Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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31735 Publications
Multiphase flows in industrial applications - experiments and CFD simulations
Höhne, T.;
The last decade has seen an increasing use of three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to predict steady state and transient flows in industrial applications because a number of important phenomena such as slugging, pressurized thermal shocks, coolant mixing, and thermal striping cannot be predicted by traditional one-dimensional system codes with the required accuracy and spatial resolution. CFD codes contain models for simulating turbulence, heat transfer, multi-phase flows, and chemical reactions. Such models must be validated before they can be used with sufficient confidence in industrial applications. The necessary validation is performed by comparing model results against measured data. The multipurpose thermalhydraulic test facility TOPFLOW was designed at FZD to investigate stationary and transient phenomena in two-phase flows with the purpose of development and validation of models used in CFD codes. In addition, for the experimental investigation of horizontal two phase flows, different non pressurized channels and the Hot Leg Model in a pressure chamber were built and the experimental results compared with numerical simulations. Our partner for CFD code qualification is ANSYS CFX. Based on this partnership physical models which are developed are implemented into the code and thus contribute to the code qualification.
Keywords: CFD, FZD, Multiphase flow, TOPFLOW
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    CFD OIL2008 - 3d Encontro Latino-Americano de CFD Aplicado à Indústria de Petróleo, 18.-19.08.2008, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CFD OIL2008 - 3d Encontro Latino-Americano de CFD Aplicado à Indústria de Petróleo, 18.-19.08.2008, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    CD-ROM, Webpage

Publ.-Id: 11544 - Permalink

An Analytical Approximation Solution for a Time-Dependent Neutron Transport Problem with External Source and Delayed Neutron Production
Merk, B.;
This work presents the development of an analytical approximation solution for a space-time-dependent neutron transport problem in a one-dimensional system consisting of a homogenized medium with a central external source with Green functions. The delayed neutron production is implemented with the multiple-scale expansion method. Qualitative results for a given system are analyzed and an example of the use for the analysis of accelerator-driven systems is given.
Keywords: Time dependet neutron transport, Accelerator driven system, Experimental analysis, Green's funtion expansion
  • Nuclear Science and Engineering 161(2009)1, 49-67

Publ.-Id: 11543 - Permalink

CFD-simulation of the VVER thermal hydraulic benchmark V1000CT–2 using ANSYS CFX
Höhne, T.;
Plant measured data from VVER-1000 coolant mixing experiments were used within the OECD/NEA and AER coupled code benchmarks for light water reactors to test and validate CFD codes. The task is to compare the various calculations with measured data, using specified boundary conditions and core power distributions. The experiments, which are provided for CFD validation, include single loop cooling down or heating-up by disturbing the heat transfer in the steam generator (SG) through the steam valves at low reactor power in the range of 5-14% and with all main coolant pumps (MCP) in operation. They were conducted during the plant commissioning phase at Kozloduy-6, Bulgaria and Kalinin-1, 2, Russia. CFD calculations have been performed for the thermal hydraulic benchmark V1000CT-2 using ANSYS CFX. The numerical grid model was generated with the grid generator ICEM-CFD and contains 4.7 Mio. tetrahedral elements. The Best Practice Guidelines (BPG) in using CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications has been used. Different advanced turbulence models were utilized in the numerical simulation. The best agreement with the Kozloduy heating-up experiment at the core inlet shows the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). The results show a clear sector formation of the affected loop at the downcomer, lower plenum and core inlet. The maximum local values of the relative temperature rise in the experiment amount 97.7% and in the calculation 97.3%. Uncertainties are still the estimation and interpolation of experimental values at the core outlet to the core inlet.
Keywords: CFD, Coolant Mixing, PWR

Publ.-Id: 11542 - Permalink

The ELBE Superconducting Photoinjector
Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Janssen, D.; Murcek, P.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.;

Publ.-Id: 11541 - Permalink

QCD quasiparticle model with collective modes and Landau damping
Schulze, R.;
extrapolation of lattice QCD to large baryon densities, e.g. CBM@FAIR; QPM with ImΠi ≠ 0, plasmons and plasminos from HTL; Is the small -T region accessible? Improvement of previous models?
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Hadrons@FAIR, 25.-27.06.2008, Frankfurt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11540 - Permalink

Finite Density QCD Sum Rules for D Meson, Nucleon and Light Vector Mesons
Thomas, R.;
In-Medium Modification of Hadrons: w, N, D
QCD Sum Rules
Four-Quark Condensates
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Hadrons@FAIR, 25.-27.06.2008, Frankfurt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11539 - Permalink

The Radiation Source ELBE at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
Michel, P.;
A superconducting Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) which provides an average beam current of 1 mA with maximum beam energy of 36 MeV was constructed in the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. The electron beam is used to generate infrared light (Free Electron Lasers), MeV-Bremsstrahlung, X-rays (electron channelling), fast neutrons and positrons. The ELBE secondary beams are used for a wide range of basic research like semiconductor physics, nuclear astrophysics and radio biological investigations. The technical setup of the accelerator and secondary beam generation will be explained and some representative application examples will be demonstrated. ELBE runs in routine user operation since 2004 with stepwise commissioning of the secondary radiation targets.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
    Nuclear Science Symposium, N48-5

Publ.-Id: 11538 - Permalink

CFD-Modellierung von Vermischungsvorgängen in Druckwasserreaktoren in Anwesenheit von Dichtegradienten
Vaibar, R.; Rohde, U.; Höhne, T.;
In der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung sind auftriebsgetriebene Strömungen von Relevanz für Störfall-szenarien mit Verdünnung der Borkonzentration und für thermische Schockbelastungen des Reak-tordruckbehälters. In der numerischen Simulation der Strömungen werden neben der Berücksichtigung der Auftriebskräfte Quell- und Korrekturterme in die Bilanzgleichungen für die turbulente Energie und die turbulente Dissipation eingeführt. Es wurden erweiterte Modelle entwickelt, in die zusätzliche Gleichungen für die Turbulenzgrößen „turbulenter Massenstrom“ und „Dichtevarianz“ eingehen. Die Modelle wurden in den CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX implementiert.
Die Validierung der Modelle erfolgte an einem speziellen Versuchsaufbau (VeMix-Versuchsanlage), mit Einspeisung von Fluid höherer Dichte in eine Vorlage. Als Kriterien für die Validierung wurde der Umschlag zwischen impulsdominiertem Strömungsregime mit vertikalem Jet oder ein vertikales Absinken bei Dominanz von Dichteeffekten herangezogen sowie lokale Konzentrationsmessungen mit Hilfe eines speziell entwickelten Leitfähigkeits-Gittersensors. Eine Verbesserung der Simulation dichtedominierter Vermischungsprozesse mit den erweiterten Turbulenzmodellen konnte allerdings nicht nachgewiesen werden, da die Unterschiede zwischen den Rechnungen mit verschiedenen Turbulenzmodellen zu gering sind. Andererseits konnte jedoch die Simulation der Stratifikation von Fluiden unterschiedlicher Dichte im kalten Strang einer Reaktoranlage deutlich verbessert werden. Anhand der Nachrechnung von Ver-suchen am geometrisch ähnlichen Reaktor-Strömungsmodell ROCOM wurde gezeigt, dass diese Stratifikation von bedeutendem Einfluss auf die Vermischung und somit letztendlich auch auf die Temperatur- bzw. Borkonzentrationsverteilung innerhalb des Reaktordruckbehälters ist. Sie lässt sich nur korrekt simulieren, wenn ausreichend große Abschnitte des kalten Stranges mit modelliert werden. Somit konnte doch eine bessere Vorhersagegenauigkeit der Simulation der Vermischung erreicht werden.

In reactor safety research, buoyancy driven flows are of relevance for boron dilution accidents or pressurised thermal shock scenarios. Concerning the numerical simulation of these flows, besides of the consideration of buoyancy forces, source and correction terms are introduced into the balance equations for the turbulent energy and its dissipation rate. Within the project, extended turbulence models have been developed by introducing additional balance equations for the turbulent quantities “turbulent mass flow” and “density variance”. The models have been implemented into the computati-onal fluid dynamics code ANSYS-CFX.
The validation of the models was performed against tests at a special experimental set-up, the VeMix facility, were fluid of higher density was injected into a vertical test section filled with lighter fluid. As validation criteria the switching-over between a momentum controlled mixing pattern with a horizontal jet and buoyancy driven mixing with vertical sinking down of the heavier fluid was used. Additionally, measurement data gained from an especially developed conductivity wire mesh sensor were used. However, an improvement of the modelling of buoyancy driven mixing by use of the extended models could not be shown, because the differences between calculations with the different models were not relevant. On the other hand, the modelling of the stratification of fluids with different density in the cold leg of a reactor primary circuit could be significantly improved. It has been shown on calculations of experi-ments at the ROCOM mixing test facility, a scaled model of a real reactor plant, that this stratification is relevant as a boundary condition for the mixing process inside the reactor pressure vessel. It can be correctly simulated only if sufficient large parts of the cold legs are included in the modelling. On this way, an improvement of the accuracy of the prediction of mixing processes was achieved.
Keywords: Boron dilution, Pressurised Thermal Shock, coolant mixing, buoyancy forces, turbulence models, validation
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-500 2008


Publ.-Id: 11537 - Permalink

Entwicklung einer Transportnäherung für das reaktordynamische Rechenprogramm DYN3D
Grundmann, U.; Beckert, C.;
Es wurde eine SP3-Transportmethode entwickelt, die neutronenkinetische Rechnungen für die Kerne von Leichtwasserreaktoren mit höherer Genauigkeit als die gegenwärtig in der Kernauslegung angewandten Standardmethoden auf Basis der Zweigruppendiffusionsnäherung er-laubt. Eine Verbesserung der Genauigkeit von Abbrandrechnungen und der Berechnung von Tran-sienten ist für heterogene Kerne notwendig, in denen neben UO2-Brennelementen auch Mischoxyd – Brennelemente eingesetzt werden.
In einem ersten Schritt wird die in dem Rechenprogramm DYN3D verwendete Zweigruppendiffusi-onsmethode auf viele Energiegruppen erweitert. Auf der Basis von Untersuchungen zu einer optima-len Gruppenstruktur wird die Verwendung von 8-10 Energiegruppen der Neutronen als optimal erach-tet. Das Verfahren wurde anhand von stationären und transienten Rechnungen für das OECD/NEA und US NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark verifiziert.
In den nächsten Schritten erfolgte die Entwicklung und Implementierung einer SP3-Näherung in DYN3D. Dabei besteht die Möglichkeit, ein feineres Gitter im BE zu benutzen. Das Verfahren wurde zunächst durch pinweise Berechnung stationärer Zustände des obigen Benchmarks verifiziert.
Untersuchungen für das Benchmarkproblem zeigen, dass das Verhältniss des 2-ten Momentes zum 0-ten Moment des Flusses klein ist. Die beiden SP3-Gleichungen können deshalb separat in iterativer Weise gelöst werden. Dies reduziert den benötigten Speicherplatz und erfordert weniger CPU-Zeit. Dieses vereinfachte Verfahren wurde deshalb ebenfalls in das Programm implementiert. Es wird ge-zeigt, dass mit diesem Verfahren eine vergleichbare Genauigkeit erreicht wird. Stabweise Rechnun-gen mit 4, 8 und 16 Energiegrupppen wurden für einen stationären Zustand des Benchmarks durch-geführt. Eine 3-dimensionale Aufgabe des Benchmarks mit Rückkopplung und Vollleistung wurde mit dem optimierten SP3-Verfahren gerechnet.

A SP3 transport approximation was developed for neutron kinetic calculations of cores of light water reactors with a higher accuracy than the present standard methods of core design based on the two group diffusion approximation. An improvement of accuracy for burnup and transient calculations is required for cores loaded with UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies.
In the first step, the two group diffusion method applied in the computer code DYN3D was extended to an arbitrary number of groups. Investigations for an optimal group structure have shown that a number of 8 to 10 energy groups of neutrons seems to be reasonable. The multi-group technique was verified for steady states and transients of the OECD/NEA und US NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Tran-sient Benchmark.
In the next steps, a SP3-approximation was developed and implemented into DYN3D. The possibility of using finer meshes inside the fuel assemblies is involved in this method. The technique was veri-fied by pinwise calculations for steady states of the above mentioned benchmark.
The investigations to the benchmark problem have shown that ratio of the 2nd moment of flux to the 0th moment is small. Therefore the two coupled SP3 equations can be solved separately in an iterative way. The required computer memory and the CPU time can be reduced by this technique. This sim-pler method was also implemented in the code. It is shown that the reached accuracy is comparable to accuracy of the original technique. Pinwise calculations with 4, 8 and 16 energy groups were per-formed for a steady state of this benchmark. A three-dimensional problem of the benchmark at full power and with feedback was calculated with the optimized SP3 technique. The optimized method was used for the time integration of the transient SP3 equations. The pinwise calculation of a control rod ejection was tested for a simple system and the results were compared with the diffusion solution.
Keywords: reactor physics, neutron kinetics, diffusion approximation, neutron transport, SP3 method, code vali-dation, MOX fuel, benchmarking
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-497 2008


Publ.-Id: 11536 - Permalink

Multipole mixing ratios of transitions in 11B
Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Schwengner, R.; Sun, C.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.;
The mixing ratios for M1 and E2 radiation for transitions in 11B have been determined by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry of the radiation emitted from levels populated by resonant absorption of polarized photons. The photon-scattering experiments were carried out at the FreeElectron Laser Laboratory at Duke University using nearly monoenergetic and linearly polarized photon beams. The mixing ratios were deduced from a comparison of the measured azimuthal asymmetries with calculations for the angular distribution of mixed transitions.
Keywords: Photon scattering, monochromatic photons, FEL, gamma-ray spectroscopy, multipole mixing ratios.

Publ.-Id: 11535 - Permalink

Validation of CFD Codes and Applications in Nuclear Industry
Höhne, T.; Krepper, E.; Vallee, C.;
The last decade has seen an increasing use of three-dimensional CFD codes to predict steady state and transient flows in nuclear reactors.

The reason for the increased use of multidimensional CFD methods is that a number of important phenomena such as pressurized thermal shocks, boron mixing and thermal striping cannot be predicted by traditional one-dimensional system codes with the required accuracy and spatial resolution.

CFD codes contain empirical models for simulating turbulence, heat transfer, multi-phase flows, and chemical reactions. Such models must be validated before they can be used with sufficient confidence in NRS (Nuclear Reactor Safety) applications.
CFD simulations are shown with an emphasis on validation in areas such as: heat transfer, buoyancy, multi-phase flows, natural circulation, turbulent mixing, and complex geometries. These topics are related to NRS-relevant issues such as: pressurized thermal shocks, boron dilution, hydrogen distribution, sub-cooled boiling etc.
Keywords: CFD
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    16th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering ICONE16, 11.-15.05.2008, Orlando, USA

Publ.-Id: 11534 - Permalink

Deep sub-threshold production of Xi(1321) hyperons in collisions of Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV
Kotte, R.;
Deep sub-threshold production of Xi(1321) hyperons in collisions of Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11533 - Permalink

New Events display
Wüstenfeld, J.; Wendisch, C.;
The HADES Eventdisplay
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11532 - Permalink

Parametrization of pp and pn bremsstrahlung for PLUTO
Kaehlitz, P.; Zhou, P.;
Parametrization of pp and pn bremsstrahlung for PLUTO
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11531 - Permalink

Timeschedule for the MDC DAQ upgrade
Wüstenfeld, J.;
Activities towards the mounting of the MDC DAQ upgrade parts
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11530 - Permalink

MDC Front End Electronics
Wüstenfeld, J.;
Current status regarding MDC FEE and how to equip the plane I chambers
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11529 - Permalink

Status of MDC-I
Naumann, L.;
Status of MDC-I ...
  • Lecture (Conference)
    HADES Collaboration Meeting XIX, 01.-05.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11528 - Permalink

Virtual Bremsstrahlung in NN collisions
Kämpfer, B.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    HADES Kollaborations Meeting, 04.07.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11527 - Permalink

Exclusive charm production in pp collisions at √s <~ 15GeV
Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, B.;
We discuss the open charm production in peripheral reactions pp → YcYc and pp → McMc, where Yc and Mc stand for Lambda^+_c, Sigma^+_c and D,D∗, respectively, at √s <~ 15 GeV, which corresponds to the energy range of FAIR. Our consideration is based on the topological decomposition of the planar quark and diquark diagrams which allows to estimate consistently meson and baryon exchange trajectories and energy scale parameters as well. The spin dependance is determined by the effective interaction of lowest exchanged resonance. Unknown parameters are fixed by an independent analysis of open strangeness production in pp → YY and pp → KK reactions and of SU(4) symmetry. We present the corresponding cross sections and longitudinal double-spin asymmetries for exclusive binary reactions with open charm mesons and baryons in the final state. The polarization observables have a non-trivial t and s dependence which is sensitive to details of the open charm production mechanism.

Publ.-Id: 11526 - Permalink

Unfolding of higher order exceptional points in a PT-symmetric Bose-Hubbard model
Graefe, E.-M.; Günther, U.; Korsch, H.-J.; Niederle, A.;
The physics of the PT-symmetric two-mode Bose-Hubbard model is discussed in detail. Special emphasis is laid on the unfolding of higher-order exceptional points (EPs) and on a detailed presentation of the Newton polygon technique. It is shown that the latter can be considered as a highly efficient tool for the unfolding analysis of higher-order roots in any polynomial equation.
Keywords: PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, Bose-Enstein condensate, Bose-Hubbard model, spectral singularity, exceptional point, Newton polygon technique, Puiseux-Newton technique, higher-order polynomial equation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Quantum Physics with Non-Hermitian Operators (PHHQP VII), 29.06.-11.07.2008, Benasque, Spain

Publ.-Id: 11525 - Permalink

Generalized measurements and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics
Samsonov, B.; Günther, U.;
The basics of the theory of generalized quantum measurements is briefly discussed. Starting from positive operator valued measures (POVMs) (as generalization of decompositions of unity in terms of orthogonal projectors) it is demonstrated how to associate the POVMs in a natural way with the nonorthogonal eigenvectors of non-Hermitian operators with non-degenerate real spectrum. This approach allows for a self-consistent treatment of the non-Hermitian operators connected with a state discrimination technique for their non-orthogonal eigenvectors and the definition of a probabilistic content of corresponding generalized measurement procedures. The technique is applied to the brachistochrone problem of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTSQM) in a measurement frame with Hermitian Hamiltonian and non-Hermitian generalized spin-type observables. The Naimark dilation (extension) technique for POVMs is briefly sketched.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, non-Hermitian operators, positive operator valued measure, POVM, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, brachistochrone, Naimark dilation, Naimark extension
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Quantum Physics with Non-Hermitian Operators (PHHQP VII), 29.06.-11.07.2008, Benasque, Spain

Publ.-Id: 11524 - Permalink

Technologieplattform S-Layer
Raff, J.;
Der Vortrag dient der Vorstellung abgeschlossener, laufender und geplanter Forschungsarbeiten zum Thema bakterielle S-Layer-Proteine. Insbesondere werden dabei aktuelle Arbeiten zur Herstellung fotokatalytisch aktiver Nanopartikel zur Eliminierung von Arzneimittelrückständen aus Wasser vorgestellt.
  • Lecture (others)
    Koordinierungstreffen mit dem Institut für Wasserchemie der TU Dresden, 16.06.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11523 - Permalink

Photokatalytische Spaltung von Diclofenac mit an S-Layer gebundenen ZnO/TiO2-Nanopartikeln
Marquard, A.;
wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar NF-Gruppe, 16.06.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11522 - Permalink

Multifunktionale Biokompositschichten zur Eliminierung von Arneimittelrückständen aus Wasser
Raff, J.; Marquard, A.; Pollmann, K.;
Nach der Verabreichung von Arzneimitteln werden vom menschlichen Körper bis zu 95% des wirkstoffs unverändert ausgeschieden und können über das Abwasser in den Wasserkreislauf gelangen. In den weitaus meisten Fällen werden die Wirkstoffe jedoch schnell abgebaut oder die Wirkstoffkonzentrationen sind derart gering, dass keine akute Gefährdung für die Umwelt und die menschliche Gesundheit besteht. Dennoch weisen einige wenige Stoffe in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationen negative Langzeiteffekte auf. Dazu gehört zum Beispiel das schwer abbaubare und in der Umwelt nachweisbare Schmerzmittel Diclofenac. Aufgrund der niedrigen Konzentrationen ist es mit konventionellen Verfahren sehr aufwendig, derartige Stoffe aus dem Wasser zu entfernen. Abhilfe können hier alternative Verfahren schaffen. Mittels hoch geordnetet bakterieller Hüllproteine können in enfacher Art und Weise verschiedenste nanostrukturierte fotokatalytisch aktive Schichten auf der Basis von ZnO und TiO2-Nanocluster hergestellt werden und durch Bindung an oder Einbettung in silikatische Träger immobilisiert werden...
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Bremer Colloquium Produktionsintegrierte Wasser-/Abwassertechnik, 22.-23.09.2008, Bremen, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Bremer Colloquium Produktionsintegrierte Wasser-/Abwassertechnik, 22.-23.09.2008, Bremen, Germany
    Proceedings of the Bremer Colloquium Produktionsintegrierte Wasser-/Abwassertechnik

Publ.-Id: 11521 - Permalink

Multifunctional multilayer-systems based on bacterial surface layers (S-layers)
Pollmann, K.;
  • Lecture (others)
    Workshop zum DFG-Schwerpunktprogramm "Biomimetic Materials Research", 07.07.2008, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11520 - Permalink

Magnetic order by C-ion implantation into Mn5Si3 and Mn5Ge3 and its laterial modification
Suergers, C.; Joshi, N.; Potzger, K.; Strache, T.; Moeller, W.; Fischer, G.; von Loehneysen, H.;
Ferromagnetic Mn5Si3C0.8 and Mn5Ge3C0.8 films with Curie temperatures TC well above room temperature are obtained by 12C+-ion implantation in antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3 or ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3. Patterning of the films with a gold mesh serving as a stencil mask during implantation allows a lateral modification of magnetic order creating ferromagnetic regions of high-TC Mn5Ge3C0.8 which are embedded in low-TC Mn5Ge3. This provides a procedure for the fabrication of magnetoelectronic hybrid-devices comprised of different magnetic phases.
Keywords: magnetic semiconductors, ion implantation, silicides
  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008), 062503

Publ.-Id: 11519 - Permalink

Non-DMS related ferromagnetism in transition metal doped zinc oxide
Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.;
We review pitfalls in recent efforts to make a conventional semiconductor, namely ZnO, ferromagnetic by means of doping with transition metal ions. Since the solubility of those elements is rather low, formation of secondary phases and the creation of defects upon low temperature processing can lead to unwanted magnetic effects. Among others, ion implantation is a method of doping, which is highly suited for the investigation of those effects. By focussing mainly on Fe, Co or Ni implanted ZnO single crystals we show that there are manifold sources for ferromagnetism in this material which can easily be confused with the formation of a ferromagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS). We will focus on metallic as well as oxide precipitates and the difficulties of their identification. Moreover, we will try to clarify the role of lattice disorder or point defects upon development of ferromagnetic properties.
Keywords: ZnO, ion implantation, DMS
  • Physica Status Solidi (B) 246(2009)6, 1147-1167

Publ.-Id: 11518 - Permalink

Fe valence state of Sr2FeMoO6 probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy: the sample age matters
Kuepper, K.; Raekers, M.; Taubitz, C.; Hesse, H.; Neumann, M.; Young, A. T.; Piamonteze, C.; Bondino, F.; Prince, K. C.;
Recent studies of the magnetic properties of Sr2FeMoO6, a half metallic double perovskite showing large magneto resistance effects at room temperature, by means of site specific x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) have led to very different results concerning the Fe valence state. We present a detailed study of a Sr2FeMoO6 polycrystalline sample, which has been probed by means of XAS and XMCD over several years. We find a mixed valent Fe2+, Fe3+ state, which shifts towards Fe3+ with time. An understanding of such a chemical change is of importance for potential applications of Sr2FeMoO6 and related transition metal oxides.
Keywords: Sr2FeMoO6, double perovskite, tunneling magneto resistance, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, full multiplet calculations
  • Journal of Applied Physics 104(2008)3, 036103

Publ.-Id: 11516 - Permalink

Selected vector-meson decay-distributions in reactions of polarized photons with protons
Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, B.;
We develop a formalism for studying vector meson (V ) photo-production at the proton (p) with polarized photons, ~γp ! V p, through an analysis of the decay distribution in the channel V ! π0γ. We show that this decay distribution differs noticeably from the distributions of purely hadronic decays, like φ ! K+K−, ω ! π0π+π−. Formulas for the decay distributions are presented which are suitable for data analysis and interpretation.

Publ.-Id: 11515 - Permalink

In-beam measurements of the HADES-TOF RPC wall
Blanco, A.; Cabanelas, P.; Belver, D.; Castro, E.; Diaz, J.; Fonte, P.; Gil, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Heinz, T.; Koenig, W.; Lopes, L.; Muentz, C.; Palka, M.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schwab, E.; Sobolev, Y.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Yurevich, S.; Garzon, J. A.; Wuestenfeld, J.;
A full size prototype of the new inner HADES-TOF wall based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) was mounted and exposed to secondaries from C reactions on Be and Nb targets at 2 AGeV kinetic energy and typical HADES particle fluxes. The tested sextant is constituted by 187 individual 4-gap glass-aluminium shielded RPC cells distributed in three columns and two layers, covering an area of 1.26 m2.
An average timing resolution of 73 ps σ was measured with 99% intrinsic efficiency, on a random location, and moderate timing tails, along with an average longitudinal position resolution of 7.7 mmσ, in the range from a few Hz/cm2 up to 80 Hz/cm2 without noticeable degradation of performance. Aditionally, the atching efficiency was estimated using the tracking system of HADES, yielding an average value of 97.5%.

Publ.-Id: 11513 - Permalink

Electroproduction of phi mesons
Titov, A.;
Electroproduction of phi mesons
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Donnersberg Workshop 2008, 31.03.-03.04.2008, Donnersberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11512 - Permalink

Strangeness Electroproduction
Dohrmann, F.;
Strangeness Electroproduction
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Donnersberg Workshop 2008 A1 Collaboration, 31.03.-03.04.2008, Donnersberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11510 - Permalink

Attenuation correction of four dimensional (4D) PET using phase-correlated 4D-computed tomography
Pönisch, F.; Richter, C.; Just, U.; Enghardt, W.;
The image quality in a conventional positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanner is degraded by respiratory motion because of erroneous attenuation correction when three-dimensional image acquisition is used. To overcome this problem, time-resolved data acquisition (4D) is required. For this, a Siemens Biograph 16 PET/CT scanner has been modified and its normal capability has been extended to a true 4D-PET/4D-CT imaging device including phase-correlated attenuation correction. To verify the correct functionality of this device, experiments on a respiratory motion phantom that allowed movement in two dimensions have been performed. The measurements showed good spatial correlation as well as good time synchronization between the PET and CT data. Furthermore, the motion pattern of the phantom and the shape of the activity distribution have been examined, and the volume of the reconstructed PET images has been analyzed. The results demonstrate the feasibility of such a procedure, and we therefore recommend that 4D-PET data should be reconstructed using 4D-CT data, which can be acquired on the same machine.
  • Physics in Medicine and Biology 53(2008), N259-N268

Publ.-Id: 11509 - Permalink

Diagonal and Off-Diagonal Susceptibilities as Diagnostics of the QCD Phase Diagram: A Quasiparticle Perspective
Bluhm, M.;
Diagonal and Off-Diagonal Susceptibilities as Diagnostics of the QCD Phase Diagram: A Quasiparticle Perspective
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Hadrons@FAIR, 25.-27.06.2008, Frankfurt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11508 - Permalink

Diagonal and Off-Diagonal Susceptibilities in a Quasiparticle Model of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Bluhm, M.;
Diagonal and Off-Diagonal Susceptibilities in a Quasiparticle Model of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 10.-14.03.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11507 - Permalink

QCD Equation of State
Bluhm, M.;
QCD Equation of State
  • Poster
    Quark-Matter 2008, 04.-10.02.2008, Jaipur, India

Publ.-Id: 11506 - Permalink

Tumortherapie mit Ionenstrahlen
Enghardt, W.;
Motivation für neue Therapiestrahlen etc.
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, 11.06.2008, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11505 - Permalink

Hochpräzisions-Strahlentherapie von Tumoren
Enghardt, W.;
Die Wechselwirkung ionisierender Strahlung mit (belebter) Materie etc.
  • Lecture (others)
    Urania Seniorenakademie, 25.06.2008, Bernau, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11504 - Permalink

Umsetzung biologisch adaptierter Bestrahlungspläne
Enghardt, W.;
Umsetzung biologisch adaptierter Bestrahlungspläne
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    DEGRO ÖGRO 2008, 03.05.2008, Wien, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 11502 - Permalink

Erste dosimetrische und strahlenbiologische Experimente an Laser-beschleunigten Elektronenstrahlen
Enghardt, W.;
Laser-Beschleuniger für die Strahlentherapie etc.
  • Lecture (others)
    Radioonkologisches Kolloquium, 02.04.2008, München, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11501 - Permalink

Medizinische Anwendung laserbeschleunigter Teilchenstrahlen in der Krebstherapie
Enghardt, W.;
Strahlentherapie - Einführung, Tumortherapie mit Ionenstrahlen, Beschleuniger und Therapiestrahlführung, Laserbeschleuniger für die Krebtherapie
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Festveranstaltung zum Tag im Land der Ideen 2008, 08.03.2008, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11500 - Permalink

Konzeption der medizinischen Strahlführung bei Laser getriebenen Therapiebeschleunigern
Enghardt, W.;
Konventionelle Partikel-Strahlführungen,, Strahführungen für Laser-Beschleuniger, Strahlungs-Quelltherme (DAP 3.1), Konzeption der Therapie-Strahlführung (DAP 3.2), Sekundäre Untergrundstrahlung (DAP 3.3)
  • Lecture (others)
    Verbundprojekt-Treffen "onCOOPtics", 07.03.2008, Jena, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11499 - Permalink

Medical Radiation Sciences
Enghardt, W.;
Medical Radiation Sciences
  • Lecture (others)
    Weiterbildender Masterstudiengang "Medical Radiation Sciences", 29.01.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11498 - Permalink

Dosimetry and radiobiology at ultrashortly pulsed, laser accelerated electron beams
Enghardt, W.;
Lase particle acceleration, the irradiation device, dosimetry, cell irradiation, direct effects of ultrashortly pulsed beams, conclusions
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    CERRO, 24.01.2008, Les Menuires, France

Publ.-Id: 11497 - Permalink

Stand der experimentellen Arbeiten im Rahmen des TOPFLOW-II Projekts
Beyer, M.; Vallee, C.; Fischer, F.; Danciu, D.-V.; Schütz, P.; Pietruske, H.; Lucas, D.; Carl, H.;
Im Vortrag wird der aktuelle Stand der experimentellen Arbeiten, die im Rahmen des TOPFLOW-II Projektes notwendig sind, ausführlich erläutert. Hauptaufgabe dieses wissenschaftlichen Projektes ist die Bereitstellung von qualitativ hochwertigen Daten zur Modellierung von Strömungsphänomenen im CFD Code und deren Validierung.
Nach einer kurzen Vorstellung der TOPFLOW Versuchsanlage werden die erzielten Ergebnisse der Dampf/Wasser-Experimente im Modell eines heißen Stranges eines Konvoi Druckwasserreaktors erörtert. Danach folgt die Beschreibung der zur Vorbereitung der Kondensations- und Druckentlastungsexperimente in einer vertikalen Teststrecke durchgeführten Arbeiten. Hierbei wird besonders auf den Versuchsaufbau und die Spezialmesstechnik (Thermoelementlanze, Doppel-Thermonadelsonden, Hochtemperatur-Gittersensoren) eingegangen. Des Weiteren wird der schnelle Röntgentomograph als nichtinvasives Messverfahren zur Erfassung der Strömungsformen in einem vertikalen DN50 Ti-Rohr vorgestellt und die Anwendung dieses Scanners bei der Durchführung von Experimenten mit auf- bzw. abwärtsgerichteten Strömungen beschrieben.
Zusätzlich zu diesen Arbeiten beinhaltet das TOPFLOW-II Projekt Kondensationsversuche an freien Oberflächen und an einem Wasserstrahl sowie Experimente zum Blasenmitriss beim Auftreffen eines Wasserstrahls auf eine freie Wasseroberfläche. Zu diesem Thema werden Aufbau und Ziele eines kleinskaligen Vorversuches sowie die anlagentechnischen Erweiterungen zum Durchführen derartiger Experimente im TOPFLOW-Drucktank vorgestellt. Abschließend werden kurz die Ergebnisse einer umfangreichen Luft/Wasser-Versuchsserie mit optimierten Randbedingungen zur Validierung der Blasenkoaleszenz- und fragmentationsmodelle im CFD-Code erläutert.
Keywords: CFD, TOPFLOW, two-phase flow, steam-water flow, wire-mesh sensor, ultra-fast X-ray tomograph, vertical test section, stratified flow, condensation, evaporation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CFD im Containment / CFD für Zweiphasenströmungen (Meilstein-Workshop Sommer 2008), 16.07.2008, Stuttgart, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11495 - Permalink

Anisotropic scaling of ion-induced ripple morphologies on Si
Keller, A.; Facsko, S.; Möller, W.; Peverini, L.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.;
It is well known that oblique low and medium energy (typically 0.1 - 100 keV) ion erosion of solid surfaces can lead to the formation of periodic ripple patterns with wavelengths ranging from 10 to 1000 nm. The ripples produced in this way are oriented either parallel or normal to the projection of the ion beam and their wavelength scales with ion energy. These structures were found on a large variety of materials, such as semiconductors, metals, and insulating surfaces [1].

The formation of the ripple patterns can be qualitatively explained by continuum models like the Bradley-Harper model [2] which attributes the formation of regular patterns as resulting from the interplay between roughening due to sputter erosion and smoothing by surface diffusion. A surface instability is induced by the curvature dependence of the sputter yield, as the local erosion rate is higher in depressions than on elevations. This leads to an amplification of initial surface modulations and, therefore, to roughening of the surface. The resulting linear continuum equation is able to reproduce the formation and early evolution of the ripple patterns [2]. However, at longer times nonlinear terms have to be taken into account, leading to nonlinear models based on the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation [3].

In this work, Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) has been used to study the evolution of Si(100) surfaces in-situ during oblique sub-keV ion sputtering. The sputtering has been performed with 500 eV Ar ions at incident angles ranging from 65° to 70°. The observed surface morphologies are dominated by nanoscale ripple patterns at short lateral distances but exhibit kinetic roughening at larger scales. The dynamic scaling properties of the surfaces have been analyzed by evaluating the one-dimensional power spectral density (PSD) functions in the direction normal and parallel to the ripples, respectively, which are extracted from the recorded scattering diagrams. A transition from anisotropic to isotropic scaling is observed with increasing incident angle. In addition, the ripples exhibit wavelength coarsening which is only slightly affected by the angle of incidence.


[1] Chan, W.L. and Chason, E. Making waves: Kinetic processes controlling surface evolution during low energy ion sputtering, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 121301 (2007).
[2] Bradley, R.M. and Harper, J.M.E. Theory of ripple topography induced by ion bombardment, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 2390 (1988).
[3] Makeev, M.A., Cuerno, R. and Barabási, A.-L. Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces, Nucl. Inst. Meth. Phys. Res. B 197, 185 (2002).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    NanoSteps - Self-organized nanostructures on crystal surfaces, 30.06.-12.07.2008, Cargèse, France

Publ.-Id: 11494 - Permalink

Simulation von Experimenten am Heißstrangmodell der TOPFLOW-Anlage
Höhne, T.;
Stratified two-phase flow regimes can occur
-in the main cooling lines of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR)
-Chemical plants
-Oil pipelines
The slug flow regime is characterized by an acceleration of the gaseous phase and by the transition of fast liquid slugs, which carry a significant amount of liquid with high kinetic energy. It is potentially hazardous to the structure of the system due to the strong oscillating pressure levels formed behind the liquid slugs as well as the mechanical momentum of the slugs.
State of the art:
1D system codes validated, but:
geometry and scale dependent
no access to local parameters

CFD codes for application in multiphase flows:
the investigation of the feasibility of numerical prediction of stratified two phase flow with existing multiphase flow models in ANSYS CFX
to prove the understanding of the general fluid dynamic mechanism
to identify the critical parameters (like e.g. slug length, frequency and propagation velocity, pressure drop, CCFL)
to improve the multiphase flow modeling (interfacial momentum transfer, turbulence at the free surface et.)
experimental data required for the validation
Keywords: hot leg, CFD, stratified flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop Strömungssimulation, 25.09.2008, Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11493 - Permalink

Electron Beam Diagnostics for a Superconducting Radio Frequency Photoelectron Injector
Kamps, T.; Boehlick, D.; Dirsat, M.; Lipka, D.; Quast, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Arnold, A.; Staufenbiel, F.; Teichert, J.; Will, I.; Klemz, G.;
A superconducting radio frequency photo-electron injector (SRF injector)is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a continuous-wave SRF injector including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings. In this paper the layout and the rationale of the diagnostics beamline is described. Furthermore detailed information on specific components is given, together with results from laboratory tests and data taking.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments 79(2008), 093301

Publ.-Id: 11492 - Permalink

Rückgewinnung von Neptunium aus Probelösungen zur radioökologischen Forschung
Knobel, M.; Wagner, M.;
Beitrag zum 10. Sächsischen Landeswettbewerb zur Umsetzung der Agenda21 in der beruflichen Ausbildung, 2007/2008

Das Ziel dieser Arbeit besteht in der Auswahl geeigneter Trennverfahren, Abtrennung und Rückgewinnung des Neptuniums aus einer Vielzahl verschiedener nicht charakterisierbarer Lösungen und Feststoffe unter Beachtung strahlenschutz-technischer Aspekte, der Charakterisierung der zurückgewonnenen Neptuniumlösung sowie der Erstellung einer Vorschrift für die Rückgewinnung.
  • Other report
    Dresden: FZD, 2008
    28 Seiten
  • Poster
    10. Sächsischer Landeswettbewerb zur Umsetzung der Agenda 21 in der beruflichen Ausbildung 2007/2008, 07.07.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11491 - Permalink

Uranium(VI) Uptake by Calcium Silicate Hydrates
Tits, J.; Macé, N.; Eilzer, M.; Geipel, G.; Wieland, E.;
Batch sorption studies show strong retention of U(VI) by C-S-H phases
U(VI) retention by C-S-H phases may be controlled by the formation of a Ca-U(VI) solid-solution
TRLFS studies indicate the presence of sorbed U(VI) species in an uranate-like coordination environment at high loadings and sorbed U(VI) species in an Ca-UO2-silicate-like coordination environment at low loadings.
  • Poster
    Goldschmidt 2008, 13.-18.07.2008, Vancouver, Canada
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(2008)12, A948

Publ.-Id: 11490 - Permalink

Commissioning of the Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Photoinjector Project at Rossendorf
Kamps, T.; Böhlick, D.; Dirsat, M.; Quast, T.; Rudolph, J.; Schenk, M.; Arnold, A.; Michel, P.; Staufenbiel, F.; Teichert, J.; Will, I.;
A superconducting radio frequency photo electron injector (SRF injector) has been developed by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD and MBI and is in operation since late 2007. After the initial commissioning in late 2007 with a Copper photocathode a Caesium-Telluride cathode was installed early 2008 to allow for high charge production. The longitudinal and transverse electron beam parameters are measured in a compact diagnostics beamline. This paper describes results from beam commissioning of the main diagnostic tools. Special emphasis is given on the bunch length measurement system for the 15 ps FWHM electron bunches. The system is based on the conversion of the electron pulses into radiation pulses by Cherenkov radiation. These radiation pulses are transported in a novel fully-reflective, relay imaging optical beamline to a streak camera, where the temporal properties of the pulses are measured. Results from beam measurements at 2pC (Copper cathode) and 1nC (Cesium-Telluride cathode) bunch charge are presented and discussed.
  • Poster
    11th biennial European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'08, 23.-27.06.2008, Genoa, Italy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    11th biennial European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'08, 23.-27.06.2008, Genoa, Italy
    Proceedings of the EPAC'08, 1158

Publ.-Id: 11489 - Permalink

First Operation Results of the Superconducting Photoinjector at ELBE
Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Buechner, A.; Buettig, H.; Janssen, D.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Murcek, P.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Kamps, T.; Matheisen, A.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.;
In November 2007 the first electron beam was generated from the superconducting RF photo electron gun installed at the ELBE linear accelerator facility. The injector together with a sophisticated laser system and a diagnostic beam line were developed and constructed within a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, MBI and FZD. Delivering a CW beam with up to 1 mA average current, a significant improvement of the beam quality like an increase of the bunch charge up to 1 nC and a reduced transverse emittance will be obtained. After the cool-down of the cryostat the RF properties of the 3½-cell niobium cavity like pass band mode frequencies, unloaded quality factor versus accelerating gradient, Lorentz force detuning, and He pressure influence were measured. The first beam was extracted of a Cu photo cathode using a 262 nm UV laser system with a repetition rate of 100 kHz and about 0.4 W laser power. Later, caesium telluride photo cathodes will be applied. The installed diagnostics allow beam current, energy, energy spread, transverse emittance and bunch length measurements of the beam. The results of these measurements and the operational experiences with the gun will be presented.
  • Poster
    11th biennial European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'08, 23.-27.06.2008, Genoa, Italy

Publ.-Id: 11488 - Permalink

Nano-structures for sensors on SOI by writing FIB implantation and subsequent anisotropic wet chemical etching
Bischoff, L.; Schmidt, B.; Lange, H.; Donzev, D.;
Nanowires, nanocantilevers and nanobridges will be important components for future micro- and nanoelectronic devices as well as for nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS).
A modern technique to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is the combination of high-concentration p-type doping of silicon by writing implantation using a focused ion beam (FIB) with subsequent wet chemical anisotropic and selective etching. Free-standing FIB-patterned and chemically etched 3D Si structures with nanoscale thickness and width have been fabricated on 4 inch Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) substrates using 30 keV Ga+ ion implantation and subsequent anisotropic etching in KOH/H2O solution. This technology is combined with classical microelectronic processing steps of photolithographic patterning and broad beam ion implantation to position and integrate 3D nanostructures into current technological platforms and therefore to increase the fabrication efficiency. Design, performance and fabrication considerations to achieve free-standing Si structures, like wires, bridges and cantilevers are discussed and some typical examples are shown. Static and dynamic electrical measurements are presented, including I-V characteristics and displacements after AC excitation.
The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of nanostructures is demonstrated, which reveal, for example, the applications as nanowire thermal sensors.
Keywords: Nanostructures, FIB, anisotropic wet chemical etching; 3D-nanostructures; sensor; displacement
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 08), 30.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009), 1372-1375

Publ.-Id: 11487 - Permalink

Nachrechnung eines Vollhub-Feder-Sicherheitsventils mit ANSYS CFX
Höhne, T.; Moncalvo, D.; Friedel, L.; Jörgensen, B.;
Sicherheitsventile schützen druckbeaufschlagte Räume oder Druckbehälter (z. B. Dampfkessel, Druckbehälter, Rohrleitungen, Transportbehälter) vor einem unzulässigen Druckanstieg, der zu einer Schädigung des angeschlossenen Druckgerätes führen kann. Sicherheitsventile leiten bei Überschreiten des Ansprechdruckes Gase, Dämpfe oder Flüssigkeiten in die Atmosphäre ab. Das Sicherheitsventil wird verwendet, wenn der Druck in einem Druckbehälter den zulässigen Betriebsdruck bei vorhersehbaren Störungen um mehr als 10 % übersteigen kann. Bei richtiger Dimensionierung des Sicherheitsventils bleibt der Druckaufbau beherrschbar. Nach dem Ansprechen des Sicherheitsventils und Abbau des zu hohen Druckes durch Abblasen in die Umgebung oder über eine Rohrleitung schließt das Ventil wieder; und die Anlage kann weiter betrieben werden.
Numerische Strömungs-berechnungsprogramme (CFD-Codes) können bei Auslegungsberechnungen, Optimierungen und Sicherheitsanalysen von Sicherheitsventilen helfen. Um Leistungsparameter zu studieren, wurden Experi-mente am Institut für Strömungsmechanik der Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH) für die CFD-Code-Validierung genutzt. Durch die konstante Weiterentwicklung der Numerik bzw. der physikalischen Modelle ist es nun möglich, die relativ komplexen Strömungsvorgänge in einem Sicherheitsventil (Jets, Umströmung von Hindernissen, Strömungsseparation, Stagnationsgebiete, Zonen mit hohen Ma-Zahlen) zu simulieren.
Mit dem ANSYS CFX-Code erfolgten Nachrechnungen von Durchsatzparametern eines LESER-Sicherheitsventils auf einem numerischen Gitter von einer Million Hexaederzellen (Abb. 1). Am Ein- bzw. Austritt des Strömungsgebietes wurden Druckrandbedingungen definiert. Die Turbulenzmodellierung erfolgte unter Nutzung des k-ε und k-ω basierten SST-Modellansatzes. Eine sehr gute Übereinstimmung zwischen Messung und CFD-Rechnung ist für die Durchsatzkennlinien der Charakteristiken für die Medien Luft bzw. Wasser bis 5 bar Stagnationsdruck erreicht worden, es existierte jedoch eine systematische Abweichung bei Luft im Falle hoher Ansprechdrücke (über 20 bar) durch Realgasverhalten und das Auftreten hoher Ma-Zahlen. CFD-Rechnungen mit Luft/Wasser-Zweiphasengemischen bei 5 - 9 bar Überdruck und 79 - 93 % Gasanteil ergaben realistische Durchsatzraten. Hierbei wurde das monodisperse Modell des homogenen Euler-Euler-Ansatzes für Zweiphasengemische genutzt. Weitere numerische Untersuchungen, insbesondere das Verhalten von Stoffgemischen (Glukoselösung) bzw. der Einfluss des Hubs des Sicherheitsventils (Stellung des Ventiltellers zwischen Sitz und maximaler Öffnung) auf den Durchsatz im Vergleich mit Experimenten werden vorgestellt.
Keywords: safety valve, CFD
  • Contribution to proceedings
    9. Fachtagung "Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit", 06.-07.11.2008, Köthen, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    9. Fachtagung "Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit", 06.-07.11.2008, Köthen, Deutschland
  • Forschung im Ingenieurwesen - Engineering Research 73(2009)2, 99-103
    DOI: DOI: 10.1007/s10010-009-0096-1

Publ.-Id: 11486 - Permalink

Quercetin and other flavonoids bind to actin and affect its biological activity
Gutzeit, H.-O.; Boehl, M.; Pfennig, F.; Richter, S.; Tietze, S.; Sokoll, A.; Madathil, S.; Fahmy, K.; Apostolakis, J.;
In a screen for flavonoid target proteins we identified actin as a quercetin-binding protein. This interaction was studied using fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy and compared with the binding parameters of related flavonoids. The biological relevance of the flavonoid/actin interaction in the cytoplasm and the nucleus was assayed using an actin polymerization and a transcription assay, respectively. While some flavonols inhibit actin functions, the structurally related epigallocatechin tends to promote actin functions in the chosen in vitro assays. Furthermore, cellular test systems were used to evaluate the biological consequences of the flavonoid/actin interaction. The flavonoid – induced conformational changes of actin were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The obtained data and in silico docking studies gave further insights into possible modes of protein-ligand interactions and helped to understand the molecular basis of the observed biological effects.
Keywords: flavonoids, FTIR-spectroscopy, docking
  • Contribution to proceedings
    32nd FEBS Congress, 07.-12.07.2007, Vienna, Austria
    Abstracts of the 32nd FEBS Congress, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 236-236

Publ.-Id: 11485 - Permalink

CFD validation against slug mixing experiment
Moretti, F.; Melideo, D.; Del Nevo, A.; D’Auria, F.; Höhne, T.; Lisenkov, E.;
A commercial CFD code was applied, for validation purposes, to the simulation of a slug mixing experiment carried out at OKB “Gidropress” scaled facility in the framework of a TACIS project: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet”. Such experimental model reproduces a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor and is aimed at investigating the in-vessel mixing phenomena. The addressed experiment involves the start-up of one of the four reactor coolant pumps (the other three remaining idle), and the presence of a tracer slug on the starting loop, which is thus transported to the reactor pressure vessel where it mixes with the clear water. Such conditions may occur in a boron dilution scenario, hence the relevance of the addressed phenomena for the nuclear reactor safety.
Both a pre-test and a post-test CFD simulation of the mentioned experiment were performed, which differ in the definition of the boundary conditions (based either on nominal quantities or on measured quantities, respectively). The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared against the measured data in terms of space and time tracer distribution at the core inlet. The improvement of the results due to the optimization of the boundary conditions is evidenced, and a quantification of the simulation accuracy is proposed.
Keywords: CFD, Validation, Slug, Mixing, Experiment

Publ.-Id: 11483 - Permalink

Deep level defects in a nitrogen-implanted ZnO homogeneous p-n junction
Gu, Q.; Ling, C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Hsu, Y.; Djurisic, A.; Zhu, C.; Fung, S.; Lu, L.;
Nitrogen ions were implanted into undoped melt grown ZnO single crystals. A light-emitting p-n junction was subsequently formed by postimplantation annealing in air. Deep level transient spectroscopy was used to investigate deep level defects induced by N+ implantation and the effect of air annealing. The N+ implantation enhanced the electron trap at E-C-(0.31 +/- 0.01) eV (E3) and introduced another one at E-C-(0.95 +/- 0.02) eV (D1), which were removed after annealing at 900 and 750 degrees C, respectively. Another trap D2 (E-a = 0.17 +/- 0.01 eV) was formed after the 750 degrees C annealing and persisted at 1200 degrees C.
  • Applied Physics Letters 92(2008)22, 222109

Publ.-Id: 11482 - Permalink

CFD post test calculation of pressurized air / water TOPFLOW hotleg experiments
Höhne, T.; Vallée, C.; Beyer, M.;
Stratified two-phase flow regimes can occur
-in the main cooling lines of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR)
-Chemical plants
-Oil pipelines
The slug flow regime is characterized by an acceleration of the gaseous phase and by the transition of fast liquid slugs, which carry a significant amount of liquid with high kinetic energy. It is potentially hazardous to the structure of the system due to the strong oscillating pressure levels formed behind the liquid slugs as well as the mechanical momentum of the slugs.
State of the art:
1D system codes validated, but:
geometry and scale dependant
no access to local parameters

CFD codes for application in multiphase flows:
the investigation of the feasibility of numerical prediction of stratified two phase flow with existing multiphase flow models in ANSYS CFX
to prove the understanding of the general fluid dynamic mechanism
to identify the critical parameters (like e.g. slug length, frequency and propagation velocity, pressure drop, CCFL)
to improve the multiphase flow modeling (interfacial momentum transfer, turbulence at the free surface et.)
experimental data required for the validation
Keywords: slug flow, Hot leg, CFD, stratified flow
  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th Workshop Multiphase Flows Simulation, Experiment and Application, 24.-26.06.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11481 - Permalink

Dielectron Production in 12C + 12C Collisions at 1 GeV/u and the Solution to the DLS Puzzle
Pachmayer, Y. C.; Dohrmann, F.; Grosse, E.; Kanaki, K.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Sadovsky, A.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zhou, P.; Hades Collaboration;
The production of e+e− pairs in 12C + 12C collisions at 1 GeV/u was investigated with the HADES experiment at GSI, Darmstadt. In the invariant-mass region 0.15GeV/c2 Mee 0.5GeV/c2 the measured pair yield shows a strong excess above the contribution expected from hadron decays after freeze-out. The data are in good agreement with the results of the former DLS experiment for the same system and energy.

Publ.-Id: 11480 - Permalink

Chapter 7 - Growth Mechanisms and Structure of Fullerene-like Carbon-based Thin Films: Superelastic Materials for Tribological Applications, in Fullerene Research Advances
Gago, R.; Abrasonis, G.; Jimenez, I.; Möller, W.;
In this chapter we review our findings on the bonding structure and growth mechanisms of carbon-based thin solid films with fullerene-like (FL) microstructure. The so-called FL arrangements arise from the curvature and cross-linking of basal planes in graphitic-like structures, partially resembling that of molecular fullerenes. This three-dimensional superstructure takes advantage of the strength of planar pi bonds in sp2 hybrids and confers the material interesting mechanical properties, such as high hardness, high elastic recovery, low-friction and wear-resistance. These properties can be tailored by controlling the curvature, size and connectivity of the FL arrangements, making these materials promising coatings for tribological applications. We have focused our interest mostly on carbon nitride (CNx) since nitrogen promotes the formation of FL arrangements at low substrate temperatures and they are emerging over pure carbon coatings in tribological applications such as protective overcoats in magnetic hard disks. We address structural issues such as origin of plane curvature, nature of the cross-linking sites and sp2 clustering, together with growth mechanisms based on the role of film-forming precursors, chemical re-sputtering or concurrent ion assistance during growth.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Carl N. Kramer: Fullerene Research Advances, New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 2007, 1-60021-824-5, 145-181

Publ.-Id: 11479 - Permalink

Origin of ferromagnetism in iron implanted rutile single crystals
Talut, G.; Reuther, H.; Grenzer, J.; Zhou, S.;
57Fe doped titanium oxide monocrystals, prepared by ion implantation at different temperatures and subsequent thermal treatment, were characterized by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. After implantation at 240 K and room temperature Fe is present in divalent state. Upon annealing in high vacuum Fe2+ is reduced to metallic Fe, while during annealing on air Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+. After implantation at 623 K most iron is in metallic state. During annealing on air Fe is gradually oxidized from Fe2+ to Fe3+.
Depending on preparation conditions and thermal treatment the role of different nanosized secondary phases is discussed in terms of their influence on the magnetic properties of Fe:TiO2. α-Fe nanoparticles are found to be responsible for ferromagnetism observed in TiO2.
Keywords: conversion electron Mössbauer cpectroscopy (CEMS), diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), Fe doping of Ti oxide, ion beam implantation
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Hungary
    Hyperfine Interactions: Springer
  • Poster
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Hungary

Publ.-Id: 11478 - Permalink

Digitale Signalverarbeitung von Bariumfluorid- und Germaniumdetektorsignalen am nELBE-Experiment
Hannaske, R.; Beyer, R.; Dammrau, A.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A.; Wagner, A.;
Am supraleitenden Elektronen-Linearbeschleuniger ELBE des Forschungszentrums Dresden-Rossendorf induzieren Elektronen in einem Radiator aus flüssigem Blei (γ,n)-Reaktionen und erzeugen Neutronen mit Energien von 50 keV bis 10 MeV [1,2] zur Messung Neutronen-induzierter Reaktionen mit einer Energieauflösung von besser als 1 % (bei 1 MeV) [3]. Die Bestimmung der Wirkungsquerschnitte von (n,γ)- oder (n,n'γ)-Reaktionen dient hierbei der Transmutationsforschung, der nuklearen Astrophysik sowie Anwendungen für Fusions- und Spaltreaktoren. Zum Nachweis der Photonen aus Neutronen-induzierten Reaktionen ist das Target von 42 Bariumfluorid-Szintillationsdetektoren umgeben, die 80 % des gesamten Raumwinkels abdecken.
Ein Hochgeschwindigkeitsabtastsystem (2 GS/s, 10 bit Auflösung) wurde in Betrieb genommen und bezüglich Energie- und Zeitauflösung charakterisiert. Erste Resultate zur digitalen Pulsformanalyse werden vorgestellt.
[1] E.Altstadt, et al., Ann. Nucl. Energy 34, 36 (2007)
[2] J.Klug, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 577, 641 (2007)
[3] R.Beyer, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 575, 449 (2007)
* gefördert durch EU-FP6 / EFNUDAT
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 14.03.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11477 - Permalink

Sächsische Forschung im Herzen Europas: Zu Ursprüngen und Befindlichkeiten
Skorupa, W.;
Es werden Ausführungen zur aktuellen Forschungslandschaft in Sachsen mit Ausrichtung auf Aktivitäten am Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf gemacht.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Treffen des Bundesausschusses der FDP zu Fragen der Technologie, 05.07.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11476 - Permalink

Enhanced Hot Electron Localization and Heating in High-Contrast Ultra-Intense Laser Irradiation of Sharp Micro-Cone Targets
Rassuchine, J.; D’Humières, E.; Baton, S. D.; Guillou, P.; Koenig, M.; Fuchs, J.; Audebert, P.; Kodama, R.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozaki, N.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Gremillet, L.; Rousseaux, C.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Adams, J.; Korgan, G.; Malekos, S.; Hansen, S. B.; Shepherd, R.; Flippo, K.; Gaillard, S.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.;
We report experiments demonstrating enhanced coupling efficiencies employing high contrast laser irradiation of nano-fabricated conical targets. Peak temperatures near 200 eV are observed with modest laser energy (10 J), revealing similarities in hot electron localization and material heating to reduced mass targets. Collisional particle-in-cell simulations attribute this enhancement to self-generated resistive magnetic fields forming within the cone wall, which effectively confine the energetic electrons to heat a reduced volume at the cone tip.
  • Physical Review E 79(2009)3, 036408

Publ.-Id: 11475 - Permalink

Electrons in Strong Laser Fields: Compton Backscattering
Seipt, D.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ultra High-Intensity Laser Nuclear/Particle Physics, 23.-27.06.2008, Trento, Italy

Publ.-Id: 11474 - Permalink

Non-linear theory of deformable superconductors
Lipavský, P.; Morawetz, K.; Kolácek, J.; Brandt, E. H.;
The interaction of the superconducting condensate with deformations of the crystal lattice is formulated assuming the electrostatic potential to be of Bernoulli type and the effect of strain on material parameters. In the isotropic approximation it is shown that within the Ginzburg-Landau theory both contributions can be recast into the local but non-linear interaction term of the free energy.
Keywords: 74.20.De, % Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, % Ginzburg-Landau, etc.) 74.25.Ld, % Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, % and ultrasonic attenuation %74.25.Qt, % Vortex lattices, flux pinning, flux creep 74.81.-g% Inhomogeneous superconductors % and superconducting systems
  • Physical Review B 78(2008), 174516-1-174516-7

Publ.-Id: 11472 - Permalink

Generation of Stable, Low-Divergence Electron Beams by Laser Wakefield Acceleration in a Steady-State-Flow Gas Cell
Osterhoff, J.; Popp, A.; Major, Z.; Marx, B.; Rowlands-Rees, T. P.; Fuchs, M.; Geissler, M.; Hörlein, R.; Hidding, B.; Becker, S.; Peralta, E. A.; Schramm, U.; Grüner, F.; Habs, D.; Krausz, F.; Hooker, S. M.; Karsch, S.;
Laser-driven, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams of up to ~200 MeV in energy have been observed from steady-state-flow gas cells. These beams emitted within a low-divergence cone of 2.1± 0.5 mrad FWHM display unprecedented shot-to-shot stability in energy (2.5% RMS), pointing (1.4 mrad RMS) and charge (16% RMS) owing to a highly reproducible gas-density profile within the interaction volume. Laser-wakefield acceleration in gas cells of this type provides a simple and reliable source of relativistic electrons potentially suitable for applications such as the production of XUV-undulator radiation.
Keywords: Stable electron acceleration in gas cells, relativistic laser plasma PACS numbers: 52.38.Kd, 52.38.Hb, 41.75.Jv


Publ.-Id: 11471 - Permalink

Results of a modified PROMISE experiment
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Hollerbach, R.; Rüdiger, G.; Szklarski, J.;
The PROMISE experiment relies on the fact that the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal flows drastically decreases when the purely axial magnetic field is replaced by a helical one. We report the results of a modified version of this experiments in which the radial electrical boundary conditions are changed. Special focus is laid on the role of the radial jet region where the two Ekman vortices from the top and the bottom meet each other.
  • Astronomische Nachrichten 329(2008)7, 652-658

Publ.-Id: 11470 - Permalink

Magnetohydrodynamic experiments on cosmic magnetic fields
Stefani, F.; Gailitis, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
It is widely known that cosmic magnetic fields, including the fields of planets, stars, and galaxies, are produced by the hydromagnetic dynamo effect in moving electrically conducting fluids. It is less well known that cosmic magnetic fields play also an active role in cosmic structure formation by enabling outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Considerable theoretical and computational progress has been made in understanding both processes. In addition to this, the last ten years have seen tremendous efforts in studying both effects in liquid metal experiments. In 1999, magnetic field self-excitation was observed in the large scale liquid sodium facilities in Riga and Karlsruhe. Recently, self-excitation was also obtained in the French "von Karmann sodium" (VKS) experiment. An MRI-like mode was found on the background of a turbulent spherical Couette flow at the University of Maryland. Evidence for MRI as the first instability of an hydrodynamically stable flow was obtained in the "Potsdam Rossendorf Magnetic Instability Experiment" (PROMISE). In this review, the history of dynamo and MRI related experiments is delineated, and some directions of future work are discussed.
  • Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 88(2008)12, 930-954

Publ.-Id: 11469 - Permalink

History and results of the Riga dynamo experiments
Gailitis, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.; Stefani, F.;
On 11 November 1999, a self-exciting magnetic eigenfield was detected for the first time in the Riga liquid sodium dynamo experiment. We report on the long history leading to this event, and on the subsequent experimental campaigns which provided a wealth of data on the kinematic and the saturated regime of this dynamo. The present state of the theoretical understanding of both regimes is delineated, and some comparisons with other laboratory dynamo experiments are made.
  • Comptes Rendus Physique 9(2008), 721-728

Publ.-Id: 11468 - Permalink

Führungsverhalten als Einflussfaktor auf Qualität und Effektivität in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen in Deutschland und in der Slowakei
Kozikova, O.;
Das Hauptthema der vorgelegten Dissertation betrifft das Führungsverhalten als Einflussfaktor auf Qualität und Effektivität in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen, die im Rahmen der Untersuchung zufällig in Deutschland und in der Slowakei angesprochen wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang wurde die Führungssituation zwischen beiden Ländern verglichen. Obwohl der Titel der Arbeit nur kleine und mittlere Unternehmen behandelt, wurde die Führungssituation auch in einigen großen Unternehmen, Forschungszentren und Einrichtungen der Staatsverwaltung bzw. im öffentlichen Dienst untersucht, um die Richtung der Führung auch in diesen Organisationen festzustellen und diese Tendenz mit der in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen zu vergleichen. Die vorgelegte Dissertation mit 29 Abbildungen, 79 Diagrammen und 15 Tabellen konzentriert sich im Wesentlichen auf zwei Hauptteile – Theorie und Praxis. Neben dem Inhaltsverzeichnis befinden sich Verzeichnisse aller Abbildungen, Diagrammen und Tabellen sowie alle in der Arbeit verwendeten Abkürzungen vor der Theorie. Der theoretische Teil umfasst die ersten vier Kapitel. In der Einführung wird eine kurze Übersicht über die Dissertation mit ihren einzelnen Kapiteln gegeben. Im zweiten Kapitel wird die Recherche über die Ergebnisse einiger Studien bzw. Dissertationen dargestellt, um auf die Bedeutung des Themas, mit der sich diese Dissertation beschäftigt, hinzuweisen. Das Ziel der Dissertation und die Methode zur Aufbereitung des praktischen Teils werden im dritten Kapitel beschrieben. Bestandteil dieses Kapitels ist zugleich die Beschreibung der Befragung mittels Fragebogen, durch die die Untersuchung durchgeführt wurde. Vorliegende theoretische Kenntnisse aus der Literatur werden im vierten Kapitel dargestellt. Der praktische Teil der vorgelegten Dissertation beginnt mit dem fünften Kapitel. Hier wird die Bearbeitung der entwickelten Fragebogen beschrieben und die daraus abgeleiteten Ergebnisse dargestellt. Die Auswertung aller erhobenen Daten, deren Darstellung in grafischer Form sowie deren Interpretationen sind Inhalt des sechsten Kapitels. Der Vergleich der Situation in Deutschland und der Slowakei erfolgt im siebten Kapitel. Der praktische Teil wird durch die Zusammenfassung und den Ausblick im achten Kapitel abgeschlossen. Anschließend an den Untersuchungsteil ist das Verzeichnis aller verwendeten Literaturquellen angegeben. Zur Dissertationsarbeit gehört auch der Anhang (233 S.), der wegen seines großen Umfanges (1194 S.) nur einen kleinen Teil des Verfahrens, durch das die ganze Dissertationsarbeit bearbeitet wurde, darstellt.
  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    Dissertationsarbeit, Fakultät für Werkstoffe und Technologien Trnava
    223 Seiten


Publ.-Id: 11467 - Permalink

Pygmy dipole strength in 90Zr
Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Tsoneva, N.; Benouaret, N.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Lenske, H.; Nair, C.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.;
The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus {90}Zr was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV.
We identified 190 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied in order to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from (\gamma,n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution towards energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 MeV to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the Quasi-Particle-Phonon Model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N = Z neutron-proton core, giving rise to a pygmy dipole resonance.
Keywords: Nuclear Structure, statistical nuclear physics, photon scattering, QRPA, QPM

Publ.-Id: 11466 - Permalink

Thomson scattering at the ELBE linac - status and perspectives
Schramm, U.;
Invited talk on the status of the Thomson scattering experiment at ELBE
Keywords: Thomsons scattering, ELBE
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ECT* Workshop on Ultra High-Intensity Laser Nuclear and Particle Physics, 23.-27.6.2008, Trento, Italy

Publ.-Id: 11465 - Permalink

Few-Cycle-Laser-Driven Electron Acceleration
Schmid, K.; Veisz, L.; Tavella, F.; Benavides, S.; Tautz, R.; Herrmann, D.; Buck, A.; Hidding, B.; Marcinkevicius, A.; Schramm, U.; Geissler, M.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.; Habs, D.; Krausz, F.;
Laser-driven plasma waves were proposed as compact electron accelerators [1] owing to their ability to produce longitudinal accelerating ¯elds several orders of magnitude higher than those attainable in conventional accelerators. A promising implementation relies on "broken" plasma waves driven by a laser pulse shorter than half the plasma period [2]. In the absence of intense laser pulses of the required duration, previous experiments [3] - [13] drew on longer (several-10-fs) driver pulses. Under these circumstances, monoenergetic electron acceleration is preceded by a nonlinear interaction of the laser pulse with the relativistic plasma [14], which shortens its duration into the required domain. Longer-than-optimal driver pulses compromise e±ciency as well as reproducibility, and result in copious amounts of low-energy electrons accompanying the monoenergetic emission with an exponentially-decaying spectrum, forming a "thermal" background.
Here, we report the first electron accelerator based on high-density plasma waves driven with laser pulses ¯tting in one half of the plasma period. Direct excitation of a broken plasma wave permits monoenergetic electron acceleration virtually free of thermal background for the first time. In our experiments, 5-terawatt, 8-femtosecond laser pulses yield electron bunches up to energies of 25 MeV.
The dramatically reduced °ux of low-energy electrons as compared to earlier experiments also manifests itself in a strongly-reduced secondary radiation emerging from the accelerator and o®ers the potential for enhancing e±ciency and stability with more intense driver pulses.
Keywords: Laser plasma electron acceleration, few cycle laser pulses, bubble regime


Publ.-Id: 11464 - Permalink

Nanoskalige Biokompositmaterialien zur Eliminierung von Arzneimittelrückständen
Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.;
Bis zu 95 % der verabreichten Wirkstoffe von Arzneimitteln werden vom menschlichen Körper wieder ausgeschieden und gelangen über das Abwasser in den Wasserkreislauf. Für gewöhnlich sind die Wirkstoffkonzentrationen sehr gering und werden schnell abgebaut. In einzelnen Fällen handelt es sich jedoch um schwer abbaubare Verbindungen, die in größeren Mengen anfallen und bei denen bereits eine negative Langzeitwirkung umweltrelevanter Konzentrationen auf die Fischgesundheit nachgewiesen wurde. Ein Beispiel dafür ist der Wirkstoff Diclofenac. Derzeit ist kein kostengünstiges Verfahren verfügbar, mit dem derartige Stoffe aus dem Wasser entfernt werden können. Neuartige nanostrukturierte Biokompositmaterialien auf der Basis bakterieller Hüllproteinschichten, sogenannte S-Layer, können hier Abhilfe schaffen. Alle bakteriellen Hüllproteine besitzen die Fähigkeit, an Grenz- und Oberflächen monolagige hochgeordnete Schichten mit zum Teil hoher Stabilität auszubilden. Diese Eigenschaften in Kombination mit der hohen Metallbindungskapazität der Hüllproteine mancher Naturisolate ermöglicht die einfache Herstellung verschiedener dotierter und nicht dotierter Edelmetall- und Metalloxidnanocluster mit hoher katalytischer und fotokatalytischer Aktivität. Ziel ist die Herstellung fotokatalytisch aktiver Biokompositschichten, die bereits bei Tageslicht eine ausreichende hohe Aktivität besitzen, um die Spaltung organischer Reststoffe zu bewirken. Dieses Projekt wird vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung gefördert.
  • Poster
    Biotechnica 2008, 07.-09.10.2008, Hannover, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11463 - Permalink

Probing 3d-4f exchange interactions by high-field magnetization measurements
Skourski, Y.; Kuz’Min, M.; Müller, K.-H.; Wosnitza, J.;
In a 4f-3d ferrimagnet the molecular field (a net value expressing the relevant exchange interactions) can be determined from high-field magnetization measurements. If the field is high enough, it breaks the ferrimagnetic ground state and drives the system towards ferromagnetic order via non-collinear intermediate phases. Magnetization curves of Er2Fe17 singe crystal have been measured along the [100] and [001] crystallographic directions in magnetic fields up to 50 Tesla. An unfixed sample, free to rotate, was measured as well. The magnetization measured along the easy magnetization direction shows jumps at 37.5 and 44 Tesla. The first jump was used for the determination of the molecular field (66.4 Tesla). This agrees with the data for the unfixed sample where a kink in the magnetization at 33.5 Tesla yields a molecular field of 65.7 Tesla. The obtained values are in a good agreement with literature data.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Physics of Magnetism ´08, 24.-27.06.2008, Poznan, Poland
  • Open Access LogoActa Physica Polonica A 115(2009), 178

Publ.-Id: 11462 - Permalink

Observation of dendritic growth and fragmentation in Ga-In alloys by X-ray radioscopy
Boden, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
Capabilities of the X-ray attenuation contrast radioscopy were utilised to provide a real-time diagnostic technique for observations of dendritic growth and fragmentation during solidification of a Ga-30wt%In alloy. The solidification process was visualised by means of a microfocus X-ray tube providing shadow radiographs at spatial resolutions of about 10 µm. Experiments have been carried out to solidify the Ga-In alloy unidirectional either starting from the bottom or the top of the specimen. The first case is significantly affected by solutal convection, which governs a redistribution of solute concentration. A detachment of dendrite side arms, which is unambiguously caused by melt flow, was not observed. Dendritic fragmentation occurs during the solidification in the reverse top-down direction. Variations of the applied cooling rate excited a transition from a columnar to an equiaxed dendritic growth (CET).
Keywords: solidification, X-ray radioscopy, dendrite growth, dendrite fragmentation
  • International Journal of Cast Metals Research 22(2009), 30-33

Publ.-Id: 11461 - Permalink

Spectral singularities, brachistochrone dilation and the relevance of the Hessenberg type
Günther, U.; Graefe, E.-M.; Korsch, H.-J.; Niederle, A.; Samsonov, B.;
In the first 1/3 of the talk a brief overview over some mathematical aspects connected with the occurrence of spectral singularities (exceptional points, EPs) will be presented. Based on simple matrix models we discuss stratified manifolds in parameter spaces on which the matrix eigenvalues degenerate. We comment on discriminant sets and similarity relations to canonical Jordan structures, demonstrate the mechanism underlying the formation of self-orthogonal (isotropic) eigenvectors, relate it to corresponding projectors.
In the second 1/3, we sketch the basics of some recent findings on the brachistochrone problem of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics (PTSQM) and its embedding into a setup of standard quantum mechanics (SQM) in a higher dimensional Hilbert space. The embedding uses a Naimark dilation/extension technique for positive operator valued measures (POVMs) built over the nonorthogonal eigenvectors of the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian and its adjoint. We demonstrate that in the SQM model the zero-passage time is preserved for a subsystem which is entangled with a second subsystem of strongly dominant type. Applications towards ultrafast quantum computation processes are hypothesized.
In the last 1/3 of the talk, we sketch the specific mathematical structures underlying the unfolding mechanisms of higher-order exceptional points (EPs) in PT-symmetric Bose-Hubbard models as they can be used for the description of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) localized in symmetrically coupled gain/loss potentials. We demonstrate that the basic structure is connected with a nontrivial Jordan block in the spectral decomposition of the Hamiltonian which is perturbed by a small matrix term of a specific upper Hessenberg type. The concrete Hessenberg type of this matrix defines how the spectral branches merge at the EPs and which types of cycles (rings) they form in the vicinity of the EPs. Once this unfolding mechanism of EPs is generic its fundamental role in many other physical models can be anticipated. A few technical aspects of the used Newton polygon technique are discussed.
Keywords: spectral singularity, exceptional point, stratified manifold, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, quantum brachistochrone problem, Naimark dilation, positive operator valued measure, Bose-Hubbard model, Bose-Einstein condensate, Jordan block, perturbation technique, Hessenberg type, Newton polygon technique
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Quantum Physics with Non-Hermitian Operators (PHHQP VII), 29.06.-11.07.2008, Benasque, Spain

Publ.-Id: 11460 - Permalink

Thermal Analysis of EPOS components
Werner, M.; Altstadt, E.; Jungmann, M.; Brauer, G.; Noack, K.; Rogov, A.; Krause-Rehberg, R.;
We present a simulation study of the thermal behaviour of essential parts of the electron-positron converter of the positron source EPOS at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. The positron moderator foil and the upper tube element of the electrostatic extraction einzellens are directly exposed to the primary electron beam (40 MeV, 40 kW). Thus, it was necessary to prove by sophisticated simulations that the construction can stand the evolving temperatures. It was found that thin moderator foils (< 20…40 µm) will not show a too strong heating. Moreover, the temperature can be varied in a wide range by choosing an appropriate thickness. Thus, the radiation-induced lattice defects can at least partly be annealed during operation. The wall of the extraction lens which is made from a stainless steel tube must be distinctly thinned to avoid damage temperatures. The simulations were performed time dependent. We found that the critical parts reach their final temperature after less than a minute.
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-499 2008
  • Open Access LogoJournal of Physics: Conference Series 265(2011), 012028
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/265/1/012028


Publ.-Id: 11459 - Permalink

Congenital hyperinsulinism: [18F]DOPA PET/CT scan of a focal lesion in the head of the pancreas
Kapoor, R. R.; Gilbert, C.; Mohnike, K.; Blankenstein, O.; Füchtner, F.; Hussain, K.;
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a cause of severe hypoglycaemia in the neonatal period.(1) The histological differentiation of CHI into focal and diffuse disease has radically changed the surgical management of patients with the disease. (2) Correct localisation and limited excision of the focal lesion results in complete cure of the patient. Recent advances in fluorine-18 L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning are beginning to provide greater accuracy in preoperative differentiation of focal and diffuse disease and correct localisation of focal lesions.(3–5) The principle of this test is that, pancreatic islets take up L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and convert it to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase, present in the islet cells. However, the role of dopamine in pancreatic ß-cells remains unclear.

A 3-day-old neonate presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. He failed to respond to all forms of treatment and required further investigations to differentiate diffuse from focal disease. He underwent an integrated [18F]DOPA PET/CT scan. Figure 1 shows more than twofold uptake of [18F]DOPA in the head of the pancreas compared with the body and tail of the pancreas, proving focal disease.(4) A computed tomography (CT) scan combined with the PET scan colocalised the focal lesion in the head of the pancreas at the junction of the portal vein and superior vena cava (size 6.1 mm). At the time of surgery the focal lesion was found exactly where the PET/CT localisation suggested and was excised with complete resolution of the hyperinsulinism. [18F]DOPA PET/CT scanning is now the preferred method for differentiating diffuse and focal CHI.

1. Hussain K. Congenital hyperinsulinism. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;10:369–76.
2. Rahier J, Guiot Y, Sempoux C. Persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy: a heterogeneous syndrome unrelated to nesidioblastosis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2002;82 F108–12.
3. Otonkoski T, Nanto-Salonen K, Seppanen M, et al. Diagnosis of focal hyperinsulinism of infancy with [18F]-DOPA positron emission tomography. Diabetes 2006;55:13–8.
4. Mohnike K, Blankenstein O, Christesen HT, et al. Proposal for a standardized protocol for F-DOPA-PET
(PET/CT) in congenital hyperinsulinism. Horm Res 2006;66:40–2.
5. Hardy OT, Hernandez-Pampaloni M, Saffer JR, et al. Diagnosis and localization of focal congenital
hyperinsulinism by (18)F-fluorodopa PET scan. J Pediatr

Publ.-Id: 11458 - Permalink

Star-shaped molecule of (Mn4O6)-O-II core with an S-t=10 high-spin state. A theoretical and experimental study with XPS, XMCD, and other magnetic methods
Khanra, S.; Kuepper, K.; Weyhermuller, T.; Prinz, M.; Raekers, M.; Voget, S.; Postnikov, A. V.; de Groot, F.; George, S. J.; Coldea, M.; Neumann, M.; Chaudhuri, P.;
We report a comprehensive study of the electronic and magnetic properties of a star-shaped molecule comprising a (Mn4O6)-O-II core. One feature of this compound is weak magnetic coupling constants compared to other similar polyoxo compounds. This leads to complicated low-lying magnetic states in which the ground state is not well separated from the upper-lying states, yielding a high-spin molecule with a giant magnetic moment of up to 20 mu(B)/formula unit. We apply X-ray diffraction and magnetometry as well as other X-ray spectroscopic techniques, namely, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and X-ray emission spectroscopy. We compare our experimental results with ab initio electronic band structure calculations as well as the localized electronic structure around the Mn2+ ions with charge-transfer multiplet calculations.
Keywords: Molecular magnetism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electronic structure calculations
  • Inorganic Chemistry 47(2008)11, 4605-4617

Publ.-Id: 11457 - Permalink

In-situ Measurements on suspended Nanoparticles with X-rays, Visible Laser Light and Infra-red Light
Zänker, H.;
One of the aims of the Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is to investigate the transport of environmental contaminants as colloids (nanoparticles). The methods established in the institute that refer to colloid research are:
Characterization of colloids: Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD), microfiltration/ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Studying colloid composition/mineralogy and in-situ binding states of contaminants on colloids: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with synchrotron radiation (Rossendorf Beamline at the ESRF, Grenoble), attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy TRLFS.
Noninvasive methods (i.e. in-situ measurements) are normally preferred to invasive methods. Such non-invasive methods often rely on high energy radiation. Two methods of colloid characterization, PCS and LIBD, and two methods of binding state in-vestigation, EXAFS and ATR-FTIR, are presented in greater detail.
We used PCS to investigate extremely small natural nanoparticles of high concentration as they occur in acid rock drainage solutions. It was shown that the ultrafine nanoparticles are masked by tiny traces of larger particles that dominate light scattering. They can be unmasked by separation steps which makes the small particles detectable. Colloids of extreme low concentration can be detected by LIBD. LIBD on four commercial mineral waters serves as an example.. In the third example the binding state of arsenate onto the small nanoparticles of the acid rock drainage solution mentioned above was studied by EXAFS. It is demonstrated that the arsenate is initially bound as a bidentate binuclear inner-sphere surface complex to the iron-rich ultrafine nanoparticles of the solution. However, the gradual transformation of the colloidal material to a more aggregated precipitate (within months) results in the incorporation of the arsenate into the interior of the Fe hydroxy sulphate crystal structures. Finally, an example is given where the adsorption of uranium(VI) on ferrihydrite colloids in near-neutral mine water in the presence of carbonate, i.e. the formation of uranyl-ferrihydrite and uranyl-carbonate-ferrihydrite surface complexes, was tested by ATR-FTIR.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, environmental contaminants, EXAFS, LIBD, ATR-FTIR
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ladenburger Diskurs der Gottlieb Daimler-Und Karl Benz-Stiftung "Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment", 30.06.-01.07.2008, Ladenburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11456 - Permalink

Testtitel zur Archivierung der Primär-Daten
Test, C.;
Im wissenschaftlichen Bereich besteht zwar grundsätzlich Bereitschaft, Daten für eine interdisziplinäre Nutzung zur Verfügung zu stellen, aber es ist zur Zeit unüblich, dass die erforderliche Mehrarbeit für Aufbereitung, Kontextdokumentation und Qualitätssicherung im Wissenschaftsbetrieb anerkannt wird. Die klassische Form der Verbreitung wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisse ist ihre Veröffentlichung in Fachzeitschriften, normalerweise ohne Veröffentlichung der zugrunde liegenden Daten. Derartige Zeitschriftenartikel werden im "Citation Index" erfasst. Dieser Index wird zur Leistungsbewertung von Wissenschaftlern herangezogen. Datenveröffentlichungen werden darin bisher nicht berücksichtigt.
Projektdaten sind breit über Forschungsinstitute verstreut und werden von Wissenschaftlern erhoben und verwaltet. Aufgrund der fehlenden Anerkennung der mit der Aufbereitung verbundenen Arbeit sind Projektdaten häufig schlecht dokumentiert und somit schwer zugänglich sowie nicht langfristig gesichert. Große Datenbestände bleiben ungenutzt, da sie nur einen kleinen Kreis von Wissenschaftlern bekannt und zugänglich sind. Viele Primärdaten bleiben ungenutztes Rohmaterial.
Die Diskussion zur Fälschung wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisse führte zur Verabschiedung der Regeln guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis in den Wissenschaftseinrichtungen wie DFG, HGF, MPG und Universitäten. Die Regeln beinhalten auch Richtlinien für den Datenzugang. Primärdaten einer Veröffentlichung müssen mindestens 10 Jahre gespeichert und zugänglich sein, um eine Prüfung der Ergebnisse zu ermöglichen. Zwar werden diese Vorschriften im Regelfall eingehalten, aufgrund der damit verbundenen Zeitbelastung werden Daten aber normalerweise nur in Rohform archiviert und nicht in ihrer Feinstruktur aufgearbeitet und erschlossen.
Die wichtigsten Ziele eines neuen Umgangs mit Primärdaten sind also langfristige und allgemein zugängliche Speicherung. Durchsetzbar ist dies am besten über eine persönliche Motivation der Wissenschaftler. Dies ließe sich nach Meinung der Arbeitsgruppe durch zwei Faktoren befördern: (1) Daten sind nach diesem Konzept nicht mehr ausschließlich Teil einer wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichung, sondern besitzen eine eigenständige Identität. (2) Damit werden Primärdaten, ähnlich wie Zeitschriftenartikel zitierbar.
Mit der anerkannten Datenpublikation erhält ein Autor also eine zitierfähige Veröffentlichung. Zeitschriftenartikel, welche die Daten verwenden, verweisen auf die Datenpublikation. Umgekehrt kann auch von den publizierten Daten auf Artikel in Zeitschriften verwiesen werden, die den Datensatz verwenden. Die Publikation von Daten kann also sinngemäß in das bestehende System von wissenschaftlichen Veröffentlichungen und deren Zitierbarkeit eingebunden werden. Teile des Konzepts sind unter anderem im Bereich der Kristallographie und der Genetik verwirklicht. Die dort bestehenden und anerkannten Systeme der Datenpublikation werden durch die entsprechenden Fachzeitschriften und deren Verlage gefördert. Urheberrecht und Zugang zu den Daten sind allerdings eingeschränkt.
  • Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 123(2013)1, 12


  • Secondary publication expected

Publ.-Id: 11455 - Permalink

Anwendung des Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensors zur Vermessung elektromagnetisch beeinflusster Elektrolytströmungen
Büttner, L.; Shirai, K.; Voigt, A.; Neumann, M.; Czarske, J.; Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.;
In diesem Beitrag wird erstmals über die Anwendung des Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensors zur Untersuchung von elektromagnetisch beeinflussten Grenzschichten in schwach leitfähigen Fluiden berichtet. Die elektromagnetische Strömungsbeeinflussung wird in Industrie und Forschung mit großem Interesse verfolgt, da damit Strömungsablösungen kontrolliert und Strömungswiderstände reduziert werden können. Da elektromagnetische Kräfte hauptsächlich in den Grenzschichten wirken, ist eine präzise Untersuchung der Grenzschicht für das Verständnis der auftretenden Effekte unerlässlich. In der hier vorgestellten Arbeit kommt der Laser-Doppler-Geschwindigkeitsprofilsensor zum Einsatz, der eine Erweiterung des konventionellen Laser-Doppler-Anemometers (LDA) darstellt, aber zwei überlagerte, entgegengesetzt fächerförmige Streifensystemen verwendet. Dadurch kann zusätzlich die axiale Position von Streuteilchen im Messvolumen aufgelöst und somit eine deutlich höhere Ortsauflösung bei gleichzeitig geringerer Messunsicherheit der Geschwindigkeit erzielt werden, was gerade für Grenzschichtuntersuchungen deutliche Vorteile gegenüber konventionellen LDA bietet. In diesem Beitrag wird über die Untersuchung der ebenen Plattengrenzschicht einer Natronlaugen-Strömung berichtet, deren Geschwindigkeitsprofil durch Lorentzkräfte modifiziert wird. Es werden die generellen Anforderungen an die Messaufgabe und die Adaption des Profilsensors an den Aufbau dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse der Grenzschichtprofilmessungen werden diskutiert und mit PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry)-Daten verglichen.
Keywords: LDA, LDA Profile Sensor, electromagnetic flow control
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Fachtagung "Lasermethoden in der Strömungsmesstechnik", 09.-11.09.2008, Karlsruhe, BRD, 978-3-9805613-4-1, 4.1-4.8

Publ.-Id: 11454 - Permalink

Colloidal Carbon Nanotubes and their Influence on Dissolved Uranium
Schierz, A.; Zänker, H.;
A rapid increase in the application of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in science, technology, medicine and every day life is anticipated. Currently, there is still relatively little knowledge on the behaviour of ENPs in the aquatic environment. Our study was aimed at gaining information on the behaviour of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as potential carriers of pollutants in the case of accidental CNT release to the environment. The experiments showed that pristine CNTs possess little colloidal stability in aquatic suspensions. Also the sorption capacity of the pristine CNTs for uranium is low. However, modification of the CNTs by surface oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4 increased the colloidal stability of the CNTs in near-neutral waters dramatically. Moreover, also the sorption capacity for uranium, which served as an example of a toxic heavy metal, was strongly increased by the surface treatment. Uranium sorption data could best be fit by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The increase in colloidal stability and in sorption capacity was due to the generation of new sorption sites (carboxylic groups) on the surface of CNTs by surface oxidation. These groups could also be detected by FTIR. Another way to elevate colloidal stability is to add small amounts of humic acid to suspensions of the pristine
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, surface oxidation, uranium, sorption, colloidal stability
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Conference on the Environmental Effects of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials, 15.-16.09.2008, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 11453 - Permalink

Neue Verfahren der Präzisions-Strahlentherapie
Baumann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Herrmann, T.; Lehmann, D.; Pawelke, J.; Poenisch, F.; Sauerbrey, R.;
Das Ziel strahlentherapeutischer Behandlung ist es, Tumoren zu vernichten und dabei das gesunde Gewebe weitgehend zu schonen. Eine Präzisions-Radiotherapie erfordert eine möglichst konforme Bestrahlung des Tumors mit der für die Heilung notwendigen Dosis. Für die heute gebräuchlichsten therapeutischen Strahlenquellen - Elektronen-Linearbeschleuniger, welche Elektronen- und harte Röntgenstrahlen bereitstellen - wurden dafür die Methoden der intensitätsmodulierten und bildgeführten Radiotherapie entwickelt. Der nächste Schritt zur Verbesserung der Tumorkonformität ist die klinische Anwendung von Partikelstrahlen (Protonen, leichte Ionen). Entsprechende Anlagen erfordern einen hohen Investitionsaufwand. Eine Reduktion dieses Aufwandes könnte der Einsatz außerordentlich kompakter Beschleunigungsstrukturen eröffnen, welche auf der Wechselwirkung hochintensiver Laserstrahlen mit Materie beruhen.
Keywords: Strahlentherapie, Präzisionsstrahlentherapie
  • Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Technischen Universität Dresden 57(2008)1-2, 127-133

Publ.-Id: 11451 - Permalink

PET imaging for treatment verification of ion therapy: implementation and experience at GSI Darmstadt and MGH Boston
Parodi, K.; Bortfeld, T.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Knopf, A.; Paganetti, H.; Pawelke, J.; Shakirin, G.; Shih, H.;
Ion beams offer the possibility of improved conformation of the dose delivered to the tumour with better sparing of surrounding tissue and critical structures in comparison to conventional photon and electron external radiation treatment modalities. Full clinical exploitation of this advantage can benefit from in-vivo confirmation of the actual beam delivery and, in particular, of the ion range in the patient. During irradiation, positron emitters like 15O (half-life T1/2 » 2 min) and 11C (T1/2 » 20 min) are formed in nuclear interactions between the ions and the tissue. Detection of this transient radioactivity via Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and comparison with the expectation based on the prescribed beam application may serve as an in-vivo, non-invasive range validation method of the whole treatment planning and delivery chain. For technical implementation, PET imaging during irradiation (in-beam) requires the development of customized, limited angle detectors with data acquisition synchronized with the beam delivery. Alternatively, commercial PET or PET/CT scanners in close proximity to the treatment site enable detection of the residual activation from long-lived emitters shortly after treatment (offline). This paper reviews two clinical examples using a dedicated in-beam PET scanner for verification of carbon ion therapy at GSI Darmstadt, Germany, as well as a commercial offline PET/CT tomograph for post-radiation imaging of proton treatments at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA. Challenges as well as pros and cons of the two imaging approaches in dependence of the different ion type and beam delivery system are discussed.
Keywords: in-beam PET, PET, ion therapy, proton therapy

Publ.-Id: 11450 - Permalink

New THz/VUV Pump Probe Beamline at VUV FEL FLASH
Gensch, M.; Fruehling, U.; Seidel, W.; Wieland, M.; Stojanovic, N.; Schade, U.; Lee, J. S.; Hübers, H.-W.; Semenov, A.; Ploenjes-Palm, E.; Düsterer, S.; Grimm, O.; Hahn, U.; Saldin, E. L.; Kocharyan, V.; Schneidmiller, E.; Rossbach, J.; Feldhaus, J.; Drescher, M.; Yurkov, M. V.;
At the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) an infrared (IR) beamline is currently being comissioned that will allow novel pump-and-probe experiments combining coherent IR pulses with the FEL radiation in the VUV spectral range. It provides useful IR, respectively THz, radiation generated by a purpose built undulator over the wavelength range from 200 micron to presently 14 micron. The undulator is implemented “in series” to the VUV undulators of FLASH and the length of the IR beamline can be matched to that of an existing VUV beamline so that overlap with VUV pulses generated by the same electron bunch can be achieved. Hence natural synchronization of the two pulses is expected. First results of the comissioning are shown and an outlook on future experiments and upgrades of the beamline as well as its photondiagnostics will be given.
  • Poster
    MEDSI/Pan-American SRI 2008 Meeting, 10.-13.06.2008, Saskatoon, Saskatchewa, Canada
  • Contribution to proceedings
    MEDSI/Pan-American SRI 2008 Meeting, 10.-13.06.2008, Saskatoon, Saskatchewa, Canada

Publ.-Id: 11449 - Permalink

Buried melting in germanium implanted silicon by millisecond flash lamp annealing
Voelskow, M.; Yankov, R.; Kups, T.; Pezoldt, J.; Skorupa, W.;
Doping of semiconductors by ion implantation is generally associated with the formation of Gaussian-like concentration/depth profiles. This letter describes a method to achieve localized buried melting at a predetermined depth as the basis for the formation of either a pronounced dopant segregation peak or a homogeneous plateau-like dopant distribution. More specifically, Ge ion implantation was used to lower the melting temperature of the implanted zone, and subsequent flash lamp annealing (FLA) to selectively melt this zone.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing melting silicon doping
  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008)15, 151903-1-151903-3

Publ.-Id: 11448 - Permalink

The prediabetic and diabetic in vivo modification of circulating low density lipoproteins decreases their potential to stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis
Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.;
kein Abstract verfügbar
  • Poster
    114. Internistenkongress, 29.03.-02.04.2008, Wiesbaden, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Medizinische Klinik 103(2008), 42

Publ.-Id: 11447 - Permalink

Precise measurement of the beta decay and electron capture of Na-22, Au-198, and Au-196 in low-temperature metal hosts, and reexamination of lifetime modifications
Ruprecht, G.; Vockenhuber, C.; Buchmann, L.; Woods, R.; Ruiz, C.; Lapi, S.; Bemmerer, D.;
We investigated half-life changes with temperature of 22Na embedded in Al and 198Au/196Au embedded in Au. We do not find any change of the half-life between room temperature and 10 K on the level of 0.04% for 22Na, 0.03% for 198Au, and 0.5% for 196Au in striking disagreement with the first experimental works and predictions. Additionally, the absolute half-life for 198Au has been determined to 2.6937±0.0003 d which is 5 standard deviations below the recommended NIST value but in agreement with other high-precision measurements.
Keywords: Half-life Au-198 Au-196 Na-22 Debye-Hückel model Salpeter screening weakly coupled plasma

Publ.-Id: 11446 - Permalink

Results of ELBE Window and Coupler Tests with a Resonant Ring
Büchner, A.; Büttig, H.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Winter, A.;
A new test bench based on a resonant ring has been built at ELBE to run window as well as coupler tests. The resonant ring is driven by a 10 kW klystron and allows tests with RF power up to 100 kW in CW mode and about 200 kW in pulsed mode. Coupler tests are done with liquid Nitrogen cooling under almost real conditions. The results of warm window and coupler tests in pulsed and CW mode will be presented. Also details about the ring and a special designed coupler tip to rectangular waveguide transition are given.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    EPAC 2008, 23.-27.06.2008, Genua, Italy
    Proceedings of EPAC 2008, 978-92-9083-315-4

Publ.-Id: 11445 - Permalink

Analysis of hydrogen passivation by sputtered silicon nitride
Catoir, J.; Grisshammer, M.; Wolke, W.; Preu, R.; Trassl, R.; Grambole, D.;
An important parameter for a good bulk passivation of silicon solar cells is the hydrogen content of the silicon nitride anti reflexion layer [1,2]. Several studies [3,4] show that the hydrogen diffuses during the silicon nitride (SiN:H) deposion and the contact formation process into the bulk of the solar cell and passivates impurities and defects. In this work we present some results showing the benefit of an optimal hydrogen rate and a plasma pretreatment of the SiN especially for the bulk passivation. Additionally Nuclear Reaction Resonance Analysis measurements and effusion measurements were carried out for a better understanding of the hydrogen diffusion in the silicon nitride and at the boundary layer.
  • Poster
    23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 01.-05.09.2008, Valencia, Spain
  • Contribution to proceedings
    23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 01.-05.09.2008, Valencia, Spain
    Proceedings of the 23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 1530-1533

Publ.-Id: 11444 - Permalink

New sub-\mu s isomers in 125,127,129Sn and isomer systematics of 124-130 Sn
Lozeva, R. L.; Simpson, G. S.; Grawe, H.; Neyens, G.; Atanasova, L. A.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bazzacco, D.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bracco, A.; Brandau, C.; Caceres, L.; Camera, F.; Chamoli, S. K.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Daugas, J.-M.; Detistov, P.; de Rydt, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Fahlander, C.; Farnea, E.; Georgiev, G.; Gerl, J.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Gorska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Hass, M.; Hoischen, R.; Ilie, G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lakshmi, S. P.; Lo Bianco, G.; Mallion, S.; Maj, A.; Montanari, D.; Perru, O.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Pinston, J. A.; Podolyak, Z.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rudolph, D.; Rusev, G.; Saitoh, T. R.; Saltarelli, A.; Schaffner, H.; Schwengner, R.; Tashenov, S.; Turzo, K.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Vermeulen, N.; Walker, J.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.;
New sub-\mu s isomers have been observed in the neutron-rich Sn isotopes. 125,127,129Sn nuclei have been produced in a relativistic fission reaction of 238U on a 9Be target at 750 A MeV and by the fragmentation of 136Xe at 600 A MeV populating high-spin yrast states. In addition to the already known \mu s isomers, three new ones -1 with sub-\mu s half-lives have been observed. These yrast isomers are the high-spin members
of the \nu (d_3/2^-1 h_11/2^-2 ) and \nu h_11/2 ^-n, seniority v = 3 multiplets leading to isomeric (23/2+) and (27/2-) states, respectively. Added to the already known 19/2+ \mu s isomers in this region the current work completes the systematic information of neutron-hole excitations toward the filling of the last h_11/2 orbital a t N = 82.
The results are discussed in the framework of state-of-the -art shell-model calculations using realistic interactions.
Keywords: Nuclear structure, isomers, radioactive ion beams, shell model.

Publ.-Id: 11443 - Permalink

New Insights into the Formation of Radiohaloes: Effects of Artificial Alpha–Irradiation on Cordierite
Krickl, R.; Nasdala, L.; Wildner, M.; Grambole, D.;
Radiohaloes showing a markedly altered light absorption behaviour caused by the action of alpha particles are found in a number of minerals, surrounding radioactive inclusions (Ramdohr, 1960). In order to shed light on the processes of radiohalo formation, a study on artificially produced analogues of natural radiohaloes was conducted: Oriented cordierite crystals were implanted with 8.8 MeV He2+ ions, which corresponds to the highest alpha energy commonly encountered in nature. The irradiated areas are characterised by yellow colouration, which is strongly polarised parallel to the crystallographic c axis. Optical absorption spectra show that the colour is mainly caused by the low-wavelength slope of an intense absorption band in the ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the relative changes of metal–metal charge transfer and d–d band intensities as compared to the un-irradiated host reveal significant oxidation of the Fe2+ ions in the cordierite structure.
Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed alteration depth of ~48 µm is in very good agreement with the calculated ranges of the injected particles. However, total intensity and radial intensity distribution of the radio-induced absorption change with increasing irradiation dose. The colouration intensity increases up to doses of 1014 He2+/cm² but fades at higher doses, i.e. a radio-induced colouration reversal is observed.
The change in colour is accompanied by structural damage, caused by the impact of the He2+ ions: Raman spectra show increased broadening of vibrational bands when approaching the penetration depth of the injected particles, indicating a decrease of the short range order due to the accumulation of point defects. However, no indication of amorphisation was observed in cordierite irradiated with up to 1016 He2+/cm². This seems to be in apparent contrast to He-irradiated α-quartz where local amorphisation was detected after implantation with only 1015 He2+/cm² (Krickl et al., 2008).
Furthermore, Raman and infrared spectroscopic investigations yield evidence for a radiochemical transformation of molecular species incorporated in the structural channels of the cordierite structure. Especially the transformation CO2→CO, which was also found in natural radiohaloes, was reproduced artificially and experimentally confirmed. The presence of CO in cordierite may therefore not only be caused by reducing conditions during formation (Khomenko & Langer, 2005) but also by the action of radioactivity.

Khomenko VM, Langer K (2005) Carbon oxides in cordierite channels: Determination of CO2 isotopic species and CO by single crystal IR spectroscopy. Am Mineral 90: 1913-1917
Krickl R, Nasdala L, Götze J, Grambole D, Wirth R (2008) Alpha-irradiation effects in SiO2. Eur J Mineral 20 (accepted)
Ramdohr P (1960) Neue Beobachtungen an radioaktiven Höfen in verschiedenen Mineralien mit kritischen Bemerkungen zur Auswertung der Höfe zur Altersbestimmung. Geol Rundschau 49: 253-263
  • Lecture (Conference)
    86th Annual Meeting of the German Mineralogical Society, 14.-17.09.2008, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11442 - Permalink

Plasma-Based Ion Implantation Treatments Under Industrially Relevant Conditions
Ueda, M.; Wei, R.; Reuther, H.;
Industrially relevant PIII conditions were applied to H13 and CrNiMo 316 steel as well as in CrCoMo and Ti6Al4V metal alloys. Typically, nitrogen ions were implanted at peak voltages of 10 to 15 kV, 50 to 80 (s pulse durations, and 1 to 2 kHz frequencies, for treatment times of 1 to12h. Case thicknesses of more than 20 μm were achieved in treated H13 steel which resulted in reduced friction and wear. For CrNiMo steel, a wear reduction of as high as 160 times was obtained besides a significant reduction of the coefficient of friction. Much thinner modified layer was obtained for Ti6Al4V but sufficient for an important improvement of the surface hardness.
  • Solid State Phenomena 107(2005), 31-36

Publ.-Id: 11441 - Permalink

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of 64Cu-labeled bispidine ligands
Juran, S.;
The synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel hexadentate bispidine derivatives containing pyridine and/or imidazole units as donor groups are presented. Bispidine ligands (bispidine = 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]-nonane) show unique complexation behaviour towards transition metals [1,2]. The high thermodynamic stability of the complexes of these structurally reinforced ligands with Cu(II) offers the possibility to apply such complexes for diagnostic (64Cu) and therapeutic (67Cu) purposes [3]. Moreover the bispidine structure opens suitable chemical approaches to connect bio-molecules onto the skeleton, an important feature in view of the targeting of such complexes.

The ligands were prepared by two consecutive Mannich condensations according to the known procedure [1]. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were recorded on a BAS 100B instrument with a standard three-electrode cell (glassy carbon electrode, AgNO3/Ag reference electrode, Pt wire with auxiliary electrode) at 25 °C in degassed water in an Ar atmosphere. Bispidines were labelled with 67Cu using 67CuCl2. To 200 µl of the ligand solution (10-4 M ligand in 0.05 M MES/NaOH buffer, pH = 5.4) 250 kBq of 67CuCl2 were added. 67Cu-labelling yields were studied by TLC using RP18 TLC plates which were developed in acetonitrile /water (0.1%TFA) = 4/1.

Results and Discussion:
CV measurements were performed in order to estimate the stability of the copper(II) bispidine complexes. Strongly negative redox potentials were found for all compounds investigated indicating the high stability of the Cu(II) complexes [2]. Labelling experiments of the new bispidines with 67Cu and 64Cu indicate the rapid formation of radiocopper complexes under mild conditions in almost quantitatively yields.

The radiocopper complexes were found to be stable in the presence of a high excess of competing ligands, and showed a high in vitro stability in rat plasma up to 24 h. Studies on the bioconjugation of the bispidine 64Cu complexes are now in progress.

Roger Schibli (Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland) is gratefully acknowledged for providing copper-67.

[1] P. Comba, W. Schiek, Coord. Chem. Rev. 2003, 238-239, 21-29.
[2] C. Bleiholder et al. Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 8145-8155.
[3] M. J. Welch, C. S. Redvanly, Eds., Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals: Radiochemistry and Applications, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2003
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th Workshop "The Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds", 12.-13.06.2008, Bad Soden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11440 - Permalink

Controlled transport and focusing of laser-accelerated protons with miniature magnetic devices
Schollmeier, M.; Becker, S.; Geißel, M.; Flippo, K. A.; Blazevic, A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Cort Gautier, D.; Grüner, F.; Harres, K.; Kimmel, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Rambo, P.; Schramm, U.; Schreiber, J.; Schütrumpf, J.; Schwarz, J.; Tahir, N. A.; Atherton, B.; Habs, D.; Hegelich, B. M.; Roth, M.;
This letter demonstrates the transporting and focusing of laser-accelerated 14 MeV protons by permanent magnet mini quadrupole lenses providing field gradients as high as 500 T/m. The approach is highly reproducible and predictable, leading to a focal spot of (286 × 173) μm full width at half maximum 50 cm behind the source. It decouples the relativistic laser-proton acceleration from the beam transport, paving the way to optimize both separately. The collimation and the subsequent energy selection obtained is perfectly applicable for upcoming high-energy high-repetition rate laser systems.
Keywords: Laser ion acceleration, beam focusing, permanent magnets, miniature magnetic lenses PACS numbers: 41.75.Jv,52.38.Kd,41.85.Lc,52.59.-f


Publ.-Id: 11439 - Permalink

ALD of YF3 thin films from TiF4 and Y(thd)3 precursors
Pilvi, T.; Puukilainen, E.; Munnik, F.; Leskelä, M.; Ritala, M.;
Yttrium fluoride is a dielectric material with good light transmittance between ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. In this paper we introduce the first use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of YF3 thin films. The films were grown at 175–325 °C. Y(thd)3 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) was used as a cation source and TiF4 as a fluorine precursor. YF3 film growth characteristics as well as structural, optical, and electrical properties were studied. Different methods, such as spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis were applied to characterize the films. Electrical properties were analyzed from Al/YF3/indium-tin-oxide capacitor structures at room temperature. The growth rates of the films were between 1.1 and 1.7 Å/cycle. The films grown below 225 °C were amorphous, otherwise they were polycrystalline. Permittivities of the films were around 6. The surface roughness of the YF3 films increased with the deposition temperatures. The refractive indices were 1.51–1.59 (at λ = 580 nm), and high light transmittance was achieved from UV to IR region with the sample grown at 300 °C.
Keywords: Atomic layer deposition (ALD), Yttrium fluoride (YF3), Optical materials, Thin films.

Publ.-Id: 11437 - Permalink

Applications of cavity transverse modes in accelerators
Janssen, D.; Volkov, V.;
Different applications of TE modes in accelerator physics are discussed. In this discussion, the Fourier transform of the squared axial component of magnetic field, Bz2(z), plays an important role. If it turns to be zero, the RF field-particle energy transfer is negligible and the focal length of the TE mode lens is phase independent. Such RF lens focuses continuous beams just as a solenoid. In order to compensate spherical aberrations and emittance growth caused by field nonlinearities of a focusing solenoid, the RF focusing is used also even if the beam space charge is taken into account. If the transform has its maximum, excitations of TE mode resonances and electron beam self-focussing are possible. Furthermore, the RF field of the TE mode can be used to expand the radial acceptance of a FEL for the THz region.
  • Open Access LogoPhysical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 11(2008), 061302

Publ.-Id: 11436 - Permalink

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