with titanium is fabricated by ion implantation followed by both pulsed laser melting and flash lamp annealing. The decrease of sheet resistance with increasing Ti concentration is attributed to a surface morphology effect due to the formation of cellular breakdown at the surface and the percolation conduction at high Ti concentration is responsible for the metallic-like conductivity. The insulator-to-metal transition does not happen. However, the doping effect of Ti incorporation at low concentration is not excluded, which might be responsible for the sub-bandgap optical absorption reported in literature.

Keywords: Hyperdoped silicon; deep level impurities; flash lamp annealing; insulator-to-metal transition

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