Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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35836 Publications

Stacking-order dependent transport properties of trilayer graphene

Jhang, S. H.; Craciun, M. F.; Schmidmeier, S.; Tokumitsu, S.; Russo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Skourski, Y.; Wosnitza, J.; Tarucha, S.; Eroms, J.; Strunk, C.

We reportmarkedly different transport properties ofABA- andABC-stacked trilayer graphenes. Our experiments in double-gated trilayer devices provide evidence that a perpendicular electric field opens an energy gap in the ABC trilayer, while it causes the increase of a band overlap in the ABA trilayer. In a perpendicular magnetic field, the ABA trilayer develops quantum Hall plateaus at filling factors of nu = 2,4,6, . . . with a step of Δnu = 2, whereas the inversion-symmetric ABC trilayer exhibits plateaus at nu = 6 and 10 with fourfold spin and valley degeneracy.

  • Physical Review B 84(2011), 161408(R)

Publ.-Id: 16178

Saturation Field of Frustrated Chain Cuprates: Broad Regions of Predominant Interchain Coupling

Nishimoto, S.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Kuzian, R. O.; van den Brink, J.; Richter, J.; Lorenz, W. E. A.; Skourski, Y.; Klingeler, R.; Büchner, B.

A thermodynamic method to extract the interchain coupling (IC) of spatially anisotropic 2D or 3D spin-1/2 systems from their empirical saturation field Hs(T = 0) is proposed. Using modern theoretical methods we study how Hs is affected by an antiferromagnetic (AFM) IC between frustrated chains described in the J1-J2-spin model with ferromagnetic 1st and AFM 2nd neighbor in-chain exchange. A complex 3D-phase diagram has been found. For Li2CuO2 and Ca2Y2Cu5O10, we show that Hs is solely determined by the IC and predict Hs \apprx 61 T for the latter. With Hs \approx 55 T from magnetization data one reads out a weak IC for Li2CuO2 close to that obtained from inelastic neutron scattering.

  • Physical Review Letters 107(2011), 097201

Publ.-Id: 16177

The impact of heavy Ga doping on superconductivity in germanium

Skrotzki, R.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Heera, V.; Fiedler, J.; Mücklich, A.; Helm, M.; Wosnitza, J.

We report new experimental results on how superconductivity in gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) is influenced by hole concentration and microstructure. Ion implantation and subsequent flash-lamp annealing at various temperatures have been utilized to prepare highly p-doped thin films consisting of nanocrystalline and epitaxially grown sublayers with Ga-peak concentrations of up to 8 at.%. Successive structural investigations were carried out by means of Rutherford-backscattering spectrometry in combination with ion channelling, secondaryion-mass spectrometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Hole densities of 1.8·1020 to 5.3·1020 cm-3 (0.4 to 1.2 at.%) were estimated via Hall-effect measurements revealing that only a fraction of the incorporated gallium has been activated electrically to generate free charge carriers. The coincidence of a sufficiently high hole and Ga concentration is required for the formation of a superconducting condensate. Our data reflect a critical hole concentration of around 0.4 at.%. Higher concentrations lead to an increase of Tc from 0.24 to 0.43 K as characterized by electrical-transport measurements. A short mean-free path indicates superconductivity in the dirty limit. In addition, small critical-current densities of max. 20 kA/m2 point to a large impact of the microstructure

Publ.-Id: 16176

Improvement of CBERS-3/4 Imaging Camera Pin-pull Components by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

Ueda, M.; Fernandes, B. B.; Mello, C. B.; Lepienski, C. M.; Reuther, H.; Evangelista, S. H.

Improvement of CBERS-3/4 Imaging Camera Pin-pull Components by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th International Workshop on Plasma Based Ion Implantation & Deposition, PBII&D 2011, 08.-12.09.2011, Harbin, China

Publ.-Id: 16175

S100 proteins and RAGE in cancer

Pietzsch, J.

RAGE, the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, is a pattern recognition receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. In homeostasis, RAGE is expressed ubiquitously high only in the lung, and moderate to low in a wide range of cells such as endothelial cells, mononuclear phagocytes, smooth muscle cells, mesangial cells, and certain neurons. It is found either as a membrane-bound or soluble protein that is markedly and quickly upregulated by stress in both epithelial and inflammatory cells. RAGE binds multiple ligands, including advanced glycation end products (AGEs), amyloid fibrils, amphoterin, and various members of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins such as S100A4, S100A8/A9, S100A11, S100A12, and S100B. Activation and upregulation through a positive feedback loop of RAGE and, subsequently, perpetual RAGE S100 engagement effects the activation of diverse signaling cascades that initiate and stimulate chronic stress and survival pathways, depending on the distinct interacting S100 protein, environment, and developmental stage. This can result in chronic inflammation and is supposed a setting in which predominantly epithelial malignancies can arise. Therefore, exploring the function of RAGE and its panoply of S100 ligands in the setting of inflammation is critically important in understanding the role of this receptor in carcinogenesis and metastasis, but also in other pathological conditions such as radiation therapy-related vascular dysfunction. In this review, we summarize novel findings on RAGE S100 protein interaction and subsequently triggered signaling cascades from published reports and own ongoing studies. In particular, a comprehensive evaluation of S100 protein metabolism in rodent models using fluorine-18 radiolabeled recombinant S100 proteins and small animal positron emission tomography, further underlining the role of RAGE S100 protein interaction in normal and disease states in vivo, is demonstrated. These recent experiments also support the potential of RAGE and its S100 ligands as attractive theragnostic markers and targets, respectively.

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Amino Acids 41(2011), S33
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12th International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, 01.-05.08.2011, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 16174

Phosphopeptides with improved cellular uptake properties as ligands for the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1

Richter, S.; Neundorf, I.; Loebner, K.; Gräber, M.; Berg, T.; Bergmann, R.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Wuest, F.

Human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is involved in cell proliferation and overexpressed in a broad variety of different cancer types. Due to its crucial role in cancerogenesis Plk1 is a potential target for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptidic ligands can specifically interact with the polo-box domain (PBD) of Plk1, a C-terminal located phosphoepitope binding motif. Recently, phosphopeptide MQSpTPL has been identified as ligand with high binding affinity. However, a radiolabeled version of this peptide showed only insufficient cellular uptake. The present study investigated peptide dimers consisting of PBD-targeting phosphopeptide MQSpTPL and a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) moiety. The new constructs demonstrate superior uptake in different cancer cell-lines compared to the phosphopeptide alone. Furthermore, we could demonstrate binding of phosphopeptide-CPP dimers to PBD of Plk1 making the compounds interesting leads for the development of molecular probes for imaging Plk1 in cancer.

Keywords: Phosphopeptides; Cell-penetrating peptides; Polo-like kinase 1; Polo-box domain; Cellular uptake

Publ.-Id: 16173

Long optical undulators with Traveling-Wave Thomson Scattering towards tunable, high-yield sources in the hard X-ray range

Debus, A.; Steiniger, K.; Siebold, M.; Jochmann, A.; Irman, A.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T.; Sauerbrey, R.

Thomson sources, either driven by small linacs or laser-wakefield accelerated (LWFA) electrons are compact in size and can provide ultrashort, hard X-ray pulses of high brilliance. However, the finite Rayleigh length at small interaction diameters makes it increasingly difficult in head-on (180°) Thomson scenarios to avoid higher laser intensities and thus the onset of the nonlinear regime. Effectively, such a geometry limits the peak brilliance of all future Thomson sources.

We present a novel concept, Traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS), which allows obtaining centimeter to meter long optical undulators, where interaction length and diameter are independent of each other. With an ultrashort, high-power laser pulse in an oblique angle scattering geometry using tilted pulse fronts, electrons and laser remain overlapped while both beams travel over distances much longer than the Rayleigh length.
This allows realizing side-scattering in laser-electron beam interactions, without compromises with regard to luminosity or overlap. Furthermore, the smallest achievable scattered bandwidth is controlled by the width of a cylindrically focused laser beam and thus is independent of the ultrashort laser bandwidth. Due to the flexibility in side-scattering angle, photon energies become tunable over a large spectral range without requiring a change in electron energy.

TWTS is particularly interesting for “pink beam” experiments at hard X-rays in which high photon yields in single, ultrashort pulses are needed. Above 100keV photon energy, this approach potentially leads to peak brilliances that are beyond the capabilities of existing synchrotron radiation sources and 2-3 orders of magnitudes higher than in current head-on Thomson scattering designs.

Towards experimental realization, we show how such a Traveling-wave setup has to be implemented. An emphasis is put on the use of varied-line spacing (VLS) gratings for dispersion precompensation of the laser beam at large interaction angles to achieve the required overlap between laser and electrons within the interaction region.

Keywords: Traveling-wave Thomson-scattering; hard X-ray; high brilliance

  • Lecture (Conference)
    RREPS 2011 -- International Symposium "Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures", 12.-16.09.2011, Diamond light source, RAL, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 16172

Cell-based Testing of the Binding affinity of Cetuximab conjugates for Radionuclide marker

Ingargiola, M.; Dittfeld, C.; Zenker, M.; Heldt, J.-M.; Steinbach, J.; Runge, R.; Kotzerke, J.; Kunz-Schughart, L.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 187(2011), 95
  • Poster
    17. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Radioonkologie (DEGRO), 02.-05.06.2011, Wiesbaden, D

Publ.-Id: 16171

Induction of DNA double-beach breaks via Y-96-DTPA-Cetuximab in human SCC cell lines to establish EGFR-directed tumour inactivating therapies

Kasten-Pisula, U.; Saker, J.; Zenker, M.; Heldt, J.-M.; Baumann, M.; Steinbach, J.; Petersen, C.; Dikomey, E.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 187(2011), 58
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Radioonkologie (DEGRO), 02.-05.06.2011, Wiesbaden, D

Publ.-Id: 16170

Evaluation of a sensor for measurement of temperature field in mixing processes

Schäfer, T.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.

Chemical processes are often controlled by monitoring pressure and temperature in the process chamber. However, usually these parameters are only available at selected positions, e.g. the inlet and outlet. And they are often not sufficient to operate the processes at the limit, i.e., to ensure high production rates and safety requirements, respectively. The knowledge of temperature fields is even more required if multiphase processes with a high tendency of segregation are considered due to occurrence of dead zones or by-passes.
A sensor concept for two-dimensional measurement of temperature fields for the monitoring of mixing processes was developed and tested. The sensor consists of a 32x32 matrix of small NTC temperature sensors. The measurement electronics is based on a multiplexing driving scheme. This set up enables the measurement of liquid temperatures at the surface of the sensor in each crossing point of the matrix. Applying the new electronic scheme, scanning frequencies up to 100 Hz allow fast temperature measurement to derive conclusions about heat transfer, flow regimes and mixing conditions.
The sensor performance was tested in two experimental setups. Heated phantoms of known geometric shape were applied to study the spatial resolution of the sensor. Furthermore, the 32x32 temperature sensor was installed at the wall of a flat mixing chamber. The flow chamber was fed by two liquid streams of different temperature connected at the inlet ports. Temporal evolution of the mixing temperature and steady-state mixing temperature patterns were observed.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th European Congress of Chemical Engineering, 25.-29.09.2011, Berlin, Deutschland
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    8th European Congress of Chemical Engineering, 25.-29.09.2011, Berlin, Deutschland, 25.-29.09.2011, Berlin, Deutschland
    Proceedings of the 8th European Congress of Chemical Engineering / 1st European Congress of Applied Biotechnology

Publ.-Id: 16169

The Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov State in Layered Organic Superconductors

Wosnitza, J.

es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen

  • Lecture (Conference)
    9th International Symposium on Crystalline Organic Metals, Superconductors and Ferromagnets (ISCOM 2011), 25.-30.09.2011, Poznan - Gniezno, Poland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 10th International Conference on Research in High Magnetic Fields, 03.-06.07.2012, Wuhan, China

Publ.-Id: 16168

Evidence for a novel superconducting state in layered organic superconductors at high magnetic fields

Wosnitza, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Humbodt-Kolleg, Cooperation and Networking of Universities and Research Institutes, "study by doing research" - NANO-2011, 07.-09.10.2011, Chisinau, Moldova
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Sino-German Bilateral Workshop on Emergent Phases in Correlated and Topological Matter, 01.-06.04.2012, Hangzhou, China

Publ.-Id: 16167

Irradiation of human melanoma cells: Effects on cellular properties and Eph receptor/ephrin expression

Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, D.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.

X-ray irradiation has an influence on survival and metastatic properties of tumor cells. In turn, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by EphA2 and EphA3, two members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. However, links between irradiation, Eph receptor expression and modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties have not yet been shown. In this study, we irradiated one pre-metastatic and three metastatic human melanoma cells lines, including one self-generated metastatic cell line with X-rays. At day 1 and day 7 post irradiation we analyzed cellular viability, proliferation, motility, adhesion, migration, and clonal growth. Additionally, selected Eph receptors and ephrin ligands were analyzed regarding radiationdependent changes in mRNA and protein content.

In all cell lines a dose-dependent decrease in viability and cell growth for up to 1 week after irradiation was demonstrated. Motility was decreased 1 day after treatment but showed recurrence at 7 days after X-ray. In adhesion to fibronectin, we detected an irradiation-induced increase with similar decrease in migration and clonal growth. Thus, we assume that X-ray acts merely antimetastatic on the investigated melanoma cells. For EphA2 we detected an increase in mRNA in 2 of 3 metastatic cell lines, with simultaneously decreased protein level. EphA3 was found to be upregulated in mRNA and protein in 3 of 4 cell lines. Expression of ephrinA1 and A5 was generally low and seemed unaffected by irradiation.
In conclusion, our data indicate irradiation-induced downregulation of EphA2 and up-regulation of EphA3 in human melanoma cells, leading to anti-metastatic effects such as decreased motility and migration and increased adhesion to fibronectin. Ongoing studies will further clarify underlying mechanisms and the importance of EphA2 and EphA3 in melanoma metastasis.

  • Poster
    14. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Biologische Strahlenforschung, 13.-15.09.2011, Rheinbach, D

Publ.-Id: 16166

Entwicklung von [90Y]Y-CHX-A´´-DTPA-Cetuximab für die kombinierte interne und externe Bestrahlung von Tumoren: Radiochemie und erste in-vivo-Ergebnisse

Heldt, J.-M.; Koi, L.; Zenker, M.; Brüchner, K.; Dittfeld, C.; Bergmann, R.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Pietzsch, J.; Zips, D.; Kunz-Schughart, L. A.; Baumann, M.; Steinbach, J.

Der epidermale Wachstumsfaktor-Rezeptor (EGFR) wird in einer Vielzahl maligner Tumore überexprimiert. Die Hemmung des Rezeptors durch den monoklonalen Antikörper Cetuximab (C225) in Kombination mit fraktionierter Bestrahlung führte bei dieser Tumorentität (prä)klinisch zu einer verbesserten lokalen Tumorkontrolle (1).
Radiochemische Entwicklung, Charakterisierung und Herstellung von [90Y]Y-CHX-A´´-DTPACetuximab ([90Y]C225). Präklinische Evaluierung von [90Y]C225 in Kombination mit externer Bestrahlung. Kann [90Y]C225 die lokale Tumorkontrolle in Mäusen nach externer Bestrahlung weiter verbessern?
CHX-A´´-DTPA wurde über Thioharnstoffkupplung in HEPES-Puffer bei pH 7,2 mit C225 konjugiert. Die Reinigung des Konjugates erfolgte durch Ultrafiltration. Das Chelator-C225-Verhältnis wurde durch MALDI-TOF-MS bestimmt. Die Affinität gegenüber EGFR wurde durchflusszytometrisch ermittelt. Die Radiomarkierung erfolgte in MES-Puffer durch 30-minütige Inkubation mit [90Y/86Y]YCl3 bei pH 6,1 und 30°C. Die radiopharmakologische Charakterisierung erfolgte mittels Ex-vivo-Autoradiographie ([90Y]C225) und Kleintier-Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie ([86Y]C225) nach intravenöser Applikation in NMRI-Nacktmäusen (nu/nu) mit subkutan xenotransplantiertem humanen Plattenepithelkarzinom (FaDu) als Modell. Im Rahmen der Therapieexperimente wurden FaDu-NMRI(nu/nu)-Mäuse mit [90Y]C225 (je 2,8 MBq/13 μg C225 i.v.) und/oder externer Bestrahlung (26, 32 und 38 Gy, 200 kV Röntgen, 0,5 mm Cu-Filter, 1,1 Gy/min, Einzeldosis) behandelt. Endpunkte der Therapieexperimente waren Wachstumsverzögerung und lokale Tumorkontrolle 180 Tage nach externer Bestrahlung.
Es wurden 4 CHX-A´´-DTPA-Moleküle an C225 gekuppelt. Das Konjugat weist mit einem KD-Wert von 0,33 nM im Vergleich zu nativem C225 keinen Affinitätsverlust gegenüber EGFR auf. Bei der Radiomarkierung mit [90Y]YCl3 wurden reproduzierbar spezifische Aktivitäten bis zu 9 GBq/mg C225 und radiochemische Ausbeuten von >95% erzielt. Autoradiographie und PET zeigten 48 h p.i. eine hohe Anreicherung im Tumor. Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das Konjugat für Therapieversuche geeignet ist. Die Kombinationstherapie wurde gut toleriert und es konnten im Vergleich zu den Kontrolltieren histologisch keine Organveränderungen festgestellt werden. Die Tumorkontrolle nach alleiniger externer Bestrahlung zeigt einen klaren Dosiseffekt. Nach 26 Gy externer Bestrahlung war eine signifikant höhere Tumorkontrolle nach Applikation von 13 μg [90Y]C225 im Vergleich zu alleiniger externer Bestrahlung oder zu externer Bestrahlung und unmarkiertem Cetuximab zu verzeichnen.
(1) Krause et al. Radiother Oncol. 2005 Feb;74(2):109-15
Gefördert durch das BMBF (02NUK006), Kompetenzverbund Strahlenforschung

  • Poster
    14. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für biologische Strahlenforschung, 13.-15.09.2011, Rheinbach, D
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 54(2011), S568

Publ.-Id: 16165

High Molecular Weight Coffee Melanoidins Are Inhibitors for Matrix Metalloproteases

de Marco, L. M.; Fischer, S.; Henle, T.

High molecular (above 10 kDa) melanoidins isolated from coffee beans of varying roasting degree were found to be efficient inhibitors for the zinc-containing matrix metalloproteases MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 with IC50 values ranging between 0.2 and 1.1 mg/mL in vitro. The inhibitory potential increased with roasting degree. No or only slight inhibition of other zinc-containing peptidases closely related to MMPs, namely, Clostridium histolyticum collagenase and angiotensin converting enzyme, was found, indicating specific structural features of melanoidins to be responsible for the interaction with MMPs. A continuous increase on the apparent molecular weight of melanoidins as well as incorporation of phenolic substances into the melanoidin structure with progress of roasting was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the carbon/nitrogen of the melanoidins. This suggests that the melanoidins are mainly formed by incorporation of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds onto a proteinaceous backbone. As MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, studies on possible physiological effects of melanoidins are mandatory.

Keywords: Coffee melanoidins; roasting; Maillard reaction; glycation; polyphenols; matrix metalloproteases; bioactivity

  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(2011)21, 11417-11423
    DOI: 10.1021/jf202778w

Publ.-Id: 16164

Combined internal and external Radiation Therapy of Tumors: First Results with Y-90-DTPA Cetuximab in FaDu Tumors

Zips, D.; Koi, L.; Bruchner, K.; Zenker, M.; Heldt, J.-M.; Bergmann, R.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.; Baumann, M.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 187(2011), 55
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Radioonkologie (DEGRO), 02.-05.06.2011, Wiesbaden, D

Publ.-Id: 16163

A trigonal nodal SP3 method with mesh refinement capabilities - development and verification

Duerigen, S.; Bilodid, Y.; Fridman, E.; Mittag, S.

The neutronics model of the nodal reactor dynamics code DYN3D developed for 3D analyses of steady states and transients in Light-Water Reactors has been extended by a simplified P3 (SP3) neutron transport option – to overcome the limitations of the diffusion approach at regions with significant anisotropy effects.
To provide a method being applicable to reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies and to furthermore allow flexible mesh refinement, the nodal SP3 method has been developed on the basis of a flux expansion in trigonal-z geometry.
In this paper, the derivation of the trigonal SP3 method is presented in a condensed form and a verification of the methodology on quasi-pin level is performed by means of single-assembly test examples. The corresponding pin-wise few-group cross sections were obtained by the deterministic lattice code HELIOS. The power distributions were calculated using both the trigonal DYN3D diffusion and SP3 solver and compared to the HELIOS reference solutions. Close to regions with non-negligible flux anisotropies, e.g., caused by the presence of a strong absorbing material, the power distribution calculated by DYN3D-SP3 shows a significant improvement in comparison to the diffusion method.

Keywords: simplified P3; SP3; nodal method; trigonal; triangular; hexagonal; mesh refinement; pin level

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    PHYSOR 2012 Advances in Reactor Physics, 15.-20.04.2012, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    PHYSOR 2012 Advances in Reactor Physics, 15.-20.04.2012, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Publ.-Id: 16162

The ELBE Control System – 10 Years of Experience with Commercial Control, SCADA and DAQ Environments

Justus, M.; Herbrand, F.; Jainsch, R.; Kretzschmar, N.; Leege, K.-W.; Michel, P.; Schamlott, A.

The electron accelerator facility ELBE is the central experimental site of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. Experiments with Bremsstrahlung started in 2001 and since that, through a series of expansions and modifications, ELBE has evolved to a 24/7 user facility running a total of seven secondary sources including two IR FELs. As its control system, ELBE uses WinCC on top of a networked PLC architecture. For data acquisition with high temporal resolution, PXI and PC based systems are in use, applying National Instruments hardware and LabVIEW application software. Machine protection systems are based on in-house built digital and analogue hardware. An overview of the system is given, along with an experience report on maintenance, reliability and efforts to keep track with ongoing IT, OS and security developments. Limits of application and new demands imposed by the forthcoming facility upgrade as a centre for high intensity beams (in conjunction with TW/PW femtosecond lasers) are discussed.

Keywords: ELBE; control system

  • Contribution to proceedings
    ICALEPCS 2011 - 13th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, 10.-14.10.2011, Grenoble, France
    Proceedings of the ICALEPCS 2011
  • Poster
    ICALEPCS 2011 - 13th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, 12.10.2011, Grenoble, France


Publ.-Id: 16161

Effect of He+ Irradiation on a Short- Range Order in Fe-Cr Alloys

Dubiel, S. M.; Reuther, H.; Cieslak, J.

Fe-Cr alloys play an important role both in science and technology. The former stems from their interesting and unique properties which make them to be regarded as model alloys. The latter follows from the fact that they are a basic component of stainless steels (SS) that, thanks to their properties, have been used as construction materials in various branches of industry like power plants or fusion and fission reactors. In these applications they often undergo radiation damage that causes degradation of materials properties. A new generation of SS should provide better characteristics, and, in particular, better resistance to the radiation damage. To achieve this goal, one has to better understand effects caused by the radiation like short-range ordering (SRO).

  • Poster
    31st International Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ICAME2011), 25.-30.09.2011, Kobe, Japan

Publ.-Id: 16160

Chiral QCD sum rules for open-charm mesons

Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.; Leupold, S.

QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg-type sum rules. This allows for the identification of such QCD condensates which drive the nondegeneracy of chiral partners in the lowest order of the strong coupling αs and which, therefore, may serve as “order parameters” for chiral restoration (or elements thereof).

Publ.-Id: 16159

Matching 4D Porous Media Fluid Flow GeoPET Data with COMSOL Multiphysics Simulation Results

Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M.; Richter, M.

Introduction: Our GeoEPT-method allows the 4D monitoring of transport processes in geological material on laboratory scale (Gründig et al., 2007; Kulenkampff et al., 2008; Richter et al., 2005). We apply COMSOL Multiphysics for reproducing our experiments and extracting parameter sets for our 4D problems. We learn that importing realistic structures from computer tomography (CT) as well as matching our experimental and simulated 4D data sets are complex tasks.

Use of COMSOL Multiphysics: A granite drill core (length = 198 mm, diameter = 50 mm) with a prominent fracture is scanned by means of a medical CT with a spatial resolution of about 1 mm³ (3∙106 voxels, Figure 1, bottom). The data segmentation is conducted with Avizo® Fire under consideration of beam hardening effects. A voxel based fracture geometry is transferred to COMSOL Multiphysics in stl-file format (11 MB, Figure 1, top). After scaling the geometry object and converting it to solid, we allocate the material water to its volume of about 20 ml. First Laminar flow is assigned to the domain and solved stationary. By attributing No slip walls, initial (u = 0, p0 = 0), inflow (u0 = 2∙10-5 m/s) and outflow conditions (p = 0) the experimental conditions are well represented by the model. A user-controlled mesh (free tetrahedral, normal element size) calibrated for Fluid dynamics consists of ~370,000 elements (Figure 2). The stationary flow and pressure field is solved by the GMRES solver in less than four minutes. We add Transport of a diluted species with a Gaussian concentration-input function (standard deviation ~14 min at t = 30 min) for simulating our time dependent experiment (Figure 3). This computing time amounts to additional 23 minutes.

Results: We obtain 4D simulation results covering 10 hours with 10 min resolution. The 4D data sets (Figure 3) as well as breakthrough curves (BTC) are matched with our 4D experimental results obtained in GeoPET experiments (Figure 4). Although effects caused by filter plates at the flange facings were not yet considered in the COMSOL, model the BTC matches fairly well.

Conclusion: The development of algorithms for flow pattern identification, parameterisation of pattern evolution and pattern tracking might allow for quantitative similarity studies of 4D flow and transport processes. In parallel, refining the geometry on the basis of higher resolution CT measurements will help approaching better matches between simulated and measured 4D data sets of flow and transport in heterogeneous geological media.

Outlook: Intermediate and long-term aim of such matching attempts of 4D simulation results with corresponding measurement results is (A) to quantify the effect a simplified geometry from high resolution CT measurements has on the quality of reproducing our real GeoPET flow and transport monitoring results, (B) to quantify the effect a simplified geometry has on the quality of reactive transport in geological material, when additional interactions have to be considered and (C) to evaluate appropriate algorithms for reducing high resolution, high dimension, complex physics models to continuum scale models capable of capturing the relevant processes ruling on the field scale.

Gründig, M., Richter, M., Seese, A. and Sabri, O., 2007. Tomographic radiotracer studies of the spatial distribution of heterogeneous geochemical transport processes. Appl. Geochem., 22: 2334-2343.
Kulenkampff, J., Gründig, M., Richter, M. and Enzmann, F., 2008. Evaluation of positron emission tomography for visualisation of migration processes in geomaterials. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33: 937-942.
Richter, M., Gründig, M., Zieger, K., Seese, A. and Sabri, O., 2005. Positron Emission Tomography for modelling of geochmical transport processes in clay. Radiochim. Acta, 93: 643-651.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    COMSOL Multiphysics Konferenz, 26.-28.10.2011, Stuttgart/Ludwigburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16158

Neutrons in cultural heritage research

Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L. C.; Engels, R.; Schelten, J.; Neelmeijer, C.; Walcha, H.-M.; Artioli, G.; Shalev, S.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Radaelli, P. G.

Neutron radiation is a highly penetrating probe, routinely used for non-destructive testing of engineering components and for analysis of the structure and dynamics of novel advanced materials. The same analytical techniques can be employed for characterizing objects of art, museum pieces and archaeological findings. In particular, neutron radiography, neutron diffraction and neutron activation analysis provide valuable and complementary information to address questions of provenance, authenticity, fabrication techniques and conservation. This paper surveys some basic concepts and recent applications of neutrons in cultural heritage research at the ISIS neutron spallation source.

Keywords: Cultural heritage; Neutron diffraction; Texture analysis; Prompt gamma activation analysis

Publ.-Id: 16157

Uranium: from geosphere to biosphere

Geipel, G.

Depleted uranium used a ammunition corrodes in the environment forming mineral phases and then dissolved uranium species like uranium carbonates (Schimmack et al. 2007) and hydroxides. These hydroxide species were contacted with plant cells (canula). After 24 h contact time the cells were fractionated and the uranium speciation in the fraction was determined by TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy) at room temperature as well at 120K. It could be shown that the uranium speciation in the fractions is different to that in the nutrient solution. Comparison of the emission bands with literature data allows assignment of the uranium binding forms.

Keywords: Uranium; plant cells; speciation; bioligands

  • Lecture (others)
    Metal Metabolism Seminar (eingeladener Vortrag), 13.10.2011, London, Großbritanien

Publ.-Id: 16156

Direct determination of uranium speciation in eukaryotic cells – challenges and limitations

Geipel, G.; Viehweger, K.; Bernhard, G.

Application of laser-induced and time-resolved methods allow the direct determination of uranium speciation at extremely low concentrations. This behaviour can be directly observed due to the extraordinary luminescence properties of uranium-(VI).
Some examples for luminescence properties of uranium species relevant to the environment are shown. As for example carbonate species do not show any luminescence behaviour at room temperature cryogenic techniques were applied to decrease the quench processes of the excited species and to determine the uranium speciation. Change of this speciation can be observed due to a change in luminescence properties (emission wavelength and luminescence lifetime). Due to different dependence of the lifetime on temperature for the several uranium species additional luminescence measurements of the prepared solutions at room temperature and in the frozen state give more detailed information about the uranium speciation.
Contact of dissolved uranium with living cells at ambient conditions changes dramatically the uranium speciation. Besides of several organic phosphate binding forms although other uranium species were found as uranium bond to phenolic and thiol groups. Some of them do not emit any luminescence at room temperature. Nevertheless the low temperature measurements allow the assignment of species not fluorescing at room temperature, due to strong dynamic quench effects of H2O molecules and COO- groups. By use of the combined temperature dependent methods for several plant cell compartments we can now assign the uranium speciation in more detail.
Besides this plant cells provide a reducing environment in order to prevent oxidative stress. Due to the redox properties of uranium, it might be possible that uranium-(VI) in a cell matrix is reduced. By laser-induced photo-acoustic spectroscopy we were able to detect also uranium-(IV).

Keywords: Uranium; Cell compartments; speciation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th symposium on remediation, 03.-06.10.2011, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16155

Laser-Induced Time-Resolved Luminescence Measurements

Geipel, G.

First results on luminescence of upconverting Nanoparticles are given

  • Lecture (others)
    Kick-Off Meeting Helmholtz Virtual Institute “Functional Nanomaterials for Multimodality Cancer Imaging”, 06.-07.10.2011, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16154

Interactions of Biomolecules with Heavy Metals

Geipel, G.; Viehweger, K.

Heavy metals are explained from a radiochemist’s view. The Interaction of uranium with widespread flavanoids like quercetin have been discussed. Additionally glutathione can be seen as a multifunctional ligand. Information about the binding of uranium is provided. Last not least some onformation about binding forms of uranium in cell compartments of plant cells were given

Keywords: uranium; glutathione; quercetin; cytoplasma

  • Lecture (others)
    Supraphone meeting, 07.-10.09.2011, Funchal, Spanien

Publ.-Id: 16153

Temperature Depending Investigations to the Sorption of Eu(III) on Opalinus Clay

Schott, J.; Acker, M.; Barkleit, A.; Brendler, V.; Taut, S.; Bernhard, G.

Presently, argillaceous rock formations are under investigation as potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories. In addition to the diffusion the sorption of radionuclides on mineral phases is an important physicochemical process in a nuclear waste repository in the case of a water inleakage. Concerning the required long-term safety and risk assessment of the storage of high-level radioactive waste the understanding of these processes is essential.
Opalinus Clay (OPA) is a complex composed argillaceous rock. This natural occurring clay rock is discussed as host rock formation for nuclear waste repositories.
In a repository based on argillaceous rock an initial temperature of around 100°C is expected due to the radioactive decay and the release of geothermal energy. But although elevated temperatures are able to influence the sorption behaviour of radionuclides on mineral phases the temperature effect is still investigated insufficiently.
The investigations concentrated on the sorption of Eu(III) on OPA under realistic OPA pore water conditions (pH 7.6, I = 0.4 mol•L-1) up to 50°C. In addition to the temperature dependent investigations the influence of organic matter (tartrate, citrate) on the Eu(III) sorption on OPA was studied up to 50°C.
The Eu(III) sorption is characterized by a very strong sorption to the clay surface. A significant temperature dependency of the Eu(III) sorption was observed. In the presence of tartrate or citrate the Eu(III) sorption decreases with rising ligand concentration. A surface species, most likely a EuCO3 surface species, was detected using TRLFS. The formation of a surface species containing tartrate or citrate was not observed with TRLFS.

Keywords: sorption; Eu(III); Opalinus Clay; temperature; organic matter

  • Contribution to proceedings
    HiTAC-High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry, 09.11.2011, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Poster
    HiTAC-High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry, 09.11.2011, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 16152

Spektroskopische Untersuchungen von U(VI) in salinaren Lösungen

Steudtner, R.; Schmeide, K.

Im Vortrag werden die experimentellen Schwierigkeiten bei der spektroskopischen Charakterisierung von U(VI) in salinaren Lösungen aufgezeigt. Desweiteren wird der Einflusses von der Ionenstärke auf die U(VI)-Komplexierung durch Citronensäure vorgestellt.

Keywords: Speziation; UV/VIS; TRLFS; ATR FT-IR; Komplexierung

  • Lecture (others)
    1. Workshop des Verbundprojekts „Rückhaltung endlagerrelevanter Radionuklide im natürlichen Tongestein und in salinaren Systemen“, 11.-12.10.2011, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16151

NURESIM - A european simulation platform for nuclear reactor safety: Multi-scale and multi-physics calculations, sensitivity and uncertainy analysis

Chauliac, C.; Aragones, J.-M.; Bestion, D.; Cacuci, D. G.; Crouzet, N.; Weiss, F.-P.; Zimmermann, M. A.

for Nuclear Reactors called NURESIM is being developed. This development follows a roadmap which is consistent with the SRA (Strategic Research Agenda) of the European SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform). After delivery of two successive versions during the course of the NURESIM project, the numerical simulation platform is presently being developed in the frame of the NURISP European Collaborative Project (FP7), which includes 22 organizations from 14 European countries.
NURESIM intends to be a reference platform providing high quality software tools, physical models, generic functions and assessment results.
The NURESIM platform provides an accurate representation of the physical phenomena by promoting and incorporating the latest advances in core physics, two-phase thermal-hydraulics and fuel modelling. It includes multi-scale and multi-physics features, especially for coupling core physics and thermalhydraulics models for reactor safety. Easy coupling of the different codes and solvers is provided through the use of a common data structure and generic functions (e.g., for interpolation between nonconforming meshes).
More generally, the platform includes generic pre-processing, post-processing and supervision functions through the open-source SALOME software, in order to make the codes more user-friendly.
The platform also provides the informatics environment for testing and comparing different codes. For this purpose, it is essential to permit connection of the codes in a standardized way. The standards are being progressively built, concurrently with the process of developing the platform.
The NURESIM platform and the individual models, solvers and codes are being validated through challenging applications corresponding to nuclear reactor situations, and including reference calculations, experiments and plant data. Quantitative deterministic and statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analyses tools are also developed and provided through the platform.
A Users’ Group of European and non-European countries, including vendors, utilities, TSOs, and additional research organizations (beyond the current partners) has also been established in order to enhance the role of the simulation platform in meeting the needs of the nuclear industry, as applied to current and future nuclear reactors.
This presentation summarizes the achievements and ongoing developments of the simulation platform in core physics, thermal-hydraulics, multi-physics, uncertainties and code integration.


  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 241(2011), 3416-3426

Publ.-Id: 16150

Ion beam mixing in crystalline and amorphous germanium

Radek, M.; Bracht, H.; Posselt, M.; Schmidt, B.

not available, please ask the authors

Keywords: ion beam mixing; germanium; isotope multilayers

  • Lecture (Conference)
    48. Treffen des Arbeitskreises „Punktdefekte, 13.-14.10.2011, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 16149

Strangeness Measurements with HADES

Kotte, R.

We present strangeness data taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at the SchwerIonenSynchrotron SIS18 at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. HADES, primarily designed to measure dielectrons, offers excellent hadron identification capabilities, too. Yields and phase-space distributions have been determined for the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76A GeV and for strange particle species, with a substantial number of them being produced well below the production threshold in elementary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Here, sub-threshold production of φ mesons appeared to contribute substantially to the K yield. Confronting the K0 s spectra, measured over a wide range in momentum and rapidity, to predictions of the IQMD transport model points to a repulsive in-medium K0 potential of about 40 MeV. Furthermore, we present our results on Λ-p intensity interferometry in Ar+KCl and compare them to other data.

Publ.-Id: 16148

Millisecond-annealing using flash lamps for improved performance of AZO layers

Gebel, T.; Neubert, M.; Endler, R.; Weber, J.; Vinnichenko, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Skorupa, W.; Liepack, H.

ZnO:Al films with a thickness of about 880nm were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The glass substrate was not heated neither before during nor after the deposition. Subsequently the deposited layers were treated by flash lamp annealing (FLA) at 1.3 ms. Using this method, the resistivity of the ZnO:Al films was decreased by a factor of two, down to 1.0 x 10-3 Ωcm. These results are in good agreement with results reported from rapid thermal processing or furnace annealing treatments. Despite the very short annealing time of only 1.3 ms not only the resistivity but also the transmittance in the UV and the blue range were considerably improved.

Keywords: annealing; transparent conductor; sputtering

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    2010 MRS Fall Meeting, 29.11.-03.12.2010, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1287 (2011) f10-10

Publ.-Id: 16146

Investigation of dipole strength at the ELBE accelerator in Dresden-Rossendorf

Massarczyk, R.; Schramm, G.; Birgersson, E.; Schwengner, R.; Belgya, T.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Kritcka, M.; Matic, A.; Szentimiklosi, L.; Weil, J.; Wagner, A.

Using the methods of cold neutron capture and photon scattering the electric dipole strength function of the nuclei 78Se and 196Pt are investigated. Considering that the deexcitation process could be described by the same strength functions one could describe both experiments in a statistical model code. The report shows the data analysis as well as a new very fast statistical code, which was used to get the complete strength information up to the neutron seperation energy.

Keywords: nuclear physics; strength functions; statistical calculations; level density; neutron capture; photon scattering

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Compound Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics, 19.-23.09.2011, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    Compound Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics, 19.-23.09.2011, Prague, Czech Republic
    EPJ Web of Conferences 21(2012)04006: EDP Sciences

Publ.-Id: 16145

Drag reduction phenomenon in viscous oil-water disperse pipe flow: experimental investigation and phenomenological modelling

Rodriguez, I. H.; Yamaguti, H. K. B.; de Castro, M. S.; Da Silva, M. J.; Rodriguez, O. M. H.

An experimental study on drag-reduction phenomenon in dispersed oil-water flow has been performed in a 26-mm-i.d. 12 m long horizontal glass pipe. The flow was characterized using a novel wire-mesh sensor based on capacitance measurements and high-speed video recording. New two-phase pressure gradient, volume fraction and phase distribution data have been used in the analysis. Drag reduction and slip ratio were detected at oil volume fractions between 10% and 45% and high mixture Reynolds numbers, and with water as the dominant phase. Phase-fraction distribution diagrams and cross-sectional imaging of the flow suggested the presence of a higher amount of water near to the pipe wall. Based on that, a phenomenology for explaining drag reduction in dispersed flow in a flow situation where slip ratio is significant is proposed. A simple phenomenological model is developed and the agreement between model predictions and data, including data from the literature, is encouraging.

Keywords: Liquid-liquid flow; oil-water flow; dispersed flow; drag reduction; phenomenological modeling; wire-mesh sensor

Publ.-Id: 16144

The Waldenburg beakers and Johann Kunckel: Analytical and technological study of four corner-cut colored glasses

Richter, R.; Neelmeijer, C.

The provenance of at least five out of seven variously colored glass beakers in the collection of the Naturalienkabinett Waldenburg (Saxony) indicates their relation to the famous glass chemist Johann Kunckel. The technological characteristics of four corner-cut glasses, which show a ruby-rose, transparent blue-green, transparent dark purple, respectively an opaque striated brownish-red color, are described. Crizzling phenomena, cracking due to frozen strains and inhomogeneous coloring were closer examined with a light microscope and under a short-wave UV-lamp.
Combined simultaneous PIXE and PIGE analysis conducted at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf allowed the detection of all glass constituents from lead up to boron in elemental concentrations above c. 0.01 w%. Different types of potassium-rich crystal glasses with varying amounts of calcium, arsenic and lead were found. There is evidence for the use of highly refined raw materials and the addition of various ionic and colloidal glass colorants.
The Waldenburg beakers seem to be early examples of Kunckel’s experimental efforts to establish elevated standards for the production of luxury glass in northern Europe, as additionally supported by accounts in his publications from the years between 1678 and 1716.

Keywords: Waldenburg; Kunckel; glass; beakers; PIXE; PIGE; ion beam analysis

  • Lecture (Conference)
    IIC Congress - The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied Arts, 10.-14.09.2012, Wien, Österreich
  • Studies in Conservation 57(2013)S1, 234-243
    DOI: 10.1179/2047058412Y.0000000033

Publ.-Id: 16143

Techniques for image based in-vivo dosimetry: from particle therapy PET to in-beam prompt gamma imaging

Fiedler, F.; Dersch, U.; Golnik, C.; Helmbrecht, S.; Kormoll, T.; Kunath, D.; Laube, K.; Müller, A.; Priegnitz, M.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Enghardt, W.

Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality in cancer therapy. New radiation species, like protons and light ions have the potential to increase tumor conformality of irradiation. Because of the way these particles deposit energy on their path through tissue they allow for an increased dose deposition in the tumor volume and reduce the damage of the surrounding normal tissue.
Such high precision radiotherapy treatment requires efficient quality assurance techniques. Small changes in the irradiated volume will lead to a mismatch of the deposited dose maximum and the tumor. This causes missing dose in the tumor volume and potential damage to healthy tissue. Therefore, a dose monitoring system is highly desirable. Between 1997 and 2008, the in-beam Positron Emission Tomography (PET) method was used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany, for monitoring the dose delivered by 12C beams (cf. figure 1). The spatial distribution of positron emitters generated via nuclear interactions between projectile ions and atomic nuclei of the tissue is measured during and shortly after the irradiation. Due to different physical processes for dose deposition and activity production a simulation of the expected activity is required. By means of a comparison between measured and simulated activity distribution conclusions on the accuracy of the dose localization can be drawn. Since ion therapy is normally applied during a fractionated treatment over more than 15 days, detected deviations can be corrected for in the following fractions. Different modalities of PET, i.e. measuring during the irradiation versus taking data after the treatment have been compared. Since the positive clinical impact of the method has been shown, an in-room PET/CT will be installed for the same purpose at the Dresden Proton Therapy facility. Recent investigation and limits of the PET method used for in vivo dose monitoring at ion beams will be presented and discussed.

Due to inherent physical restrictions of this method, a direct quantification of the delivered dose is not feasible. Therefore, another approach based on dose monitoring by detection of prompt gamma rays is currently under investigation. In contrast to PET this method relies on the detection of prompt gamma rays emitted almost instantaneously during the therapeutic irradiation. These gammas are expected to possess a wide energy range between 0 and 10 MeV. To measure these photons a Compton camera design was evaluated with respect to the special requirements and conditions that arise from this application (cf. figure 1). Different concepts were compared by means of simulation. The complete chain from simulation based on the treatment plan to the iterative reconstruction of the data was developed and is now under optimization. First measurements have been successfully performed with radioactive sources and ion beams. Results of the first test of this prototype at a proton beam will be shown.

Keywords: in vivo dosimetry; ion beam therapy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe ICTR-PHE, 27.02.-02.03.2012, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Open Access Logo Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 102(2012), S40-S41

Publ.-Id: 16142

Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt gamma-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al (1H,γ)28Si and 19F(1H,γ)16O have been examined. The reaction 19F(1H,γ)16O is seen to provide higher photon flux and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of samples. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked Zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by gamma-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

Keywords: Photon induced positron annihilation; defects; 19F(1H; alphaγ)16O reaction; large samples; in- situ positron production

Publ.-Id: 16141

Crystallographic superstructure in R2PdSi3 compounds (R=heavy rare earth)

Tang, F.; Frontzek, M.; Dshemuchadse, J.; Leisegang, T.; Zschornak, M.; Mietrach, R.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Löser, W.; Gemming, S.; Meyer, D. C.; Loewenhaupt, M.

The R2PdSi3 intermetallic compounds have been reported to crystallize in a hexagonal AlB2-derived structure, with the rare earth atoms on the Al sites and Pd and Si atoms randomly distributed on the B sites. However, the intricate magnetic properties observed in the series of compounds have always suggested complications to the assumed structure. To clarify the situation, x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements were performed on the heavy rare earth compounds with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, which revealed the existence of a crystallographic superstructure. The superstructure features a doubled unit cell in the hexagonal basal plane and an octuplication along the perpendicular c direction with respect to the primitive cell. No structural transition was observed between 300 and 1.5 K. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations were utilized to investigate the local environments of the respective atoms. In this paper the various experimental results will be presented and it will be shown that the superstructure is mainly due to the Pd-Si order on the B sites. A structure model will be proposed to fully describe the superstructure of Pd-Si order in R2PdSi3. The connection between the crystallographic superstructure and the magnetic properties will be discussed in the framework of the presented model.


Publ.-Id: 16140

Multifunctional oxides and the influence of defects on the ferroic properties

Gemming, S.; Weissbach, T.; Zschornak, M.; Stöcker, H.; Meyer, D. C.; Leisegang, T.; Ronneberger, I.; Potzger, K.

Transition metal oxides exhibit a wealth of physical phenomena, among them ferroic properties such as ferroelasticity, ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, or their combination in multiferroics. In addition, transition metal oxides are sensitive to the chemical environment via the external partial pressure of oxygen; changes induce stoichiometry deviations, which cause conductivity changes and modify the ferroic characteristics. Ternary and quaternary compounds from the perovskite family will be discussed as examples, which correlate local changes due to point and planar defects with changes of the elastic, polarization and magnetic properties. The microscopic interactions are determined by density functional calculations, which yield the basis for more large-scale simulations with effective Hamiltonian approaches. Under oxygen-poor conditions, oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 accumulate in an external electric field and reduce the hardness. In an Sr/O-rich environment the phases SrO(SrTiO3)n are formed, which yield a distinct change of the X-Ray reflectivity due to the regular arrangement of extrinsic SrO(001) stacking faults. YMn2O5 has a series of complex antiferromagnetic phases in coexistence with ferroelectricity. In YFeMnO5, only one commensurable ferrimagnetic phase was found and ferroelectricity is absent. Based on spin-polarized DFT calculations a Heisenberg model yields the coupling constants of the Fe-substituted and the mangenese-only compounds and relates them to
crystal-field interactions. BiFeO3 is a rhombohedral multiferroic with several domain wall configurations. Among them, the 109° and 180º degrees walls have a significant change in the component of their polarization perpendicular to the wall; the corresponding step in the electrostatic potential is consistent with a recent report of electrical conductivity at the domain walls. Changes in the Fe-O-Fe bond angles at the walls change the canting of the Fe magnetic moments which can enhance the local magnetization.

Keywords: multiferroic; ferroelectric; perovskite; defects; domain wall; boundary; point defect; conductance; density-functional theory; ion-beam

  • Poster
    Joint Meeting of the DGK, DMG and ÖMG, 20.-24.09.2011, Salzburg, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 16139

Modeling Bubbly-Cap Flows Using Two-Group Average Bubble Number Density

Yeoh, G. H.; Cheung, S.; Tu, J.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.

The basic concept of two-group average bubble number density equations along with three-fluid model has been demonstrated for vertical gas-liquid flow. Specifically, the current study focused on:
(i) classification of bubble interaction between spherical bubbles (Group-1) and cap bubbles (Group-2),
(ii) preliminary consideration of source and sink terms in the averaged bubble number density equations via the model of Hibiki and Ishii [1] and (iii) assessment by means of experimental data sets at bubbly-to-cap flow transition. Reasonable agreement was achieved between measured and predicted distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and volume equivalent bubble diameter.

Keywords: CFD; two-phase flow; bubble number density

  • Contribution to proceedings
    The 14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics, NURETH-14, 25.-30.09.2011, Toronto, Canada
    Proceedings of the 14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics (NURETH-14)

Publ.-Id: 16138

Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

Merroun, M. L.; Nedelkova, M.; Ojeda, J. J.; Reitz, T.; Fernandez, M. L.; Arias, J. M.; Romero-Gonzalez, M.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) and using 0.1 M NaClO4 as electrolyte background where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by the free uranyl ion. As demonstrated by X-ray absorption (XAS) studies, the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values without the supply of an organic phosphate substrate. At pH 2.0, however, no uranium biomineralization occurred, and U(VI) formed complexes with organically bound phosphates of the cells. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B U(VI) was bound to the cell wall while in the case of Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, U(VI) precipitates were found not only on the cell surface but also intracellularly. This study contributes to the expansion of the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

Keywords: Uranium biomineralization; Potentiometric titration; XAS; TEM/EDX; Acid phosphatase

Publ.-Id: 16137

Chemische Aspekte der Korrosion von feuerverzinkten Einbauten im Containment eines Druckwasserreaktors nach einem Kühlmittelverluststörfall

Hoffmann, W.; Kryk, H.

Bei einem Kühlmittelverluststörfall (Loss of coolant Accident LOCA) eines Druckwasserreaktors (DWR) können sich in der Anfangsphase an den Sumpfansaugsieben des Notkühlsystems Mineralwolleablagerungen aus dem Isolationsmaterial der Anlagenkomponenten bilden und dadurch die Notkühlung beeinträchtigen. Im weiteren Verlauf des Störfalles verursacht das borsäurehaltige Primärkühlmittel eine Korrosion an Einbauten im Containment, die überwiegend aus feuerverzinktem Stahl bestehen. Feste Korrosionsprodukte bewirken in diesem Falle durch Anlagerung an die Mineralwolleablagerungen einen Anstieg des Differenzdrucks über den Sumpfansaugsieben, der bis zur Blockade und dem Ausfall der Notkühlung führen kann.
Zur Untersuchung der chemischen Aspekte dieses Vorgangs wurde im HZDR eine Laborversuchsanlage (KorrVA) errichtet, in welcher die Korrosion verzinkter Materialproben unterschiedlicher Größe und Geometrie bei verschiedenen Anströmbedingungen des borsäurehaltigen Kühlmittels und bei Temperaturen bis 70°C untersucht werden kann. Volumen, Durchfluss, Größe von Proben und Sumpfansaugsieb sowie dessen Belegung wurden skaliert an den Verhältnissen eines typischen DWR-Sumpfes nach einem LOCA.
Dabei sind verschiedene Einflüsse auf die Korrosion zu beobachten, die von der Zusammensetzung des Mediums (Borsäurekonzentration, pH-Anhebung durch LiOH-Zusatz), Temperatur des Mediums, Größe und Geometrie der Probe sowie auch von der Anströmung durch das Medium abhängen und einen unterschiedlichen Differenzdruckverlauf bewirken.
Ausgehend vom Schichtaufbau der Feuerverzinkung konnte der Ablauf der Korrosion aufgeklärt werden, wobei zunächst lösliche Korrosionsprodukte des Zinks entstehen und erst nach Freilegung von Stahl Rost gebildet wird, der sich am Faserbett anlagern kann. Die Ergebnisse, die auf den Analysen von Lösungen und Ablagerungen auf den Faserbetten und den Untersuchungen der Metallproben nach Ende der Versuche beruhen, stehen in Übereinstimmung mit dem Differenzdruckanstieg als technisch wichtigem Parameter, der im Wesentlichen durch Rost verursacht wird. Die anfangs starke Korrosion unter Bildung von Zinkionen bedingt eine Zunahme des pH-Werts, die aber zu einer wesentlichen Verringerung der Korrosionsrate führt. Bei ausreichender Zinkmenge kommt die Korrosion nahezu zum Erliegen. Im weiteren Verlauf bilden sich aber auch an der Oberfläche des Zinks weiße Korrosionsprodukte.
Entscheidend für den Ablauf der Korrosion sind neben dem Angebot an Zinkoberfläche besonders die Strömungsverhältnisse und die Zusammensetzung des Primärkühlmittels nach lokaler Freilegung des Basismaterials. Verursacht wird eine Verblockung des Faserbetts nicht nur durch eine Bildung von Rost sondern erst durch dessen Transport und Ablagerung am Fasermaterial.

Keywords: LOCA; corrosion; galvanized steel; boric acid; sumpscreen clogging

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Zittauer Kraftwerkschemisches Kolloquium, 22.-23.09.2011, Lückendorf, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Zittauer Kraftwerkschemisches Kolloquium, 22.-23.09.2011, Lückendorf, Deutschland
    Tagungsband zu Aspekte der Kerntechnikforschung

Publ.-Id: 16136

Intersubband transitions and quantum cascade lasers

Helm, M.

Intersubband transitions and quantum cascade lssers

Keywords: intersubband transition; qantum cascade laser; infrared; terahertz

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    TeraNano PIRE Kickoff meeting, 07.-08.10.2011, Houston, USA

Publ.-Id: 16135

Flow accelerated corrosion of galvanized steel in boric acid solution

Hoffmann, W.; Kryk, H.

Corrosion products of hot-dip galvanized steel containment internals may cause serious problems during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) at a nuclear power plant by clogging insulation debris laden sump strainers of the emergency core cooling system. The chemical and physical conditions influence the formation and deposition of the sparingly soluble corrosion products. In nearly neutral boric acid media, the corrosion starts by a dissolution process of zinc. A fast local coolant flow accelerates the dissolution of Zn (flow accelerated corrosion) and leads to rust formation on steel rapidly. Additionally, the local flow conditions prevent the known cathodic protection mechanism of zinc on steel. Furthermore, a sufficient flow impact is presumed to transport the rust particles into the insulation fibres mats on the strainers where they may blocked in the worst case. As a result of fibre bed analyses, corrosion products of iron and not of zinc are regarded as the main source of clogging. The mechanism of zinc dissolution in the absence of other anions can be explained by formation of borate ions originate from boric acid as a coolant ingredient in pressurized water reactors (PWR).

Keywords: flow accelerated corrosion; zinc; boric acid; LOCA

  • Poster
    EUROCORR 2011, 04.-08.09.2011, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Contribution to proceedings
    EUROCORR 2011, 04.-08.09.2011, Stockholm, Sweden

Publ.-Id: 16134

Microbial structure of biofilm communities in an uranium contaminated acid mine drainage environment

Wobus, A.; Zirnstein, I.; Meierhöfer, C.; Arnold, T.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Röske, I.

Investigations of bacterial composition of biofilm samples from uranium contaminated underground mine Königstein by molecular methods and FISH.

  • Poster
    Jahrestagung der Vereinigung für Allgemeine und Angewandte Mikrobiologie (VAAM), 03.-06.04.2011, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 16133

Dose controlled radiobiological experiments with an ultra-short pulse laser accelerated proton beam

Schramm, U.

Talk on prospects of laser proton acceleration for applications in oncology.

Keywords: Laser accelerated protons; oncology; cell irradiation

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2nd ELI beamlines scientific challenges meeting, 05.-06.10.2011, Prague, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 16132

S-layer proteins as binding matrix for sensory layers

Weinert, U.; Müller, N.; Günther, T.; Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.

The idea is use S-layer proteins as binding matrix to couple aptamers and fluorescence dyes in a sequential way. This sensory layer will be able to detect very small amounts of analyte in aqueous environment. The fluorophores which are able to perform a FRET serve as optical system whereas aptameres work as specific receptor for one analyte.

Keywords: S-layer proteins; sensory layer; FRET; aptamer

  • Poster
    6th PhD Seminar, 05.-07.10.2011, Sporthotel Rabenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16131

Bio-basierte Konzepte zur Gewinnung von Metallen aus Mineralien

Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.; Kutschke, S.

Biotechnologische Methoden zur Metallgewinnung; Vortrag zum 1. Workshop des Innovationsforums Geobiotechnologie

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1. Workshop des Innovationsforums Geobiotechnologie, 10.-11.10.2011, Aue, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16130

Comparison of dopamine turnover, dopamine influx constant and activity ratio of striatum and occipital brain with F-18-dopa brain PET in normal controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

Oehme, L.; Perick, M.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Wolz, M.; Storch, A.; Loehe, M.; Herting, B.; Langner, J.; van den Hoff, J.; Reichmann, H.; Kotzerke, J.

The aim of the study was to estimate normal ranges and test-retest measures for various parameters characterising dopamine metabolism from a prolonged F-18-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) measurement using a reference tissue model and compare their value for the detection of early Parkinson's disease (PD).
Healthy volunteers (n = 9) and patients (n = 36) in an early stage of PD underwent an F-18-dopa PET measurement lasting 4 h. The influx rate constant k(occ) and the effective distribution volume ratio (EDVR, its inverse is an indicator for dopamine turnover) were estimated by a graphical approach using dynamic data in the striatum and, as a reference region, the occipital cortex. Furthermore, ratios of activity concentrations between striatum and occipital brain taken for three time intervals completed the data analysis. All parameters were determined both in eight small volumes of interest placed in the striatum as well as averaged for caudate nucleus and putamen. For the control group, reproducibility was checked in a second study 3 months later and ranges for normal values were derived from mean +/- 2 standard deviations. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the value of the parameters for diagnostic purposes.
Patients with early-stage PD and healthy volunteers could be separated by the values of the putamen, not the caudate nucleus. The normal ranges of the putamen were 0.0151-0.0216/min for the influx rate constant k(occ) and 2.02-3.00 for EDVR. For the various time intervals used the striato-occipital ratios yielded 2.24-3.06, 2.43-3.42 and 2.35-3.21, respectively. Patients were characterised by significantly lower values (p < 0.001) and significant differences between ipsi- and contralateral sides (p < 0.001) with regard to their clinical symptoms and a rostrocaudal gradient. EDVR as well as k(occ) for the putamen were able to effectively differentiate between groups (sensitivity > 97%, specificity 100%). In contrast, striato-occipital ratios showed a sensitivity of about only 85%.
For clinical applications, our data do not demonstrate any superiority of the EDVR determination compared to influx rate constant, while requiring long and tedious acquisition protocols. The normal range estimates do not represent absolute quantitative measures for dopamine metabolism but are specific for the chosen acquisition and processing procedures.

Keywords: F-Dopa; PET; Normal values; Parkinson’s disease; Dopamine turnover

Publ.-Id: 16129

Coordination chemistry of bis(2-pyridylimine) ligands with Ag(I): formation of two structurally different coordination polymers and one metallocycle controlled by linker and the solvent system

Jeazet, H. B. T.; Mizera, J.; Doert, T.; Gloe, K.; Heine, A.; Bernhard, G.; Gloe, K.

Reaction of equimolar amounts of AgCIO and bis[4-(2-pyridylmethyleneamino)phenyl] methane (L1) or bis[4-(2-pyridylmethyleneamino)phenyl] ether (L2) in a 1:1 solvent mixture of CH3CN and CH2CL2 leads to the formation of two infinite coordination polymers of the composition {[Ag(L1)]ClO4•CH3CN}n (1) and {[Ag(L2)]ClO4•CH2Cl2}n (2). Whereas 1 represents a homochiral single-stranded helicate the related complex 2 shows a typical zigzag chain arrangement. Both structures are characterized by a distorted tetrahedral coordination environment of the Ag(I) centres each based on a N4 coordination pattern of two ligand molecules. The resulting strands are connected by a hydrogen bonding network including ClO4¯ anions and solvent molecules forming 2-D layers. Additional π-π and CH- π interactions between the aromatic parts of the ligand molecules give a 3-D arrangement of the packing. In contrast, a discrete dinuclear metallocycle, [Ag2(L2)2](ClO4)2•CH3OH (3), has been formed by reaction of AgClO4 with L2 when CH2Cl2 in the solvent mixture was replaced by CH3OH. Again each Ag(I) has a distorted tetrahedral geometry and is coordinated to two pyridylimine units of two ligand molecules. Additional weak hydrogen bonds involving perchlorate and solvent molecules as well as edge-to-face and face-to-face π-π interactions allow a 3-D packing arrangement.

Publ.-Id: 16128

Revisiting temporal accuracy in neutronics/T-H code coupling using the NURESIM LWR simulation platform

Zerkak, O.; Gajev, I.; Manera, A.; Kozlowski, T.; Gommlich, A.; Zimmer, S.; Kliem, S.; Crouzet, N.; Zimmermann, M.

The first part of the paper reviews the different temporal coupling methodologies that are currently employed for the transient simulation of LWR cores. The second part shows preliminary results from the implementation of some suggested coupling improvements, including high-order corrections to the exchanged coupling fields and a dynamic time step control technique.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics, NURETH-14, 25.-30.09.2011, Toronto, Canada
  • Contribution to proceedings
    14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics, NURETH-14, 25.-30.09.2011, Toronto, Canada
    Proceedings of the 14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermalhydraulics, paper 484

Publ.-Id: 16127

GDCh Working Group “Analytical Methods using Radionuclides and High-performance Sources”

Denecke, M. A.; Merchel, S.; Eberhardt, K.

The working group “Analytical Methods using Radionuclides and High-performance Sources” (in German: Analytik mit Radionukliden und Hochleistungsstrahlenquellen, ARH) of the German Chemical Society (in German: Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, GDCh) is supported by the GDCh Groups Nuclear Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Macromolecular Chemistry, Solid State Chemistry and Materials Research and the Wöhler Association of Inorganic Chemistry.

The ARH working group aims at promoting and supporting the use of radionuclides especially for quality assurance of other analytical methods and analytical methods using large research facilities including synchrotron, neutron and ion sources. The main specific objectives and tasks of ARH are:

  • Dissemination of scientific methodology and experience, knowledge transfer
  • Coordination and promotion of analytical work with radioactive substances
  • Utilization of radio-analytical methods by improving access to radiation facilities, associated instrumentation and isotope laboratories
  • Facilitate access to high-performance radiation sources
  • Contribution to quality assurance and validation in analytical methods
  • Establishment and reinforcing contacts with other scientific associations
  • Organization of scientific conferences and meetings

The ARH is continually growing, with the largest relative growth of student members over the past six years. You can become a member of the ARH working group if you belong to one of the supporting GDCh Groups listed above, are an interested company, which is a corporate GDCh member, or are an associated GDCh member in Germany or abroad (note, this is with limited member rights). Members of the German Physical Society (DPG) are also welcome to join the ARH working group with guest status.

More information can be found at our website

Keywords: neutron source; accelerator; synchrotron radiation

  • Poster
    3rd ANKA / KNMF Joint Users Meeting, 13.-14.10.2011, Karlsruhe-Neureut, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16126

Using Monte-Carlo Simulations to implement corrections for I-124 as a non-pure positron emitter in small animal and human PET imaging

Sauerzapf, S.; Thomas, L.; Behe, M.; Weber, W.; Pietrzyk, U.; Zakhnini, A.; Mix, M.

Using I-124 for PET imaging applications implies some difficulties concerning the image quality: The resolution is degraded by the large maximum positron energy of 2.1 MeV and the resultant long positron range. In addition I-124 is a non-pure PET isotope exhibiting additional gamma ray emissions with high contributions to the total decay scheme: 602.72 keV with 63% and 722.78 keV with 10.35%. These fractions cannot be quantified exactly in PET measurements. Therefore in our work we utilized GATE 6.1 [1] to investigate the effects of these supplementary “false” coincidences on a spectral, sinogram- and image-based basis. Three PET systems were modeled with GATE and confirming measurements were accomplished on them: Two small animal PET scanners (ClearPET and MicroPET) and one human scanner (Gemini TF). Derived from the simulated energy spectra, we propose narrower energy window configurations for the ClearPET and the Gemini TF in order to minimize the amount of false coincidences. Separating the simulated sinograms for true and false coincidences revealed that a two-component correction for I-124 has to be implemented. A homogenous background subtraction has to be amended by a part which considers an additional portion within the phantom borders.
[1] S. Jan et al.: GATE V6: a major enhancement of the GATE simulation platform enabling modelling of CT and radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. (56) (2011) 881-901

  • Poster
    2011 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 23.-29.10.2011, Valencia, Spain

Publ.-Id: 16125

Optimierung der Kleintierbildgebung mit nichtreinen Positronenstrahlern

Sauerzapf, S.; Zakhnini, A.; Behe, M.; Weber, W.; Pietrzyk, U.; Mix, M.

Die lange Halbwertszeit des Radionuklids I-124 (4,18d) ermöglicht es langsame biochemische Prozesse über einen längeren Zeitraum zu quantifizieren, als dies mit herkömmlichen reinen Positronenstrahler, wie beispielsweise F-18, der Fall ist. Nachteilig beim komplexen Zerfallsschema von I-124 sind neben der geringen Positronenausbeute von 22,8% zusätzlich koinzident emittierte Gammalinien. Mit Energien von z.B. 602.72keV und 722.78keV liegen sie in den Energiefenstern der verwendeten Kleintier-PET-Scannern. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, einerseits die Datenakquisition bzgl. der Wahl des Energiefensters zu optimieren und andererseits Korrekturen zur Bildverbesserung direkt in die Datenrekonstruktion einzuarbeiten.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Dreiländertagung der ÖGMP, DGMP und SGSMP, 28.09.-01.10.2011, Wien, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 16124

Nanoscale characterization of ODS Fe-9%Cr model alloys compacted by spark plasma sintering

Heintze, C.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Ulbricht, A.; Bergner, F.; Shariq, A.; Weissgärber, T.; Frielinghaus, H.

Ferritic/martensitic high-chromium steels are leading candidates for fission and fusion reactor components. Oxide dispersion strengthening is an effective way to improve properties related to thermal and irradiation-induced creep and to extend their elevated temperature applications. An extensive experimental study focusing on the microstructural characterization of oxide-dispersion strengthened Fe-9wt%Cr model alloys is reported. Several material variants were produced by means of high-energy milling of elemental powders of Fe, Cr and commercial yttria powders. Consolidation was based on spark plasma sintering. Special emphasis is placed on the characterization of the nano-particles using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle neutron scattering and atom probe tomography. The microstructure of the investigated alloys and the role of the process parameters are discussed. Implications for the reliability of the applied characterization techniques are also highlighted.

Publ.-Id: 16123

Nanoindentation of ion-irradiated FeCr alloys

Heintze, C.

Ferritic/martensitic high-chromium steels are candidate structural materials for future nuclear applications for reasons such as resistance to swelling, irradiation creep and oxidation but suffer hardening and embrittlement due to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation has been proven to be a useful tool to simulate neutron irradiation effects without the drawbacks of producing radioactive material and being restricted to time consuming and expensive in-reactor irradiations. In the present work ion-irradiation in combination with nanoindentation has been applied to study the irradiation-induced hardening of binary Fe-Cr alloys and 9% Cr steels. The details of the approach are specified and the effects of Cr content and irradiation conditions including both single-beam and dual-beam irradiations are considered. Transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize irradiation-induced defects. Ion-irradiation-induced hardening is compared to hardening observed after neutron irradiation at similar conditions and dominant hardening mechanisms are identified in terms of obstacle strength.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop on Ion Implantation as a Neutron Irradiation Analogue, 26.-28.09.2011, Oxford, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 16122

Nanoindentation of Fe-Cr alloys ion-irradiated up to 50 dpa

Heintze, C.

Ferritic/martensitic high-chromium steels are candidate structural materials for future nuclear applications such as fusion and generation IV fission reactors. Nevertheless these steels suffer hardening and embrittlement due to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation is an efficient tool to simulate neutron irradiation effects without the drawbacks of producing radioactive material. In the present work ion-irradiation in combination with nanoindentation has been applied to study the irradiation-induced hardening of binary Fe-Cr alloys and 9% Cr steels. The details of the approach are specified and the effects of Cr content and irradiation conditions including both single-beam and dual-beam irradiations are considered. Transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize irradiation-induced defects. Ion-irradiation-induced hardening is compared to hardening observed after neutron irradiation at similar conditions and dominant hardening mechanisms are identified.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th Workshop on Multiscale Modelling and Basic Experiments of Iron-Chromium Alloys for Nuclear Applications, 04.-05.05.2011, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16121

ECCS strainer clogging due to corrosion of hot-dip galvanized steel containment internals

Kryk, H.; Hoffmann, W.

Damage to fibrous insulation materials located near to a LWR primary circuit coolant leak may compromise the operation of the emergency core cooling system, if insulation fibers are transported to the containment sump strainers, where they may block or penetrate the strainers. Beside insulation material, other forms of debris may influence the sump strainer clogging behavior as well as the cooling water chemistry. Especially, the long-term contact of the water jet from the leak with hot-dip galvanized steel grating treads installed in the containment may cause corrosion of the corresponding materials. Subsequently, the formation of particulate corrosion products may occur by spalling of solid corrosion products from the metallic surfaces or precipitation of solids from the liquid phase. In the event of a LOCA, such processes may lead to an accelerated clogging of the fiber-laden sump strainers. This is especially important in PWRs, where post-LOCA corrosion is accelerated due to the specific primary coolant water chemistry.
Detailed experimental investigations regarding the influence of corrosion processes on the chemical composition of the coolant as well as on the strainer clogging behavior were established within a research project funded by the BMWi, where the priority of the presented investigations is given to the mechanisms that cause sump strainer clogging. As a result of corrosion experiments in the lab-scale KorrVA test facility using hot-dip galvanized steel as well as pure steel samples, it was found that the increase of the head loss is mainly caused by the flow-accelerated corrosion of the base material (steel) whereas the corrosion of the zinc coating leads to soluble corrosion products influencing the cooling water chemistry. Depending on the hydrodynamic conditions, the particulate corrosion products may be removed from the surface and suspended in the coolant, which may lead to further increase of the head loss. In addition, the water chemistry as well as the ratio of coolant volume to corrosion material surface affects the corrosion and clogging behavior significantly.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2011, 17.-19.05.2011, Berlin, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2011, 17.-19.05.2011, Berlin, Deutschland
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2011, CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 16120

Studies on Boiling Water Reactor Design with Reduced Moderation and Analysis of Reactivity Accidents using the Code DYN3D-MG

Rohde, U.; Pivovarov, V.; Matveev, Y.

The multi-group version of DYN3D code was used for calculations of a new concept of boiling water reactor with a tight lattice of fuel rods and reduced neutron moderation. For that purpose a 5-group cross section library was prepared and connected to the DYN3D code. Comparison calculations with the steady-state finite-difference code ACADEM showed a very good agreement.

The capability of the DYN3D multi-group code in modeling transients in boiling water reactors with tight fuel element lattices was demonstrated by the analysis of two reactivity accidents initiated by the ejection of one control rod and unauthorized withdrawal of a control rod bank from the reactor core. The corresponding analyses were performed for begin of cycle conditions, when the considered control rods are at their maximum insertion depth.

Keywords: boiling water reactor; high conversion; reduced moderation; reactor dynamics; code validation; transient analysis

  • Lecture (Conference)
    21st Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, 19.-23.09.2011, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    21st Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, 19.-23.09.2011, Dresden, Deutschland
    Proceedings of the twenty-first Symposium of AER, Budapest: MTA KFKI Atomenergia Kutatointezet, 978-963-372-646-4, 579-593

Publ.-Id: 16119

Nanoindentation and TEM applied to ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys

Bergner, F.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Heintze, C.

9-18% Cr steels and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels being candidate structural materials for future nuclear applications for reasons such as resistance to swelling, irradiation creep and oxidation suffer hardening and embrittlement due to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiation has proven useful to simulate neutron irradiation effects without the drawbacks of producing radioactive material and being restricted to time consuming and expensive in-reactor irradiations. We have applied ion irradiation in combination with nanoindentation to study the irradiation-induced hardening of binary Fe-Cr alloys, 9% Cr steels and experimental ODS alloys. The details of the approach are specified and the effects of Cr content and irradiation conditions including dual-beam irradiations are considered. Transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize nanoscale oxide particles and irradiation-induced dislocation loops. The dimensionless obstacle strength is estimated. On a scale assigning unity to non-shearable obstacles, we have found a ranking from about 0.012 for Cr-rich α’-phase particles, 0.1 to 0.2 for ODS nanoparticles up to about 0.5 for dislocation loops.

Keywords: nanoindentation; TEM; ion irradiation; irradiation effects; iron-chromium alloys; oxide-dispersion strengthening

  • Poster
    ECI Conference on Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development, 09.-14.10.2011, Lanzarote, Espania

Publ.-Id: 16117

Perrhenate Complexation by Uranyl in Traditional Solvents and in Ionic Liquids: A Joined Molecular Dynamics/Spectroscopic Study

Chaumont, A.; Klimchuk, O.; Gaillard, C.; Billard, I.; Ouadi, A.; Hennig, C.; Wipff, G.

The complexation of perrhenate (ReO4-) anions by the uranyl (UO22+) cation is investigated by joined molecular dynamics simulations and spectroscopic (UV-Vis, TRLFS and EXAFS) studies in aqueous solution, acetonitrile and three ionic liquids (ILs), namely [Bmi][Tf2N], [Me3BuN][Tf2N] and [Bu3MeN][Tf2N] that are based on the same Tf2N- anion (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and either Bmi+ (1-butyl,3-methylimidazolium), Me3BuN+ or Bu3MeN+ cations. They show that ReO4- behaves as a weak ligand in aqueous solution and as a strong ligand in acetonitrile and in the ILs. In aqueous solution, the simulated UO2(ReO4)2 complex quickly dissociates to form the UO2(H2O)52+ species, while in acetonitrile the simulated UO2(ReO4)53- complex forms from dissociated ions and remains stable along 100 ns of dynamics. When the UO2(ReO4)n2-n complexes (n = 1 to 5) are simulated in the ILs, the uranyl cation remains coordinated to the ReO4- ligands, and to additional OTf2N oxygens when n < 5. To assess the relative stabilities of these complexes, we computed the free energy profiles for stepwise ReO4- complexation by uranyl (PMF calculations). In the two studied ILs, perrhenate complexation is favoured, leading to the UO2(ReO4)53- species in [Bmi][Tf2N] and to UO2(ReO4)42- in [Bu3MeN][Tf2N]. Furthermore, in both acetonitrile and [Bmi][Tf2N] solutions, MD and PMF simulations support the formation of dimeric uranyl complexes [UO2(ReO4)4]24- with two bridging ReO4- ligands. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with spectroscopic observations in the different solvents, without firmly concluding, however, on the precise composition and structure of the complexes in the solutions.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics; EXAFS; UV-Vis; TRLFS; uranium; rhenium

Publ.-Id: 16116

Two-photon Compton process in pulsed intense laser fields

Seipt, D.; Kämpfer, B.

Based on strong-field QED in the Furry picture we use the Dirac-Volkov propagator to derive a compact expression for the differential emission probability of the two-photon Compton process in a pulsed intense laser field. The relation of real and virtual intermediate states is discussed, and the natural regularization of the on-shell contributions due to the finite laser pulse is highlighted. The inclusive two-photon spectrum is two orders of magnitude stronger than expected from a perturbative estimate.

Publ.-Id: 16115

Study of amorphous lithium silicate thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

Hämäläinen, J.; Munnik, F.; Hatanpää, T.; Holopainen, J.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.

Lithium silicate thin films, which are interesting materials for example in lithium ion batteries, were grown by the atomic layer deposition technique from lithium hexamethyldisilazide [LiHMDS, Li(N(SiMe3)2)] and ozone precursors. Films were obtained at a wide deposition temperature range between 150 and 400 °C. All the films were amorphous except at 400 °C, where partial decomposition of LiHMDS was also observed. The growth behavior was examined in detail at 250 °C, and saturation of growth rates and refractive indices with precursor doses was confirmed, thereby verifying self-limiting surface reactions. Likewise, the linear thickness dependence of the films with the number of deposition cycles was verified. Strong dependence of growth rate and film composition on deposition temperature was also seen. Overall, the amorphous films grown at 250 °C had a stoichiometry close to lithium metasilicate (Li2.0SiO2.9) with 0.7 at. % carbon and 4.6 at. % hydrogen impurities. The corresponding growth rate and refractive index (n580) were 0.8 A/cycle and about 1.55.

Publ.-Id: 16114

Evidence for chirped Auger electron emission

Schütte, B.; Bauch, S.; Frühling, U.; Wieland, M.; Gensch, M.; Plönjes, E.; Azima, A.; Bonitz, M.; Drescher, M.

Auger decay, i.e. the spontaneous emission of an electron upon relaxation of the atomic shell, carries valuable information about the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms and their compounds. While the energetic properties are well investigated, little is known about the detailed temporal profile of Auger electron wave packets. Here we furnish evidence, that under certain conditions Auger electrons are subject to an energetic chirp imprinting a non-linear change of energy over time on the escaping wave packet. The origin of this unexpected finding is shown to be the exchange of energy between the Auger electron and a slightly earlier emitted photoelectron in the presence of a laser field. The interpretation in terms of this long-range electron correlation is substantiated by fs-time-resolved experiments on the xenon NOO and Kr MNN Auger decay together with extensive theoretical modelling using semi-classical as well as quantum-mechanical simulations.

Publ.-Id: 16113

Characterization of Ce(IV) Hydrolytic Species in Aqueous Solution by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, High Energy Solution X-ray Scattering, and Dynamic Light Scattering

Ikeda-Ohno, A.; Weiss, S.; Bernhard, G.; Hennig, C.

Tetravalent cerium (Ce(IV)) is known to be one of the most commonly-used oxidizing agents in various chemical studies, such as organic synthesis. Furthermore, it recently draws considerable attention to its catalytic applications to water oxidation or biotechnology. As a versatile catalytic oxidant, Ce(IV) is often employed in the form of aqueous solution. Therefore, fundamental knowledge of Ce(IV) species in aqueous solution is essential not only for discussing its functionality in the applied systems, but also for further developing its applications; nevertheless, the nature of Ce(IV) species in aqueous solution is far less well understood. In this context, the present study aims to elucidate the chemical speciation and complex structure of soluble Ce(IV) species formed on hydrolysis, which is the most fundamental reaction of metal cations in the aqueous solution system, by employing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), high energy solution X-ray scattering (HEXS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS).
The obtained XAS data have clearly showed the systematic growing of Ce–Ce bonding in the soluble Ce(IV) hydrolytic species, as an increase in pH. This indicates that some soluble polymeric or cluster complexes are formed on the hydrolysis of Ce(IV). The diffraction patterns of Ce(IV) hydrolytic species have further revealed that the observed polymeric or cluster complex has a crystalline structure, not the amorphous one. The results of the detailed analysis on XAS and HEXS data will be presented on site, along with the DLS data for discussing the size of Ce(IV) hydrolytic polymers/clusters and its aging effect.

Keywords: Lanthanides; Cerium(IV); hydrolysis; aqueous solution; XAS; HEXS; DLS

  • Poster
    Workshop on Analysis of Diffraction Data in Real Space (ADD2011), 12.-14.10.2011, ILL, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 16112

Control of the migration behaviour of radiotoxic heavy metals by means of calixarenes

Paulik, S.; Mansel, A.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Poster
    HZDR-Doktorandenseminar, 05.-07.10.2011, Rabenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16111

Erratum: “Direct observation of antiferromagnetically oriented spin vortex states in magnetic multilayer elements” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 232511 (2011)]

Wintz, S.; Strache, T.; Körner, M.; Fritzsche, M.; Markó, D.; Mönch, I.; Mattheis, R.; Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; McCord, J.; Erbe, A.; Fassbender, J.

Keywords: magnetic vortex

Publ.-Id: 16110

The influence of microbes on radionuclide speciation concerning nuclear waste disposal

Frost, L.

Granite is the aspired potential host rock material for future nuclear waste storage in Sweden. The Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Äspö HRL) today is an interdisciplinary research facility for geological disposal in granite rock. The research within the Äspö HRL programme involves international cooperation with various countries including Germany.
This presentation drafts the operations done at Äspö and the contribution by the IRC. Here the objectives and results of the study on the interaction of uranium(VI) with Pseudomonas fluorescens, a strain that has been isolated at the Äspö site, are presented. Explicitly results about the accumulation capability of the strain, TRLFS investigations and potentiometric titration results are shown.

Keywords: Uranium(VI); speciation; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Äspö; nuclear waste repository

  • Lecture (others)
    6. Ph.D. Seminar HZDR, 05.-07.10.2011, Rabenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16109

Computer simulation of the radiation of electrons axially channeled in a thin Ge single crystal

Azadegan, B.; Dabagov, S. B.; Wagner, W.

The radiation emitted by axially channeled electrons has been investigated by computer simulations. Using the Doyle-Turner approximation for the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account, two-dimensional continuous potentials for the <100> and <110> crystallographic axes of a thin Ge single crystal have been calculated. The trajectories, velocities and accelerations of channeled electrons are obtained by solving numerically the classical equations of motion in three dimensions. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of axial channeling radiation as well.

Keywords: channeling radiation; axial channeling

Publ.-Id: 16108

Prototyping and tests for an MRPC-based time-of-flight detector for 1 GeV neutrons

Yakorev, D.; Aumann, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Ciobanu, M.; Cowan, T.; Elekes, Z.; Elvers, M.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hannaske, R.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M.; Kempe, M.; Maroussov, V.; Nusair, O.; Simon, H.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Zilges, A.

The NeuLAND detector at the R3B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2–1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions . This task can be performed either with a scintillator or based on the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology. Here, prototyping and test for an MRPC-based solution are discussed. In order to reach 90% detection efficiency, the final detector must consist of 50 consecutive MRPC stacks. Each stack contains a 4 mm thick anode made of iron converter material, with an additional 4 mm of converter material between two stacks. The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPCs. As part of the ongoing development effort, a number of prototypes for this detector have been developed and built. They have been tested in experiments with a single-electron beam with picosecond resolution at the superconducting linac ELBE (Dresden, Germany). The results of the tests are presented here, and an outlook is given.

Keywords: MRPC; Multigap resistive plate chamber; R3B; FAIR; ELBE; Time resolution; Neutron detection

Publ.-Id: 16107

Revision of the 15N(p,γ)16O reaction rate and oxygen abundance in H-burning zones

Caciolli, A.; Mazzocchi, C.; Capogrosso, V.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Formicola, A.; Fulop, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyurky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Palmerini, S.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.; Vomiero, A.

The NO cycle takes place in the deepest layer of a H-burning core or shell, when the temperature exceeds T {\simeq} 30 {\cdot} 106 K. The O depletion observed in some globular cluster giant stars, always associated with a Na enhancement, may be due to either a deep mixing during the RGB (red giant branch) phase of the star or to the pollution of the primordial gas by an early population of massive AGB (asymptotic giant branch) stars, whose chemical composition was modified by the hot bottom burning. In both cases, the NO cycle is responsible for the O depletion. The activation of this cycle depends on the rate of the 15N(p,{\gamma})16O reaction. A precise evaluation of this reaction rate at temperatures as low as experienced in H-burning zones in stellar interiors is mandatory to understand the observed O abundances. We present a new measurement of the 15N(p,{\gamma})16O reaction performed at LUNA covering for the first time the center of mass energy range 70-370 keV, which corresponds to stellar temperatures between 65 {\cdot} 106 K and 780 {\cdot}106 K. This range includes the 15N(p,{\gamma})16O Gamow-peak energy of explosive H-burning taking place in the external layer of a nova and the one of the hot bottom burning (HBB) nucleosynthesis occurring in massive AGB stars. With the present data, we are also able to confirm the result of the previous R-matrix extrapolation. In particular, in the temperature range of astrophysical interest, the new rate is about a factor of 2 smaller than reported in the widely adopted compilation of reaction rates (NACRE or CF88) and the uncertainty is now reduced down to the 10% level.

Publ.-Id: 16106

Is it Possible to Study the 44Ti(α,p)47V Reaction with a Radioactive Target?

Al-Abdullah, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Schmidt, K.; Ayranov, M.; Dressler, R.; Schumann, D.

The 44Ti(alpha,p)47V reaction is of crucial importance for the destruction of Ti-44 in the alpha-rich freezeout of a supernova. Here I report on a feasibility study. Using radioactive Ti-44 and alpha-emitting sources and sputtering simulations, I study the feasibility and safety of a possible experiment using an alpha-beam from an accelerator and a radioactive Ti-44 target.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ERAWAST2: 2nd workshop on exotic radionuclides from accelerator waste for science and technology, 30.08.-02.09.2011, Villigen, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 16105

Interaction of Uranium(VI) with Schiff Bases in organic solvents

Lindner, K.; Günther, A.; Bernhard, G.

Presentation of the complexation of Uranium(VI) with selected Schiff bases in methanol investigated by UV/Vis spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

Keywords: Uranium(VI); Schiff bases; UV/Vis; TRLFS

  • Poster
    6th Graduate Students Seminar, 05.-07.10.2011, Breitenbrunn, Germany

Publ.-Id: 16104

Online Irradiation Control by means of PET

Fiedler, F.; Kunath, D.; Priegnitz, M.; Enghardt, W.

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a dedicated tool for quality assurance in ion beam therapy. By measuring the spatial distribution of positron emitters generated via nuclear interactions between projectiles and atomic nuclei of the tissue during the therapeutic irradiation, conclusions on the accuracy of the dose localization can be drawn. In the following, the physical background as well as the technical realization of PET is depicted. Furthermore, current PET installations for quality assurance of proton and ion beam therapy are presented.

  • Book chapter
    Ute Linz: Ion Beam Therapy: Fundamentals, Technology, Clinical Applications, Berlin: Springer, 2012, 3642214134, 527-543

Publ.-Id: 16103

Stable-ion beam experiments for nuclear astrophysics

Bemmerer, D.

I will review the state of the art of stable-ion beam experiments for nuclear astrophysics. Special mention will be made of the so-called solar abundance problem and the contributions that experimental nuclear astrophysics may make to solve it. Topics where ERAWAST nuclides have played a special role will be mentioned.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ERAWAST2: 2nd workshop on exotic radionuclides from accelerator waste for science and technology, 30.08.-02.09.2011, Villigen, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 16102

Hydrogen burning in the CNO cycles

Bemmerer, D.

I will review the status of the standard solar model, with special mention given to the so-called solar abundance problem that ha recently developed. Then, I will discuss the experimental status of the nuclear reactions of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle of hydrogen burning.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Helmholtz International Summer School "Nuclear Theory and Astrophysical Applications", 24.07.-02.08.2011, Dubna, Russland

Publ.-Id: 16101

Numerical and experimental modelling of VGF-type buoyant flow under the influence of travelling and rotating magnetic fields

Galindo, V.; Niemietz, K.; Pätzold, O.; Gerbeth, G.

Numerical and experimental modelling of a VGF-type (VGF - Vertical Gradient Freeze) buoyant flow under the influence of both travelling and rotating magnetic fields (TMF and RMF, respectively) is presented. Low-temperature flow experiments were carried out using a GaInSn alloy as model fluid. Radial heating and cooling of the melt leading to a meridional double vortex flow like in typical VGF growth, was introduced using a double-walled melt container. The flow was found to be significantly influenced by the mutual interaction of buoyant and electromagnetically driven forces. With increasing axial temperature difference, the buoyant flow becomes more concentrated in the upper and lower part of the melt leaving an extended melt zone with low flow velocity around the mid-height. Furthermore, VGF-type buoyancy is found to stabilize TMF- and RMF-induced melt flows. Besides, the time evolution of the flow just above the stability threshold is studied. In the case of combined VGF-type/RMF flow complex fluctuation patterns are observed, which depends sensitively on the applied thermal field.

Keywords: Fluid flows; Magnetic fields; Vertical gradient freeze technique; numerical simulation

Publ.-Id: 16100

LUNA: Underground for Nuclear Astrophysics

Bemmerer, D.

The international LUNA collaboration studies nuclear reactions at very low energy, directly relevant to the Sun. To this end, it uses a 0.4 MV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. I will review the motivations, techniques and achievements of LUNA.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Helmholtz International Summer School "Nuclear Theory and Astrophysical Applications", 24.07.-02.08.2011, Dubna, Russland

Publ.-Id: 16099

Kinetic and structural studies on the adsorption of metals and actinides on cell surfaces by using multi-layer systems as a model of bacterial cell walls

Suhr, M.; Günther, T.; Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.

Bacterial isolates from the uranium mining waste pile Haberland (Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony) possess high affinities to heavy metals and uranium. This binding effect is caused by the components of the bacterial cell wall, mainly effected by surface layer proteins.
Aim of this work is the construction of a stable multi-layer system for the simulation of cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria and the investigation of metal interactions with single compounds and whole complex systems.
The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to track and control this multi-layer formation.
First result of these tasks is the proof of recrystallization of S-layer proteins as part of the cell wall of Bacillus spec. JG-B53 via QCM-D and AFM.

Keywords: QCM-D; S-Layer; polyelectrolytes; bacteria; adsorption; metals; actinides

  • Poster
    6th PhD Seminar, 05.-07.10.2011, Rabenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16097

Angewandte Naturwissenschafler in der Forschung

Beyreuther, E.

no abstract;
Vortrag ohne Abstrakt!

  • Lecture (others)
    Absolvententreffen 55 Jahre Chemie und 15 Angewandte Naturwissenschaften an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 23.-24.09.2011, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16096

Heterologous expression of surface layer proteins

Lederer, F.; Günther, T.; Pollmann, K.

Heterologous expression is a common method of molecular biology, which finds applications for example in up scaling of protein production and structural analyses of naturally unexpressed proteins. An experimental setup is started by the amplification of the template gene. Afterwards this gene is cloned into coiled DNA, called vectors and transformed into the host organism. The desired protein, which is encoded by the cloned gene, is produced inside the host organism. Host strains are for example Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis or Pichia pastoris.

Keywords: Heterologous expression; Escherichia coli; Lactococcus lactis

  • Poster
    Doktorandenseminar 2011, 05.-07.10.2011, Breitenbrunn, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16095

Investigation of actinides behaviour under specific environmental conditions

Fischer, S.; Husar, R.

Presentation of motivation and objectives of the PhD theses “Spectroscopic characterization of trivalent actinides Am and Cm on bacterial cell walls” and “Evidence and characterization of silica-containing colloids of tetravalent Th, U, Np”.

Keywords: Actinides; trivalent; tetravalent; spectroscopy; bacterial cell walls; silica-containing colloids

  • Poster
    6th PhD Seminar HZDR, 05.-07.10.2011, Rabenberg, Deutschland
  • Poster
    Doktorandenseminar - Kompetenzzentrum Ost für Kerntechnik, 08.12.2011, Zittau, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16094

Nonlinear transmission dynamics in graphene close to the Dirac point

Winnerl, S.; Orlita, M.; Plochocka, P.; Kossacki, P.; Potemski, M.; Winzer, T.; Malic, E.; Knorr, A.; Sprinkle, M.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W. A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.

We report on carrier relaxation dynamics close to the Dirac point in epitaxially grown graphene under pulsed excitation with 10 – 250 meV photons. With decreasing photon energy, we identify different regimes – induced transmission with bi- and single-exponential decay as well as induced absorption - and discuss their physical origin.

Keywords: graphene; pump-probe experiment; free-electron laser

  • Contribution to proceedings
    36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2011), 02.-07.10.2011, Houston, USA
    IEEE-2011 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2011): IEEE Xplore Digital Library, doi: 10.1109/irmmw-THz.2011.6105036
  • Lecture (Conference)
    36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2011), 02.-07.10.2011, Houston, TX, USA

Publ.-Id: 16093

Strong-field terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum structures

Schneider, H.

This seminar gives an overview on our recent experimental studies involving terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared radiation from the free-electron laser facility FELBE in Dresden, Germany. In particular, cyclotron resonance spectroscopy and aperture-less near-field microscopy will be addressed as examples for linear measurements. Moreover, nonlinear THz photocurrents originating from two-photon excitation between subbands in semiconductor quantum wells allow for measurements of intersubband relaxation and dephasing times and for quadratic autocorrelation of THz pulses. The final part of my talk will concentrate on nonlinear two-color THz spectroscopy, in particular THz sideband generation and coherent dynamics involving excitons dressed by strong THz beams.

Keywords: nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy; THz; semiconductor quantum well; sideband generation; excitons

  • Lecture (others)
    Physics Colloquium, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 07.09.2011, Shanghai, China

Publ.-Id: 16092

Jena's Impact on the High Intensity Laser Community

Cowan, T. E.

Gründungsveranstaltung Abbe Center of Photonics

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Gründungsveranstaltung Abbe Center of Photonics, 10.12.2010, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16091

High Intensity Laser- and Plasma Physics in collaboration with Helmholtz Institute Jena

Cowan, T. E.

High Intensity Laser- and Plasma Physics in collaboration with Helmholtz Institute Jena

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Scientific Council Helmholtz Institute Jena, 29.-30.06.2010, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16090

Maximizing the energy of laser-accelerated protons and ions within Target Normal Sheath Acceleration

Cowan, T. E.; Bussmann, M.; Gaillard, S.; Kluge, T.; Kraft, S.; Metzkes, J.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.

The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism is perhaps the most robust, and certainly the most studied, process by which protons and ions are accelerated to multi-MeV energies in ultra-intense laser-matter interactions. It is characterized by the generation of superstrong TV/m ambipolar electric fields in the relativistic electron sheath on the rear-surface of laser-irradiated thin foils, and the subsequent quasi-neutral plasma expansion driven by the electron thermal pressure. The maximum achievable ion energies should increase with increasing hot electron temperature and density, depending upon the laser pulse parameters and the geometry of the target and laser-plasma interaction. To date, proton energies of up to 67.5 MeV have been observed. In this talk, techniques to further increase the proton and ion energies from TNSA will be reviewed, with emphasis on experimental results from the FZD Draco Ti:Sa laser and with our collaboration partners working at several higher energy Nd:glass lasers world-wide. Scaling of the proton energy with the laser pulse energy and intensity, pulse length and contrast, and by variation of the target geometry and properties, such as thickness, transverse size, and by target shaping, will be discussed.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4th International Conference on Superstrong Fields In Plasmas, 03.-09.10.2010, Varenna, Italy

Publ.-Id: 16089

Enhanced Positron Creation in Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

Cowan, T. E.; Nakashima, K.; Sentoku, Y.; Takabe, H.; Brown, C.; Cassidy, D.; Christl, M.; Fountain, W.; Hunt, A. W.; Johnson, J.; Kühl, T.; Parnell, T.; Patterson, W. S.; Pennington, D. M.; Perry, M. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Roth, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Wilks, S. C.

Enhanced Positron Creation in Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Antimatter Creation Using Ultra-Intense Lasers Workshop, 27.-28.04.2010, Berkeley, USA

Publ.-Id: 16088

FZD (HZDR) contribution to Laser-Accelerated Proton Test Stand Project

Cowan, T. E.

Milestones and perspectives of the projected test stand to capture and transport laser-accelerated proton beams. Workshop GSI Darmstadt

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Milestones and perspectives of the projected test stand to capture and transport laser-accelerated proton beams, 06.08.2010, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16087

Proton acceleration from engineered laser beams

Cowan, T. E.; Roth, M.; Bagnound, V.; Zielbauer, B.; Brabetz, C.; Kester, O.; Lei, A.; Schramm, U.

Proposal for PHELIX Experiment Time, GSI-PPAC

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Meeting of the Phelix and Plasmaphysics Program Advisory Committee, 08.-09.11.2010, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16085

Determination of the Degree of Quasineutrality of Laser-accelerated Proton Pulses

Cowan, T. E.; Margarone, D.; Burris, T.; Bussmann, M.; Krasa, J.; Roth, M.; Harres, K.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Deppert, O.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Kornilov, V.; Zsolt, L.; Zielbauer, B.

Proposal for PHELIX Experiment Time, GSI-PPAC

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Meeting of the Phelix and Plasmaphysics Program Advisory Committee, 08.-09.11.2010, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16084

Baryonic resonances close to the Kbar N threshold: the case of Σ(1385)+ in pp collisions

Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chen, J. C.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Moriniere, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

We present results of an exclusive measurement of the first excited state of the Σ hyperon, Σ(1385)+, produced in p+p->Σ++K++n at 3.5 GeV beam energy. The extracted data allow to study in detail the invariant mass distribution of the Σ(1385)+. The mass distribution is well described by a relativistic Breit-Wigner function with a maximum at m0=1383.2±0.9 MeV/c2 and a width of 40.2±2.1 MeV/c2. The exclusive production cross-section comes out to be 22.27±0.89±1.56+3.07−2.10 μb. Angular distributions of the Σ(1385)+ in different reference frames are found to be compatible with the hypothesis that 33% of Σ(1385)+ result from the decay of an intermediate Δ++ resonance.

Publ.-Id: 16082

Superconducting states of flash-lamp annealed Ga implanted Ge

Fiedler, J.; Heera, V.; Skrotzki, R.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Voelskow, M.; Mücklich, A.; Posselt, M.; Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Wosnitza, J.; Helm, M.

Since superconductivity has been discovered one century ago, scientists search for new materials that show this fascinating ground state of matter. Recent investigations on superconductivity of elemental group-IV semiconductors like diamond [1] and silicon [2] lead to a new debate about the mechanism and technological potential of these unusual superconductors.
In our previous work, we have shown the possibility of creating highly Ga doped Ge layers via Ga-ion implantation and subsequent short-time annealing. As a consequence of the high doping level, these layers are intrinsically superconducting below 1 K [3]. Furthermore we investigated the feasibility of embedding superconducting layers in Si-SiO2 heterostructures not via doping but by Ga precipitation reaching critical temperatures of 7 K [4] with equivalent processing steps.
From these investigations, the question arises if it is possible to combine highly doped semiconducting regions with intrinsic and extrinsic superconducting structures having different critical temperatures. We used again Ga implantation in Ge covered by a 30 nm SiO2 layer and flash-lamp annealing to create a complex layer structure showing various transitions in different superconducting states. The first transition occurs at 7 K and can be attributed to Ga-rich precipitates at the Ge-SiO2 interface. Due to the superconductivity of the underlying highly doped germanium layer, a second transition is observed at around 1 K. Recent results on the structural and electrical properties of the heterostructures will be presented.

[1] E. A. Ekimov et al., Nature (London) 428, 542 (2004).
[2] E. Bustarret et al., Nature 444, 465 (2006).
[3] T. Herrmannsdörfer et al., Phys, Rev. Lett. 102, 217003 (2009); V. Heera et al., Journal of Applied Physics 107, 053508 (2010).
[4] J. Fiedler et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 214504 (2011); R. Skrotzki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 192505 (2010).

  • Lecture (Conference)
    subtherm; International Topical Workshop on Subsecond Thermal Prosessing of advanced Materials, 25.-27.10.2011, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Poster
    subtherm; International Topical Workshop on Subsecond Thermal Prosessing of advanced Materials, 25.-27.10.2011, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16081

A new route towards a silicon based quantum computer? - About superconducting layers in semiconductors

Fiedler, J.; Heera, V.; Skrotzki, R.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.

Es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen.

  • Lecture (others)
    6th PhD Seminar HZDR, 05.-07.10.2011, Rabenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 16080

Phenomenology of pattern formation on Si(001) with and without impurities

Michely, T.; Macko, S.; Engler, M.; Frost, F.; Müller, S.; Förster, D.; Höche, T.; Hirsch, D.; Fritzsche, M.; Mücklich, A.; Grenzer, J.

Pattern formation on Si(001) through 2 keV Kr+ ion beam erosion under ultra high vacuum conditions is investigated by in situ scanning tunneling
microscopy, ex situ atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy. Under these conditions, at room temperature for fluences up to ≈ 2×10^22 ions m^-2 no ion beam patterns develop for angles ϑ <= 55° with respect to the global surface normal. Only for shallow incidence with 60° <= ϑ <= 81° pronounced patterns form. These patterns expose facets for which the ion beam angle q with respect to the local surface normal of each facet is in the stable range, i.e. outside 60° <= q <= 81°. Analysis of the fluence dependence of pattern formation was conducted in the unstable range with ϑ = 63° and ϑ = 75°. While the speed of pattern evolution depends strongly on the angle of incidence, the sequence does not. The flat surface evolves via small amplitude, regular ripple patterns to large amplitude, irregular facet patterns. The regular ripple pattern transforms through a coarsening mechanism to a facetted pattern.
Co-deposition of stainless steel during ion beam erosion results in well developed hole, dot and ripple patterns already for small ion fluences. Codeposition induced pattern formation does not depend on the deposition method as it takes place for both, co-sputter deposition and co-evaporation. The key factor selecting the type of pattern realized is the ion-to-impurity arrival ratio. While in a broad range from 150 K to 440 K pattern formation is rather temperature independent, dramatic changes take place above a threshold temperature ≈ 600 K, when structures of crystalline iron silicide are shaped on the surface. For these high temperatures needles and sponge patterns with amplitudes of the order of 100 nm and directed towards the ion beam evolve. Variation of the angle between ion beam and impurity source has a significant effect on pattern formation. The larger this angle, the more efficient is pattern formation. This observation points to the relevance of shadowing.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Nanoscale Pattern Formation at Surfaces, 18.-22.09.2011, El Escorial, Spain

Publ.-Id: 16079

Comparison of pattern formation by Focused Ion Beam and Broad Beam Sputtering

Fritzsche, M.; Facsko, S.; Mücklich, A.

Under specific conditions low energy ion beam sputtering of surfaces leads to self-organized periodic patterns. These can be ripple patterns with periodicities in the nanometer range for oblique ion incidence or hexagonal dot patterns on compound materials for normal ion incidence. Recently, periodic nanohole patterns were observed on Ge surfaces when sputtered at normal incidence using a 5 keV Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) [1]. These patterns resemble the dot patterns on GaSb mirrored with respect to the surface plane, suggesting a similar formation mechanism.
In this work we studied the pattern formation using FIB and compared the results with patterns produced by sputtering with a broad beam. In case of the focused beam a variation of the incidence angle as well as a variation in the energy of the incoming Ga+ ion on a Ge substrate was done. Using a broad Ga+ beam leads to the same pattern formation on Ge independent of scanning. Additionally GaSb dot patterns were produced using a broad beam of Ar+ and the size dependence of the energy of the incoming ion was studied. A comparison of both patterns shows no flux dependence in case of Ga+ sputtered on Ge (neither for FIB nor for broad beam), whereas the size and also the shape of the GaSb dots changes with flux.
[1] Q. Wei, X. Zhou, B. Joshi, Y. Chen, K. Li, Q. Wei, K. Sun, and L. Wang, Adv. Mater. 21, 2865 (2009).

  • Poster
    Nanoscale Pattern Formation at Surfaces, 18.-22.09.2011, El Escorial, Spain

Publ.-Id: 16078

Tailoring Spin Dynamics by Magnetic Nanopatterning Using Ion Irradiation

Lenz, K.; Körner, M.; Banholzer, A.; Liedke, M. O.; Grebing, J.; Fassbender, J.; Barsukov, I.; Römer, F. M.; Lindner, J.

Various elements like Pd, Cr, Ta, as well as several rare-earth elements can be used to modify the magnetic properties of thin ferromagnetic films. They are incorporated either by co-sputtering or ion implantation and are well known to reduce the Curie temperature, saturation magnetization, anisotropy and damping [1,2]. In combination with lithographic masking this allows for magnetic property patterning at the nanoscale [3]. In thin ferromagnetic films, the magnetization dynamics are governed by
intrinsic effects like Gilbert damping and spin-pumping but also by extrinsic effects like two-magnon scattering due to inevitable defect structures. By lithographic nanopatterning or by using ion-eroded, nanoscale periodically modulated substrates (ripples) as templates we are able to artificially create and thus control those defect structures necessary to induce two-magnon scattering. The damping contributions are disentangled from linewidth measurements by broadband ferromagnetic resonance technique.

Keywords: Ferromagnetic resonance; damping; relaxation; ripples; ion irradiation; nanostructures

  • Poster
    2nd international workshop on magnonics: From Fundamentals to Applications, 07.-10.08.2011, Recife, Brasilien

Publ.-Id: 16077

Tailoring Magnetization Dynamics at the Nanoscale

Barsukov, I.; Rubacheva, A.; Melnichak, N.; Römer, F. M.; Meckenstock, R.; Lindner, J.; Wende, H.; Farle, M.; Lenz, K.; Banholzer, A.; Fassbender, J.; Mankovsky, S.; Ebert, H.; Landeros, P.; Mills, D. L.

Controlling spin relaxation is essential for spintronic and spin torque applications. Manipulating spin relaxation allows the adjustment of magnetization reversal speed at microwave frequencies. Moreover, the critical current in spin torque devices can be reduced and tuned. In the experiment it is possible to distinguish between the intrinsic and extrinsic relaxation channels. The latter can be tailored with respect to the intensity and anisotropic behaviour. In particular, methods for inducing elementary relaxation channels of uniaxial symmetry and their impact on the magnetization dynamics are discussed in this presentation. Fe-based thin films have been studied by means of the ferromagnetic resonance technique, by which the intrinsic and extrinsic relaxation processes can be disentangled. While the former are rather isotropic and can be adjusted via spin-orbit interaction, the latter can be modified in an advanced way. It is shown, how crystalline defects, inhomogeneities of chemical composition, and interface modifications can induce the 2-magnon scattering. Control and systematic manipulation of these parameters allow tailoring the overall spin relaxation in a desired manner with respect to the direction of magnetization and precessional frequency.

Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance; damping; relaxation

  • Poster
    2nd international workshop on magnonics: From Fundamentals to Applications, 07.-10.08.2011, Recife, Brasilien

Publ.-Id: 16076

Herstellung von 61Cu mit hoher spezifischer Aktivität über die 64Zn(p,α)61Cu-Reaktion

Thieme, S.; Walther, M.; Rajander, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Solin, O.; Steinbach, J.

Die Herstellung von 61Cu hoher spezifischer Aktivität erfordert besonders aufwändige Maßnahmen, um Metallkontaminationen sowohl durch Cu-Isotope als auch durch andere Metalle zu minimieren. Dementsprechend müssen die herkömmlichen Methoden ververfeinert werden, um 61Cu sowohl in hoher Qualität als auch effektiv herstellen zu können. Vergleichswerte über spezifische Aktivitäten von 61Cu sind in der Literatur selten zu finden. McCarthy et al. [1] berichten zu spez. Aktivitäten von 61Cu im Bereich von 47 bis 190 GBq/µmol; erzeugt durch 61Ni(p,n)61Cu und 60Ni(d,n)61Cu-Reaktion. Eine Alternative dazu stellt die 64Zn(p,α)61Cu-Reaktion dar [2]. Das hierfür genutzte Targetmaterial 64Zn (99,3% Isotopenanreicherung) ist im Vergleich zu angereichertem 61Ni weitaus weniger kostenintensiv.

Für die Bestrahlung am Zyklotron wird ein massiver Targetträger aus Gold verwendet, auf dem ca. 100 mg angereichertes 64Zn (99,3% Isotopenanreicherung) abgeschieden sind. Die radiochemische Trennung erfolgt über Ionenaustauschtechniken nach Literaturangaben [3-8]. Die angewandte Methode nutzt eine Ionenaustauscherkaskade, die aus zwei Kationenaustauscher-Säulen und einer Anionenaustauscher-Säule besteht. Dabei sorgt der doppelte Kationenaustauscherschritt für die effektive Abtrennung von Galliumisotopen (66/67/68Ga) und die Anionenaustauscher-Säule für die Trennung des 61Cu vom Zn-Targetmaterial. Der Gesamtprozess zur Gewinnung des gereinigten 61Cu dauert eine Stunde. Die Methode umfasst die Wiedergewinnung des eingesetzten 64Zn, welches danach zur erneuten Verwendung zur Verfügung steht. Das optimierte Verfahren nutzt kleinere Ionenaustauschersäulen als bisher und ausschließlich wässrige Salzsäure; Details vgl. Thieme et al. [2]. Die Ermittlung der spezifischen Aktivität erfolgt über TETA-Titrationen und ICP-MS-Analysen. Es wurden Bestrahlungen an zwei verschiedenen Zyklotronen durchgeführt: am Cyclone 18/9 (IBA, Belgien) des Instituts für Radiopharmazie, Dresden-Rossendorf und am CC 18/9 (Efremov Institut, St. Petersburg, Russland) des Turku PET Centre in Turku, Finnland.

Die Bestrahlungen mit dem Cyclone 18/9 wurden mit 12 µA und 16 MeV durchgeführt. Dies führte innerhalb von 30 Minuten zu Ausbeuten von ca. 300 MBq 61Cu (EOB). Am CC 18/9 wurde mit 30 µA, 13 MeV, 30 Minuten gearbeitet. Dabei wurden ebenfalls 330-400 MBq 61Cu (EOB) erzeugt, bei einer Bestrahlungszeit von 3 Stunden bis zu 1150 MBq61Cu (EOB). Am CC 18/9 wurde eine extrem hohe spezifische Aktivität des 61Cu von über 1000 GBq/µmol erreicht. Demgegenüber fielen die spezifischen Aktivitäten am Cyclone 18/9 deutlich ab, es konnte nur eine spezifische Aktivität von ca. 2 GBq/µmol erzielt werden. Wahrscheinlich tritt in diesem Fall eine Kontamination mit stabilem Kupfer schon während der Bestrahlung auf. Möglicherweise geht diese von der Targethalterung am Zyklotron aus, da sie nicht wie beim CC 18/9 komplett aus Aluminium, sondern größtenteils aus Messing besteht. Bisherige Versuche zum Schutz des Targetträgers und des Targetmaterials vor derartigen Kontaminationen bzw. der Versuch, Kontaminationen während des Trennprozesses zu verhindern, blieben erfolglos.

Schlussfolgerungen: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es prinzipiell möglich ist, 61Cu mit hoher spezifischer Aktivität mit Hilfe der 64Zn(p,α)61Cu-Reaktion herzustellen. Die genutzte radiochemische Trennmethode bietet sich hervorragend für eine routinemäßige Herstellung von 61Cu an.

[1] McCarthy, D. W.; Bass, L. A.; Cutler, P. D.; Shefer, R. E.; Klinkowstein, R. E.; Herrero, P.; Lewis, J. S.; Cutler, C. S.; Anderson, C. J.; Welch, M. J. (1999) Nucl. Med. Biol. 26, 351-358
[2] Thieme, S.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J. in: Technetium and other radiometals in chemistry and medicine (Mazzi, U.; Eckelman, W. C.; Volkert, W. A. eds.), pp 475-478, SGE Editoriali, Padova, Italy
[3] Kraus, K. A.; Moore, G. E. (1953) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 1460-1462
[4] O'Brien, H. A. (1969) Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 20, 121-124
[5] Neirinckx, R. D. (1977) Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 802-804
[6] Jamriska, D. J.; Taylor, W. A.; Ott, M. A.; Heaton, R. C.; Phillips, D. R.; Fowler, M. M. (1995) J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Art. 195, 263-270
[7] Smith, S. V.; Waters, D. J.; Di Bartolo, N. (1996) Radiochim. Acta 75, 65-68
[8] Rowshanfarzad, P.; Sabet, M.; Jalilian, A. R.; Kamalidehghan, M. (2006) Appl. Radiat. Isot. 64, 1563-1573

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19. Jahrestagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie der DGN, 15.-17.09.2011, Ochsenfurt, D

Publ.-Id: 16075

Spectroscopic Characterization of Eu(III) and Am(III) Complexes with Small Organic Molecules at Elevated Temperatures

Barkleit, A.; Geipel, G.; Acker, M.; Taut, S.

Clay minerals which are components of potential host rock formations for nuclear waste repositories can contain small organic molecules like formate, citrate or lactate. Such small organic molecules can like the ubiquitous humic acids influence the migration behavior of radionuclides. Different substituted benzoic acids can mimic the main functionalities and are often used as model compounds for humic substances.
The understanding of the complex behavior of radionuclides with such natural organic matter and the thermodynamic quantification of the interaction especially at elevated temperatures is of great importance to simulate and predict their migration behavior in the environment, particularly in the near field of nuclear waste disposals where higher temperatures are prevailing.
We present the investigation of the complex behavior of Am(III) and Eu(III) with lactate and salicylate at ambient and elevated temperatures with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the resulting thermodynamic data (reaction enthalpy, reaction entropy). Whereas the complexation with lactate is for both cations nearly temperature independent, is the complexation with salicylate clearly an endothermic reaction.

Keywords: Americium; Europium; Lactate; Salicylate; TRLFS; High Temperatures

  • Contribution to proceedings
    HiTAC - High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry, 09.11.2011, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Workshops ABC-Salt(II) and HiTAC 2011, KIT Scientific Reports 7625, 978-3-86644-912-1, 173-174

Publ.-Id: 16074

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