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High-order nonlinear terahertz probing of the two-band superconductor MgB2: Third- and fifth-order harmonic generation

Reinhoffer, C.; Pilch, P.; Reinold, A.; Derendorf, P.; Kovalev, S.; Deinert, J.-C.; Ilyakov, I.; Ponomaryov, O.; Chen, M.; Xu, T.-Q.; Wang, Y.; Gan, Z.-Z.; Wu, D.-S.; Luo, J.-L.; Germanskiy, S.; Mashkovich, E. A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Eremin, I. M.; Wang, Z.


We report on high-order harmonic generation in the two-band superconductor MgB 2 driven by intense
terahertz electromagnetic pulses. Third- and fifth-order harmonics are resolved in time domain and investigated
as a function of temperature and in applied magnetic fields crossing the superconducting phase boundary. The
high-order harmonics in the superconducting phase reflects nonequilibrium dynamics of the superconducting
order parameter in MgB2, which is probed via nonlinear coupling to the terahertz field. The observed temperature
and field dependence of the nonlinear response allows to establish the superconducting phase diagram.

Keywords: Terahertz; Superconductivity; Harmonic Generation; Magnetic Fields; Nonlinear Processes

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