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Impedimetric Nanobiosensor for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antigens and Antibodies

Sandoval Bojorquez, D. I.; Janićijević, Ž.; Palestina Romero, B.; Oliveros Mata, E. S.; Laube, M.; Feldmann, A.; Kegler, A.; Drewitz, L.; Fowley, C.; Pietzsch, J.; Faßbender, J.; Tonn, T.; Bachmann, M.; Baraban, L.


Detection of antigens and antibodies (Abs) is of great importance in determining the infection and immunity status of the population, as they are key parameters guiding the handling of pandemics. Current point-of-care (POC) devices are a convenient option for rapid screening; however, their sensitivity requires further improvement. We present an interdigitated gold nanowire-based impedance nanobiosensor to detect COVID-19-associated antigens (receptor-binding domain of S1 protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus) and respective Abs appearing during and after infection. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to assess the changes in measured impedance resulting from the binding of respective analytes to the surface of the chip. After 20 min of incubation, the sensor devices demonstrate a high sensitivity of about 57 pS·sn per concentration decade and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.99 pg/mL for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs and a sensitivity of around 21 pS·sn per concentration decade and an LOD of 0.14 pg/mL for the virus antigen detection. Finally, the analysis of clinical plasma samples demonstrates the applicability of the developed platform to assist clinicians and authorities in determining the infection or immunity status of the patients.

Keywords: impedimetric sensing; point-of-care testing; SARS-CoV-2; gold nanowires; impedance model; reliability; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

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