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Ferritische ODS Stähle für die Kernfusion
Hilger, I.; Heintze, C.; Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Weißgärber, T.; Garcia-Junced, A.; Palasse, L.; (Editors)
Die Eigenschaften von ODS Stählen werden mit Hinblick auf die Anwendung in der Kernfusion gezeigt. Neben Mechanismen bei Ionen- und Neutronenbestrahlung werden Ergebnisse der Gefügeuntersuchung und der Nanohärtemessung nach Ionenbestrahlung gezeigt.
Keywords: ion irradiation; EBSD; Nanoindentation; SANS; APT
4. Dresdner Werkstoffsymposium, 18.11.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
The structure evolution of yttria in ferritic ODS alloys during mechanical alloying
Hilger, I.; Tegel, M.; Bergner, F.
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are usually fabricated via mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. During the individual process steps, a complex evolution of the nanoparticle structure is taking place. Powders with different Y2O3 contents were milled and examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). It has been observed that the Y2O3 is fragmented and becomes partially X-ray amorphous upon milling. This effect is due to the grain refinement of Y2O3 during the milling process and not because of its dissociation in the steel matrix.
Keywords: mechanical alloying; dissolution; ODS alloys
HZDR PhD Seminar 2013, 07.10.2013, Bautzen, Deutschland
Microstructural properties of Spark Plasma Sintered ODS Fe-14Cr alloys
Hilger, I.; Bergner, F.; Weißgärber, T.; Garcia-Junceda, A.; Palasse, L.
Besides the fabrication route via mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering, the microstructure characterization by means of electron diffraction techniques (EBSD, TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) and small-angle neutron scattering is shown.
Keywords: EBSD; TKD; SPS; SANS; APT; ODS
GETMAT final workshop, 17.09.2013, Berlin, Deutschland
Dual-Beam irradiation of spark plasma sintered ODS Fe-14Cr alloys
Hilger, I.; Bergner, F.; Palasse, L.; Shariq, A.; Kölling, S.; Garcia-Junced, A.
ODS Fe14Cr alloys are considered as candidates for the replacement of austenitic steels in nuclear applications such as cladding tubes for future sodium fast rectors. This requires a background on the fabrication route, properties and irradiation behavior. Samples with yttria contents of 0.6wt% were produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The grain size and particle type and size were characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and atom probe tomography (APT), respectively. The microstructural homogeneity was evaluated by a combination of EBSD and scanning nanoindentation (SNI). SNI mappings are displayed in Fig. 1. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the hardness value at the µm size scale is observed. The homogeneity is clearly influenced by the milling parameters. The relationship between hardness, grain size and spatial distribution of nanoparticles is considered.
The compacted samples were irradiated with iron ions and with iron and helium ions (dual-beam irradiation) in order to investigate the influence of yttria particles on the helium bubble formation. The irradiated and unirradiated materials are characterized with respect to indentation hardness and microstructure.
Keywords: ODS; EBSD; TKD; ion irradiation; Spark plasma sintering
EUROMAT 2013, 10.09.2013, Sevilla, España
Microstructure of spark plasma sintered ODS Fe-14Cr
Hilger, I.; Bergner, F.; Tegel, M.; Palasse, L.; Shariq, A.; Kölling, S.; García-Junceda, A.; Gorley, M.
The fabrication route of an ODS Fe-14Cr alloy via mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering is shown. The results of electron diffraction techniques (EBSD; TKD), atom probe tomography and X-ray diffraction are shown with respect to the goal to achieve a higher radiation resistance of the material.
Keywords: ion irradiation; spark plasma sintering; ODS; EBSD; TKD
International ODS meeting, 08.07.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Fabrication of oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels for nuclear applications
An overview about the fabrication, microstructure characterization and irradiation behaviour of oxide-dispersion strengthened steels ist given. The shown techniques include mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering as well as the characterization by means of electron backscatter diffraction and atom probe tomography.
Keywords: EBSD; atom probe tomography; Spark plasma Sintering; ODS steels
FWI PhD Seminar, 17.06.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Germanium nanocrystals in SiO2: Relevance of the defect state distribution at the Si-SiO2 interface
Beyer, R.; Burghardt, H.; von Borany, J.
Nanocrystals (NC's) in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures are considered as storage nodes for non-volatile memory devices. The application of germanium NC's is essentially driven by the prospect of improved charge retention, however, the trade-off between short write/erase operation and long data retention is still an unsolved issue as long as the electronic states contributing to the memory effect and the charge transfer paths for capture and emission are not clearly identified. Recently we have shown, that a thermally stimulated process is involved in the hole emission from
embedded nanocrystals and that interface states might play a key role as transfer nodes. In order to inspect this supposition we examine in this study the charge response from interface states and near-interfacial border traps by means of temperature dependent capacitance-voltage measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy. NC's were introduced into 20 nm SiO2 layers on p-type silicon by Ge implantation and subsequent annealing.
The temperature dependence of the programming window was established for different samples, and the interface state density distribution was reconstructed from the DLTS spectrum. A particular feature was found in the spectrum which is not associated with the emission of the dispersed interface states, but likely related to the charge emission of the NC's based on a second order process. A scheme of the write/erase mechanisms is discussed, pointing out the crucial role of the interface states with respect to the device operation.
Keywords: germanium nanocrystals; non-volatile memory; charge trapping; interface states
Physica Status Solidi (C) 10(2013)4, 607-610
Resonance fine-splitting in a spin-torque nano-oscillator containing two stacked vortices
Sluka, V.; Kákay, A.; Deac, A. M.; Bürgler, D. E.; Schneider, C. M.; Hertel, R.
Magnetic vortices have become subject of increasingly intense study in spintronics during the past years. These structures develop as flux-closure patterns in cylindrical ferromagnetic disks of dimensions between the single- and multi-domain regimes. The magnetization is basically in-plane and circulates the disk center while the sense of the circulation can be either clockwise or counter-clockwise, defining the chirality of the vortex. As a result of the curling magnetization, the exchange energy density increases when approaching the center region, leading to the formation of a tiny out-of-plane magnetized volume referred to as the vortex core . This core has lateral dimensions in the order of the exchange length and can point either “up” or “down” with respect to the disk plane. Once dislocated from its equilibrium position, the vortex core performs a circular motion around the disk center which is referred to the gyrotropic mode [2,3]. Its frequency depends on the material parameters and the disk aspect ratio and is typically of the order of a few 100 MHz. The sense of gyration is thereby determined by the polarity of the vortex core.
It has been shown that the gyrotropic mode can be excited by spin-transfer torque , opening up the possibility of vortex-based spin-torque oscillators, which offer extremely narrow linewidths and operate at zero applied field. Most of the studies concerning spin-transfer torque-induced vortex motion involved systems consisting of a homogeneously magnetized polarizing layer and a vortex free layer.
Here, we study a nanopillar that comprises two magnetic vortices stacked on top of each other. The pillar consists of two Fe disks of 30 and 15 nm thickness, respectively, separated by a 6 nm Ag spacer (Fig. 1). The pillar diameter is about 150 nm. We investigate the magnetization dynamics in the double vortex system both experimentally, where the oscillator is excited by spin-transfer torque, and by means of micromagnetic simulations using the TetraMag  code. Specifically, we focus on configurations where the two vortices have opposed chiralities. We find that depending on the chirality combination and the relative core polarities, the resonances split into a fine-structure of four modes (Fig. 2). The four mode frequencies differ by hundreds of MHz, so that our spin-torque oscillator resembles a flute: Each combination of chiralities and relative core polarities results in a different “tone”, and all tones can be excited at zero field and equal currents. The frequencies obtained from micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the measured values, showing that the mode fine-splitting results from the magnetostatic interaction between the two ferromagnetic disks.
These results are not only interesting for designing new vortex-based spin-torque oscillators. They also show how to detect changes in vortex core polarity without resorting to high resolution imaging techniques and may thus open new perspectives on how to make use of vortex cores in, for example, core-based non-volatile memory applications.
 E. Feldtkeller and H. Thomas. Phys. Kondens. Mater. 4, 8 (1965).
 D. L. Hubert. Phys. Rev. B 26, 3758 (1982).
 B. van Wayenberge et al. Nature 444, 461 (2006).
 V.S. Pribiag et al. Nature Phys. 3, 498 (2007).
 A. Kákay, E. Westphal and R. Hertel. IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 2303 (2010).
Keywords: magnetic vortex; spintronics; spin-torque oscillator; spin-valve; vortex-oscillator; magnetization dynamics; spin-transfer torque; vortex-core
8th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers (MML2013), 19.-24.05.2013, Kyoto, Japan
Terahertz spectroscopy on single buried InAs quantum dots by scanning near-field nano-microscopy
Jacob, R.; Winnerl, S.; Fehrenbacher, M.; Bhattacharyya, J.; Schneider, H.; Wenzel, M. T.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Eng, L. M.; Atkinson, P.; Schmidt, O. G.; Helm, M.
Quantum dots have shown to be a highly interesting material system for many application purposes such as single photon emitters in the near-infrared involving interband transitions, but also for mid- and far-infrared applications using intersublevel transitions. Studying the linewidth of these transitions offers valuable clues to the dephasing mechanisms of the trapped electrons. However, due to size fluctuations of the quantum dots, inhomogeneous broadening of the signals usually hides this information when investigating ensembles of dots. Therefore, single-dot spectroscopy has to be performed for this purpose. In contrast to studies of interband transitions (e.g. via micro-photoluminescence) this is not well established at all for intersublevel transitions. In this work, scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) in combination with a free-electron laser is used to investigate intersublevel transitions in single self-assembled buried InAs quantum dots. Thereby, spectrally resonant optical contrast to the surrounding GaAs substrate is observed at photon energies of 83 meV and 123 meV with a linewidth of 5-8 meV. Supported by photoluminescence data these signals can clearly be assigned to the s-d and p-d transitions of single conduction band electrons.
International Workshop on Optical Terahertz Science and Technology (OTST), 01.-05.04.2013, Kyoto, Japan
Spectroscopy on single buried InAs quantum dots by scattering scanning near-field infrared microscopy
Fehrenbacher, M.; Jacob, R.; Winnerl, S.; Bhattacharyya, J.; Schneider, H.; Wenzel, M. T.; von Ribbeck, H.-G.; Eng, L. M.; Akinson, P.; Schmidt, O. G.; Helm, M.
Quantum dots are a highly interesting material system for many application purposes such as single photon emitters in the near-infrared, but also for mid- and far-infrared applications. Studying the linewidth of involved optical transitions off ers valuable clues to the dephasing mechanisms of the trapped electrons. However, due to size fluctuations of the quantum dots, inhomogeneous broadening of the signals usually hides this information when investigating ensembles of dots. Therefore, single-dot spectroscopy has to be performed for this purpose. In contrast to studies of interband transitions this is not well established at all for intersublevel transitions. In this work, scattering type scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy (s-SNOM) in combination with a free-electron laser is used to investigate intersublevel transitions in single self-assembled buried InAs quantum dots. Thereby, spectrally resonant optical contrast to the surrounding GaAs substrate is observed at photon energies of 83 meV and 123 meV, which can clearly be assigned to the s-d and p-d transitions of single conduction band electrons.
DPG-Frühjahrstagung der Sektion Kondensierte Materie, 10.-15.03.2013, Regensburg, Deutschland
New THz and Far-infrared Lightsources
There is a growing interest in THz and far infrared light sources for use in material studies. Both coherent radiative sources (CSR, COTR, etc.) and FEL sources have been developed in the last few years to address this need. This talk will describe recent developments in this growing field.
Invited lecture (Conferences)
FEL13 - 35th International Free Electron Laser Conference, 25.-30.08.2013, New York, USA
THz based electron bunch length monitoring at the quasi-cw SRF accelerator ELBE
Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Fisher, A.; Bauer, C.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Schurig, R.; Goltz, T.; Michel, P.; Stojanovic, N.; Gensch, M.
In the past few years the quasi-cw SRF electron accelerator ELBE has been upgraded so that it now allows to compress electron bunches to the sub-picosecond regime. The actual optimization and control of the electron bunch form represents one of the largest challenges of the coming years. In particular with respect to the midterm goal to utilize the ultra-short electron bunches for Laser-Thomson scattering experiments or high field THz experiments. Current developments of THz based electron bunch diagnostic are discussed and an outlook into future developments is given.
APS Spring Meeting, 05.-08.04.2014, Savannah, USA
New Methodology for Realistic Integration of Sorption Processes Safety Assessments
Noseck, U.; Britz, S.; Flügge, J.; Mönig, J.; Brendler, V.; Stockmann, M.
Sorption on mineral surfaces of sediments is one important retardation process for radionuclides to be considered in long-term safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. In the past the Kd-concept with temporally constant values was applied to describe radionuclide retardation in the far field of a repository. This modeling approach has the advantage of being simple and computationally fast but it does not take into account the spatial and temporal changes of geochemical conditions that will occur during the evolution of the repository system, e.g. due to long-term climatic changes. One option to describe the impact of such geochemical changes on radionuclide transport and retardation is the so-called smart Kd-concept. In the present study this new modeling approach is developed allowing the consideration of geochemical changes over time without strongly affecting the computational times of transport calculations. The state-of-the-art transport program r3t, used for large model areas and very long time scales, was modified to incorporate the smart Kd-concept. The methodology is based on a description of the radionuclide sorption as a function of selected, important environmental parameters (e.g. pH, pCO2, ionic strength and Ca2+, DIC and the respective radionuclide concentration) using mechanistic sorption models.
First, this approach is developed for a typical sedimentary system covering rock salt and clay formations in Northern Germany. This system mainly consists of tertiary and quaternary sands and clays. However, the approach is applicable to any site of interest. Thermodynamic data were missing for some major minerals present in the model area, such as feldspars and mica, and for relevant elements. To fill these data gaps, an experimental program including batch and column experiments has been conducted. By prior calculations of distribution coefficients for each radionuclide and sediment as functions of the environmental parameters, multidimensional Kd-matrixes are established combining surface complexation and ion exchange. The calculations are performed coupling the geochemical speciation code PHREEQC with the parameter estimation tool UCODE. After implementation of the methodology in r3t, transport calculations considering long-term changes of geochemical conditions have been performed for selected test cases. The results of the concept applied here are very promising. The concept allows the description of radionuclide sorption and transport through large model areas over very long time frames in dependence of variable geochemical conditions.
Keywords: Sorption; Nuclear Waste; Model; Reactive Transport; Hydrology; Risk Assessment; Geochemistry; Climate Change; Radionuclides; Actinides; Thermodynamic; Retardation
WM2014 Conference, 02.-06.03.2014, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
A wrap up of modeling sorption processes of Eu3+ under varying geochemical conditions
Britz, S.; Noseck, U.; Brendler, V.; Durner, W.; Zachmann, D.
In safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories detailed knowledge about surface processes regarding long-term safety relevant elements (e.g. Am3+) is of fundamental importance. Surface reactions such as sorption as well as other processes lead to retardation and influence radionuclide migration. These processes occur in nature and therefore, they must be considered for realistic transport calculations. These processes function as a natural barrier and might reduce contaminant dissemination of potentially hazardous pollutants in natural environments.
So far, the Kd-concept has been applied using distribution coefficients constant in time and space to describe radionuclide transport in the far field of a repository. This approach does not take temporally and spatially changing geochemical conditions into account. In order to include varying geochemical conditions the smart Kd-concept based on thermodynamic sorption models was developed. Combining the state-of-the-art codes r3t (radionuclide, reaction, retardation, and transport) with d3f (distributed, density-driven flow) it is possible to model transport processes as a function of important environmental parameters e.g. pH, pCO2, ionic strength, Ca concentration, DIC, and radionuclide concentration. By including the smart Kd-concept into r3t, multidimensional Kd-matrices are calculated for each radionuclide and sediment a-priori, which are subsequently applied for reactive transport calculations.
To model sorption processes that are controlled by geochemical conditions robust data sets of so called surface complexation parameters (SCP) are required. These parameters, such as protolyses constants (pK-values), specific surface area (SSA) and surface site density (SSD) as well as stability constants of surface complexes (logK-values) are derived from measurements. Generally speaking, here SCP are obtained by fitting experimental data sets applying the geochemical speciation code PhreeqC in combination with the parameter estimation code UCODE. The SCP are iteratively optimized by UCODE to obtain the best fitted data set. Thereby derived SCP are subsequently applied as fixed parameters in reactive transport models.
Literature studies revealed that for important mineral phases such as muscovite and orthoclase nearly no SCP data sets are available at present. Hence, we performed extensive laboratory studies to derive experimental data. This study describes the approach to assess surface complexation parameters of Eu3+ (as a homologue for trivalent actinides). Experimental data of titration, batch and column experiments are discussed and evaluated. Exemplarily, we demonstrate the approach for muscovite. However, this method may be applied to any mineral or sediment of interest.
Keywords: Sorption; Surface; Complexation; Europium; Muscovite; Modelling
TRePro III – Workshop on Modelling of Coupled Reactive and Transport Processes, 05.-07.03.2014, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
Uranium sorption onto single mineral phases – approaching consistency and robustness
Brendler, V.; Bok, F.; Müller, K.
One of the contaminants gaining special public attention is uranium. Though in almost all cases natural uranium (or depleted uranium) is of concern – and thus its chemotoxicity – radioactivity dominates most debates. But in any case the environmental fate of uranium and factors retarding or enhancing its transport are of high relevance. There are many studies addressing the sorption properties of uranium(VI) – and to a much lesser amount also of uranium(IV) – that produce a very patchy figure when it comes to a generalized view based on quasi-thermodynamic surface complexation models (SCM). This talk summarizes the current state-of-the-art with respect to and tries to homogenize the facts, also pointing out some steps to be done next.
Keywords: Sorption; Thermodynamic; Surface; Complexation; Uranium; Database; Uncertainty; Geochemistry; Consistency
Invited lecture (Conferences)
ACTINIDES 2013, 21.-26.07.2013, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
THEREDA revisited – project status in 2013
Brendler, V.; Bok, F.; Marquardt, C.; Altmaier, M.
Safety analysis for a geological repository for radioactive waste as well as remediation measures for uranium mining and processing legacies share an essential: the need for a reliable, traceable and accurate assessment of potential migration of toxic constituents into the biosphere. The respective computational codes require site-independent thermodynamic data concerning aqueous speciation, solubility limiting solid phases and ion-interaction parameters. Such databases, however, show several constraints:
- Incompleteness in terms of major and trace elements
- Inconsistencies between species considered and corresponding formation constants
- Restricted variation ranges of intensive parameters (temperature, density, pressure)
- Limitations with respect to solution compositions (ionic strength)
Keywords: Thermodynamic; Database; Nuclear Waste; Disposal; Solution; Solid; Complexation; Reaction; Ion-Ion-Interaction; Geochemistry
MIGRATION conference 2013, 08.-13.09.2013, Brighton, United Kingdom
Resistive switching in thin multiferroic films
Bogusz, A.; You, T.; Blaschke, D.; Scholz, A.; Shuai, Y.; Luo, W.; Du, N.; Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.
Resistive switching properties of multiferroic BiFeO3 and YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition technique have been investigated. Both material systems sandwiched between Au top and Pt/Ti bottom electrodes reveal nonvolatile resistive switching upon application of an electric field. BiFeO3 is switching in bipolar mode when a positive and negative bias is applied. The resistance ratio between high resistance and low resistance state is larger than two orders of magnitude. In contrary to BiFeO3, YMnO3 shows a unipolar resistive switching of abrupt nature with the difference up to five orders of magnitude between both resistance states. This work presents the results on resistive switching in BiFeO3 and YMnO3 and discusses the mechanisms of observed phenomena. Possible applications of our findings are shown on the example of nonvolatile data storage devices.
Contribution to proceedings
2013 International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble (ISCDG), 26.-27.09.2013, Dresden, Germany
Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble (ISCDG), 2013 International, 978-1-4799-1250-6
International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble, 26.-27.09.2013, Dresden, Germany
Resistive switching properties of multiferroic YMnO3
Bogusz, A.; Blaschke, D.; Skorupa, I.; Scholz, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.
Multiferroics, materials with simultaneous presence of any two or more of primary ferroic orderings in the same phase have gained a great attention both from scientists and industry . Multiferroism gives an opportunity for a development of new materials and concepts for multifunctional devices. Presented work investigates the resistive switching properties of YMnO3, known as an improper multiferroic . Thin YMnO3 films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si substrates with Ti/Pt bottom electrode at 800°C and varying oxygen partial pressure. Characterization of as-grown samples by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was followed by determination of electrical properties of films in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. Results indicate a non-volatile unipolar resistive switching with high resistance ratio of high over low resistance state (>10^4). Switching mechanism is ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive paths in the YMnO3 films upon applied current. In addition, the role of film microstructure and defect formation/distribution resulting from different growth conditions and its effect on the resistive switching behavior are discussed.
 N.A. Spaldin et al., Physics Today 63 (2010) 38.
 B.B. Van Aken et al., Nature Mater. 3 (2004) 164.
6th European School on Multiferroics (ESMF6), 21.-26.07.2013, Wittenberg, Germany
Spatial and temporal resolution of a Local Lorentz Force Flowmeter
Heinicke, C.; Wondrak, T.
Electromagnetic measurement techniques are very promising for accessing the flow properties of liquid melts. We extend one of the recently developed techniques, Lorentz Force Velocimetry, to the measurement of spatial flow structures close to the wall of the confining container. The sensor we use is called Local Lorentz Force Flowmeter (L2F2). It comprises a small permanent magnet which is attached to a force measurement system. We demonstrate that it is possible to reconstruct the complex flow in the vicinity of the wall of a confined vessel using the L2F2. Additionally, we show with the help of a solid body experiment that the L2F2 responds to temporal changes in the flow on the order of 1 Hz.
Keywords: local flow measurement; liquid metal; lorentz force velocimetry
Measurement Science and Technology 25(2014)5, 055302
Renaissance enamels - colouring and state of preservation Non-destructive studies by external PIXE–PIGE–RBS
Neelmeijer, C.; Hasselmeyer, L.; Eulitz, J.
The work mechanism of the orbit clock, a masterpiece of Eberhard Baldewein in the 1560s  and permanent exhibit in the Math.-Phys. Salon of Dresden, houses in a fire-gilded brass body carrying rich silver-made ornamental strips plus decorative ornaments of coloured enamel. Recently, this unique object of art was under general restoration. PIXE analysis of dismount metal pieces searched for differences in composition possibly revealing former coaction of several workshops. Substantial studies of enamels used PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously at the external 3.85 MeV proton beam in He-atmosphere, allowing both the detection of elements Z ≥ 5 and, in particular by RBS, the identification of surface deterioration .
The detailed enamel artworks show opaque but also translucent layers lying upon another for achieving visual depth effects or being singly arranged on/between gold (sometimes silver) ornamentation. Chromaticity of the vitreous materials was induced due to embedding of specific metallic ions. In accordance with ref.  the enamels under analysis – red, green, brown, blue, black, white – show the corresponding accompanying elements – Cu, Cu plus Fe, mainly Fe, Co plus Cu, Mn plus Fe, Pb plus Sn – respectively. Enamel composition analysis (wt% of elemental oxides) took place in consideration of small adjacent gold or silver filigrees casually hidden by the proton beam. Maximum MnO concentration of 9% was obtained for black enamel improved by 1% CoO. The translucent red material (~2% CuO) includes ~1% MnO for plastic shading effects. Tints of green enamel were tuned by the addition of both ~10% Cu- and ~6% Fe-oxide. A brown-orange detail shows 22% Fe2O3 plus 0.4% CuO. Just about 1% CoO proves quite enough for blue enamel colouration, shaded by adding ~6% CuO.
For blue, black and green enamels the concentrations of the glass network former SiO2 are in the order of 60% or above, just sufficient for resistance to humidity (hydrolysis, leaching) . High concentration of 10-20% Na2O (fluxing agent) along with only 2-8% K2O (network modifier) contribute to the enamel long-term stability. These criteria, ensuring durability, are diminished in case of the red material characterized by CSiO2 < 60% and CK2O > 16%. Therefore, conservation activities should mainly concentrate on decorations made from red enamel. Altogether, not one of the RBS spectra identifies oxygen enrichment in the vicinity of the enamel surface as a characteristic signal of progressing leaching effects .
Two positions were found pointing to potential earlier restoration work. The small blackish detail of a complex ornamentation shows 1% MnO only but nearly twice of the current concentrations for both Fe2O3 and CoO. In addition, the RBS spectrum shows a striking carbon surface-signal reflecting probably carbon containing material for blackening. On a peculiar opaque detail of CuO-based light blue enamel Co is missing and Pb originates from potential lead white pigment.
 M. Mäder, C. Neelmeijer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 226 (2004) 110-118.
 K. H. Wedepohl, Die Herstellung mittelalterlicher und antiker Gläser, F. Steiner, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, Stuttgart, 1993
Keywords: Eberhard Baldewein; orbit clock; enamel; nondestructive analysis; external proton beam; PIXE-PIGE-RBS
PIXE2013 - 13th International Conference on Particle induced X-Ray Emission, 03.-08.03.2013, Gramado, Brazil
Impact of carbon ion irradiation on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling and glioma cell migration in comparison to conventional photon irradiation.
Stahler, C.; Roth, J.; Cordes, N.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Mueller-Klieser, W.
Radiotherapy of malignant gliomas may be limited by an interference of radiation with the migratory potential of tumor cells. Therefore, the influence of conventional photon and modern carbon ion ((12)C) irradiation on glioblastoma cell migration and on epidermal growth factor receptor-related (EGFR) signaling was investigated in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHods: EGFR overexpressing glioblastoma cell lines U87 EGFR++ and LN229 EGFR++ were irradiated with 0, 2 or 6 Gy photons or (12)C heavy ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after treatment in a standardized Boyden Chamber assay. At different time points EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2) were analyzed by Western blotting.
2 Gy photon irradiation increased U87 EGFR++ migration and decreased motility of LN229 EGFR++ cells. Heavy ions decreased migration of both cell lines as a function of dose. There was a time-dependent increase of phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK1/2 in U87 EGFR++ after 2 Gy photon irradiation. After heavy ion irradiation EGFR, AKT or ERK1/2 remained unchanged.
Results suggest that the impact of irradiation on tumor cell migration depends on radiation type and cell line. Photons, but not heavy ions, potentially contribute to treatment failure by increasing EGFR-related tumor cell migration.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 89(2013)6, 454-461
CDK2 knockdown enhances head and neck cancer cell radiosensitivity.
Soffar, A.; Storch, K.; Aleem, E.; Cordes, N.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is critically involved in cell cycling and has been proposed as a potential cancer target. It remains largely elusive whether CDK2 targeting alters the tumor cell radiosensitivity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
CDK2(-/-) and wild type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as well as six human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines (SAS, FaDu, Cal-33, HSC-4, UTSCC-5, UTSCC-8) were used. Upon CDK2 knockdown using small interfering technology, colony formation, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), cell cycle distribution and expression and phosphorylation of major proteins regulating cell cycle and DNA damage repair were examined.
CDK2(-/-) MEF and CDK2 HNSCC knockdown cell cultures were more radiosensitive than the corresponding controls. Repair of DSB was attenuated under CDK2 knockout or knockdown. In contrast to data in MEF, combined CDK2 knockdown with irradiation showed no cell cycling alterations in SAS and FaDu cultures. Importantly, CDK2 knockdown failed to radiosensitize SAS and FaDu when cultured in a more physiological three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix environment.
Our findings suggest that targeting of CDK2 radiosensitizes HNSCC cells growing as monolayer. Additional studies performed under more physiological conditions are warranted to clarify the potential of CDK2 as target in radiotherapy.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 89(2013)7, 523-531
Double targeting of Survivin and XIAP radiosensitizes 3D grown human colorectal tumor cells and decreases migration.
Hehlgans, S.; Petraki, C.; Reichert, S.; Cordes, N.; Rödel, C.; Rödel, F.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of single and double knockdown of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) Survivin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) on three-dimensional (3D) clonogenic survival, migration capacity and underlying signaling pathways.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-15, SW48, SW480, SW620) were subjected to siRNA-mediated single or Survivin/XIAP double knockdown followed by 3D colony forming assays, cell cycle analysis, Caspase activity assays, migration assays, matrigel transmigration assays and Western blotting (Survivin, XIAP, Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p-FAK Y397, Akt1, p-Akt1 S473, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p-ERK1/2 T202/Y204, Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, p-GSK3β S9, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65).
While basal cell survival was altered cell line-dependently, Survivin or XIAP single and Survivin/XIAP double knockdown enhanced cellular radiosensitivity of all tested cancer cell lines grown in 3D. Particularly double knockdown conditions revealed accumulation of cells in G2/M, increased subG1 fraction, elevated Caspase 3/7 activity, and reduced migration. Intracellular signaling showed dephosphorylation of FAK and Akt1 upon Survivin and/or Survivin/XIAP silencing.
Our results strengthen the notion of Survivin and XIAP to act as radiation resistance factors and further indicate that these apoptosis-regulating proteins are also functioning in cell cycling and cell migration.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Invasion; Ionizing radiation; Migration; Survivin; Three-dimensional cell culture; XIAP
Radiotherapy and Oncology 108(2013)1, 32-39
Ion beam induced structural modifications in nano-crystalline permalloy thin films
In the last years, there is a rise of interest in investigation and fabrication of nanometer sized magnetic structures due to their various applications (e.g. for data storage or micro sensors). Over the last several decades ion beam implantation became an important tool for the modification of materials and in particular for the manipulation of magnetic properties. Nanopatterning and implantation can be done simultaneously using focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques. FIB implantation and standard ion implantation differ in their beam current densities by 7 orders of magnitude. This difference can strongly influence the structural and magnetic properties, e.g. due to a rise of the local temperature in the sample during ion implantation.
In previous investigations both types of implantation techniques were studied separately. The aim of the current research was to compare both implantation techniques in terms of structural changes and changes in magnetic properties using the same material system. Moreover, to separate any possible annealing effects from implantation ones, the influence of temperature on the structural and magnetic properties were additionally investigated.
For the current study a model material system which is widely used for industrial applications was chosen: a 50 nm thick non-ordered nano-crystalline permalloy (Ni81Fe19) film grown on a SiO2 buffer layer based onto a (100)-oriented Si substrate. The permalloy films were implanted with a 30 keV Ga+ ion beam; and also a series of as-deposited permalloy films were annealed in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber.
Several investigation techniques were applied to study the film structure and composition, and were mostly based on non-destructive X-ray investigation techniques, which are the primary focus of this work. Besides X-ray diffraction (XRD), providing the long-range order crystal structural information, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements to probe the local structure were performed. Moreover, the film thickness, surface roughness, and interface roughness were obtained from the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. Additionally cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (XTEM) imaging was used for local structural characterizations. The Ga depth distribution of the samples implanted with a standard ion implanter was measured by the use of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and was compared with theoretical TRIDYN calculation. The magnetic properties were characterized via polar magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements at room temperature.
It was shown that both implantation techniques lead to a further material crystallization of the partially amorphous permalloy material (i.e. to an increase of the amount of the crystalline material), to a crystallite growth and to a material texturing towards the (111) direction. For low ion fluences a strong increase of the amount of the crystalline material was observed, while for high ion fluences this rise is much weaker. At low ion fluences XTEM images show small isolated crystallites, while for high ones the crystallites start to grow through the entire film. The EXAFS analysis shows that both Ni and Ga atom surroundings have a perfect near-order coordination corresponding to an fcc symmetry. The lattice parameter for both implantation techniques increases with increasing ion fluence according to the same linear law. The lattice parameters obtained from the EXAFS measurements for both implantation types are in a good agreement with the results obtained from the XRD measurements. Grazing incidence XRD (GIXRD) measurements of the samples implanted with a standard ion implanter show an increasing value of microstrain with increasing ion fluence (i.e. the lattice parameter variation is increasing with fluence). Both types of implantation result in an increase of the surface and the interface roughness and demonstrate a decrease of the saturation polarization with increasing ion fluence.
From the obtained results it follows that FIB and standard ion implantation influence structure and magnetic properties in a similar way: both lead to a material crystallization, crystallite growth, texturing and decrease of the saturation polarization with increasing ion fluence. A further crystallization of the highly defective nano-crystalline material can be simply understood as a result of exchange processes induced by the energy transferred to the system during the ion implantation. The decrease of the saturation polarization of the implanted samples is mainly attributed to the simple presence of the Ga atoms on the lattice sites of the permalloy film itself.
For the annealed samples more complex results were found. The corresponding results can be separated into two temperature regimes: into low (<400 C) and high (>400 C) temperatures. Similar to the implanted samples, annealing results in a material crystallization with large crystallites growing through the entire film and in a material texturing towards the (111) direction. The EXAFS analysis shows a perfect near-order coordination corresponding to an fcc symmetry. The lattice parameter of the annealed samples slightly decreases at low annealing temperatures, reaches its minimum at about ~400 C and slightly rises at higher ones. From the GIXRD measurements it can be observed that the permalloy material at temperatures above >400 C reaches it's strain-free state. On the other hand, the film roughness increases with increasing annealing temperature and a de-wetting of the film is observed at high annealing temperatures. Regardless of the material crystallization and texturing, the samples annealed at low temperatures demonstrate no change in saturation polarization, while at high temperatures a rise by approximately ~15% at 800 C was observed. The rise of the saturation polarization at high annealing temperatures is attributed to the de-wetting effect.
Keywords: permalloy; focused ion beam; broad beam ion implantation; annealing; magneto-optic Kerr effect; extended X-ray absorption fine structure; X-ray diffraction
TU Dresden, 2013
The novel HDAC inhibitor NDACI054 sensitizes human cancer cells to radiotherapy.
Hehlgans, S.; Storch, K.; Lange, I.; Cordes, N.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has preclinically and clinically shown promise to overcome radio- and chemoresistance of tumor cells. NDACI054 is a novel HDAC inhibitor, which has been evaluated here for its effects on cell survival and radiosensitization of human tumor cell lines from different origins cultured under more physiological three-dimensional (3D), extracellular matrix (ECM)-based conditions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
A549 lung, DLD-1 colorectal, MiaPaCa2 pancreatic and UT-SCC15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells were treated with increasing NDACI054 concentrations (0-50 nM, 24 h) either alone or in combination with X-rays (single dose, 0-6 Gy). Subsequently, 3D clonogenic cell survival, HDAC activity, histone H3 acetylation, apoptosis, residual DNA damage (γH2AX/p53BP1 foci assay 24h post irradiation) and phosphorylation kinetics of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), Caspase-3 and Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP 1) cleavage were analyzed.
NDACI054 potently decreased HDAC activity with concomitant increase in acetyl-histone H3 levels, mediated significant cytotoxicity and radiosensitization. These effects were accompanied by a significant increase of residual γH2AX/p53BP1-positive foci, slightly elevated levels of Caspase-3 and PARP 1 cleavage but no induction of apoptosis.
Our data show potent antisurvival and radiosensitizing effects of the novel HDAC inhibitor NDACI054 encouraging further preclinical examinations on this compound for future clinical use.
Keywords: 3D cell culture; Cancer cell lines; DNA repair; HDAC inhibitor; Ionizing radiation
Radiotherapy and Oncology 109(2013)1, 126-132
Contactelss Inductive Flow Tomography
Wondrak, T.; Timmel, K.; Klotsche, K.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.
The Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT) allows for determining flow structures in conducting liquids which are exposed to one or more external magnetic fields. Measuring the induced fields around the fluid volume for each of the applied fields, it is possible to infer the velocity field by solving an inverse problem with appropriate regularization techniques. We will give an overview of the CIFT method and present the measurement system for the model of a continuous caster at the HZDR. We will conclude with new developments towards a robust measurement of the very small induced magnetic fields.
The International Symposium on Electromagnetic Flow Control in Metallurgy, Crystal Growth and Electrochemistry, 25.-27.03.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Nonvolatile resistive switching in multiferroic YMnO3 thin films
Bogusz, A.; Skorupa, I.; Blaschke, D.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.
Intensive research on multiferroic materials  is driven by the possibility of creating novel, miniaturized tunable multifunctional devices . This work investigates resistive switching behavior of YMnO3 thin films, which can be utilized in new generation memory devices. Series of YMnO3 films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si substrates with Pt bottom electrode at temperatures varying between 500∘C and 850∘C. Characterization of as-grown samples by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was followed by determination of electrical properties of films in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration. Results showed that the YMnO3 films grown at 800∘C exhibit the best resistive switching properties with high resistance ratio (>10000) of high over low resistance state. Switching mechanism is ascribed to the structural transitions within the film upon applied current.
 A. Bogusz et al., Defect Diffus. Forum 323-325, 115 (2012)
 Y. Shuai, H. Schmidt et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 124117 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 111, 07D906 (2012)
DPG Spring Meeting, 10.-15.03.2013, Regensburg, Germany
Current-induced magnetization dynamics in a spin-valve comprising two spin-transfer torque-coupled ferromagnetic layers
Typical all-metallic spin-torque oscillators are nanopillars comprising two easy-plane ferromagnetic elements separated by a nonmagnetic metal spacer. One of the layer magnetizations is fixed and serves as the polarizer for the current while the second layer is susceptible to spin-transfer torque. Subjected to d.c. currents and external magnetic fields, these devices exhibit wellknown types of magnetization dynamics such as small-/ large-angle or clamshell precession, generating microwave signals at several Gigahertz . Here, we investigate a system that differs from the above in two ways. First, our nanopillar combines an uniaxial in-plane anisotropy-ferromagnet (FM1) with a second layer (FM2) exhibiting a perpendicular anisotropy (PMA). Thus our system resembles the one studied in , however, in our case none of the layers is fixed, meaning that both layer magnetizations are coupled by the current and can move freely under the action of the spin-torque. Using the generalization of Slonczewski’s model  to asymmetric spin-valves [4,5], the d.c. current-induced magnetization dynamics in perpendicular applied field is studied numerically within the framework of the macrospin model. The resulting current-field phase diagram displays regimes of single and combined layer motion. Within fields below the effective PMA and currents smaller than -2 mA or larger than 4 mA (for the parameters chosen), the magnetization of FM1 basically precesses in-plane for the external field exceeding a threshold value. The latter increases with the current magnitude for both current polarities, climbing up to ±176 mT at +25 mA. The simultaneous excitation of FM1 and FM2 however exhibits a more asymmetric current dependence (Fig. 1). Within the simultaneously excited regime, the complexity of the trajectories is found to vary strongly with applied currents and fields. Fig. 2 shows example spectra taken at the locations indicated in Fig. 1. Viewed from a commoving frame, some trajectories correspond to largeangle precession, while others behave entirely differently from what is found in common fixed-free layer spin-valves. This is reflected in the obtained power spectra which range from near-harmonic to broad noise-like.
 S. I. Kiselev et al., Nature 425, 380 (2003).
 W. H. Rippard et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 014426 (2010).
 J. C. Slonczewski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 247, 324 (2002).
 J. Xiao et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 172405 (2004).
 J. Xiao et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 014446 (2005).
Keywords: spin-transfer torque; magnetization dynamics; spin-valve; spin-torque oscillator
12th Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, 14.-18.01.2013, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Measurement techniques for liquid metal flows
The measurement of flow properties in liquid metals is usually hampered by the high temperature and the opaqueness of liquid melts.
In this lecture we will give an overview of the available measurement techniques including potential probes, ultrasound Doppler velocimetry, x-ray radioscopy, phase shift flow meters, Lorentz force velocimetry and contactless inductive flow tomography.
Keywords: liquid metal; flow measurement
Invited lecture (Conferences)
549. WE-Heraeus-Seminar on Liquid Metal MHD, 15.-18.10.2013, Bad Honnef, Deutschland
Contactless inductive flow tomography and mutual inductance tomography for a model of continuous casting
Wondrak, T.; Timmel, K.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Peyton, A. J.; Yin, W.; Terzija, N.
We present the results of simultaneous measurements of the flow field in a slab casting mould by the Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT) and of the gas/liquid distribution in one cross section of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) by the Mutual Inductance Tomography (MIT) for a physical model consisting of a mould with the cross section of 140 x 35 mm^2. Additionally, we present a new measuring system for CIFT using pickup coils and the first measurement of the flow field in a mould with the cross section of 400 x 100 mm^2.
Keywords: continuous casting; flow measurement; contactless inductive flow tomography; liquid metal; mutual inductance tomography
Contribution to proceedings
7th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography - WCIPT7, 02.-05.09.2013, Krakow, Poland
Procedia Engineering, 650-659
7th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography - WCIPT7, 02.-05.09.2013, Krakow, Poland
Interaction of electronic excitations of Tm3+ ions with acoustic vibrations in KTm(MoO4)2
Kamenskyi, D.; Poperezhai, S.; Gogoi, P.; Engelkamp, H.; Maan, J. C.; Wosnitza, J.; Kut’Ko, V.
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of KTm(MoO4)2 were measured as a function of magnetic field between 3 and 11.5 cm−1 at T = 2 K. We found that in addition to the absorption line caused by the electronic excitation of Tm3+ ions, the spectra contain sidebands. Far-infrared transmission measured with polarized light from 10 to 75 cm−1 revealed vibration modes at 16.7 and 25.7 cm−1 for polarizations Eω
∥ a and Eω
∥ c, respectively. We show that sidebands in the spectra of paramagnetic resonance result from a parametric resonance between the electronic excitations of the Tm3+ ions and the acoustic vibrations of the crystal lattice.
Physical Review B 89(2014), 014410
Online First (2014) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.014410
Visualization of the flow in the mold by contactless inductive flow tomography in the presence of a magnetic brake
Wondrak, T.; Klotsche, K.; Timmel, K.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.
In order to enhance the productivity and to achieve higher steel cleanliness in continuous casting the application of various magnetic fields is considered an efficient tool for controlling the flow in the mold. For instance, DC magnetic fields perpendicular to the wide faces of the mold are used to dampen the jets emerging from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN). Especially in this case, even a rough knowledge of the flow structure in the mold would be highly desirable.
The Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT) allows reconstructing the dominating two-dimensional flow structure in a slab casting mold by applying one external magnetic field and by measuring the flow induced magnetic fields along the narrow faces of the mold.
For a physical model of a continuous caster, consisting of a mold with a cross section of 140 mm x 35 mm, we will present first measurements of the flow induced magnetic field in the presence of a magnetic brake of the ruler type. The first results demonstrate the viability of the CIFT measurement technique in such a configuration.
Keywords: continuous casting; flow measurement; contactless inductive flow tomography; liquid metal
Contribution to proceedings
5th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking - STEELSIM 2013, 10.-12.09.2013, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Proceedings of STEELSIM 2013, 978-80-260-3912-9
5th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation of Metallurgical Processes in Steelmaking - STEELSIM 2013, 10.-12.09.2013, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Experimental studies of dark current in a superconducting RF photo-injector
Xiang, R.; Arnold, A.; Kamps, T.; Lu, P.; Michel, P.; Murcek, P.; Vennekate, H.; Staats, G.; Teichert, J.
A superconducting RF photo injector (SRF gun) has been put in operation successfully at the radiation source ELBE. It produces a 13 MHz, low emittance, CW beam with beam current up to 400 μA and energy of 3 MeV. During the gun operation, the field emission from the niobium cavity and the Cs2Te cathodes produces dark current. In this work, we studied the dark current of the SRF gun by using the existing diagnostics beam line. The dependency of the intensity and the energy spectrum on the cavity gradient and the cathode voltage were examined, and the emission sources were analyzed. Furthermore, the new project of installing a strip line kicker to reduce the dark current effect is presented.
Keywords: SRF gun; field emission; dark current; niobium cavity; Cs2Te cathode; energy spectrum
Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 17(2014)4, 043401
Online First (2014) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.043401
The status of new transport chamber and the problem of cathode-puck
Xiang, R.; Murcek, P.
We present here the status of the new cathode transport system at HZDR and also discuss the problem of the cathode-puck design
Keywords: photocathode; transport; high vacuum
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Photocathode Research For High Brightness Electron Beams (PCHB)-Meeting, 05.08.2013, Mainz, Germany
Konstruktion der Transportkammer und der Kathodenhalterung und Manipulatoren
Xiang, R.; Murcek, P.
In this talk we present the design of a new cathode transport system.
Keywords: cathode transport; high vacuum
Invited lecture (Conferences)
PCHB kickoff meeting: Photokathoden-Treffen in Dresden-Rossendorf, 06.03.2013, Dresden, Germany
Photocathode for Rossendorf SRF gun
Rossendorf SRF gun is an electron source for high current electron beams based on superconducting RF technology and laser driven photocathode. Semiconductor Cs2Te photocathodes are the standard electron sources. Up to now eight Cs2Te photocathodes have been operated in the SRF gun. Quantum efficiency (Q.E.) of 1% and life time of months satisfy the gun operation. Besides the present Cs2Te photocathode, GaAs(Cs, O) attracts a lot of attention because of its high QE in the visible light range and the probability to produce high polarization beams. A new preparation system for GaAs is developing, and we will later examine the activation and performance of GaAs photocathodes in SRF gun.
Keywords: electron source; SRF gun; photocathode; QE; Cs2Te; GaAs
1st Topical Workshop on Laser Based Particle Sources, 20.-22.02.2013, CERN, Switzerland
GaAs photocathodes for the high-current SRF gun at Rossendorf
Xiang, R.; Arnold, A.; Michel, P.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Kamps, T.; Barday, R.
The Rossendorf SRF gun has been successfully put into operation at the ELBE accelerator facility with average current up to 250 μA. In order to achieve higher current and better beam quality, new updates are going on. One of the recent activities is to develop a new GaAs(Cs,O) photocathode preparation and transportation system. In this presentation we will show the status of GaAs cathode preparation, and also the XHV transfer vessel which allows for the efficient cathode transport from the preparation chamber into the SRF gun or to the analysis devices.
Keywords: SRF gun; high current; GaAs; photocathode; cathode transport
The 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC13), 12.-17.05.2013, Shanghai, China
Transmission Electron Microscopy @ HZDR
Kolloquium des Helmholtz-Instituts Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie, 04.03.2013, Freiberg, Deutschland
Scintillator-based detectors for laser-accelerated protons – A survey of developments within the Dresden laser acceleration program
Kroll, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Karsch, L.; Kraft, S. D.; Metzkes, J.; Pawelke, J.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.
Proton beams by their well-confined energy-loss in matter are a promising tool for the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and are currently under intense medical investigation. Wider clinical use, however, is limited by the complexity and expense of current proton and ion accelerators. Compact laser driven proton therapy accelerators are discussed as a promising alternative, yet require substantial development in reliable beam generation, transport and monitoring.
Therefore, in parallel to the development of laser driven proton therapy accelerators at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, advancement in instrumentation for laser driven protons is essential. Most importantly, these new diagnostic tools need to speedwise match the repetition rates of state-of-the-art high power laser systems and need to be adapted to the harsh plasma environment of laser based accelerators, not neglecting their fitment to the properties of laser accelerated proton pulses such as the high flux and the broad energy spectrum.
We will present three types of scintillator-based detectors, all being optimized for specific stages of the experimental chain: a one-dimensional space- and energy-resolved detector for online spectral stability control of the acceleration performance , a two-dimensional space- and energy-resolved detector for source characterization measurements, and a three-dimensional detector for precise dose verification in a water-equivalent medium with regards to medical quality assurance .
 J. Metzkes, et al.: A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra, Review of Scientific Instruments
 F. Kroll, et al.: Preliminary investigations on the determination of three-dimensional dose distributions using scintillator blocks and optical tomography
Keywords: scintillator; detector; dosimeter
Annual Meeting of the LIGHT collaboration, 29.05.2013, GSI Darmstadt, Deutschland
Shaping laser accelerated ions for future applications – The LIGHT collaboration
Busold, S.; Almomani, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Barth, W.; Bedacht, S.; Blažević, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Brabetz, C.; Burris-Mog, T.; Cowan, T. E.; Deppert, O.; Droba, M.; Eickhoff, H.; Eisenbarth, U.; Harres, K.; Hoffmeister, G.; Hofmann, I.; Jaeckel, O.; Jaeger, R.; Joost, M.; Kraft, S.; Kroll, F.; Kaluza, M.; Kester, O.; Lecz, Z.; Merz, T.; Nürnberg, F.; Al-Omari, H.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.; Paulus, G.; Polz, J.; Ratzinger, U.; Roth, M.; Schaumann, G.; Schmidt, P.; Schramm, U.; Schreiber, G.; Schumacher, D.; Stoehlker, T.; Tauschwitz, A.; Vinzenz, W.; Wagner, F.; Yaramyshev, S.; Zielbauer, B.
The generation of intense ion beams from high-intensity laser-generated plasmas has been the focus of research for the last decade. In the LIGHT collaboration the expertise of heavy ion accelerator scientists and laser and plasma physicists has been combined to investigate the prospect of merging these ion beams with conventional accelerator technology and exploring the possibilities of future applications. We report about the goals and first results of the LIGHT collaboration to generate, handle and transport laser driven ion beams. This effort constitutes an important step in research for next generation accelerator technologies.
Keywords: Laser; Proton; Ion; Acceleration
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 740(2014), 94-98
Online First (2013) DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.10.025
The world’s first superconducting RF photo injector operated at a LINAC
Arnold, A.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.
The success of future synchrotron light sources mainly depends on the development of an appropriate electron source. At the moment, the superconducting radio frequency (RF) photo injectors (SRF guns) seem to be the most promising candidate to achieve the required peak brightness and the high average current at the same time. This contribution summarizes the working principle and important results of the most advanced SRF gun project in the world.
Keywords: SRF gun; superconducting RF photoinjector; ELBE; FEL
Internationaler »Dresden Barkhausen Award 2012«, 08.03.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Selected experiences of 6 years Rossendorf SRF Gun
At the radiation source ELBE an SRF gun has been developed and put into operation in 2007. The gun has a 3 ½ cell niobium cavity for 1.3 GHz and uses normal-conducting photo cathodes. Since 2010 the gun has delivered beam into the ELBE linac. Recently a new driver laser with 13 MHz pulse repetition rate allows us to operate the IR free-electron lasers (FEL) with the SRF gun. The successful operation of the SRF gun confirms the general design with an elliptical cavity, superconducting RF choke filter, and normal-conducting photocathodes as well as the proper design of most of the subsystems like couplers and tuners. This contribution presents important experiences out of 6 years of operating the Rossendorf SRF gun.
Keywords: SRF gun; superconducting RF photoinjector; ELBE; Nb cavity
Invited lecture (Conferences)
TESLA Technology Collaboration - 1st topical meeting on CW SRF, 12.-14.06.2013, Ithaca, NY, USA
Coupling Schemes and Measurements for Multiple Eigenmode Application at SRF Guns
Arnold, A.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.
Superconducting electron sources are a promising candidate to meet the challenges of future electron accelerator, such as high average beam current and high peak brilliance at the same time. Compared to their normal conducting rf equivalent and due to the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, the solenoid for emittance compensation has to be placed far in front of the cathode. To solve this problem the use of transverse electric (TE) modes in parallel to the accelerating mode was proposed*. This contribution presents two suitable coupling schemes and first rf measurements at the warm and cold HZDR SRF gun cavity.
Keywords: superconducting RF photoinjector; SRF gun; photo cathode; ELBE; TE mode; emittance compensation
SRF 2013 - 16th International conference on RF Superconductivity, 23.-27.09.2013, Paris, France
Status report of the enhanced ELBE SRF gun
Arnold, A.; Lu, P.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.; Vennekate, H.; Xiang, R.; Kneisel, P.; Turlington, L.; Stirbet, M.; Eremeev, G.
Within the last years a superconducting RF photoinjector (SRF gun), equipped with all components, was successfully put into operation at the linear accelerator ELBE. Although world’s first LINAC injection was demonstrated and first user experiments were carried out, higher average current and better beam emittances are required. To fulfil this needs a second and significantly enhanced SRF gun is currently under construction at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The main part of this development is a modified version of our 1.3 GHz 3.5 cell cavity that was fabricated and tested in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Moreover, a lot of engineering work was done to fix the problems of our first SRF gun and to integrate a superconducting solenoid into the new cryomodule. In this contribution, we will report on technical challenges, critical assembly steps and first test results of the second version of our superconducting RF photoinjector.
Keywords: superconducting RF photoinjector; SRF gun; photo cathode; ELBE
4th International Particle Accelerator Conference, IPAC13, 12.-17.05.2013, Shanghai, China
THz based femtosecond level arrivaltime monitor for quasi-cw electron accelerators
Kovalev, S.; Green, B.; Gensch, M.
In this contribution we present an electro-optic arrival time monitor for coherent THz pulses. The monitor operates robustly at high repetitionrates and extremely low THz pulse energies. It thereby has the potential to provide few femtosecond-level synchronization on next generation large scale X-ray photon sources based on high repetition rate electron accelerators such as X-ray FEL´s or energy recovery linacs.
DPG Frühjahrstagung, 30.03.-04.04.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Pulsed power technology for laser-accelerated particle experiments – A survey of developments within the Dresden laser acceleration program
Kroll, F.; Cowan, T. E.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Masood, U.; Joost, M.; Karsch, L.; Kraft, S. D.; Pawelke, J.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Zherlitsyn, S.
Since the mid-1950s, pulsed (iron-free) high-field magnets have become a common, versatile research tool. Applications in solid state physics have promoted the development of sophisticated magnets that nowadays can achieve fields above 90 T repeatedly.
We report here another area of application for pulsed power magnet technology; namely the use of pulsed magnets as effective devices for particle beam optics with application in the fields of radiation and accelerator physics as well as medical physics: Pulsed power solenoids for focusing of laser-accelerated particle beams might allow for the use of these new radiation qualities in medical radiation therapy or could function as a crucial part of a compact, laser-based ion source. The development of pulsed high field multipoles could permit highly compact beam guidance systems.
The presentation gives a survey of pulsed power developments, including various pulsed high field magnets as well as pulsed power sources. The scalability to cancer therapy relevant application will be critically discussed.
Keywords: pulsed magnets; laser acceleration; laser-plasma-physic; high fields
Annual Meeting of the LIGHT Collaboration, 29.05.2013, GSI Darmstadt, Deutschland
Microbial ecology: Characteristics of bacteria from heavy metal contaminated mining waste piles
Eigenschaften von Bakterien aus Schwermetall-kontaminierten Halden: Mikrobielle Ökologie
Lederer, F. L.; Günther, T. J.; Raff, J.; Flemming, K.; Pollmann, K.
Bacterial isolates from a uranium mining waste pile are adapted in a very special kind of way to their heavy metal contaminated environment. Genome analyses identified many genes that might support the incidence of these strains in their special habitat. Using the Next Generation Sequencing Technology multiple surface (S-) layer genes and different kinds of metal transporter genes were identified. These data give the genetic affirmation that these strains are adapted substantial to their environment.
Keywords: Next Generation Sequencing
Biospektrum 20(2014)2, 172-175
Thermally Excited Ferromagnetic Resonance in MgO-based Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Spin polarized currents can exert a so-called spin-transfer torque to the magnetic moment of a ferromagnetic layer. One application of this phenomenon is the spin torque nano-oscillator (typically an MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)) which can act as a tunable microwave emission source. However, a more detailed understanding of the spin-torque physics is needed. For example, the spin torque bias dependence of the two spin torque components (in-plane and fieldlike) is still widely discussed in the community . We present results for MgO-MTJs obtained by thermally excited ferromagnetic resonance (TE-FMR). With the help of TE-FMR, the bias dependence of the two spin-transfer torques can be determined from the peak position and linewidth . Microwave measurements were carried out in the frequency range of 1-9 GHz at positive and negative magnetic fields and for different dc current values. Analyzing this data, we could separate the in-plane and field-like spin torque components and determine their bias dependence.
Keywords: Spin-Transfer Torque; Magnetic Tunnel Junction; Thermally Excited Ferromagnetic Resonance
The IEEE Magnetics Society Summer School, 09.-14.06.2013, Assisi, Italy
Trace concentration – Huge impact: Nitrate in the calcite/Eu(III) system
Hofmann, S.; Voitchovsky, K.; Schmidt, M.; Stumpf, T.
The interactions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with secondary mineral phases such as calcite is of high importance for the safety assessment of deep geological repositories for high level nuclear waste (HLW). Due to similar ionic radii, calcium-bearing mineral phases are suitable host minerals for Ln(III) and An(III) ions. Especially calcite has been proven to retain these metal ions effectively by both surface complexation and bulk incorporation. Since anionic ligands (e.g., nitrate) are omnipresent in the geological environment and due to their coordinating properties, their influence on retentive processes should not be underestimated. Nitrate is a common contaminant in most HLW forms as a result of using nitric acid in fuel reprocessing. It is also formed by microbial activity under aerobic conditions. In this study, atomic force microscopy investigations revealed a major influence of nitrate upon the surface of calcite crystals. NaNO3 causes serious modifications even in trace amounts (<10-7 M) and forms a soft surface layer of low crystallinity on top of the calcite crystal. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) showed that, within this layer, Eu(III) ions are incorporated, while losing most of their hydration shell. The results show that solid solution modelling for actinides in calcite must take into account the presence of nitrate in pore and ground waters.
Keywords: DISSOLVED ORGANIC-MATTER; LUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY; PORE-WATER; CALCITE; CLAY; TIME; CHEMISTRY; DISSOLUTION; TRANSITION; ADSORPTION
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 125(2014), 528-538
First direct measurement of the 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section at Big Bang energies and the primordial lithium problem
Anders, M.; Trezzi, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Aliotta, M.; Bellini, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Davinson, T.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.
Recent observations of 6Li in metal poor stars suggest a large production of this isotope during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). In standard BBN calculations, the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction dominates 6Li production. Unfortunately, this reaction has never been directly measured inside the BBN energy region because its cross section drops exponentially at low energy. Indirect measurements using the Coulomb dissociation of 6Li only give upper limits owing to the dominance of nuclear breakup processes. Here, we report on the results of the first measurement of the 2H(α,γ)6Li cross section directly at Big Bang energies. The experiment was performed deep underground at the LUNA 400kV accelerator in Gran Sasso, Italy. The 6Li/7Li isotopic abundance ratio from standard BBN has been determined to be (1.5±0.3)×10−5, entirely from experimental data. The much higher 6Li/7Li values reported for halo stars will likely require a non-standard physics explanation.
Keywords: Underground nuclear astrophysics; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; LUNA
Physical Review Letters 113(2014), 042501
Underground nuclear astrophysics for the Sun, and for the Big Bang
After the resolution of the solar neutrino problem in 2002, the study of the Sun has now entered a precision era, and an entirely new dilemma has come up: New elemental abundance data from Fraunhofer line analyses are in contradiction with helioseismological observables. Observations of 13N and 15O neutrinos from the Sun may address this so-called solar abundance problem, but their interpretation will require precise nuclear reaction data. Due to the low cross sections involved, such data can only be provided by experiments in an underground low-background setting. Work at the world's only underground accelerator, the 0.4 MV LUNA machine in Gran Sasso (Italy), on solar fusion reactions and on the Big Bang production of lithium-6 and -7 will be reviewed. Higher-energy underground accelerators are planned in Italy and also at the Dresden Felsenkeller in Germany.
Keywords: Underground nuclear astrophysics; Hydrogen burning; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; LUNA; Felsenkeller
Invited lecture (Conferences)
VERA-Seminar (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator), 07.11.2013, Wien, Österreich
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Seminar Institute of Theoretical Physics, 04.04.2014, Wroclaw, Polen
Underground nuclear astrophysics
I give a brief review of the progress of underground nuclear astrophysics work within EuroGENESIS.
Keywords: Underground nuclear astrophysics; LUNA; Felsenkeller; Hydrogen burning; alpha-rich freezeout
MASCHE annual meeting (Massive Stars as Agents of Chemical Evolution, part of EuroGENESIS), 03.12.2013, Darmstadt, Deutschland
Underground experimental nuclear astrophysics in Germany
I review the status of underground nuclear astrophysics work in Germany.
Keywords: Experimental nuclear astrophysics; Underground accelerators; Felsenkeller; LUNA
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Nukleare Astrophysik in Deutschland: Status und Perspektiven, 04.12.2013, Darmstadt, Deutschland
Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller: status report
The status of nuclear astrophysics related work at the Dresden Felsenkeller is reviewed.
Keywords: experimental nuclear astrophysics; hydrogen burning; alpha-rich freezeout; supernova nucleosynthesis; Felsenkeller; LUNA
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Nuclear Astrophysics Virtual Institute (NAVI) annual meeting, 16.-17.12.2013, Darmstadt, Deutschland
The multiferroic properties of polycrystalline Bi1-xYxFeO3 films
Sheng, Y.; Rui, W.; Qiu, X.; Du, J.; Zhou, S.; Xu, Q.
Polycrystalline Bi1−xYxFeO3 films with varying x from 0 to 0.30 were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on surface oxidized Si (100) substrates with LaNiO3 as buffer layer. The influence of Y doping on the structure, ferroelectric properties and exchange bias have been systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed the structural transition from rhombohedral R3c to orthorhombic Pn21a with increasing x above 0.10. The leakage current density of BiFeO3 has been effectively suppressed by Y doping, and well saturated P-E loops have been observed in Bi1-xYxFeO3 (0.01≤x≤0.07). Exchange bias field with a 3.6 nm thick NiFe layer increases with increasing x to 0.01, then decreases with further increasing x.
Keywords: multiferroics; BiFeO3; exchange bias; ferroelectricity
Journal of Applied Physics 115(2014), 17D902
Carbon based functional coatings for tribological applications
The automotive industry is an essential branch for the industrial site Saxony. Within the past 20 years high-tech production centers have been built by the leading German car producers Volkswagen, BMW, and Porsche in Zwickau, Dresden, Chemnitz and Leipzig. According to estimations about 10 % of the jobs in Saxony subjected to social insurance are settled in the car related industry. This industrial sector on the one hand faces strong competitors from Asia and the USA, and on the other hand is challenged by the CO2 emission goals of the European Union for the next decade. These complex circumstances have to be dealt with innovative concepts in general and new approaches in research and development (R & D) in particular. The subproject ECEMP D1 is developing new, nanostructured, wear-resistant tribological coatings for the automotive engineering. These coatings provide a significant reduction of the friction in wear loaded car components and enable the more efficient use of fuel and materials.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; atomistic tribological simulations; nanocomposites; t-aC; engine test bench experiments
Contribution to proceedings
International ECEMP Colloquium 2013, 24.-25.10.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Ressourcenschonende Werkstoffe - Technologien - Prozesse: Verlag Wissenschaftliche Scripten, 978-3-95735-006-0, 423-426
Spatio-temporal features of oil-air interface for stratified-wavy two phase flow in horizontal pipes with a 6-inch diameter
Aydin, T. B.; Schleicher, E.; Karami, H.; Torres, C.; Pereyra, E.; Sarica, C.
Interfacial wave characteristics have been studied experimentally in stratified-wavy configuration for oil-air two-phase flow at Tulsa University Fluid Flow Projects (TUFFP) 6-inch low pressure flow loop. Flow rates of each test fluid are adjusted such that the superficial liquid and gas velocities vary between 0.01m/s ≤ υSL ≤ 0.02m/s and 10m/s ≤ υSG ≤ 16m/s, respectively, in horizontal pipe configuration.
During the course of the investigation, the cross-sectional distributions of void fraction are synchronously obtained at two different streamwise locations of the pipe by using two wire mesh sensors, each with a 32 x 32 grid resolution. The spatial distribution of the phases, obtained by analyzing the measured void fractions, reveal several instantaneous quantities of the flow configuration at each cross-section such as interface geometry, liquid holdup, wetted pipe area and liquid height. The sequential acquisition of the void fractions reveal the temporal evolution of these quantities within the planes of measurement. In addition, the cross-correlation of the data from both of the wire mesh sensors enable the characterization of important surface wave parameters such as wave celerity, and structural frequency.
The instantaneous information on the liquid holdup, wetted pipe area and liquid height are the advantages of the current experimental technique over conventional methods employing quick closing valves, and high-speed flow visualization. In order to understand the effect of sensor grid resolution on these quantities, the results have also been re-arranged using coarser mesh configurations by analyzing the same data also on 24 x 24, and 16 x 16 grid sizes. Furthermore, the analysis on the grid size is enriched by the comparison with the results obtained by using other methods for similar flow conditions in other experiments.
The wave celerity is observed to increase with superficial liquid and gas velocities, which is in good agreement with the previous studies. Spectral analyses performed on each element of the data matrix reveal the distribution of the dominant wave numbers within the pipe cross-section. In addition, a unique void fraction reconstruction technique is employed to quantitatively visualize the phase distributions passing through the wire mesh sensor in a three-dimensional fashion. This type of visualization is shown to be effective on the identification of the important wave structures and their spatial distributions within the pipe cross-section. This is a strong advantage over the window crossing method, due to the accuracy in spectral analysis, and over the capacitance sensors due to the global cross-sectional information.
Keywords: two-phase flow; liquid holdup; liquid gas Interface; wire-mesh sensors
Contribution to proceedings
9th North American Conference on Multiphase Technology, 11.-13.06.2014, Banff, Canada
Proceedings of 9th North American Conference on Multiphase Technology
GTV differentially impacts locoregional control of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after different fractionation schedules: Subgroup analysis of the prospective randomized CHARTWEL trial
Soliman, M.; Yaromina, A.; Appold, S.; Zips, D.; Reiffenstuhl, C.; Schreiber, A.; Thames, H.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of fractionation schedule on the size of the gross tumour volume (GTV) effect on tumour control after radiotherapy of NSCLC.
Material and methods: A subgroup analysis on 163 patients treated in a randomized phase III trial of CHARTWEL (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy-weekend less) vs conventional radiotherapy was performed. The influence of GTV and other baseline factors on local failure (LF), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastases (DM), and overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Cox Proportional Hazards model.
Results: Superior local control was achieved by CHARTWEL compared to conventional radiotherapy (HR 0.54, p = 0.015). The hazard of LF increased with increasing GTV for both conventional fractionation and CHARTWEL, however the increase for the latter was less pronounced and not significant.
Conclusion: Highly accelerated CHARTWEL treatment was significantly more effective than conventional radiotherapy for locoregional control of NSCLC. GTV had a significant effect on locoregional control after conventional fractionation, an effect that was not significant with CHARTWEL. This is the first study to demonstrate that the magnitude of the time factor of fractionated radiotherapy increases with tumour volume. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gross tumour volume; Non-small-cell lung cancer; CHARTWEL; Accelerated radiotherapy; Randomized trial KeyWords Plus: GROSS TUMOR VOLUME; ACCELERATED RADIOTHERAPY CHART; RADIATION-THERAPY; LOCAL-CONTROL; CONVENTIONAL RADIOTHERAPY; CARCINOMA XENOGRAFTS; MULTICENTER TRIAL; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR; TREATMENT TIME; NUDE-MICE
Radiotherapy and Oncology 106(2013)3, 299-304
Time in radiation oncology - Keep it short!
Buetof, R.; Baumann, M.
there is no abstract
Keywords: CELL LUNG-CANCER; CONVENTIONALLY FRACTIONATED RADIOTHERAPY; RANDOMIZED MULTICENTER TRIAL; LOCALLY ADVANCED HEAD; NECK-CANCER; ACCELERATED RADIOTHERAPY; PROSTATE-CANCER; NUDE-MICE; PHASE-III; DIAGNOSTIC DELAY
Radiotherapy and Oncology 106(2013)3, 271-275
Towards clinical evidence in particle therapy: ENLIGHT, PARTNER, ULICE and beyond
Combs, S.; Djosanjh, M.; Poetter, R.; Orrechia, R.; Haberer, T.; Durante, M.; Fossati, P.; Parodi, K.; Balosso, J.; Amaldi, U.; Baumann, M.; Debus, J.
there is no abstract
Keywords: CARBON-ION RADIOTHERAPY; CALIFORNIA-ONCOLOGY-GROUP; CONFORMAL RADIATION-THERAPY; I-II TRIAL; SKULL BASE; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL; PHASE-I; CHARGED-PARTICLES; PROSTATE-CANCER; PROTON THERAPY
Journal of Radiation Research 54(2013)1, 6-12
Algorithm to Measure Three-Dimensional Velocity of Individual Bubble Acquired with Wire-Mesh Sensors
Furuya, M.; Kanai, T.; Arai, T.; Shirakawa, K.; Schleicher, E.
A two-phase flow often exhibits a complicated three-dimensional structure by nature even in a simple vertical pipe. In order to model such a complicated flow structure and to validate multiphase flow CFD, experimental database for three dimensional velocity and void fraction distributions are crucial. The paper addresses an algorithm to measure three-dimensional velocity of individual bubble with a bubble paring scheme. The bubble paring scheme finds a pair of bubble in two sets of wire-mesh sensor data to determine the direction and magnitude of velocity vector for each bubble. The devised scheme was applied to the vertical upward air-water flow (jG=0.64m/s, jL=0.64m/s) in a large diameter pipe (i.d. 224mm). The bubble pairing scheme visualized the developing process of two-phase flow: large bubbles coalesced with each other to move toward the center, while the rest of bubbles broke up into smaller bubbles and decelerated.
Keywords: bubbly flow; bubble identification; bubble tracking velocimetry; void fraction; bubble size; wire-mesh sensor
Contribution to proceedings
The 16th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV16), 24.-28.06.2014, Okinawa, Japan
Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Flow Visualization
Untersuchung der Supernovareaktion 40Ca(α,γ)40Ti durch Aktivierung an der PTB und γ-Zählung im Felsenkeller Dresden
Schmidt, K.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Boretzky, K.; Caciolli, A.; Dietz, M.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gyürky, G.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Marta, M.; Menzel, M.-L.; Schwengner, R.; Szücs, T.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Yakorev, D.; Zuber, K.
Modelle einer Kernkollaps-Supernova sagen vorher, dass 44Ti (Halbwertszeit = 58,9 a) produziert wird. Dementsprechend werden mehrere 44Ti-Gammastrahlungsquellen in unserer Galaxie erwartet. Jedoch konnte 44Ti bisher nur in den Supernovaüberresten Cassiopeia A und SN 1987A nachgewiesen werden. 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti ist die wichtigste Reaktion, die 44Ti erzeugt. Ihre Reaktionsrate wird durch mehrere Resonanzen dominiert. Es ist geplant, die astrophysikalisch wichtige Resonanz bei 2758 keV am 3,7 MV Van-de-Graaff-Beschleuniger der Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt zu aktivieren und anschließend die Resonanzstärke durch eine Aktivierungsmessung im Niederniveaumesslabor Felsenkeller zu bestimmen.
Keywords: core-collapse supernova; calcium-40; titanium-44; PTB; resonance strength; ultra-low-background facility Felsenkeller Dresden
Vortrag an der Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, 27.11.2013, Braunschweig, Deutschland
Strength of the Ep = 1.842 MeV resonance in the 40Ca(p,γ)41Sc reaction reexamined
Schmidt, K.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Caciolli, A.; Dietz, M.; Elekes, Z.; Junghans, A. R.; Menzel, M.-L.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Zuber, K.
The strength of the Ep = 1.842 MeV resonance in the 40Ca(p,γ)41Sc reaction is determined with two different methods: First, by an absolute strength measurement using calcium hydroxide targets, and second, relative to the well-determined strength of the resonance triplet at Eα = 4.5 MeV in the 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti reaction. The present new value of ωγ = (0.192 ± 0.017) eV is 37% (equivalent to 3.5 σ) higher than the evaluated literature value. In addition, the ratio of the strengths of the 1.842 MeV 40Ca(p,γ)41Sc and 4.5 MeV 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti resonances has been determined to be 0.0229 ± 0.0018. The newly corrected strength of the 1.842-MeV resonance can be used in the future as a normalization point for experiments with calcium targets.
Keywords: calcium-40; scandium-41; calcium hydroxide; titanium-44; resonance strength
Physical Review C 89(2014)4, 045802
Contribution to WWW
arXiv:1404.2062 [nucl-ex]: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.2062
Underground study of the 17O(p,γ)18F reaction relevant for explosive hydrogen burning
Di Leva, A.; Scott, D. A.; Caciolli, A.; Formicola, A.; Strieder, F.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; José, J.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Napolitani, E.; Prati, P.; Rigato, V.; Roca, V.; Somorjai, E.; Salvo, C.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Terrasi, F.; Trezzi, D.
Background: The O17(p,γ)F18 reaction affects the production of key isotopes (e.g., F18 and O18) in the explosive hydrogen burning that powers classical novae. Under these explosive conditions, the reaction rate is dominated by contributions from a narrow resonance at Ec.m.=183keV and by the combined contributions of direct capture and low-energy tails of broad resonances. At present, the astrophysical reaction rate is not well constrained because of the lack of data in the energy region appropriate to classical novae.
Purpose: This study aims at the measurement of the O17(p,γ)F18 reaction cross section in order to determine its reaction rate in the temperature region appropriate to explosive hydrogen burning in novae.
Method: The O17(p,γ)F18 reaction cross section was measured using both the prompt detection of the emitted γ rays and an activation technique. Measurements were carried out at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (Gran Sasso, Italy) where the strongly reduced cosmic-ray-induced background allows for improved sensitivity compared to previous studies.
Results: The O17(p,γ)F18 reaction cross section was measured in the range Ec.m.=160 to 370keV. The strength of the Ec.m.=183keV resonance, ωγ=1.67±0.12μeV, was determined with unprecedented precision. The total S factor was obtained through a combined fit of prompt γ-ray and activation results. An overall global fit including other existing data sets was also carried out and a recommended astrophysical reaction rate is presented.
Conclusions: The reaction rate uncertainty attained in this work is now below the required precision for nova models. We verified, following a full set of hydrodynamic nova models, that the abundances of oxygen and fluorine isotopes obtained with the present reaction rate are determined with 10% precision and put firmer constraints on observational signatures of novae events.
Keywords: Nuclear astrophysics hydrogen burning nova nucleosynthesis underground LUNA
Physical Review C 89(2014), 015803
Asymmetric Synthesis of Spirocyclic 2-Benzopyrans for Positron Emission Tomography of σ1 Receptors in the Brain
Holl, K.; Schepmann, D.; Fischer, S.; Ludwig, F. A.; Hiller, A.; Donat, C. K.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Wünsch, B.
Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation of styrene derivative 6 afforded chiral triols (R)-7 and (S)-7, which were cyclized with tosyl chloride in the presence of Bu2SnO to provide 2-benzopyrans (R)-4 and (S)-4 with high regioselectivity. The additional hydroxy moiety in the 4-position was exploited for the introduction of various substituents.
Williamson ether synthesis and replacement of the Boc protective group with a benzyl moiety led to potent σ1 ligands with high σ1/σ2-selectivity. With exception of the ethoxy derivative 16, the (R)-configured enantiomers represent eutomers with eudismic ratios of up to 29 for the ester (R)-18. The methyl ether (R)-15 represents the most potent σ1 ligand of this series of compounds, with a Ki value of 1.2 nM and an eudismic ratio of 7. Tosylate (R)-21 was used as precursor for the radiosynthesis of [18F]-(R)-20, which was available by nucleophilic substitution with K[18F]F K222 carbonate complex. The radiochemical yield of [18F]-(R)-20 was 18%–20%, the radiochemical purity greater than 97% and the specific radioactivity 175–300 GBq/μmol. Although radiometabolites were detected in plasma, urine and liver samples, radiometabolites were not found in brain samples. After 30 min, the uptake of the radiotracer in the brain was 3.4% of injected dose per gram of tissue and could be reduced by coadministration of the σ1 antagonist haloperidol. [18F]-(R)-20 was able to label those regions of the brain, which were reported to have high density of σ1 receptors.
Keywords: 2-benzopyrans; Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation; spirocycles; σ affinity; radiochemistry; positron emission tomography; autoradiography; organ distribution
Pharmaceuticals 7(2014), 78-112
Dose Assessment and Comparison in Mice, Piglets and Humans
Kranz, M.; Sattler, B.; Patt, M.; Fischer, S.; Hiller, A.; Donat, C. K.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Hoepping, A.; Sattler, T.; Wünsch, B.; Steinbach, J.; Sabri, O.; Brust, P.
3. Dresdner Workshop "Molekulare Bildgebung in den Lebenswissenschaften", 05.06.2013, Rossendorf, Deutschland
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Weiterbildungsveranstaltung für Ärzte am Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus der Technischen Universität Dresden, 28.01.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
Doktoranden-Kolloquium des BBZ, 03.12.2014, Leipzig, Deutschland
Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with uranium
Cherkouk, A.; Lütke, L.; Moll, H.; Bachvarova, V.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Bernhard, G.
The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. For the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know what microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and how these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository to potentially reduce their activity.
In this study, the analysis of bacterial diversity in a sample from the Mont Terri Opalinus clay demonstrated the predominance of representatives of Firmicutes, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were detected in the porewater samples from the Mont Terri rock laboratory, whereas Gammaproteobacteria especially Pseudomonas sp. dominated the bacterial community.
Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus sp., as a representative of Firmicutes, was isolated from the clay under anaerobic conditions. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7) .
Additionally, we will present a study on the interactions of the halophilic archaea Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, an salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength. These results contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.
IGD-TP Geodisposal 2014, 24.-26.06.2014, Manchester, United Kingdom
Efficient laser-driven proton acceleration in the ultra short pulse regime
The work described in this thesis is concerned with the experimental investigation of the acceleration of high energy proton pulses generated by relativistic laser-plasma interaction and their application. Using the high intensity 150TW Ti:sapphire based ultra-short pulse laser Draco, a laser-driven proton source was set up and characterized. Conducting experiments on the basis of the established target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) process, proton energies of up to 20MeV were obtained. The reliable performance of the proton source was demonstrated in the first direct and dose controlled comparison of the radiobiological effectiveness of intense proton pulses with that of conventionally generated continuous proton beams for the irradiation of in vitro tumour cells. As potential application radiation therapy calls for proton energies exceeding 200MeV. Therefore the scaling of the maximum proton energy with laser power was investigated and observed to be near-linear for the case of ultra-short laser pulses. This result is attributed to the efficient predominantly quasi-static acceleration in the short acceleration period close to the target rear surface. This assumption is furthermore confirmed by the observation of prominent non-target-normal emission of energetic protons reflecting an asymmetry in the field distribution of promptly accelerated electrons generated by using oblique laser incidence or angularly chirped laser pulses. Supported by numerical simulations, this novel diagnostic reveals the relevance of the initial prethermal phase of the acceleration process preceding the thermal plasma heath expansion of TNSA. During the plasma expansion phase, the efficiency of the proton acceleration can be improved using so called reduced mass targets (RMT). By confining the lateral target size which avoids the dilution of the expanding sheath and thus increases the strength of the accelerating sheath fields a significant increase of the proton energy and the proton yield was observed.
TU Dresden, 2013
Pu interaction studies with a typical bacterial isolate from Mont Terri Opalinus clay
Moll, H.; Lütke, L.; Cherkouk, A.; Bernhard, G.
Nuclear waste is supposed to be stored in deep geological formations. An example is the Opalinus clay formation located in the North-Western part of Switzerland (Mont Terri URL) which is currently studied in terms of its suitability as host rock for future nuclear waste storage. In this talk, results will be presented and discussed describing the interactions of a specific novel Sporomusa sp. isolate with plutonium. Results from accumulation experiments as well as detailed plutonium oxidation state changes in the presence and absence of an electron donor will be discussed.
Keywords: plutonium; Mont Terri; Opalinus Clay; Sporomusa sp; solvent extractions
TD-246 Joint BN, GD, HT, MA Mont Terri Meeting, 10.-11.02.2014, St. Ursanne, Switzerland
Disentangling defect-induced ferromagnetism in SiC
Wang, Y.; Li, L.; Prucnal, S.; Chen, X.; Tong, W.; Yang, Z.; Munnik, F.; Potzger, K.; Skorupa, W.; Gemming, S.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
We present a detailed investigation of the magnetic properties in SiC single crystals bombarded with neon ions. Through careful measuring of the magnetization of virgin and irradiated SiC, we decompose the magnetization of SiC into paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, and ferromagnetic contributions. The ferromagnetic contribution persists well above room temperature and exhibits a pronounced magnetic anisotropy. We qualitatively explain the magnetic properties as a result of the intrinsic clustering tendency of defects.
Physical Review B 89(2014), 014417
Search for Supernova-produced 60Fe in the Earth's Fossil Record
Bishop, S.; Ludwig, P.; Egli, R.; Chernenko, V.; Faestermann, T.; Famulok, N.; Fimiani, L.; Frederichs, T.; Gomez, J.; Hain, K.; Hazlik, M.; Korschinek, G.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.
Approximately 1.8 to 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of 60Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004)]. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth-supernova interaction; these bacteria were and are ubiquitous in all ocean sediments. We have conducted accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, searching for live 60Fe in the magnetofossil component of a Pacific Ocean sediment core (ODP Core 848); additional AMS measurements are now ongoing with a second Sediment core (ODP Core 851) in which we expect to find a higher 60Fe signal. This talk will present the current preliminary status of our 60Fe search results for both sediment cores.
Keywords: accelerator mass spectrometry; supernova; AMS; cosmogenic nuclide
DPG Frühjahrstagung der Fachverbände Physik der Hadronen und Kerne, Didaktik der Physik, 17.-21.03.2014, Frankfurt, Deutschland
Comparing OSL and CN techniques for dating fluvial terraces and estimating surface process rates in Pamir
Fuchs, M. C.; Gloaguen, R.; Pohl, E.; Sulaymonova, V.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.
The quantification of surface process rates is crucial for understanding the topographic evolution of high mountains. Spatial and temporal variations in fluvial incision and basin-wide erosion enable to decipher the role of tectonic and climatic drivers. The Pamir is peculiar in both aspects because of its location at the western end of the India-Asia collision zone, and its position at the edge of two atmospheric circulation systems, the Westerlies and the Indian Summer Monsoon. The architecture of the Panj river network indicates prominent variations across the main tectonic structures of the Pamir. The trunk stream, deflects from the predominantly westward river orientation and cuts across the southern and central Pamir domes before doubling back to the west and leaving the orogen.
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of fluvial terraces reveals short-term sedimentation along the trunk stream during the last ~25 kyr. The agreement of OSL results to new exposure ages based on the cosmogenic nuclide (CN) 10Be confirms accurate terrace age modelling and treatment of incomplete bleaching. The consistent terrace sedimentation and exposure ages suggest also fast terrace abandonment and rapid onset of incision. Considerable differences in terrace heights reflect high spatial variations of fluvial incision, independent of time interval, change in rock type or catchment increase. Highest rates of (5.9 + 1.1) mm/yr to (10.0 + 2.0) mm/yr describe the fluvial dynamic across the Shakhdara Dome and that related to the Darvaz Fault Zone. Lower rates of (3.9 + 0.6) mm/yr to (4.5 + 0.7) mm/yr indicate a transient stage north of the Yazgulom Dome. Fluvial incision decreases to rates ranging from (1.7 + 0.3) mm/yr to (3.9 + 0.7) mm/yr in graded river reaches associated to southern dome boundaries. The pattern agrees to the interpretation of successive upstream river captures across the southern and central Pamir domes inferred from morphometric analyses of river and valley profiles.
Basin-wide erosion rates based on 10Be concentrations in modern fluvial sediments yield relatively consistent rates between (0.61 + 0.1) mm/yr and (0.75 + 0.14) mm/yr along the Panj. The increasing Panj catchment averages variations of tributary basins, but minor variations in erosion rates of along-stream sub-basins resemble the pattern of OSL-based incision rates. In contrast, basin-wide erosion rates of tributary basins clearly differentiate between plateau-related sub-basins of (0.05 + 0.01) mm/yr to (0.17 + 0.03) mm/yr, and plateau margin-related sub-basins of (0.38 + 0.06) mm/yr to (1.43 + 0.26) mm/yr. The differentiation in plateau-related and marginal sub-basins and the northward increase in erosion rates correlate with the 75-percentile of the slope distribution within respective basins and to a minor degree to cumulative annual precipitation.
Keywords: cosmogenic nuclides; erosion
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly, 27.04.-02.05.2014, Wien, Österreich
Silica-stabilised actinide(IV) colloids in neutral and slightly alkaline solutions
Zänker, H.; Hennig, C.; Weiss, S.
Due to their low solubility, tetravalent actinides, An(IV), are usually assumed to be immobile in natural waters. However, insoluble precipitation products can also be mobile if they occur as colloids. For An(IV) oxyhydroxides this phenomenon has thoroughly been studied. The formation of a further type of An(IV) colloids is described (cf. ): Silica-containing U(IV), Th(IV) and Np(IV) colloids formed in near-neutral to slightly alkaline solutions of background chemicals of geogenic nature (carbonate, silicic acid, Na+). Whereas the silica-containig colloids addressed in the BELBaR project are formed by the adsorption of radionuclides onto pre-existing silica particles, the colloids here under discussion result from a reaction of dissolved An(IV) with dissolved silicic acid (co-precipitation). An-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the An-O-An bonds of the amorphous actinide(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silica concentration, make up the internal structure of these colloids as was elucidated by EXAFS spectroscopy and further spectroscopic methods. A strong shift of the particles’ isoelectric point by silica incorporation is observed. The particles remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. A concentration of up to 10-3 M of colloid-borne An(IV) was observed. The prevailing size of the particles is below 20 nm (about 10 to 100 kDa). The question if such An(IV) colloids may contribute to the mobility of the actinides in the near-field or the far-field of a nuclear waste repository is discussed.
Keywords: tetravalent actinides; silica; colloids; particle size; isoelectric point; EXAFS
IGDTP-Geodisposal 2014, 24.-26.6.2014, Manchester, United Kingdom
Quantifying ages of river terraces and basin wide denudation rates in Pamir
Sulaymonova, V. A.; Fuchs, M. C.; Gloaguen, R.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.
The Pamir is located at the western edge of the Indian indenter and results from the India-Asia collision. The Pamir also lies at the transition between zones dominated either by the Westerlies or the Indian Summer Monsoon. The ongoing tectonic deformation together with the climatic gradients from the two prevailing atmospheric circulation systems provide a natural laboratory to study surface processes and their rates. To determine and quantify the interaction between tectonics and the drainage system in the Tajik Pamir we use cosmogenic nuclide based techniques.
We measured 10Be and 26Al concentrations of modern fluvial sediments sampled from drainage system of Pamirs. Depth profiles enable to determine exposure ages of fluvial terraces, while the modern river sediments reveal basin-wide erosion rates.
However, accurate measurement results depend on the quality of the sample preparation. The samples from Pamir contain a high amount of various feldspars that are very difficult to separate from quartz using standard procedures such as magnetic or density separation. Unclean samples cause uncertainties in chemical procedures, especially in the case of combined 10Be and 26Al analysis. We developed a feldspar flotation in addition to our sample preparation procedure that allowed an almost complete separation of the quartz, up to 95%. Several depth profiles were analyzed to determine the exposure age of fluvial terraces. The first results of one terrace along the southern Panj River east of Langar, and one along the Shakhdara River are promising. The AMS results demonstrated that the depth profiles are consistent, with 10Be and 26Al concentrations decreasing with depth. The results of both fluvial terraces show similar denudation rates 0.5 mm/yr., while exposure age analysis yields 3.5 ka for the Langar and 19 ka Shakhdara terrace. Further analyses are ongoing. These ages are validated by OSL dates at or nearby the same sites. 10Be denudation rates on modern river samples refine the picture produced by one of us (see Fuchs et al., same session).
Keywords: cosmogenic nuclides; fluvial terraces; erosion rate
European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly, 27.04.-02.05.2014, Wien, Österreich
Application of the method for uncertainty and sensitivity evaluation to results of PWR LBLOCA analysis calculated with the code ATHLET. Part 2: Sensitivity analysis
Kozmenkov, Y.; Rohde, U.
In the previously published part 1 of the paper the uncertainty analysis of the large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) for German PWR Konvoi was performed using a statistical method, which is based on the Wilks’ theory. The evaluated output parameter is the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The primary goal of this (second) part of the paper is a ranking of the input uncertainties, according to their contributions to the PCT uncertainty in the ATHLET simulation of PWR LBLOCA, by performing a sensitivity analysis. It was shown, that the first extended set of varied parameters used in part 1 can be considerably reduced without any statistically significant influence on the uncertainty analysis results. Thus, it can be shown that the input uncertainty vector based on the LBLOCA PIRT of AREVA GmbH was complete.
To minimize the number of varied parameters the statistical t-test was used and, thus, a set of uncertainty parameters with significant impact on the uncertainty of the PCT was identified. The main contribution to the uncertainty of the first cladding temperature maximum during the blowdown phase of the accident is produced by the core parameters that affect the fuel’s stored energy at the beginning of the accident. However, the major contributors to the uncertainty of the second PCT maximum are the uncertainties in the code models, and first of all the uncertainties in the heat transfer coefficients for dispersed and pure steam flows.
Keywords: LBLOCA; PWR; blowdown phase; reflood phase; ATHLET code; input uncertainties; peak cladding temperature; sensitivity analysis; t-test; PIRT completeness
Kerntechnik 79(2014)2, 97-102
Experimental Investigation of the Effect of 90 Degrees Standard Elbow on Horizontal Gas-Liquid Stratified and Annular Flow Characteristics using Dual Wire Mesh Sensors
Vieira, R. E.; Kesana, N. R.; Torres, C. F.; Mclaury, B. S.; Shirazi, S. A.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.
Fluid flowing through pipelines often encounters fittings such as elbows. Although it is true that two-phase flow patterns observed in elbows are qualitatively the same as those seen in straight pipes, the presence of a pipe elbow can modify relative positions and local velocities of the two phases as they are subjected to forces in addition to those encountered in a straight pipe. That redistribution can affect pressure drop values, chemical inhibitor concentration and distribution to the top of the pipe, as well as the erosion pattern occurring from solid particles such as sand that is entrained in oil and gas transportation pipelines. In this work, a Wire-Mesh Sensor technique based on conductance measurements of void fraction was applied to investigate two-phase pipe flow through a standard elbow. The horizontal flow test section, consisting of a 76 mm ID, 18 m long pipe, was employed to generate stratified-wavy and annular flow conditions. Two 16×16 Wire-Mesh configuration sensors were positioned either 0.9 m upstream or 0.6 m downstream of the bend. The experiments were conducted at different liquid and gas superficial velocities that ranged from 0.03 m/s to 0.2 m/s and from 9 m/s to 34 m/s, respectively. The effects of liquid viscosity on the measured parameters are also investigated using two different viscosities of 1 and 10 cP. Stratified-slug transition, stratified wavy and annular flow patterns were observed visually in the clear section placed upstream of the Wire-Mesh sensors. Analysis of time series void fraction data from the dual Wire-Mesh sensors allows the determination of mean void fraction, local time average void fraction distribution, liquid phase distribution around the tube periphery, interfacial structure velocities, as well as Probability Density Function characteristic signatures within the cross-section of pipe before and after the elbow. The results indicate that the distribution of gas and liquid phases and interfacial velocities are significantly altered even 20 diameters downstream of the elbow.
Keywords: Wire-Mesh Sensor; two-phase flow; flow visualization; void fraction
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 59(2014), 72-87
Experimental Investigation of Slug Characteristics through a Standard Pipe Bend
Kesana, N. R.; Vieira, R. E.; Mclaury, B. S.; Shirazi, S. A.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.
Slug flow is a very common flow pattern encountered during the production of petroleum fluids. Likewise, pipe bends are often used to change the direction of the fluids during transportation. This work focuses on comparing various slug characteristics before and after a pipe bend. For this investigation, a dual Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) is utilized. Measurements are made by placing the sensor before and after the bend. In order to obtain higher spatial and temporal resolution of the signals, a sampling frequency of 10,000 Hz is used. Experiments were conducted in a 76.2 mm (3-inch) diameter pipe utilizing air and water as fluids. Effect of fluid viscosity is also studied by conducting the experiments using three different liquid viscosities: 1, 10 and 40 cP. The experiments were conducted with superficial gas velocity ranging from 9.1 m/s to 35 m/s, and superficial liquid velocity ranged from 0.45 to 0.76 m/s. The three-dimensional time series void data from the Wire-Mesh sensor before and after the bend are analyzed to obtain averaged void fractions, structure of the slugs, void in liquid slugs, bubble size distributions, and radial profiles of gas velocity. Also, this study presents the differences in the void fraction distributions in slugs and pseudo slugs. Since pseudo slugs occur between slug and annular regimes, this information can further the understanding of the effect of flow characteristics on erosion occurring from solid particles for this flow pattern. Finally, from this comprehensive analysis the influence of the bend on the gas and liquid distributions over the cross-section has been discussed.
Keywords: Solid particle erosion; Multiphase slug flow; Wire Mesh Sensor
Contribution to proceedings
22nd Symposium on Industrial Flows, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, 15.-21.11.2013, San Diego, California, USA
Proceedings of ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition 2013
Hypoxia-inducible factor pathway inhibition resolves tumor hypoxia and improves local tumor control after single-dose irradiation
Helbig, L.; Koi, L.; Brüchner, K.; Gurtner, K.; Hess-Stumpp, H.; Unterschemmann, K.; Pruschy, M.; Baumann, M.; Yaromina, A.; Zips, D.
Purpose To study the effects of BAY-84-7296, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity, on hypoxia, microenvironment, and radiation response of tumors. Methods and Materials UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-14 human squamous cell carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. When tumors reached 4 mm in diameter BAY-84-7296 (Bayer Pharma AG) or carrier was daily administered to the animals. At 7 mm tumors were either excised for Western blot and immunohistologic investigations or were irradiated with single doses. After irradiation animals were randomized to receive BAY-84-7296 maintenance or carrier. Local tumor control was evaluated 150 days after irradiation, and the dose to control 50% of tumors (TCD50) was calculated. Results BAY-84-7296 decreased nuclear HIF-1α expression. Daily administration of inhibitor for approximately 2 weeks resulted in a marked decrease of pimonidazole hypoxic fraction in UT-SCC-5 (0.5% vs 21%, P<.0001) and in UT-SCC-14 (0.3% vs 19%, P<.0001). This decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in fraction of perfused vessels in UT-SCC-14 but not in UT-SCC-5. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 labeling indices were significantly reduced only in UT-SCC-5. No significant changes were observed in vascular area or necrosis. BAY-84-7296 before single-dose irradiation significantly decreased TCD50, with an enhancement ratio of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.72) in UT-SCC-5 and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.26-1.94) in UT-SCC-14. BAY-84-7296 maintenance after irradiation did not further decrease TCD50. Conclusions BAY-84-7296 resulted in a marked decrease in tumor hypoxia and substantially reduced radioresistance of tumor cells with the capacity to cause a local recurrence after irradiation. The data suggest that reduction of cellular hypoxia tolerance by BAY-84-7296 may represent the primary biological mechanism underlying the observed enhancement of radiation response. Whether this mechanism contributes to the improved outcome of fractionated chemoradiation therapy warrants further investigation.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 88(2014)1, 159-166
Plasmonic off-axis unidirectional beaming of quantum-well luminescence
Dimaria, J.; Dimakis, E.; Moustakas, T. D.; Paiella, R.
Plasmonic off-axis unidirectional beaming of luminescence is demonstrated using nitride semiconductor quantum wells. The underlying mechanism involves the near-field excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on an ultrathin metal film, which are then diffractively scattered by an adjacent periodic array of asymmetric metallic nanoparticles. By tailoring the nanoparticles shape, we show that forward scattering can be suppressed in favor of backward diffraction (or vice versa), thereby enabling unidirectional beaming at geometrically tunable oblique angles. These nanostructures can be used to control the output light directionality of arbitrary planar luminescent devices, with a spatial resolution that would be unattainable with bulk optics.
Applied Physics Letters 103(2013)25, 251108
Application of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model to neutron-irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys
Bergner, F.; Pareige, C.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Malerba, L.; Heintze, C.
An attempt is made to quantify the contributions of different types of defect-solute clusters to the total irradiation-induced yield stress increase in neutron-irradiated (300 °C, 0.6 dpa), commercial-purity Fe-Cr alloys (target Cr contents of 2.5, 5, 9 and 12 at% Cr). Former work based on the application of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and small-angle neutron scattering revealed the formation of dislocation loops, NiSiPCr-enriched clusters and alpha’-phase particles, which act as obstacles to dislocation glide. The values of the dimensionless obstacle strength are estimated in the framework of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model. Special attention is paid to the effect of measuring errors, experimental details and model details on the estimates. The three families of obstacles and the hardening model are well capable of reproducing the observed yield stress increase as a function of Cr content, suggesting that the nanostructural features identified experimentally are the main, if not the only, causes of irradiation hardening in these alloys.
Keywords: Radiation hardening; Fe-Cr alloys
Journal of Nuclear Materials 448(2014), 96-102
Polynuclear complexes of tetravalent actinides and lanthanides with simple carboxylate ligands
Polyanuclear An(IV) carboxylate complex were identified in aqueous solution. The related complex species were preserved in crystals and their structures were determined. The structural identity of the species in solution and in solid state was tested by EXAFS spectroscopy.
Keywords: actinides; carboxylates; EXAFS; XRD
Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, 06.02.2014, Jülich, Deutschland
Robust energy enhancement of ultra-short pulse laser accelerated protons from reduced mass targets
Zeil, K.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Kraft, S. D.; Metzkes, J.; Schramm, U.
We present a systematic study of the ultrashort pulse laser driven acceleration of protons from thin targets of finite lateral size, so-called reduced mass targets (RMTs). Reproducible series of targets, manufactured with lithographic techniques, and varying in size, thickness, and mounting geometry were irradiated at the 150 TW Draco Laser facility of the Helmhotz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf with ultrashort (30 fs) laser pulses of intensities of about 8 • 10^20 W/cm^2. A robust maximum energy enhancement of almost a factor of two was found when compared to reference irradiations of plain foils of the same thickness and material. Furthermore, these targets exhibit a reduced performance dependence on target thickness compared to standard foils, which, based on detailed PIC simulations can be explained by the influence of the RMT geometry on the electron sheath. The performance gain was, however, restricted to lateral target sizes of about 50 μm which was attributed to edge and mounting structure influences. The contribution of the large electric fields at the target edges to the proton acceleration performance was investigated with measurements of the proton beam profile as well as optical pump and probe experiments.
Laser and Plasma Accelerator Workshop 2013, 04.09.2013, Goa, India
CFD simulations of steam-water flow with condensation
Apanasevich, P.; Lucas, D.
Gas-liquid two-phase flows have become increasingly important in engineering equipment and technology (e.g. in chemical or process industries). Depending on mass flow rates, geometry and the fluid properties, different flow regimes can occur (e.g. bubble flow, stratified flow, droplet flow etc.). The current project focuses on stratified two-phase flows with heat and mass transfer across a moving interface due to direct contact condensation (DCC) in horizontal pipes or channels. In case of direct contact condensation, the resistance to condensation heat transfer considerably lower compared to film-wise condensation. Hence, DCC allows a considerably better heat exchange between the phases. Direct contact condensation is used in a variety of heat transfer devices (such as direct contact condensers), which offer the possibility of increased per-formance. DCC has also been of major importance in connection with the analysis of nuclear reactor safety systems, in particular during two-phase pressurized thermal shock (PTS) scenari-os. PTS occurs when there are large thermal loads on the Reactor Pressure Vessel wall during an accident. Therefore, the modeling of direct contact condensation is a task of considerable im-portance. Condensation phenomena depend on the turbulence in the liquid phase. To consider pronounced 3D effects and local phenomena CFD methods need to be used. Generally, two-phase CFD models are not yet mature and have to be qualified for two-phase flows. The work aims at the development and validation of CFD models for two-phase stratified flows including heat and mass exchange between the phases. A promising model development strategy implies experimental data with high resolution both in space and time for the entire domain of interest. To investigate two-phase PTS scenarios with DCC, the TOPFLOW-PTS experiments were carried out at the TOPFLOW test facility of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) . The goal of the paper is to present the CFD simulations of a TOPFLOW-PTS steam-water experiment and to discuss the limits of the models used.
Keywords: CFD; pressurized thermal shock; direct contact condensation; TOPFLOW-PTS experiments
International Colloquim 150th Birthday of Richard Mollier Heat transfer phenomena in external fields: Basis research for next generation energy machines, 21.-22.11.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
Carbon Cage Vibrations of M@C82 and M2@C2n (M = La, Ce; 2n = 72, 78, 80): The Role of the Metal Atoms
Popov, A. A.; Kästner, C.; Krause, M.; Dunsch, L.
Infrared spectra of La2@C80 and a series of Ce-based endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs), including Ce@C82, Ce2@C72, Ce2@C78, and Ce2@C80 are reported. DFT calculations are used for their thorough analysis and assignment. The vibrations of the fullerene cages in all studied EMFs differ from those of their empty, charged cage analogues. Furthermore, EMFs with the same carbon cage but different type of encapsulated species also show significant differences in their cage vibrational patterns. These phenomena are explained by a different coupling of the vibrational modes as well as by the different charge distributions in EMFs and empty, isostructural fullerene anions.
Keywords: Endohedral fullerene; metallofullerene; vibrational spectroscopy; density functional theory
Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures 22(2014), 202-214
Development of a transport solver for DYN3D on the basis of CCCP with orthonormal flux expansion
Litskevich, D.; Merk, B.
DYN3D is a well-known and widely used computer code for reactor physics simulation of nuclear power plants, in particular for reactors with hexagonal fuel assembly structures. It has been developed in Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. The standard version of the DYN3D code can be used for investigations of transients in light water reactors cores with hexagonal or quadratic fuel assemblies. In order to determine the pin with the maximum power in selected assemblies, a two-dimensional pin power reconstruction can be performed based on the node homogenized neutron flux. A superposition of global diffusion solution of the full core calculation with the assembly pin powers obtained in the cell calculations is used therefore. This method is implemented in DYN3D for reconstruction of power inside selected assemblies. An improved onset would be a hybrid solution, the coupling of the full core diffusion solver with an advanced transport solver on fuel assembly base. This method can be used to directly determine the power distribution for each rod inside fuel assemblies by applying a transport solver using unstructured mesh and boundary conditions extracted from the full core diffusion solution. Nowadays, this mentioned methodology is under development. In the present work an advanced multigroup transport method of current coupling collision probability (CCCP) with orthonormal flux expansion inside the calculation regions is being developed and tested for cylindrical, hexagonal geometries and for assemblies of hexagonal cells. The results of test calculations demonstrate very good agreement with the results obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. Multigroup calculations for hexagonal assemblies with cross-sections prepared using the HELIOS code show good agreement with HELIOS reference solution, too. These convincing results encourage the implementation of this advanced pin power calculation method into DYN3D as future pin-power determination method using currents from nodal solution as boundary conditions.
Keywords: Transport equation; current coupling collision probability method; DYN3D
Contribution to proceedings
23rd Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 30.09.-04.10.2013, Štrbské pleso, Slovakia
Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Budapest: MTA Energoatom, 38-48
23rd Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 30.09.-04.10.2013, Štrbské pleso, Slovakia
Sintering and Crystallization during the Production of Strontium-Anortite Glass Ceramic
Sarkisov, P. D.; Orlova, L. A.; Popovich, N. V.; Bruntsch, R.; Chainikova, A. S.; Klinkmueller, K.; Shchegoleva, N. E.
Crystallization and sintering, which occur during firing, during the production of strontium-anortite glass ceramics by means of powder metallurgy are studied. It is shown that the dispersity of the initial glass powder and the temperature–time firing regimes affect the crystallization temperature and heat, the nature of the precipitating phases and the sintering temperature interval and kinetics of the particles. It is determined that for ceramizing glass compositions there exists a narrow powder dispersity interval in which densely sintered materials with the required composition and high mechanical properties can be obtained using multistep heat-treatment.
Keywords: glass ceramic; sintering; dispersity; strontium anortite; SrO–Al2O3–SiO2
Glass and Ceramics 69(2013), 306-312
Importance of nuclear triaxiality for electromagnetic strength, level density and neutron capture cross sections in heavy nuclei
Grosse, E.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A. R.
Contribution to proceedings
Final ERINDA User Meeting and Scientific Workshop, 01.-03.10.2013, Geneva, Switzerland
Proceedings of the ERINDA Workshop, CERN, edited by Enrico Chiaveri CERN Proceedings 2014-002, Geneva: CERN, 978-92-9083-403-8, 135-144
Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives
Junghans, A.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Kögler, T.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.
In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.
Contribution to proceedings
Final ERINDA User Meeting and Scientific Workshop, 01.-03.10.2013, Geneva, Switzerland
Proceedings of the ERINDA Workshop, CERN, edited by Enrico Chiaveri CERN Proceedings 2014-002, Geneva: CERN, 978-92-9083-403-8, 175-181
Kinetics and activation parameters of the reaction of organoarsenic(V) compounds with glutathione
Kretzschmar, J.; Brendler, E.; Wagler, J.; Schmidt, A.-C.
In this work the kinetics of the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with different organoarsenic(V) compounds is investigated. This includes phenylarsonic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (HNPAA), p-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-APAA) and o-aminophenylarsonic acid (o-APAA) as well as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The reaction progress was monitored in real time by 1H-NMR, which allowed the determination of rate coefficients and half-lives as well as activation energies, enthalpies and entropies of activation and, eventually, Gibbs free energies of activation. The reaction consists of two steps: redox reaction and conjugation. In all investigated systems, the conjugation is fast compared to the redox reaction, which therefore is rate determining. All investigated phenylarsonic acids are subject to the same rate law, showing overall reaction orders of 3 and half-life values between 47.7 ± 0.2 and 71.0 ± 3.6 min, corresponding to reaction rates between 1330 ± 10 L2 mol-2 min-1 and 850 ± 5 L2 mol-2 min-1, respectively. The methylated compounds react slower, showing half-lives of 76.6 ± 0.4 and 444 ± 10 min for DMAA and MMAA, respectively. The obtained enthalpies of activation range from 20 to 36 (± 2) kJ mol-1 and the entropies of activation are within −154 and −97 (± 7) J mol-1 K-1. The results reveal a correlation of the toxicity of the arsenic compound and the reaction rate with GSH. This may pave the way for the estimation of the toxicity of such compounds by simple kinetic studies.
Keywords: glutathione; roxarsone; phenylarsonic acid; arsanilic acid; arsenic detoxification; kinetics; NMR
Journal of Hazardous Materials 280(2014), 734-740
All-optical helicity dependent magnetic switching in Tb-Fe thin films with a MHz laser oscillator
We demonstrate all-optical magnetic switching (AOS) in an amorphous Tb30Fe70 thin film, triggered by a 5.1 MHz laser oscillator. The magnetic layer is grown on a SiO2/Si substrate. An identical magnetic film deposited on a microscope glass slide shows no AOS and only exhibits thermally induced demagnetization. This effect is due to heat accumulation by multiple laser pulses because of the low thermal conductivity of the glass substrate. In contrast, the use of a proper heat sink (e.g. SiO2/Si) abolishes need for low repetitive laser amplifier systems to induce AOS and paves the way for a cheap and easy to use technological implementation with conventional laser oscillators.
Keywords: Ultrafast technology; Ultrafast phenomena; Ultrafast processes in condensed matter; Optical data storage; Magneto-optical materials; Optical storage-recording materials; including semiconductors
Optics Express 22(2014)8, 10017-10025
CLEO 2014, 08.-13.06.2014, San Jose, Kalifornien, USA
Electromagnetic method for detection of gas bubbles in two phase liquid metals flows
Andreew, O.; Gundrum, T.; Wondrak, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Dekdouk, B.; Peyton, A.
We present a combined numerical and experimental investigation of an electromagnetic system dedicated for an operative detection of non-metallic enclosures (gas bubbles) into the liquid metal flows. The method is based on the generation of eddy currents in the electrically conducting medium by applying AC magnetic field and the detection of the electromagnetic distortions caused by heterogeneity of electrical conductivity of the medium. We defined an optimal position and configuration of detector and excitation coil in order to get maximal sensitivity of the system to the spatial distribution of admixture.
Keywords: two-phase flow; electromagnetic tomography; gas bubbles
7th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, WCIPT7, 02.-05.09.2013, Krakow, Poland
2013 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP2013) & The 28th Korea Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., 14.-18.04.2013, Jeju, Korea
Liquid metal experiments with strong magnetic fields and high electrical currents
To measure the fluid motion in liquid metal experiments Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) is used very often. The very small UDV signals can be disturbed by high direct current sources due to electromagnetic noise coming from these devices. The presentation will give some ideas and work around to common problems arising with magnetic field generation. All this will be explained on an ongoing experiment to the magneto rotatorical instability (MRI) in our laboratory. Finally some concepts and results will be given to rise measurement quality.
Keywords: EMV; magnetic field; Switching mode power supply; UDV; ultrasound doppler
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Mitarbeiter Seminar, 10.04.-10.09.2013, Illmenau, Thüringen
Electromagnetic method for gas bubble detection in liquid metal flows
Andreew, O.; Gundrum, T.; Wondrak, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Dekdouk, B.; Peyton, A.
We present a combined numerical and experimental investigation of an electromagnetic system dedicated for an operative detection of non-metallic enclosures (gas bubbles) into the liquid metal flows. The method is based on generation of eddy currents in the electrically conducting medium by applying of ac magnetic field and detection of the electromagnetic distortions caused by inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity of the medium. We defined an optimal position and configuration of detector in order to get maximal sensitivity of the system to the spatial distribution of admixture.
Keywords: Electromagnetic Thomogpaphy; Gas Bubbles; Liquid Metal
2013 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants & 28th KAIF/KNS Annual conference - ICAPP 2013, 14.-18.04.2013, Jeju Island, South Korea
Development and application of digital image analysis technique to gas-liquid flows in a pseudo-2D bubble
Thiruvalluvan Sujatha, K.; Lau, Y. M.; Deen, N. G.; Kuipers, J. A. M.
Bubble columns are widely used in the chemical industry for gas-liquid operations. In-spite of the wide spread use of bubble column reactors, fundamental understanding of interactions between hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reaction in dense systems is still lacking. Several experimental techniques are available to study gas-liquid flows: photographic imaging, particle image velocimetry, X-ray tomography, wire mesh sensors, etc. We developed a digital image analysis technique (DIA) to study the gas-liquid flows in bubble column reactor.
Joint HZDR & ANSYS Conference - 11th Multiphase Flow Conference & Short Course, 26.-28.11.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
New possibilities for investigation of the technological texture based on electric Parameters: theoretical Analysis and experimental verification
Kozik, T.; Minarik, S.
Texture is preferred orientation of crystallites in some polycrystalline materials. Different methods are applied to characterize the orientation patterns and determine the orientation distribution. Most of these methods rely on diffraction. This paper introduces the principle of a method used for characterization of ceramics texture based on anisotropy of electrical properties of crystallites in ceramics. The mathematical framework of this method is presented in theoretical part of our work. In experimental section we demonstrate how the theoretical result could be used to evaluate technology texture of ceramic material intended for the production of electronic insulators.
Keywords: ceramics texture; scalar potential; Laplace equation; Bessel function; Bessel differential equation
Journal of Electrical Engineering 64(2013)6, 376-380
Structural modifications of thin magnetic Permalloy films induced by ion implantation and thermal annealing, a comparison
Roshchupkina, O. D.; Strache, T.; McCord, J.; Muecklich, A.; Baehtz, C.; Grenzer, J.
We report the structural properties of thin magnetic Permalloy films treated by two different methods: broad-beam Ga+ ion implantation at an energy of 30keV as well as annealing at different temperatures under ultra-high vacuum. Transmission electron microscope imaging and X-ray diffraction measurements have demonstrated that both ion implantation and annealing (above 300°C) lead to further material crystallization and crystallite growth. Whereas, annealing (above 400°C) leads to a strain-free state with an almost constant lattice parameter and to a further enhancement of the initial (111) texture, ion beam implantation boosts the growth of small arbitrary oriented crystallites and leads to an linear increase of the lattice parameter introducing mirco-strain to the sample. The observed decrease of the saturation magnetization for the implanted samples is mainly attributed to the presence of the non-magnetic Ga atoms incorporated in the Permalloy film itself. The rise of the saturation magnetization for the samples annealed at temperatures above 500°C is explained by an arising de-wetting effect since no ordered FeNi3 phase was detected with anomalous X-ray diffraction.
Keywords: ion beam implantation; microstructure; XRD
Acta Materialia 74(2014), 278-284
Flow measurements in a continuous steel casting model using low temperature liquid metal
Willers, B.; Timmel, K.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.
Model experiments with low melting point liquid metals are used to evaluate the flow structure and its related transport processes in metallurgical applications in melt flows. Water model experiments are less important, in particular, in case of strong temperature gradients, two-phase flows or flows exposed to electromagnetic fields. Here we present the Mini-LIMMCAST experimental facility to illustrate the continuous steel casting process using a GalnSn room-temperature liquid metal alloy. The parameters of the facility and the dimensions of the test sections will be given and possibilities to evaluate the flow in the mold will be discussed.
The effect which the magnetic field has on the flow structure turned out to be complex. The flow measurements do not show a general braking effect which would be expected as an overall damping of the flow velocity and its resulting fluctuations in the mold. Not only different magnetic field intensities had a big influence on the flow field, but also the variation of the electromagnetic field position had a striking impact on the resulting flow structures. The flow intensity in the upper part of the mold is also significantly influenced by the movement on the free surface of the metal. During continuous casting, this movement of the free surface is an important parameter to indicate the quality of steel. The experiments provide a substantial database for the validation of respective numerical simulations.
Keywords: magnetic field; liquid metal; flow; flow structure; flow measurement; flow velocity; flow control; continuous casting; magnetic brake; Ruler EMBr; GaInSn
The 5th International Conference STEELSIM 2013, 10.-12.09.2013, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Simulation of positron energy spectra generated by channeling radiation of GeV electrons in a tungsten single crystal
Azadegan, B.; Mahdipour, S. A.; Wagner, W.
Positron production based on the generation of channeling radiation by relativistic electrons channeled along the (110) crystallographic plane of a W crystal and the subsequent conversion of radiation into e+e−-pairs in an amorphous tungsten target is described. Electron dechanneling is considered by solving of the Fokker-Planck equation. The continuous potential of the channeling plane is calculated using the Doyle–Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor taking into account thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms. The trajectories, velocities and accelerations of planar channeled electrons are obtained by solving the classical equation of motion. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, the spectral-energy distribution of radiation is obtained from the Fourier transforms of realistic electron trajectories, velocities and accelerations within the W crystal. The calculations of channeling radiation and dechanneling are carried out by means of our Mathematica codes. The conversion of radiation into e+e− -pairs and the energy distributions of produced positrons are simulated using the GEANT4 package.
Keywords: channeling radiation; dechanneling; positrons; positron source
Contribution to proceedings
RREPS-13 and Meghri-13, 22.-28.09.2013, Yerevan, Lake Sevan, Armenia
Proceedings of RREPS-13 and Meghri-13, Bristol: IOP Publishing
Journal of Physics: Conference Series 517(2014), 012039
Online First (2014) DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/517/1/012039
Contact-less Magneto-Elastic Torsional Sensor based on Phase-Shift Measurements
Buchenau, D.; Schmidt, G.; Eckert, S.
We report on the development of a contactless measurement technique for torsional shear stress τ in ferromagnetic axles or hollow shafts, based on the magneto-elastic effect. In general two different measuring principles for ferromagnetic materials can be realised, based on: the evaluation of the change of magnetic polarisation influenced by mechanical stress ΔJ(τ ) or, the change of the magnetic susceptibility ΔχA(τ). The comprehension of the magnetic polarisation or the magnetic susceptibility in a sensor concept requires an external magnetic field. Preferably alternating magnetic fields were used as mechanical stress can disturb the amplitude but also the phase distribution of the applied magnetic field. As a result of a torsional moment acting on an axle or hollow shaft an angle of twist η appears, which is constant over the length of the twisted object. This angle of twist can be understood as a shift of infinitesimal thin cross-sections in which the whole length of the axle is separated. Beside the macroscopic deformation effect, shear forces taking also effect on the Weiss domains in the microscale of the ferromagnetic material. The effects in the microscale are the base of the magneto-eleastic effect. The combination of the deformation effect in the macro-scale with the deformation of the Weiss domains in the microscale leading to a sophisticated measurement principle for torsional stress in axles or hollow shafts. Magneto-sensitive detectors along or around the measurement object open the possibility for a contactless detection of torsional stress in ferromagnetic materials. Beside a strong measuring signal, free from electromagnetic interference, the introduced contactless measurement principle offers different advantages, like an independence from compression strength, nominal tensile stress, impact load, ferromagnetic hysteresis effects and an independence from the temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the axle or hollow shaft. The characteristics of such a type of sensor are analysed by an electrotechnical model based on Maxwells equations. Beside the chosen design of a contactless torsion sensor and an experimental set-up, the obtained test results are illustrated and reported in the present paper.
Keywords: Magneto-elasticity; magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy; torsional stress; phase-shift
Measurement Science and Technology 25(2014), 075901
Invasion as target for therapy of glioblastoma multiforme
Vehlow, A.; Cordes, N.
The survival of cancer patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme is limited to just a few months even after treatment with the most advanced techniques. The indefinable borders of glioblastoma cell infiltration into the surrounding healthy tissue prevent complete surgical removal. In addition, genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications and microenvironmental heterogeneity cause resistance to radio- and chemotherapy altogether resulting in a hardly to overcome therapeutic scenario. Therefore, the development of efficient therapeutic strategies to combat these tumors requires a better knowledge of genetic and proteomic alterations as well as the infiltrative behavior of glioblastoma cells and how this can be targeted. Among many cell surface receptors, members of the integrin family are known to regulate glioblastoma cell invasion in concert with extracellular matrix degrading proteases. While preclinical and early clinical trials suggested specific integrin targeting as a promising therapeutic approach, clinical trials failed to deliver improved cure rates up to now. Little is known about glioblastoma cell motility, but switches in invasion modes and adaption to specific microenvironmental cues as a consequence of treatment may maintain tumor cell resistance to therapy. Thus, understanding the molecular basis of integrin and protease function for glioblastoma cell invasion in the context of radiochemotherapy is a pressing issue and may be beneficial for the design of efficient therapeutic approaches. This review article summarizes the latest findings on integrins and extracellular matrix in glioblastoma and adds some perspective thoughts on how this knowledge might be exploited for optimized multimodal therapy approaches.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1836(2013)2, 236-244
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