Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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32337 Publications
CFD models for polydispersed bubbly flows
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.;
Many flow regimes in Nuclear Reactor Safety Research are characterized by multiphase flows, with one phase being a continuous liquid and the other phase consisting of gas or vapour of the liquid phase. In dependence on the void fraction of the gaseous phase the flow regimes e.g. in vertical pipes are varying from bubbly flows with low and higher volume fraction of bubbles to slug flow, churn turbulent flow, annular flow and finally to droplet flow. In the regime of bubbly and slug flow the multiphase flow shows a spectrum of different bubble sizes. While disperse bubbly flows with low gas volume fraction are mostly mono-disperse, an increase of the gas volume fraction leads to a broader bubble size distribution due to breakup and coalescence of bubbles. Bubbles of different sizes are subject to lateral migration due to forces acting in lateral direction different from the main drag force direction. The bubble lift force was found to change the sign dependent on the bubble size. Consequently this lateral migration leads to a de-mixing of small and large bubbles and to further coalescence of large bubbles migrating towards the pipe center into even larger Taylor bubbles or slugs. An adequate modeling has to consider all these phenomena. A Multi Bubble Size Class Test Solver has been developed to investigate these effects and test the influence of different model approaches. Basing on the results of these investigations a generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model based on the Eulerian modeling framework has been proposed and was finally implemented into the CFD code CFX. Within this model the dispersed gaseous phase is divided into N inhomogeneous velocity groups (phases) and each of these groups is subdivided into Mj bubble size classes. Bubble breakup and coalescence processes between all bubble size classes Mj are taken into account by appropriate models. The inhomogeneous MUSIG model has been validated against experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility.
Keywords: Bubbly Flow, CFD, Bubble Forces, Coalescence, Breakup, Pipe Flow
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-486 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10479 - Permalink


Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of slug flow in horizontal channels
Vallée, C.; Höhne, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Sühnel, T.;
For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4∙105 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow.
Furthermore, CFD pre-test calculations were done to show the possibility of slug flow generation in a real geometry and at relevant parameters for nuclear reactor safety. The simulation was performed on a flat model representing the hot-leg of the German Konvoi-reactor, with water and saturated steam at 50 bar and 263.9°C. The results of the CFD-calculation show wave generation in the horizontal part of the hot-leg which grow to slugs in the region of the bend.
Keywords: horizontal two-phase flow, interfacial area, slug flow
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-485 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10478 - Permalink


Experimentelle Untersuchung von geschichteten Luft/Wasser Strömungen in einem horizontalen Kanal
Vallée, C.; Prasser, H.-M.; Sühnel, T.;
Für die Untersuchung von Luft/Wasser-Strömungen wurde ein horizontaler Acrylglas-Kanal mit rechteckigem Querschnitt gebaut. Der Kanal ermöglicht Gleich- und Gegenstrom-Versuche bei Atmosphärendruck, insbesondere die Untersuchung der Schwallströmung.
Es wurden optische Messungen mit einer Hochgeschwindigkeits-Kamera durchgeführt, die durch synchronisierte dynamische Druckmessungen ergänzt wurden. Für die Analyse der Bilder wurde eine Methode zur Erfassung der Phasengrenze entwickelt und diese anhand möglicher Anwendungen getestet. Die Druckmessungen zeigten, dass der Druck bei Schwallströmungen um einige Kilopascal ansteigt und wieder abfällt, sobald der Schwall aus dem Kanal austritt. Zudem wurden Geschwindigkeiten in der flüssigen Phase mittels nicht invasiver Verfahren gemessen. Das durchschnittliche Geschwindigkeits-Profil am Kanaleintritt wurde mit Ultraschall-Köpfen bestimmt. Die Ermittlung des Geschwindigkeitsfeldes in einem Schwall erfolgte mit PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry).
Keywords: dynamic pressure measurement, horizontal two-phase flow, optical high-speed observation, image processing, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), interfacial area, slug flow
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-484 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10477 - Permalink


Experiments on two-phase flow in a vertical tube with a moveable obstacle
Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Al Issa, S.; Schütz, P.; Pietruske, H.;
A novel technique to study the two-phase flow field around an asymmetric diaphragm in a vertical pipe is presented, that enables producing data for CFD code validation in complex geometries. Main feature is a translocation of the diaphragm to scan the 3D void field with a stationary wire-mesh sensor. Besides the measurement of time-averaged void fraction fields, a novel data evaluation method was developed to extract estimated liquid velocity profiles from the wire-mesh sensor data. The flow around an obstacle of the chosen geometry has many topological similarities with complex flow situations in bends, T-junctions, valves, safety valves and other components of power plant equipment and flow phenomena like curved stream lines, which form significant angles with the gravity vector, flow separation at sharp edges and recirculation zones in their wake are present. In order to assess the quality of the CFD code and their underlying multiphase flow and turbulence models pre-test calculations by ANSYS CFX 10.0 were carried out. A comparison between the calculation results and the experimental data shows a good agreement in term of all significant qualitative details of the void fraction and liquid velocity distributions. Furthermore, the report contains a method to assess the lateral components of bubble velocities in the form of a basic theoretical description and visualisation examples. The plots show the deviation of the flow around the obstacle in term of vectors represented the average velocities of the instantaneous cross-sections of all bubbles in the time interval when they pass the measuring plane. A detailed uncertainty analyse of the velocity assessments concludes the presented report. It includes remarks about the comparison with a second method for calculating bubble velocity profiles – the cross-correlation. In addition, this chapter gives an overview about the influence of acceleration and deceleration effects on the velocity estimation.
Keywords: Two-Phase Flow, Gas bubbles, Gas volume fraction distribution, velocity fields
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-483 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10476 - Permalink


Experiments on upwards gas/liquid flow in vertical pipes
Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Manera, A.; Schütz, H.; Pietruske, P.;
Two-phase flow experiments at vertical pipes are much suitable for studying the action of different constitutive relations characterizing the momentum exchange at the gas/liquid interface as well as the dynamic behaviour of the gas/liquid interface itself. The flow can be observed in its movement along the pipe and, in particular, within the shear field close to the pipe wall over a considerable vertical distance and, consequently, over a comparatively long time without the immediate separation of gas and liquid characteristic for horizontal flows.
Wire-mesh sensors, which were the working horse in the described experiments, supplied sequences of instantaneous two-dimensional gas fraction distributions with a high-resolution in space and time. This allows to derive from the data not only void fraction and bubble velocity profiles, but also bubble size distributions, bubble-size resolved radial gas fraction profiles as well as the axial evolution of these distributions. An interfacial surface reconstruction algorithm was developed in order to extract the extension of interfacial area from the wire-mesh sensor data. The sensors were upgraded to withstand parameters that are close to nuclear reactor conditions. Most of the experiments were performed for both air/water flow at ambient pressure and steam/water flow of up to 6.5 MPa at identical combinations of the gas and liquid superficial velocities. This offers excellent conditions for studying the influence of the fluid properties.
Keywords: Two-Phase Flow, Gas bubbles, Gas volume fraction distribution, velocity fields
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-482 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10475 - Permalink


Construction and execution of experiments at the multi-purpose thermal hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW for generic investigations of two-phase flows and the development and validation of CFD codes - Final report
Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Vallée, C.; Krepper, E.; Höhne, T.; Manera, A.; Carl, H.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Al Issa, S.; Zaruba, A.; Shi, J.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.;
The works aimed at the further development and validation of models for CFD codes. For this reason, the new thermal-hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW was erected and equipped with wire-mesh sensors with high spatial and time resolution. Vertical test sections with nominal diameters of DN50 and DN200 operating with air-water as well as steam-water two-phase flows provided results on the evaluation of flow patterns, on the be¬haviour of the interfacial area as well as on interfacial momentum and heat transfer. The validation of the CFD-code for complex geometries was carried out using 3D void fraction and velocity distributions obtained in an experiment with an asymmetric obstacle in the large DN200 test section. With respect to free surface flows, stratified co- and counter-current flows as well as slug flows were studied in two horizontal test channels made from acrylic glass. Post-test calculations of these experiments succeeded in predicting the slug formation process.
Corresponding to the main goal of the project, the experimental data was used for the model development. For vertical flows, the emphasis was put on lateral bubble forces (e.g. lift force). Different constitutive laws were tested using a Multi Bubble Size Class Test Solver that has been developed for this purpose. Basing on the results a generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model has been proposed and implemented into the CFD code CFX (ANSYS). Validation calculations with the new code resulted in the conclusion that particularly the models for bubble coalescence and fragmentation need further optimisation.
Studies of single effects, like the assessment of turbulent dissipation in a bubbly flow and the analysis of trajectories of single bubbles near the wall, supplied other important results of the project.
Keywords: Two-phase flow, 3D-void fraction distribution, 3D-velocity distribution, CFD-simulation
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-481 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10474 - Permalink


Aufbau und Durchführung von Experimenten an der Mehrzweck-Thermohydraulikversuchsanlage TOPFLOW für generische Untersuchungen von Zweiphasenströmungen und die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von CFD-Codes - Abschlussbericht
Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Vallée, C.; Krepper, E.; Höhne, T.; Manera, A.; Carl, H.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Zaruba, A.; Al Issa, S.; Shi, J.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.;
Ziel der Arbeiten war die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von Modellen in CFD-Codes. Hierzu wurde am FZD die thermohydraulische Versuchsanlage TOPFLOW aufgebaut und mit räumlich und zeitlich hochauflösenden Gittersensoren ausgestattet. Vertikale Teststrecken mit Nenndurchmessern von DN50 bzw. DN200 für Luft/Wasser- sowie Dampf/Wasser-Strömungen lieferten Ergebnisse zur Entwicklung von Strömungsformen, zum Verhalten der Zwischenphasengrenzfläche sowie zum Wärme- und Impulsaustausch zwischen den Phasen. Die Validierung des CFD-Codes in komplexen Geometrien erfolgte anhand von 3D Gasgehalts- und Geschwindigkeitsfeldern, die bei Umströmung eines asymmetrischen Hindernisses auftreten, das in der Teststrecke DN200 eingebaut war. Im Hinblick auf Strömungen mit freier Oberfläche untersuchte das FZD in zwei horizontalen Acrylglas-Kanälen geschichtete Zweiphasenströmungen im Gleich- bzw. Gegenstrom sowie Schwallströmungen. Bei den Nachrechnungen dieser Versuche gelang die Simulation der Schwallentstehung.
Entsprechend des Projektziels wurden die experimentellen Ergebnisse zur Modellentwicklung genutzt. Bei vertikalen Strömungen stand die Wirkung der lateralen Blasenkräfte (z.B. Liftkraft) im Vordergrund. Zum Test unterschiedlicher Modellansätze wurde hierzu ein Mehrblasenklassen-Testsolver entwickelt und genutzt. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein neues Konzept für ein Mehrblasenklassenmodell, das Inhomogene MUSIG Modell erarbeitet und in den kommerziellen CFD Code CFX (ANSYS) implementiert. Bei Validierungsrechnungen zeigte sich, dass vor allem die Blasenkoaleszenz- und –zerfallsmodelle weiter optimiert werden müssen. Untersuchungen zu Einzeleffekten, wie z.B. die Abschätzung von Turbulenzkoeffizienten und die Analyse der Trajektoren von Einzelblasen in unmittelbarer Wandnähe, lieferten weitere wichtige Ergebnisse des Projekts.
Keywords: Two-phase flow, 3D-void fraction distribution, 3D-velocity distribution, CFD-simulation
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-480 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10473 - Permalink


Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lipids in adipose tissue at high spatial resolution in mice in vivo
Strobel, K.; van den Hoff, J.; Pietzsch, J.;
We describe a localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) method for in vivo measurement of lipid composition in very small voxels
(1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) in adipose tissue in mice. The method uses localized point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) to collect 1H-spectra from voxels in intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits. Nonlinear least squares fits of the spectra in the frequency domain allow for accurate calculation of the relative amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
All spectral data are corrected for spin-spin relaxation. The data show BAT of NMRI mice to be significantly different from BAT of NMRI nu/nu mice in all aspects except for the fraction of monounsaturated fatty acids; for WAT only the fraction of monounsaturated fatty acids is different. BAT and WAT of NMRI mice differ in the amount of saturated and diunsaturated fatty acids. This method provides a potential tool for studying lipid metabolism in small animal models of disease during initiation, progression and manifestation of obesity-related disorders in vivo.

Our results clearly demonstrate that localized 1H-MRS of adipose tissue in vivo is possible at high spatial resolution with voxel sizes down to 3.4 ml.

Publ.-Id: 10472 - Permalink


Hydrogen interaction with vacancies in electron irradiated niobium
Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Gemma, R.; Nikitin, E.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.;
Defect studies of Nb irradiated with 10 MeV electrons were performed in the present work by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy. The lattice defects were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Moreover, defect depth profiles were studied by slow positron implantation spectroscopy. The experimental investigations were accompanied by first principles theoretical calculations of positron parameters. It was found that irradiation-induced vacancies in Nb specimens are surrounded by H, which causes a shortening of the lifetime of trapped positrons. The influence of a Pd and Cr over-layer on the H concentration in the Nb specimens was examined.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland
  • Open Access LogoActa Physica Polonica A 113(2008), 1293-1299

Publ.-Id: 10471 - Permalink


Characterization of ZnO by positron annihilation
Brauer, G.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland

Publ.-Id: 10470 - Permalink


A microsensor study on the O2 consumption in a U(VI) contaminated multispecies biofilm
Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Großmann, K.; Arnold, T.; Wobus, A.; Diessner, S.;
Multispecies biofilms were cultured in annular rotating biofilm reactors and subsequently exposed to U(VI) in ecological relevant concentration (5×10-5 M and 5×10-6 M). Such concentrations are comparable with uranium concentrations typically found in seepage waters of uranium tailings, e.g. in Saxony/Germany. The resulting response of the microbial biofilm community to the added U(VI) was then studied by electrochemical oxygen microsensors with tip diameters of 10 µm and by staining methods using the fluorogenic redox indicator 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and the DNA-binding fluochrome 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The visualized ratio of CTC-formazan to DAPI intensity was used as an indication of the specific respiratory activity within the biofilms. In addition, 16S rDNA analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigations were carried out to study the effect of added uranium on the bacterial diversity.

The microsensor measurements revealed that the oxygen concentration in the multispecies biofilms exposed to uranium decreased faster with increasing biofilm depths in comparison to the uranium free biofilms. Analyses of the amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments showed that the addition of uranium induced no changes to the bacterial diversity in the multispecies biofilms. However, the analyses clearly indicated that a stable multispecies biofilms had developed. The metabolic activity, determined by CTC measurements increased in the upper layers of the biofilms by the addition of the uranium shown by faster oxygen consumptions. This indicates that the bacteria in the biofilms battle the toxic effects of aqueous uranium with an increased metabolic activity proven by the increased CTC activity and in particular by faster oxygen consumption in the biofilm profiles.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    6. Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium, 04.-05.10.2007, Jena, Germany
  • Poster
    6. Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium, 04.-05.10.2007, Jena, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10469 - Permalink


Reduktion von Uran(VI) durch Glucose
Gründig, I.;
... Die Untersuchungsergebnisse sind von grundlegender Bedeutung für Aussagen zur Mobilität dieser nuklide in der Geo- und Biosphäre, denn in wässrigen Sysstemen sind besonders die Actinide in verschiedenen Oxidationsstufen stabil und sie bilden eine Reihe von Komplexen mit anorganischen und organischen Liganden. Durch den sehr niedrigen Konzentrationsbereich, der teilweise durch die geringe Löslichkeit der Actiniden verursacht wird, weisen Datenbanken oft große Lücken und Unsicherheiten auf. Diese gelten vor allem für die unter natürlichen reduzierenden Bedingungen stabilen, niedrigen Oxidationsstufen dieser Elemente.
...
Die meisten erforschten Reduktionsvorgänge verschiedener Actinide liegen im sauren pH-Bereich, die neutralen beziehungsweise basischen pH-Bereiche wurden selten betrachtet. Dabei spielen auch diese pH-Werte eine wichtige Rolle für die Weiterentwicklung thermodynamischer Datenbanken, da diese Datensätze eine entscheidende Voraussetzung zu Aussagen für die Langzeitsicherheit von nuklearen Endlager und Sanierungsvorhaben der Altlasten des Uranerzbergbaus bilden.
Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Reduktion von U(VI) mit dem Bioliganden Glucose in dem pH-Bereich vier bis neun zu erforschen.
  • Other report
    Praktikumsbericht: Dresden: Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft, 2007
    55 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 10466 - Permalink


Air/water flow experiments in the hot leg model of the TOPFLOW facility
Vallee, C.; Deendarlianto; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Pietruske, H.;
The presentation gives an overview about the air/water experiments performed in the hot leg model built in the pressure vessel of the TOPFLOW facility.
These experiments were conducted in a flat test-section representing a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. The region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber are equipped with glass side walls in order to allow high-speed video observations of the two-phase flow in this region. Three types of experiments were performed: co-current flow experiments, steady counter-current flow experiments and counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. The test procedures, detailed test matrices and selected examples of the measured data are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the CCFL experiments is shown, including a comparison with similar experiments and empirical correlations available in the literature.
In the next future, the acquired data will be treated to allow the validation of CFD codes.
Keywords: hot leg, pressurised water reactor, PWR, two-phase flow, counter-current flow, counter-current flow limitation, CCFL
  • Lecture (others)
    10th Meeting of the German CFD Network, 17.-18.09.2007, Garching, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10465 - Permalink


Post Mortem Investigations of the NPP Greifswald WWER-440 Reactor Pressure Vessels
Viehrig, H.-W.; Rindelhardt, U.; Schuhknecht, J.;
The investigation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials from decommissioned NPPs offers the unique opportunity to scrutinize the irradiation behaviour under real conditions. Trepans taken from the whole RPV wall enable a comprehensive material characterisation. The paper describes the trepanning technology applied to the decommissioned WWER-440/230 RPVs of the Greifswald NPP. The Greifswald RPVs represent different material conditions such as irradiated, irradiated and recovery annealed and irradiated, recovery annealed and re-irradiated. The working program is focussed on the characterisation of the RPV steels (base and weld metal) through the RPV wall. The key part of the testing is aimed at the determination of the reference temperature T0 following the ASTM Test Standard E1921-05 to determine the fracture toughness of the RPV steel in different thickness locations. In a first step the material of the core welding seam was investigated. It could be shown that the Master Curve approach as adopted in E1921 is applicable to the investigated original RPV weld metal. The weld metal located in a distance of about 22 mm from the inner surface of the RPV wall yielded a T0 of 50°C which is about 40K higher than T0 close to the inner surface. This outcome is important for the assessment of results retrieved from so called boat samples taken directly from the RPV surface after the recovery annealing. It shows that boat samples do not represent the material with the lowest toughness.
Keywords: reactor pressure vessel steels, fracture toughness, Master Curve, nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment
  • Contribution to proceedings
    33. MPA-Seminar Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten in der Energie- und Anlagentechnik, 11.-12.10.2007, Stuttgart, Germany
    Proceedings 33. MPA-Seminar "Werkstoff- & Bauteilverhalten in Energie- & Anlagentechnik", Stuttgart: Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart, 4-1-4-9

Publ.-Id: 10464 - Permalink


Surface roughness evolution and growth mechanism of carbon films from hyperthermal species
Lifshitz, Y.; Edrei, R.; Hoffman, A.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Berthold, J.; Schultrich, B.; Jäger, H. U.;
The roughness evolution of carbon films deposited from hyperthermal species was investigated by AFM. 10 eV C deposition at normal incidence angle starts with formation of 10 nm high islands followed by continuous, sp2 rich films at larger doses with essentially the same feature height and film roughness. 40 eV C deposition at normal incidence angle (0°) forms sp3 rich, atomically smooth films, which become sp2 rich and rough at oblique angles (≥60°). The limitations of currently available molecular dynamic simulations prevent their use to describe the island formation during 10 eV C bombardment. Dedicated calculations probing the effect of incidence angle on 40 eV C deposition exhibit similar trends to the experimental data i.e. decrease of the sp3 fraction and increase of the roughness with increasing incidence angle. The results are in accord with the “subplantation” scheme, linking roughness and sp2 bonding to surface entrapment. Implications on recent works discussing growth mechanisms or surface smoothening are given.
Keywords: DLC; Amorphous carbon; Growth; Surface roughness; Subplantation; AFM
  • Diamond and Related Materials 16(2007), 1771-1776
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    6th Specialists Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 2006), 10.-13.09.2006, Heraclion, Crete, Greece

Publ.-Id: 10463 - Permalink


In-medium modification and decay asymmetry of omega mesons in cold nuclear matter
Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, B.;
We discuss an asymmetry of the decay omega -> e+ e- in nuclear matter with respect to the electron and positron energies. This asymmetry is sensitive to the properties of the omega meson self-energy and, in particular, it has a non-trivial dependence on the omega energy and momentum. Therefore, this asymmetry may serve as a powerful tool in studying the properties of the omega meson in the nuclear medium.
Keywords: omega meson in nuclear matter, decay asymmetry

Publ.-Id: 10462 - Permalink


Asymptotic methods for spherically symmetric MHD α2-dynamos
Günther, U.; Kirillov, O.;
We consider two models of spherically-symmetric MHD α2-dynamos; one with idealized boundary conditions (BCs); and one with physically realistic BCs. As it has been shown in our previous work, the eigenvalues λ of a model with idealized BCs and constant α-profile α0 are linear functions of α0 and form a mesh in the (α0, λ)-plane. The nodes of the spectral mesh correspond to double-degenerate eigenvalues of algebraic and geometric multiplicity 2 (diabolical points). It was found that perturbations of the constant α-profile lead to a resonant unfolding of the diabolical points with selection rules of the resonant unfolding defined by the Fourier coefficients of the perturbations. In the present contribution we present new exact results on the spectrum of the model with physically realistic BCs and constant α. For non-degenerate (simple) eigenvalues perturbation gradients are found at any particular α0. We briefly discuss the spectral behavior of the α2-dynamo operator over a family of homotopic deformations of the BCs between idealized ones and physically realistic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the spectral singularities are lifted, a memory about their locations remains deeply imprinted in the homotopic family of spectral deformations due to a hidden underlying invariance.
Keywords: MHD dynamo, diabolical point, perturbation theory, boundary conditions, homotopy, deformation, gradient technique, resonance pattern

Publ.-Id: 10460 - Permalink


XAS study of (U1−yPuy)O2 solid solutions
Martin, P.; Grandjean, S.; Valot, C.; Carlot, G.; Ripert, M.; Blank, P.; Hennig, C.;
A new procedure for (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel manufacturing based on the oxalic coprecipitation of U(IV) and Pu(III) followed by the thermal conversion of the coprecipitate into oxide is under development. In order to fully investigate the ideality of solid solution with Pu content equal to 50, 30, 15 and 7 at.%, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) characterizations at uranium and plutonium LIII edges have been undertaken. Using XRD, a face centred cubic structure was observed in each case, and the cell parameter deduced follows satisfactorily the Vegard’s law. However, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements moderate these results; only the (U0.5Pu0.5)O2 sample leads to the same conclusion as XRD. For the lower plutonium concentration, a disordered hyperstoichiometric structure (U1−yPuy)O2+x has been revealed. In those compounds, cuboctahedral oxygen defects are only located around uranium atoms and not in the Pu environment. A much more complex structure than that suggested by the XRD is thus observed with a non-random distribution of plutonium atoms within the uranium sites of the (U1−yPuy)O2+x structure.
Keywords: Actinide alloys and compounds; Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS); Oxide materials; Solid state reactions
  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds 444-445(2007), 410-414

Publ.-Id: 10459 - Permalink


Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research Report January 1998- June 1999
von Borany, J.; Jäger, H.-U.; Möller, W.; Wieser, E.;
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-269 1999

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Publ.-Id: 10458 - Permalink


Structural Determination of Individual Chemical Species in a Mixed System by Iterative Transformation Factor Analysis (ITFA)-based X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with UV-Visible Absorption and Quantum Chemical Calculation
Ikeda, A.; Hennig, C.; Rossberg, A.; Tsushima, S.; Scheinost, A. C.; Bernhard, G.;
A multi-technique approach using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, EXAFS spectroscopy combined with the factor analysis based on iterative target testing (ITT), and DFT calculations has been performed in order to investigate the speciation of uranium(VI) nitrate species in acetonitrile and to identify the complex structure of each fundamental species in the system. UV-visible spectral titration suggests that there are four different species in the system, that is, pure solvated species, mono-, di-, and trinitrate species. ITT-based factor analysis extracts the pure EXAFS spectra of fundamental species from the measured spectral mixtures on the basis of the speciation diagram calculated from the UV-visible data. Data analysis of the extracted EXAFS spectra and DFT calculations provide the most probable complex structures of fundamental species. That is, the pure solvated species corresponds to a 5-fold uranyl hydrate complex of [UO2(H2O)5]2+. Nitrate ions tend to coordinate to the uranyl(VI) ions with a bidentate fashion rather than a unidentate one in acetonitrile. The mononitrate species forms a 5-fold complex of [UO2(H2O)3NO3]+, while the di- and trinitrate species show a 6-fold complex arrangement, corresponding to [UO2(H2O)2(NO3)2]0 (D2h) and [UO2(NO3)3]- (D3h), respectively. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-visible absorption and EXAFS spectroscopies with DFT calculations is very powerful for the structural determination of individual species in the mixed system, in which several different species coexist together.
Keywords: Uranium, Nitrate, Acetonitrile, UV-visible, EXAFS, DFT calculations, Factor analysis, Speciation, Complex structure

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Publ.-Id: 10457 - Permalink


Positron depth profiling in solid surface layers
Grynszpan, R. I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Coleman, G.;
We briefly review the principles of the Doppler Broadening of the positron annihilation radiation line, the most common technique used in defect depth profiling of solids relevant to dc-beams. We focus on some specific examples of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations related to technological issues such as, for instance,
i) phase transitions in metal coatings possibly induced by internal stresses,
ii) substrate pre-treatment or annealing dependence of defect profiles at metal/polymer interfaces or in the deposited layers, and
iii) near-surface structural modification by ion implantation in ceramics and multilayers.
In each case we elaborate on the possibility of using SPIS results and possible depth profile features as criteria for on- or off-line quality control in industrial processes. We finally conclude with an overall picture of the operating characteristics of positron annihilation techniques.
  • Annales de Chimie - Science des Matériaux 32(2007)4, 365-382

Publ.-Id: 10456 - Permalink


Micro- and nanoscale magnetic patterning of paramagnetic FeAl alloys by means of nanoindentation or selective ion irradiation
Sort, J.; Menendez, E.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heyderman, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Concustell, A.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baró, M. D.; Nogues, J.
Some intermetallic alloys exhibit a transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic states when they are atomically disordered. This is the case, for example, of the atomically-ordered Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloy, which is paramagnetic at room temperature but becomes ferromagnetic when subject to structural disordered. This effect has been used to generate arrays of ferromagnetic dots embedded in a paramagnetic matrix. This can be accomplished by two different routes: (i) selective mechanical deformation by means of nanoindentation and (ii) local irradiation procedures, either through lithographed masks or using focused ion beam. Concerning route (i), two types of geometries were designed: periodic arrays of triangular dots (resulting from the pyramidal shape of the Berkovich indenter) and arrays of straight lines produced by scratch [1]. Route (ii) has the advantage over nanoindentation that, due to the low doses used, it does not induce any roughening of the surface, avoiding tribological problems. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of a magneto-optical Kerr effect setup, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. Furthermore, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures (i.e., around 800 K), the magnetic properties are lost due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. This method may be easily extrapolated to a variety of other intermetallic systems such as Fe2AlMn, Ni3Sn2, CoAl or CoGa and the obtained magnetic structures may have interesting applications, such as patterned recording media (free tribological problems and detrimental exchange interactions) or magnetic sensors.

[1] J. Sort, A. Concustell, E. Menéndez, S. Suriñach, K.V. Rao, S.C. Deevi, M.D. Baró and J. Nogués. Periodic arrays of micrometer and sub-micrometer magnetic structures prepared by nanoindentation of a nonmagnetic intermetallic compound. Adv. Mater. 18, 1717-1720 (2006).
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, FIB, intermetallic alloys, phase transformation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    First workshop on nanolithography and their applications, 23.-26.10.2007, Zaragoza, Spain

Publ.-Id: 10455 - Permalink


Evidence for low freeze- out temperature and large transverse flow in central collisions of Pb + Pb at 158 AGeV
Kämpfer, B.;
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-149 1996

Downloads:

Publ.-Id: 10446 - Permalink


PT-symmetric brachistochrone problem, Lorentz boosts and nonunitary operator equivalence classes
Günther, U.; Samsonov, B.;
The PT-symmetric (PTS) quantum brachistochrone problem is re-analyzed as a composite quantum system consisting of a non-Hermitian PTS component and a purely Hermitian component simultaneously. A general approach is proposed for the construction of partially PTS systems which are not reducible to purely Hermitian ones. A natural ingredient of these systems are non-unitary operator equivalence classes (conjugacy orbits) with at least one Hermitian representative. With the help of a geometric analysis the compatibility of the vanishing passage time solution of a PTS brachistochrone with the Anandan-Aharonov lower bound for passage times of Hermitian brachistochrones is demonstrated. Via embedding of the PTS Hamiltonian into a Dirac Hamiltonian the vanishing passage time solution is related to an ultra-relativistic regime.
Keywords: PT-symmetric Quantum Mechanics, quantum brachistochrone problem, exceptional point, singularity, Dirac equation, chiral spinors, ultra-relativistic limit, Krein space

Publ.-Id: 10445 - Permalink


Millisecond processing beyond chip technology: From electronics to photonics
Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.; Posselt, M.; Prucnal, S.; Rebohle, L.; Voelskow, M.; Zhou, S.; Mcmahon, R. A.; Smith, M.; Gebel, T.; Hentsch, W.; Fendler, R.; Lüthge, T.; Satta, A.; Moe Børseth, T.; Kuznetsov, A. Y.; Svensson, B. G.;
There is a clear and increasing interest in short time annealing processing far below one second, i.e. the lower limit of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) called spike annealing. This was driven by the need of suppressing the so-called Transient Enhanced Diffusion in advanced boron-implanted shallow pn-junctions in silicon technology. Meanwhile the interest in flash lamp annealing (FLA) in the millisecond range spread out into other fields related to silicon technology and beyond. This paper reports on recent experiments regarding shallow junction engineering in germanium, annealing of ITO layers on glass and plastic foil to form an conductive layer as well as investigations which we did during the last years in the field of wide band gap semiconductor materials (SiC, ZnO). A more common feature evolving from our work was related to the modeling of wafer stress during millisecond thermal processing with flash lamps. Finally recent achievements in the field of silicon-based light emission basing on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Light Emitting Devices will be reported.
Keywords: Flash lamp annealing, silicon, silicon carbide, germanium zinc oxide, silicon-based light emission, ITO layers
  • Contribution to proceedings
    15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors IEEE RTP 2007, 02.-07.10.2007, Catania, Italy
    Millisecond processing beyond chip technology: From electronics to photonics, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Electron Devices Society, 1-4244-1227-7, 41-49
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors IEEE RTP 2007, 02.-07.10.2007, Catania, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10443 - Permalink


Bakterielle Hüllproteine (S-Layer) als Werkzeug für die Entwicklung nanoskaliger Katalysatoren, Biosensoren und Filtermaterialien
Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Innovationsforum "REDUPHARM", 07.09.2007, Dessau, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10442 - Permalink


Pre-test CFD simulations of Gidropress Mixing Facility Experiments using ANSYS CFX
Höhne, T.; Rohde, U.; Melideo, D.; Moretti, F.; D’Auria, F.; Shishov, A.; Lisenkov, E.;
The main objective for the quantification of the fluid mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum is the demonstration of the safety of the nuclear plant during non-symmetrical transients. This concerns two main topics: The risk of fragile brittle of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) transients and the risk of core reactivity excursion during non-symmetrical transient such as Main Steam Line Breaks (MSLB) or Boron Dilution Transients (BDT). These scenarios are studied in the 1:5 scaled VVER-1000 reactor model at OKB “Gidropress” in the framework of a TACIS project: ““Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet”.

The 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes provide an effective tool for mixing calculations. In recent years, the rapid development of both the software and the computers has made it feasible to study the coolant mixing in sufficient detail and to perform the calculations for transient conditions. The CFD-Code used was ANSYS CFX. The geometric details of the construction internals inside the RPV have a strong influence on the flow field and on the mixing. Therefore, a detailed representation of the inlet region, the spacer in the downcomer, the elliptical perforated plate and the complicated structures in the lower plenum was necessary. All parts of the lower plenum structures were modeled in detail. The computational grid contained 4.3 Million nodes. In the VVER-1000 reactor, similar characteristic flow and mixing pattern are observed in the case of nominal flow conditions like for Western type PWR. Sensitivity analyses were performed following recommendations included in the ECORA Best Practice Guidelines.

Regarding the flow field and mixing in the downcomer during four loop operation at nominal flow rates, it has been shown that a sharp sector formation like in western 4-loop reactors appears, the flow field is inhomogeneous; in fact high velocity values occur beside the loop positions, and not below the inlet nozzles, which indicates the presence of recirculation areas or stagnant zones. Regarding the flow field and mixing at the core inlet, it has been shown that the mass flow rate distribution is more or less homogenous over the core diameter due to the lower plenum internals, the perturbed sector covers more or less one fourth of the core; a sharp sector formation like in western 4-loop reactors appears, weak mixing zones appear (around 97% of the unperturbed concentration). In most cases, the sensitivity analyses performed did not show any appreciable dependence of the results with respect to the addressed parameters. A three loop operation was chosen to show the differences of the flow and mixing behavior compared to the four loop operation.

An extensive experimental program is now running, studying different flow conditions in the reactor mock up, like the start of the 1st coolant pump or natural circulation conditions with density differences of the primary coolant. Pre and post test CFD simulations are carried out for code validation and for a deeper understanding of the flow and mixing behavior in the VVER-1000 reactor also in the future of the project.
Keywords: CFD, Coolant Mixing
  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine
    Proceeding, 555-571
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine

Publ.-Id: 10441 - Permalink


Electronic structure study of the "ferric star" single molecule magnet
Prinz, M.; Takacs, A. F.; Kuepper, K.; Postnikov, A. V.; Scheurer, A.; Saalfrank, R. W.; Sperner, S.; Prince, K. C.; Neumann, M.;
New materials based on metal-oxygen clusters are promising stages of development in nano/micro electronic applications that can lead to the emergence of a new technology. Molecules containing several transition metal ions can exhibit properties similar to nanoscale magnetic particles. Our approach in this field is the study of the electronic structure of these materials by means of spectroscopic investigations in combination with theoretical calculations. The electronic structure of magnetic molecules of the type [Fe(FeL2)3]*4CHCl3 where L=CH3N(CH2CH2O)^2-_2 NO2 has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray emission spectroscopy as well as theoretical density-functional-based methods. Experimental XPS results are in a good agreement to the calculated tDOS, also the partial DOS agrees very well with the XES results. The Fe core level spectra indicate that Fe is in the Fe 2+ state, which is in a good agreement with the calculated magnetic moment of 4 muB/f.u. The neighbouring atoms primarily oxygen and nitrogen exhibit a magnetic polarisation yielding effective spin S=5/2 per iron atom. Due to antiparallel orientation of the magnetic moments of the central Fe ion relatively to three peripheric Fe, the total resulting spin per molecule in the ground state amounts to S=5.
Keywords: Molecular magnetism, high-spin state, electronic structure, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism
  • Poster
    VUV XV The 15th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 29.07.-03.08.2007, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10440 - Permalink


Magnetization Dynamics investigated by X-Ray Microscopy
Quitmann, C.; Back, C.; Buess, M.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Kuepper, K.; Raabe, J.
Magnetic micro-objects and their dynamics have attracted considerable attention recently. When excited by either a short (~100ps) magnetic field pulse [1,2], or by a high frequency (>100MHz) sine wave [3] it is possible to investigate various excitations of the magnetization in such thin film structures[4]. Depending on the size and geometry these objects contain either only a single magnetic domain, or a pattern consisting of several domains separated by domain walls and by vortices or antivortices.
We combine time resolved x-ray microscopy experiments with micro-magnetic simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of such objects and into the coupling between the various excitations.
We start with simple discs or squares, where three modes connected to the homogenously magnetized domains, the domain walls and the vortex exist. From there we move to more complex objects. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combination of vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single cross-tie wall can be understood as being a coupled micromagnetic system with three static solitons. We report on its magnetization dynamics including the vortex-antivortex interactions. The spectrum of eigenmodes is investigated as well as the effect of different vortex core orientations. We show that the vortex dynamics can be used to identify the core configuration which is not directly accessible to x-ray microscopy because of its limited spatial resolution.

[1] J. Raabe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 217204 (2005)
[2] M. Buess et al., Phys Rev. B 74, 100404 (2006)
[3] B. Van Waeyenberge et al., Nature 444, 461 (2006)
[4] R. Hertel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177202 (2006)
Keywords: Magnetism, vortex, antivortex, magnetization dynamics
  • Lecture (Conference)
    VUV XV The 15th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 29.07.-03.08.2007, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10439 - Permalink


New aspects in modelling buoyancy driven flow at the ROCOM test facility
Vaibar, R.; Hoehne, T.;
The influence of density differences on the mixing of the primary loop inventory and the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water in the downcomer of a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) was analyzed at the ROssendorf COolant Mixing (ROCOM) test facility. ROCOM is a 1:5 scaled model of a German PWR, and has been designed for coolant mixing studies. It is equipped with advanced instrumentation, which delivers high-resolution information for temperature or Boron concentration fields. This paper presents ROCOM experiments in which water with higher density was injected into a cold leg of the reactor model. Wire-mesh sensors measuring the concentration of a tracer in the injected water were installed in the cold leg, in the upper and lower part of the downcomer. An experiment with 15 % of the design flow rate in one loop and 10 % density difference between the ECC and loop water was selected for validation of the CFD software ANSYS CFX. A mesh with two million control volumes was used for the calculations. The effects of turbulence on the mean flow were modelled with a Reynolds stress turbulence model, Shear stress transport model including gravity terms in turbulence production and dissipation. The results of previous numerical studies showed allready that mixing is influenced by buoyancy effects. In this recent study the numerical grid was improved and extendend.
Therefore ANSYS CFX could predict the observed flow patterns and mixing phenomena a lot better than in previous studies.
Keywords: density difference, mixing , Pressurised Water Reactor, ROCOM, turbulence modelling
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ANSYS Conference & 25. CADFEM Users´ Meeting, 21.-23.11.2007, Dresden, Germany
    CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 10438 - Permalink


Buoyancy driven turbulent flow and experimental validation at the VeMix test facility
Vaibar, R.; Sühnel, T.; Da Silva, M. J.;
Buoyancy driven flow is often presented in many engineering application such as mixing process of fluids with different density. The aim of our study is to simulate mixing processes that are relevant in safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The boron dilution problem is one such safety analysis issue.
Borated and unborated water are of different densities and may be of different temperatures, what causes additional density differences. The degree of mixing of low and high borated coolant is a critical issue with respect to reactivity insertion into the reactor core.
As nuclear reactor geometries are complex, the mixing process not widely understood and the influence of the buoyancy is small, a VeMix (Vertical Mixing) test facility was chosen for validation of numerical models of the mixing process. The experimental data was taken from the optical method and surface wire mesh method.
Keywords: turbulent buoyancy driven flow, surface wire mesh, VeMix, mixing process
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Computational Mechanics 2007, 05.-07.11.2007, Castle Nectiny, Czech Republic
  • Open Access LogoApplied and Computational Mechanics 1(2007), 677-684

Publ.-Id: 10437 - Permalink


The dance of the domains: Excitations in magnetic microstructures
Quitmann, C.; Raabe, J.; Buess, M.; Back, C.; Perzelmaier, K.; Kuepper, K.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Magnetic objects of nano- or micrometer dimensions have fascinating properties. They contain regions with long range order between the atomic moments (domains) which are separated by domain walls. These domain patterns can be controlled by the size, the shape and the material. We use x-ray microscopy to study such magnetic micro-objects and investigate their dynamics. Using a stroboscopic pump-probe technique we determine the eigen-modes, their frequencies, damping and the coupling between them.
Starting from simple objects like squares containing only domains, domain walls and a single vortex, we move to more complex objects like rectangles with a cross-tie configuration. The latter contain two vortices and one anti-vortex. Because these three vortices are coupled their dynamics is very complex and depends on the relative vortex orientation despite of a degenerate ground state.
Magnetic microstructures imaged using a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) and showing homogenous domains separated by domain walls. The square (left) contains a single vortex, the rectangle (right) contains two vortices and an anti-vortex in the center.
Keywords: magnetism, magnetization dynamics, vortex, antivortex, PEEM
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ALC'07 - 6th International Symposium on Atomic Level Characterizations for New Materials and Devices '07, 28.10.-02.11.2007, Kanazawa, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10436 - Permalink


Ionenmodifizierte Oberflächen für die Magnetsensorik
Fassbender, J.ORC
Übersichtsvortrag zu neueren Arbeiten zur Funktionalisierung von Oberflächen für Magnetsensor-Anwendungen.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, ion implantation, self-organization, sensors, exchange-bias
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop "Funktionalisierte Oberflächen", 22.11.2007, Augsburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10435 - Permalink


Ions hit magnetism - new challenges for the design of artificial nanostructures
Fassbender, J.ORC
In recent years the tailoring of magnetic properties by means of ion irradiation techniques has become fashionable. Since the magnetic properties of multilayers depend sensitively on the mutual interfaces a modification of these interfaces by light ion irradiation leads to a local modification of the magnetic anisotropy, the exchange bias or the interlayer exchange coupling [1]. As an example it will be demonstrated that ion irradiation in an applied magnetic field allows to set the uniaxial anisotropy direction on a micrometer scale in the case of soft magnetic alloys [2]. However, in order to modify the structural and magnetic properties not only light ion irradiation but also ion implantation doping can be used. If, for example, Cr is implanted in thin Permalloy films the Curie temperature and the saturation mag¬netization can be reduced, which consecutively leads to a decrease of the magnetic anisotropy and an increase of the magnetic damping behavior [3]. The formation of magnetically dead layers at the interfaces to buffer and cap layers can be investigated using Ni implantation [4].
In an alternative route to design magnetic properties periodically modulated substrates are employed [5]. These modulated substrates are created by means of low energy ion erosion. A ripple structure with a typical periodicity of 30 – 50 nm and a ripple height of about 2 nm is created on a Si substrate. Subsequently deposited Permalloy films exhibit a uniaxial anisotropy which is about a factor of 20 larger than conventionally prepared films. If exchange bias bi¬layers are deposited the interplay between the unidirectional and the ripple-induced uniaxial anisotropy contributions can be investigated.

Refs.:
1. J. Fassbender, D. Ravelosona, Y. Samson, J. Phys. D 37, R179 (2004).
2. J. McCord, T. Gemming, L. Schultz, J. Fassbender, M. O. Liedke, M. Frommberger,
E. Quandt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 162502 (2005).
3. J. Fassbender, J. von Borany, A. Mücklich, K. Potzger, W. Möller, J. McCord,
L. Schultz, R. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184410 (2006).
4. J. Fassbender, J. McCord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252501 (2006).
5. M. O. Liedke, B. Liedke, A. Keller, B. Hillebrands, A. Mücklich, S. Facsko,
J. Fassbender, Phys. Rev. B 75, 220407(R) (2007).
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, ion implantation, ripple formation, self organization, patterning, FIB
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 09.10.2007, Sydney, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 11.10.2007, Canberra, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 21.11.2007, Augsburg, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium, 14.11.2007, Chemnitz, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Magnetic Nanomaterials, 05.02.2008, Leuven, Belgien
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Kolloquium, 06.05.2008, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag, 29.05.2008, Saarbrücken, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Kolloqium an der University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu, China, 10.09.2012, Chengdu, China
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium an der Universtität Osnabrück, 18.10.2012, Osnabrück, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10434 - Permalink


Dynamic vortex-antivortex interaction in a single cross-tie wall
Kuepper, K.; Buess, M.; Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; Fassbender, J.ORC
A fascinating property of micromagnetism comes from the possibility to control the domain and vortex configuration through the sample shape and size. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combination of two vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single cross-tie wall can be understood as being a coupled micromagnetic system with three static solitons. Here we report on its magnetization dynamics including the vortex-antivortex interactions [1]. The spectrum of eigenmodes is investigated as well as the effect of different vortex core orientations. These are important for the magnetization dynamics since they determine the sense of rotation for the gyrotropic motion. Since three cores are present in total 23 = 8 configurations are possible. On the left side of the figure micromagnetic simulations of the vortex (left, right) and antivortex displacements upon field pulse excitation are shown for the first 16 ns. It is clearly observed that different types of configurations lead to completely different dynamic behaviors. The origin is the dynamic coupling of the cores which is mediated by the exchange coupling through the adjacent domain walls. This coupling is significant and introduces unexpected effects, such as the quenching of gyrotropic motion for the antivortex in certain core configurations. Another consequence is the absence of simple eigen modes describing the vortex gyration. The experimental investigation of the vortex core dynamics by means of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy using x-ray magnetic dichroism as a contrast mechanism allows to determine the actual core configuration although the lateral core size is below the spatial resolution of the microscope. This is done by comparing the experimentally determined core displacements with the micromagnetically simulated ones as shown on the right side of the figure.
Keywords: magnetism, magnetization dynamics, PEEM, vortex, antivortex, interaction
  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers, 15.-19.10.2007, Perth, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag an der Université Paris Sud, 30.11.2007, Orsay, France

Publ.-Id: 10433 - Permalink


Ion mass dependence of the irradiation induced local creation of ferromagnetism in Fe60Al40 alloys
Fassbender, J.ORC; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Möller, W.; Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Nogues, J.
Ion irradiation of Fe60Al40 alloys results in the phase transformation from the paramagnetic, chemically ordered B2-phase to the ferromagnetic, chemically disordered A2-phase. The magnetic phase transformation is related to the number of displacements per atom (dpa) during the irradiation. For heavy ions (Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) a universal curve is observed with a steep increase in the fraction of ferromagnetic phase reaching saturation, i. e., a complete phase transformation, at about 0.5 dpa. However, already less than 0.05 dpa are sufficient to create significant ferromagnetism without a change of surface topography. If light ions are used (He+, Ne+) a pronounced deviation from the universal curve is observed. This is attributed to bulk vacancy diffusion from dilute collision cascades, which leads to a partial recovery of the thermodynamically favored B2-phase. In any case the initial paramagnetic state can be restored by annealing the samples to 800 K. In addition, the potential to create local ferromagnetic areas embedded in a paramagnetic matrix is demonstrated.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, phase transformation, intermetallic alloys

Publ.-Id: 10432 - Permalink


Creation of sub-100 nm ferromagnetic dots by selective irradiation of a paramagnetic intermetallic alloy
Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.
Sub-50 nm ferromagnetic dots embedded in a non-magnetic matrix have been controllably generated by selective, low fluence, ion irradiation of paramagnetic Fe60Al40 (atomic %) intermetallic sheets. The process is demonstrated by sequential focused ion beam irradiation and by broad beam irradiation through lithographically defined masks. Due to the low fluences required, this method does not induce any corrugation of the surface. The dots exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape of the structures, with the smallest ones (<50 nm) having square hysteresis loops with coercivities in excess of µ0HC = 50 mT. This presents a promising novel type of patterned recording media free from tribological and exchange coupling effects.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, phase transformation, intermetallic alloy, patterning, FIB
  • Small 5(2009), 229
    DOI: DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800783
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2008), 04.-08.05.2008, Madrid, Spain

Publ.-Id: 10431 - Permalink


Transition metal doping of semiconductors by ion beams - diluted vs. granular magnetism
Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.; Reuther, H.; Helm, M.; Brauer, W.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Arenholz, E.; Denlinger, J. D.; Zeitz, W.-D.; Imielski, P.
Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are based on common semiconducting material like GaAs, Si, Ge, GaN or ZnO doped with a few percent of a transition or rare earth metal. While early work has been performed mainly by polish groups in the 1970ies and 80ies, DMS have attracted worldwide scientific attention during the last 7 years due to their application potential in spintronics. This was triggered by the discovery of ferromagnetic GaMnAs and the theoretical prediction of room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO:Mn and GaN:Mn by T. Dietl and H. Ohno [1]. One of the main obstacles while creating a DMS is secondary phase formation. Since solubility limits are rather low, non-equilibrium doping techniques like low temperature film growth are commonly used. On the other hand, ion implantation offers superb possibilities for low temperature doping but is always connected with lattice damage of the target material. Combining ion implantation with another non-equilibrium technique, i.e. rapid thermal annealing, leads to a diluted state while the crystallinity of the target material is restored. This has been shown for Si:Mn [2].
Recently, we investigated the secondary phase formation for Fe,Co and Ni as well as Gd, Tb implanted in ZnO single crystals. We found, that at elevated temperatures tiny superparamagnetic nanoparticles are formed in all transition metal (TM) doped samples. These phases can hardly be identified using lab X-ray diffraction (XRD), e.g. in the case of Fe. Only application of high resolution methods like synchrotron XRD, susceptometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy allows their identification [3]. On the other hand, low temperature implantation leads to ferromagnetic properties not originating from conventional superparamagnetism. The applicability of both the granular as well as the diluted magnetic materials will be discussed.

Reference
[1] T. Dietl, et al., Science 287, 1019 (2000).
[2] M. Bolduc, et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 033302 (2005).
[3] K. Potzger, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052508 (2006).
Keywords: DMS, ion implantation, ZnO
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Eastmag 2007, 23.-26.8.2007, Kazan, Russia

Publ.-Id: 10430 - Permalink


Micro-/nano-scale magnetic patterning of paramagnetic FeAl intermetallic alloys
Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Concustell, A.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.
Atomically ordered Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloys are paramagnetic at room temperature, while disordered Fe60Al40 becomes ferromagnetic. This effect can be used to generate arrays of ferromagnetic dots embedded in a paramagnetic matrix. This can be accomplished by two different routes: (i) selective mechanical deformation by means of nanoindentation and (ii) local irradiation procedures, either through lithographed masks or using focused ion beam. Concerning route (i), two types of geometries were designed: periodic arrays of triangular dots (resulting from the pyramidal shape of the Berkovich indenter) and arrays of straight lines produced by scratch [1]. Route (ii) has the advantage over nanoindentation that due to the low doses used it does not induce any roughening of the surface, avoiding tribological problems. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of a magneto-optical Kerr effect setup, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. Furthermore, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures (i.e., around 900 K), the magnetic properties are lost due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. Hence, these methods may lead to a novel type of patterned recording media free from exchange coupling effects. Moreover, they can be easily extrapolated to a variety of other systems, such as CoZr, CoAl, CoGa, CoV, NiSn, FeGe, FePt3, FeV or even austenitic stainless steel.

[1] J. Sort, A. Concustell, E. Menéndez, S. Suriñach, K.V. Rao, S.C. Deevi, M.D. Baró and J. Nogués. Periodic arrays of micrometer and sub-micrometer magnetic structures prepared by nanoindentation of a nonmagnetic intermetallic compound. Adv. Mater. 18, 1717-1720 (2006).
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, intermetallic alloy, FIB
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Winter School "Women in Nano", 07.-09.02.2007, Kranjska Gora, Slovenia

Publ.-Id: 10429 - Permalink


Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a stirred reactor
Hristov, H. V.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.; Kryk, H.;
Experimental and numerical studies of a gas-liquid two-phase flow were applied to a non-baffled laboratory-scale stirred tank reactor, mechanically agitated by a gas-inducing turbine. The dispersion of air as gas phase into isopropanol as liquid phase at room temperature under different stirrer speeds was investigated. The X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements were taken at five different stirrer speeds starting from 1000 rpm at which the gas inducement occurs for the given operating conditions. The considerable difficulties in acquiring the phase distribution due to beam hardening and radiation scattering effects were overcome by developing a suitable measurement setup as well as by calibration and software correction methods to achieve high accuracy. The computational fluid dynamics analyses of the stirred tank reactor were performed in 3D with CFX 10.0 numerical software.
Keywords: CFD, X-Ray tomography, stirred vessel, two-phase flow, gas-inducing impeller
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    Paper No PS6_8
  • Poster
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10428 - Permalink


Germination pathway of long-time storable biocer layers with immobilized bacterial endospores
Matys, S.; Raff, J.; Soltmann, U.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Böttcher, H.; Pompe, W.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    XIVth International Sol-Gel Conference, 02.-07.09.2007, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 10427 - Permalink


The GDT-based fusion neutron source as driver of minor actinide burners
Noack, K.;
From today´s point of view, the so called Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to have a good chance for playing an important role in a long-term utilization of fission reactor technology. The special task which could be solved by means of these facilities is the incineration of minor actinides, which represent the component of nuclear waste causing the greatest concern. Current concepts of such ADS use an intense spallation neutron source for driving the sub-critical fission system in which the minor actinides are to be burned. The Budker Institute Novosibirsk (Russia) is developing a project of a 14 MeV fusion neutron source, which is primarily destined as irradiation facility for fusion material research. The potential of this neutron source as driver of a minor actinides burner was studied and compared with the spallation driven burner. The lecture presents the main results of the study.
Keywords: nuclear waste, transmutation, minor actinides,driven sub-critical system, fusion neutron source
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutsseminar, 24.08.2007, Uppsala, Sweden

Publ.-Id: 10426 - Permalink


Focused ion beam induced synthesis of a porous antimony nanowire network
Schöndorfer, C.; Lugstein, A.; Hyun, Y.-J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Bischoff, L.; Nellen, P. M.; Callegari, V.; Pongratz, P.;
We present a focused ion beam-based approach for the synthesis of an nanofiber network.
The nanofibers, with a homogeneous distribution of diameters of about 25 nm and lengths up to several microns, are synthesized in a self-assembling process without any additional material source at room temperature. It is possible to recrystallize the as-grown amorphous nanofibers by moderate rapid thermal annealing at 473 K. These results have been verified by means of scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. As this approach is not limited solely to the material discussed here, other substrates (e.g., GaSb and Ge ) and ion sources should extend this method to other materials, which offers a great potential for future nanoscale devices and applications.
Keywords: focused ion beam; antimony; nanofiber network; nanoscale devices

Publ.-Id: 10425 - Permalink


Do we know eventually p(e)?
Kämpfer, B.; Bluhm, M.; Schade, H.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.;
A quasi-particle model is employed to derive from available lattice QCD calculations an equation of state useable in hydrodynamical simulations of the expansion stage of strongly interacting matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Various lattice results give an astonishing agreement of the pressure as a function of energy density at large energy densities supposed the pseudo-critical temperature is in the range $170 \pm 15$ MeV, while in the transition region the equation of state is not yet well constrained. Therefore, one can construct a family of equations of state by bridging the uncertain region from the uniquely given high-energy density region part to a hadronic equation of state by suitable interpolation together with the extrapolation to non-zero baryon density by means of the quasi-particle model. We present a series of tests of the model, discuss the chiral extrapolation and the role of Landau damping. We also briefly sketch the path of cosmic matter in the early universe in the phase diagram.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10424 - Permalink


Planar array sensor for high-speed component distribution imaging in fluid flow applications
Da Silva, M. J.; Sühnel, T.; Schleicher, E.; Vaibar, R.; Lucas, D.; Hampel, U.;
A novel planar array sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements is presented which may be applied to visualize surface fluid distributions. The sensor is manufactured using printed-circuit board fabrication technology and comprises of 64 x 64 interdigital sensing structures. An associated electronics measures the electrical conductivity of the fluid over each individual sensing structure in a multiplexed manner by applying a bipolar excitation voltage and by measuring the electrical current flowing from a driver electrode to a sensing electrode. After interrogating all sensing structures, a two-dimensional image of the conductivity distribution over a surface is obtained which in turn represents fluid distributions over sensor’s surface. The employed electronics can acquire up to 2500 frames per second thus being able to monitor fast transient phenomena. The system has been evaluated regarding measurement accuracy and depth sensitivity. Furthermore, the application of the sensor in the investigation of two different flow applications is presented.
Keywords: planar sensor, interdigital electrode, flow imaging, multiphase flow, multicomponent flow, phase distribution
  • Open Access LogoSensors 7(2007), 2430-2445

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Publ.-Id: 10423 - Permalink


Structural and magnetic properties of non-stoichiometric Fe2Zr
Mattern, N.; Zhang, W. X.; Roth, S.; Reuther, H.; Baehtz, C.; Richter, M.;
The lattice parameters and magnetic properties of the C15 Laves phase Fe2Zr vary systematically within the homogeneity range of the compound from 66.7 at.% to 74.5 at.% Fe. In the non-stoichiometric compounds Zr is partly substituted by the excess Fe. Themagnetic moment per iron atom increases with the Fe content. Electronic structure calculations show an enhanced magnetic moment of the excess Fe at the Zr site, which explains well the composition dependence.

Publ.-Id: 10422 - Permalink


Ultra fast limited-angle type X-ray tomography
Bieberle, M.; Fischer, F.; Schleicher, E.; Koch, D.; Aktay, K. S. D. C.; Menz, H.-J.; Mayer, H.-G.; Hampel, U.;
We present an ultra-fast electron beam X-ray computed tomography technique usable for imaging of fast processes, such as multi phase flows or moving parts in technical or biological objects. The setup consists of an electron beam unit with fast deflection capability and an ultra fast multi-element X-ray detector and achieves 10,000 frames per second image rate. Since full sampling of the Radon space requires an angular overlap of source path and detector which strongly decreases axial resolution we devised a limited-angle type tomography. As a demonstration we visualised the movement of particles and gas bubbles rising in a stagnant liquid.
Keywords: electron beam X-ray tomography, computed tomography, flow measurement

Publ.-Id: 10421 - Permalink


Sensoren zur Strömungsdiagnostik im industriellen und umwelttechnischen Einsatz
Schleicher, E.; Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.;
In vielen Bereichen der Industrie bestimmen Mehrphasenströmungen die Effizienz und Sicherheit von technischen Verfahren und Prozessen. Ob in Chemiereaktoren, bei der Erdölförderung und -verarbeitung, in Wasseraufbereitungsanlagen, Biogasanlagen, Kraftwerkskühlkreisläufen oder bei Strömungsmaschinen wie Pumpen und Turbokupplungen komplexe mehrphasige Strömungsformen von Stoffgemischen sind im industriellen Umfeld immer schwierig messtechnisch zu erfassen. Im Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf wurden Sensoren entwickelt, die mehrphasige Strömungen mit sehr hoher räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung vermessen. Erstmalig können damit komplexe Strömungen in beliebigen Stoffgemischen sichtbar gemacht werden.

Publ.-Id: 10420 - Permalink


Nitrogen plasma ion implantation in silicon using short pulse high voltage glow discharges
Tan, I. H.; Ueda, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Diaz, B.; Abramof, E.; Reuther, H.;
A high voltage (HV) pulse generator based on Blumlein technology was used to implant nitrogen ions into silicon substrates by immersion in a plasma generated by the HV pulse itself. Working pressures, applied HVs and treatment times were varied. Elemental depth profiles determined by Auger electron spectroscopy showed deeper penetration for higher voltages and broader profiles for increased treatment times indicating higher diffusion, as expected. Penetration depths, however, were about half of the values calculated by the SRIM code, probably due to the short duration of the HV pulse. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction ω/2θ scans measured around the (0 0 4) Si Bragg reflection of implanted samples had shoulders in the lower ω side, indicating a lattice expansion in the direction normal to the surface. Dynamical diffraction theory of Takagi–Taupin was used to fit the measured spectra, thus finding the strain profiles in the implanted samples. Both maximum strain values and integrated strains increased for samples implanted with higher voltages and treatment times and were almost independent of pressure.

Publ.-Id: 10419 - Permalink


Structural Characterization of U(VI) Surface Complexes on Kaolinite in the Presence of Humic Acid Using EXAFS Spectroscopy
Krepelova, A.; Reich, T.; Sachs, S.; Drebert, J.; Bernhard, G.;
To determine the influence of humic acid (HA), pH, and presence of atmospheric CO2 on the sorption of U(VI) onto kaolinite, the structure of the surface complexes was studied by U LIII edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The best fits to the experimental EXAFS data were obtained by including two uranium coordination shells with two axial and five equatorial oxygen atoms at 1.77 ± 0.02 and 2.34 ± 0.02 Å, respectively, and two coordination shells with one Al/Si atom each at 3.1 and 3.3 Å. As in case of the binary system U(VI)-kaolinite, uranium forms inner-sphere surface complexes by edge-sharing with aluminum octahedra and/or silicon tetrahedra. HA and atmospheric CO2 as well as pH had no influence on the EXAFS structural parameters in the pH range of 5 – 8. In spite of the presence of HA, U(VI) prefers to sorb directly onto kaolinite and not to HA that is bound to the clay surface. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of kaolinite particles that had been exposed to HA suspensions showed that significant parts of the kaolinite surface are not covered by HA.
Keywords: uranium(VI); kaolinite; humic acid; sorption; EXAFS; XPS; surface complexes

Publ.-Id: 10418 - Permalink


Photoproduction of phi meson off the deuteron near threshold
Titov, A.; Kämpfer, B.;
We discuss coherent and incoherent phi meson photoproduction off the deuteron at low energy and small momentum transfer with the aim to check whether the recent experimental data need for their interpretation an inclusion of exotic channels. Our analysis of the differential cross section and spin-density matrix elements shows that new data on the gamma D phi X reaction at E_gamma 2~GeV may be understood on the basis of conventional dynamics. However, a certain ambiguity of the deviation between the model predictions and the LEPS data on gamma p phi p reaction still remains. For a firm conclusion about a possible manifestation of exotic channels one has to improve the resolution of the data with providing additional information on channels with spin- and double-spin flip transitions being sensitive to the properties of the photoproduction amplitude in gamma p and gamma D reactions which may be used as an additional independent test of the phi meson photoproduction mechanism.

Publ.-Id: 10417 - Permalink


Hemocompatibility of titanium-based coatings prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition
Tsyganov, I. A.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.; Reuther, H.; Mashina, A. I.; Rustichelli, F.;
Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) has been proved to be an effective approach to enhance surface properties of various types of materials. In this work structure, phase composition, microhardness and surface properties, such as wettability and surface energy of layers of the ternary system Ti-N-O produced by MePIIID were investigated. To study the correlation between structure of coating and hemocompatibility the thrombocyte adhesion as well as the fibrinogen adsorption on the surface were measured. The blood compatibility of Ti oxide can be improved by the addition of nitrogen into the layer. The thrombocyte adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were lower for TiNxOy than for TiO2. This correlates with a lower hydrophobicity and higher polar component of the surface energy for TiNxOy. The best hemocompatibility as well as the maximal microhardness have been found for the coating TiN0.4O1.6.
Keywords: Titanium oxynitride, Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), Filtered arc, Phase formation, Hemocompatibility
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 257(2007), 122-127

Publ.-Id: 10416 - Permalink


Fragmentation Reactions of Singly and Doubly Protonated Thiourea- and Sugar-substituted Cyclams and their Transition Metal Complexes
Felder, T.; Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Schalley, C. A.;
Cyclam macrocycles tetrasubstituted with amino-, thiourea-, and sugar-terminated side chains are ionized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as singly or doubly protonated species or as transition-metal complexes. Their fragmentation behavior is examined in a Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Typically, fragmentation occurs within the side chains through a number of different 1,2-elimination reactions irrespective of the absence or presence of a transition metal ion such as Co2+, Ni2+, or Zn2+. A remarkable exception is Cu2+ which induces ring cleavage reactions. This is traced back to an electron transfer from the cyclam nitrogen atoms to the Cu2+ ion. The electron transfer creates a cation-radical within the macrocycle which induces typical fragmentation reactions such as -cleavages that lead to fragmentation within the macrocycle. This interpretation is in line with fragmentation experiments on unsubstituted cyclam and its complexes

Publ.-Id: 10415 - Permalink


Copper(II)-mediated self-assembling of hydrophilic oxybathophenanthroline dendrons
Stephan, H.; Juran, S.; Geipel, G.; Hahn, U.; Werner, N.; Vögtle, F.;
Derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline and their metal complexes are of considerable interest in bioinorganic chemistry, biology and medicine.1 In this nexus, dendritic modification gain in importance as they open the way for tailoring nano dimension, and solubility or complexation behaviour.2 We described hydrophobic oxybathophenanthroline ligands with attached Frechet-type dendrons capable of forming stable copper(II) complexes in organic media.3 Currently, effort is also to be devoted to the synthesis of hydrophilic 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands LG1 – LG3 containing short methoxypolyethoxy (‘PEG’) groups on the surface. Radiotracer experiments using 64Cu and time-resolved laser-induced spectroscopy point to a spontaneous formation of stable 1:2 complexes (metal:ligand) with copper(II) in aqueous solution.
  • Poster
    Templates in Chemistry and Beyond, 13.-14.09.2007, Bonn, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10414 - Permalink


Synthese und Charakterisierung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit Zucker- und Peptidgruppen
Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.;
Ziel ist die Herstellung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit peripheren Biomolekülen sowie einem metallbindenden Zentrum. Als Kernbaustein wird Cyclam ausgewählt, das zur stabilen Bindung von diagnostisch und therapeutisch relevanten Radiometallnukliden, wie 64/67Cu, 99mTc und 188Re, geeignet ist. Die Anknüpfung von Biomolekülen, wie Zucker oder Peptide, an die Oberfläche des Ligandgerüstes soll die Einstellung definierter Löslichkeits- und selektiver Bindungseigenschaften erlauben.
  • Lecture (others)
    15. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 27.-29.09.2007, Morschach, Switzerland

Publ.-Id: 10413 - Permalink


Carbohydration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam): synthesis and binding properties toward concanavalin A
Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.; Kirchner, R.; Seidel, J.;
Two novel glycocluster ligands with cyclam core bearing thiourea-linked D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose at the periphery have been synthesized. The interaction with concanavalin A has been studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry for characterizing protein-ligand interactions. The sugar-containing multivalent ligands showed higher association affinity compared to the sugar monomers which is attributed to an entropy driven glycoside clustering effect.

Publ.-Id: 10412 - Permalink


Towards bioinspired dendritic ligands for imaging and therapeutic purposes
Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.;
Metalloradiopharmaceuticals of the metallic radionuclides 64/67Cu, 99mTc, 186/188Re and 90Y are often used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.1 Ligand multimers derived from radionuclide chelating macrocycles are attractive candidates for applications in oncologic diagnostics and endoradiotherapy. In this perspective, cyclam and its derivatives form very stable complexes in particular with transition and rare earth metal ions as the radionuclides mentioned above.2 Recently, we could show that a star-like cyclam ligand appended with four PEG-arms rapidly forms stable copper(II) complexes.3

Currently, we are focusing our attention on the development of dendritic ligands having both enhanced complex stability and improved bio-availability. Branched ligands possessing biomolecules such as sugar and peptide moieties may show both unique cell uptake behaviour and specific ligand-receptor interaction. In this nexus, we built up ligands I and II with a cyclam core. D-glucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose and the hexapeptide (Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) have been chosen as biomolecules.

The interaction of the sugar-containing ligands I with concanavalin A has been studied using isothermal titration microcalorimetry in order to characterize protein-ligand interaction. The results clearly indicate a cluster glycoside effect.

The preparation of asymmetric branched ligands possessing peptide moieties is currently in progress. Using this synthetic concept, it appears possible to adjust the solubility properties, the binding behaviour, and the biodistribution of these bioinspired ligands. The corresponding radiocopper complexes would allow the non-invasive in vivo imaging and therapeutic application.


1 X. Liang and P. Sadler, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2004, 33, 246.
2 R. M. Izatt, K. Pawlak, J. S. Bradshaw and R. L. Bruening, Chem. Rev., 1991, 91, 1721.
3 H. Stephan, G. Geipel, D. Appelhans, G. Bernhard, D. Tabuani, H. Komber and B. Voit, Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 3209.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Dendrimer Symposium, 28.08.-01.09.2007, Toulouse, France

Publ.-Id: 10411 - Permalink


Expeditious synthesis of steroids containing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain as potential glucocorticoid receptor imaging agents
Wüst, F.; Carlson, K. E.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.;
In our effort to develop imaging agents for brain glucocorticoid receptors, we have prepared several novel glucocorticoids possessing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain. The synthesis was accomplished via a Mitsunobu reaction with thiobenzoic acid starting from cortisol, prednisolone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide to give the corresponding S-thiobenzoates in 75-82% yield. Subsequent saponification and reaction with methyl iodide afforded C-21 methylthioethers in 68-82% yield. All compounds were tested in an in vitro glucocorticoid receptor binding assay. Triamcinolone acetonide-based compound 12 showed promising binding affinity of 144% relative to dexamethasone (100%).
Compound 12 was selected for radiolabeling with the short-lived positron emitter carbon-11. The radiolabeling was carried out starting from S-thiobenzoate 8 and in situ formation of the corresponding sodium thiolate, which was further reacted with [11C]methyl iodide. The obtained radiochemical yield was 20-30%. The specific activity was determined to be 20-40 GBq/µmol at the end-of-synthesis, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 98%.

Publ.-Id: 10410 - Permalink


Dielectron production in 12C+12C collisions at 2 A GeV with HADES
Markert, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Boehmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Froehlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krizek, F.; Kruecken, R.; Kuehn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marin, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Moriniere, E.; Mousa, J.; Muentz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palk! A, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Cavalcanti, T. P.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.;
We report on a measurement of electron pair production in 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon with the HADES spectrometer. The measured pair production probabilities span over five orders of magnitude from the pi0-Dalitz to the rho/omega invariant-mass region. Dalitz decays of pi0 and account for all the yield up to 0.15 GeV/c2, but for only about 50% above this mass. The excess yield is in agreement with the former DLS result if one assumes that it scales with beam energy like pion production. A preliminary analysis of 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 1 A GeV, measured with the HADES detector, supports this scenario.

Publ.-Id: 10408 - Permalink


Tomography applied to multiphase flow measurement
Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.;
The presentation gives an overview over tomographic and imaging techniques applied to multiphase flow diagnostic, including wire-mesh sensors, gamma and X-ray tomography. Industrial and scientific applications are being discussed.
Keywords: process tomography, multiphase flow, flow imaging
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proceedings of Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Publ.-Id: 10407 - Permalink


Novel wire-mesh sensor modalities for the investigation of single phase and multiphase flows
Da Silva, M. J.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.;
The experimental investigation of flow phenomena plays an important role in many fields of research as well as in industrial applications. Wire-mesh sensors allow the study of flows with high spatial and temporal resolution. This type of sensor was introduced about ten years ago and since then it has been employed to investigate a number of single phase and two-phase flow phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the principles of operation and the obtaining of physical flow parameters from the electrical measured signals of wire-mesh sensors. Besides describing the state of the art of wire-mesh sensor technology, the latest development of a temperature wire-mesh sensor is depicted in detail.
Keywords: Wire-mesh sensors, multiphase flow, conductivity measurement, capacitance measurement, temperature measurement
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany
    VDI-Berichte 2011, Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag, 978-3-18-092011-5, 625-634
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10406 - Permalink


Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkörperoberflächen
Kost, D.;
Motiviert durch die in der Literatur bisher unvollständige Beschreibung der Relaxation hochgeladener Ionen vor Festkörperoberflächen, besonders in Bezug auf den Eintrag potenzieller Energie in Oberflächen und der Aufstellung einer vollständigen Energiebilanz, werden in dieser Arbeit komplement äre Studien präsentiert, die sowohl die Ermittlung des Anteils der deponierten potenziellen Energie als auch die Ermittlung der emittierten potenziellen Energie ermöglichen. Zum Einen wird
zur Bestimmung des eingetragenen Anteils der potenziellen Energie eine kalorimetrische Messanordnung verwendet, zum Anderen gelingt die Bestimmung der emittierten potenziellen Energie mittels doppeldifferenzieller Elektronenspektroskopie. Für vertiefende Studien werden Materialien unterschiedlicher elektronischer Strukturen (Cu, n-Si, p-Si und SiO2) verwendet. Im Falle der Kalorimetrie wird festgestellt, dass die eingetragene potenzielle Energie linear mit der inneren potenziellen Energie der Ionen wächst. Dabei bleibt das Verhältnis zwischen der eingetragenen potenziellen Energie und der inneren potenziellen Energie nahezu konstant bei etwa (80±10)%. Der Vergleich von Cu, n-Si und p-Si zeigt im Rahmen der Messfehler keine signifikanten Unterschiede in diesem Verhältnis. Es liegen jedoch deutlich unter jenem von SiO2. Die Elektronenspektroskopie liefert ein dazu komplementäres Ergebnis. Für Cu und Si konnte ebenfalls eine lineare Abhängigkeit zwischen emittierter Energie und innerer potenzieller Energie festgestellt werden. Das Verhältnis wurde hierfür bis zum Ladungszustand bis Ar7+ zu etwa (10±5)% unabhängig vom Ladungszustand bestimmt. Im Gegensatz dazu liefert SiO2 eine nahezu verschwindende Elektronenausbeute. Für Ar8+ und Ar9+ steigt die Elektronenausbeute wegen der Beiträge der LMM-Augerelektronen f¨ur alle untersuchten Materialien leicht an. Der Anteil der emittierten Energie eines Ar9+-Ions wird f¨ur Cu und Si zu etwa 20% und f¨ur SiO2 zu etwa 10% angegeben. Diese Ergebnisse sind in guter Übereinstimmung mit den Kalorimetrieexperimenten und erfüllen die Energiebilanz.
Zusätzlich werden die experimentellen Ergebnisse mit einer Computersimulation modelliert, welche auf dem erweiterten dynamischen klassischen Barrierenmodell basiert. Aus diesen Rechnungen kann zudem jener Anteil der deponierten potenziellen Energie erhalten werden, welcher durch Bildladungsbeschleunigung vor der Oberfläche in kinetische Energie umgewandelt wurde.
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-479 2007

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Publ.-Id: 10405 - Permalink


Efficient melt stirring using pulse sequences of a rotating magnetic field: II – Application during solidification of Al-Si alloys
Willers, B.; Eckert, S.; Nikrityuk, P. A.; Räbiger, D.; Dong, J.; Eckert, K.; Gerbeth, G.;
The present study considers the solidification of an Al-7wt%Si alloy under the influence of electromagnetic melt stirring using a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The effect of a continuously applied RMF is compared with an RMF pulse sequence of alternating direction (RMF-PSAD). The resulting flow structure in a cylindrical liquid metal column has been measured by isothermal experiments using the ternary alloy GaInSn. The solidification experiments performed with the Al-7wt%Si alloy confirm our numerical predictions concerning the temperature field during solidification and the distribution of primary crystals and eutectic phase in the solidified samples. The application of the RMF-PSAD regime at suitable frequencies of the reversals of the magnetic field direction fP delivers an equiaxed microstructure without macrosegregation.
Keywords: solidification, fluid flow, electromagnetic stirring, macrosegregation
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 39(2008)2, 304-316

Publ.-Id: 10404 - Permalink


Structural changes in flash lamp annealed amorphous Si layers probed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy
Anwand, W.; Xiong, S. Z.; Wu, C. Y.; Gebel, T.; Schumann, T.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.;
At the present time, great efforts are undertaken in order to improve the properties of photovoltaic elements. In case of Si-based solar cells the interest is focussed on a higher electrical efficiency connected with a more effective technology and with economies of scale. One of the possible methods for the realisation of this ambitious goal represents the Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) technology. FLA allows a fast heating up of solid surfaces with a single light flash between some hundred microseconds and some milliseconds. Thereby, the achievable final temperature of the surface layer could be higher than the melting point depending on the intensity of the light flash. This method was applied to the modification of thin amorphous Si layers on SiO2 and glass. Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) was used for the characterisation of the microstructure before and after FLA. Changes in the structure down to a depth of some micrometers below the surface observed with SPIS will be presented and discussed.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing, slow positron implantation spectroscopy, amorphous Si
  • Open Access LogoActa Physica Polonica A 113(2008)5, 1273-1278
  • Lecture (Conference)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland

Publ.-Id: 10403 - Permalink


Piezoresistive and self-actuated 128-cantilever arrays for nanotechnology applications
Rangelow, I. W.; Ivanov, T.; Ivanova, K.; Volland, B. E.; Grabiec, P.; Sarov, Y.; Persaud, A.; Gotszalk, T.; Zawierucha, P.; Zielony, M.; Dontzov, D.; Schmidt, B.; Zier, M.; Nikolov, N.; Kostic, I.; Engl, W.; Sulzbach, T.; Mielczarski, J.; Kolb, S.; Latimier, D. P.; Pedreau, R.; Djakov, V.; Huq, S. E.; Edinger, K.; Fortagne, O.; Almansa, A.; Blom, H. O.;
A major limitation for future nanotechnology, particularly for bottom-up manufacturing is the non-availability of 2-dimensional massively parallel probe arrays. Scanning proximity probes are uniquely powerful tools for analysis, manipulation and bottom-up synthesis: they are capable of addressing and engineering surfaces at the atomic level and are the key to unlocking the full potential of Nanotechnology. Generic massively parallel intelligent cantilever-probe platforms is demonstrated through a number of existing and ground-breaking techniques. A packaged VLSI NEMS-chip (Very Large Scale Integrated Nano Electro Mechanical System) incorporating 128 proximal probes, fully addressable with control and readout interconnects and advanced software will be presented.
Keywords: nanotechnology, AFM probe arrays
  • Microelectronic Engineering 84(2007)5-8, 1260-1264

Publ.-Id: 10401 - Permalink


AER working group D on VVER safety analysis – report of the 2007 meeting
Kliem, S.;
The AER working group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its 16th meeting in Paris, France during the period 08-09 May 2007. The meeting was hosted by the CEA France. It followed the final workshop on the OECD/DOE/CEA VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark held at 07 May. Altogether 11 participants attend the meeting of the working group D, 7 from AER member organizations and 4 guests from non-member organizations. The co-ordinator of the working group, Mr. S. Kliem, served as chairman of the meeting.
The meeting started with a general information exchange about the recent activities in the participating organizations. The given presentations and the discussions can be attributed to the following topics:
• Code development and benchmarking for reactor dynamics applications
• Safety analysis methodology and results
• Future activities
New solutions for three different benchmarks were presented and discussed. These are the Second AER Dynamic Benchmark on control rod ejection at hot zero power (S. Kliem, FZD), the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark (E. Syrjälahti, VTT) and the stationary AER-FCM101 Benchmark considering a VVER-1000 reactor (C. Parisi, UniPisa).
A. Kereszturi (AEKI) presented a statistical evaluation of the possibility to observe a fuel assembly misloading event. The second presentation of E. Syrjälahti was dedicated to the description how best-estimate coupled code calculations at VTT are supported by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. K. Velkov (GRS) presented preliminary results of BIPR8KN/ATHLET calculations with a very detailed resolution of the calculation grid on the assessment of coolant mixing inside VVER-1000 assembly heads. Coolant mixing experiments at three different mixing test facilities, modeling different reactor types, were presented and compared by S. Kliem. A calculation study using the coupled code system KORSAR/GP on the consequences of the injection of a slug of unborated water into the reactor core was described by G. Ponomarenko (Gidropress).
A list of the participants and a list of the handouts provided at the meeting are attached to the report. The handouts can be obtained in electronic form from the chairman.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine
    Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Budapest, 9789633726358, 573-579
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine

Publ.-Id: 10400 - Permalink


Defect study in ZnO related structures - a multi-spectroscopic approach
Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Gu, Q. L.; Dai, X. M.; Xu, S. J.; Zhu, C. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Tam, K. H.; Djurisic, A. B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L. W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H. C.;
ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using amulti-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H2O2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 58-62

Publ.-Id: 10399 - Permalink


Progress of the intense positron beam project EPOS
Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.; Jungmann, M.; Krille, A.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.;
EPOS (the ELBE POsitron Source) is a running project to build an intense, bunched positron beam for materials research. It makes use of the bunched electron beam of the ELBE radiation source (Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (40 MeV, 1 mA). ELBE has unique timing properties, the bunch length is <5 ps and the repetition time is 77 ns. In contrast to other Linacsmade for Free Electron Lasers (e.g., TTF at DESY, Hamburg), ELBE can be operated in full cw-mode, i.e., with an uninterrupted sequence of bunches. The article continues an earlier publication. It concentrates on details of the timing system and describes issues of radiation protection.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 22-24

Publ.-Id: 10398 - Permalink


Radiation damage in zirconia investigated by positively charged particles
Grynszpan, R. I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Malaquin, L.; Saudé, S.; Vickridge, I.; Briand, E.;
Positrons, positive muons and deuterons were used – when applicable – to probe the production and thermal stability of defects at room temperature either by electron irradiation or He-ion implantation in zirconia stabilized by yttria in the cubic phase. change in the positron lifetime or in the muon spin relaxation occurs after electron irradiation, indicating a positron saturation trapping the annealed state, owing to the presence of structural defects inherent to phase stabilization. In contrast, after helium implantation, even at low fluence (~10^14 cm^-2), slow positron implantation spectroscopy reveals the presence of a new type of defect (being trapping effective than the native ones), whereas neither positronium nor muonium are detected. The diffusion of helium was followed after 3He-ion implantation and subsequent annealing using the 3He(d,p)4He nuclear reaction. A two-Gaussian distribution fit indicates
a part of the helium atoms is trapped at the projection range location, most likely in gas bubbles, while the other part diffuses gasses after heat treatment already at around 1/5 of the melting temperature. In spite of differences in depths and concentrations by the present techniques, a fairly good correlation is observed between the various results.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261(2007), 888-891

Publ.-Id: 10397 - Permalink


Phase Transition and Internal Stresses in Tungsten Coatings
Benayoun, S.; Grynszpan, R. I.; Hantzpergue, J. J.; Anwand, W.; Eichhorn, F.; Brauer, G.;
  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Publ.-Id: 10396 - Permalink


Defect studies of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films
Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.;
The present work reports on microstructure investigations of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films by means of slow positron implantation spectroscopy combined with in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. It is found that the virgin films contain a high density of vacancy-like open volume defects at grain boundaries which trap positrons. These defects represent trapping sites also for hydrogen. With increasing hydrogen concentration the transformation from the a- into the b-phase (GdH2) takes place in the film. Accumulation of hydrogen at grain boundaries causes a decrease of positron localization at defects. The transformation into the b-phase is completed at xH ≈ 1.6 H/Gd. Contrary to bulk Gd specimens, the g-phase (GdH3) is not formed in the nanocrystalline Gd films.
  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 251-253

Publ.-Id: 10395 - Permalink


Construction and timing system of the EPOS beam system
Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.;
  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Publ.-Id: 10393 - Permalink


Hydrogen-induced buckling of Pd films studied by positron annihilation
Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Dobron, P.; Chmelik, F.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Nikitin, E.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.;
Hydrogen loading of thin films introduces very high compressive stresses which grow in magnitude with increasing hydrogen concentration. When the hydrogen-induced stresses exceed a certain critical inplane stress value, the loaded film starts to detach from the substrate. This results in the formation of buckles of various morphologies in the film layer. Defect studies of a hydrogen loaded Pd film which undergoes a buckling process are presented, using slow positron implantation spectroscopy, in situ acoustic emission, and direct observations of the film structure by transmission electron and optical microscopies. It is found that buckling of the filmoccurs at hydrogen concentrations xH ≥ 0.1 and causes a significant increase of the dislocation density in the film.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 241-244

Publ.-Id: 10392 - Permalink


New red luminescence defects in nitrogen-implanted ZnO crystals
Dai, X. M.; Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Xu, S. J.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 10390 - Permalink


Electrical characterization of deep levels in N+-implanted ZnO single crystal
Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.;
  • Poster
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 10389 - Permalink


Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures
Stehr, D.;
This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2pz confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. Intersubband absorption experiments, which can be nearly perfectly reproduced by the theory, corroborate this interpretation, showing that at low temperatures in the low doping density regime all optical transitions originate from impurity transitions. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data.
The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 μm and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. These measurements allow a separate specification of the cooling times after a strong excitation, exhibiting time constants from 230 ps to 3 ps for different excitation densities and miniband widths. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements.
Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. From the data we can directly extract the density and temperature dependence of the intersubband dephasing time between the two lowest subbands, ranging from 50 up to 400 fs. This all optical approach gives us the ability to tune the carrier concentration over an extremely wide range which is not accessible in a doped quantum well sample. By varying the carrier density, many-body effects such as the depolarization and their influence on the spectral position as well as on the lineshape on the intersubband dephasing are studied. Also the difference of excitonic and free-carrier type excitation is discussed, and indication of an excitonic intersubband transition is found.
Keywords: ultrafast spectroscopy, infared spectroscopy, impurity transitions, semiconductor heterostructures, quantum well, superlattice
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-477 2007

Downloads:

Publ.-Id: 10388 - Permalink


Picosecond electron dynamics in doped superlattices studied by two-color infrared pump-probe spectroscopy
Stehr, D.; Wagner, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Andrews, A. M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.;
Recently we reported on single-color pump-probe measurements in doped superlattices (SLs) where we could observe a fast interminiband relaxation (1-2 ps) and much slower components due to subsequent cooling of the electron gas [1]. Pumping and probing at the same wavelength always results in a mixture of these two processes. However, strongly coupled SLs exhibit a broad absorption range so that excitation at a specific k-value in the mini-Brillouin zone influences the electron distribution over the entire zone (see inset of Fig. 1). In order to separate the inter- from the intra-miniband contributions we have performed two-color pump-probe experiments allowing to monitor exclusively the dynamics within the lower miniband. Infrared pulses from the free-electron laser FELBE were used as pump, and broadband THz pulses, generated by phase-matched optical rectification of 10 fs near-infrared pulses, as the probe. The relaxation behavior was studied for three GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As SLs having nearly he same doping concentration but different widths of the lower miniband, i.e., 10, 22, and 45 meV. To study the cooling behavior at T=5 K, the FEL pulses were tuned to the high-energy transition at the zone center, while the probe pulse was set to the zone-edge transition. After excitation to the second miniband, the electrons thermalize and relax back to the ground miniband, efficiently heating the electron gas. According to the linear absorption spectrum, this heating leads to induced absorption at the probe energy. For the SL structures with miniband widths below the optical phonon energy we measured cooling times of 40-50 ps for pump intensities higher than 20 MW/cm². For smaller pump intensities the time constants rose up to 200 ps (see Fig. 1). The sample with the miniband width of 45 meV showed a much shorter cooling time of 3.5 ps. This can be explained by the enhanced relaxation via the emission of LO phonons. We will also report room-temperature measurements, where the initially strong absorption is reduced by relaxation towards the zone center which has been depleted by the pump pulse.
References:
[1] D. Stehr et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151108 (2006).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, 22.-27.07.2007, Tokyo, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10387 - Permalink


Nuclear dipole strength in the tail of the giant dipole resonance
Grosse, E.;
Nuclear dipole strength in the tail of the giant dipole resonance
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop on Photon Strength Functions and Related Topics, 17.06.2007, Praha, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 10386 - Permalink


An analytical solution for a one dimensional time dependent neutron transport problem with external source
Merk, B.;
An analytical solution for the startup of an external source in a homogeneous subcritical reactor problem is developed. The problem is described through an approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation, the Telegrapher's or time dependent P1 equation. The analytical solution to the problem is expressed in terms of a Green's function.
Keywords: Telegrapher's equation, Neutron Transport, Space-Time Dependent Transport

Publ.-Id: 10385 - Permalink


Ground state capture in 14N(p,gamma)15O studied above the 259 keV resonance at LUNA
Trautvetter, H. P.; Confortola, F.; Costantini, H.; Formicola, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Lozza, V.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Vezzu, S.; Vomiero, A.;
We report on a new measurement of 14N(p,gamma)15O for the ground state capture transition at E_p = 360, 380 and 400 keV, using the 400 kV LUNA accelerator. The true coincidence summing effect the major source of error in the ground state capture determination has been significantly reduced by using a Clover-type gamma detector.

Publ.-Id: 10384 - Permalink


The influence of metal coated carbon black particles on the mechanical and magnetic properties of natural rubber composites
Piest, J. A.; Ürögiova, E.; Heinrich, G.; Probst, N.; Grivei, E.; Pronin, A.; Wosnitza, J.;
Elastomer materials filled with magnetically and/or electrically susceptible particles promise to have different functionality than conventional elastomers, and therefore, could likely be applied in state-of-the-art control technologies [1]. Of particular interest are elastomers filled with metal coated carbon black (MCCB), which filler fulfils its reinforcing function to the rubber meanwhile changing the elastomer´s electro-magnetic properties. Thus, the rheological and viscoelastic properties of rubber can be changed and controlled by subjecting the compound to a magnetic field.
  • Poster
    Symposium Polymermischungen 2007, 12. Problemseminar, Gefüllte und verstärkte Polymerblends Nanoblends, 28.-29.03.2007, Bad Lauchstädt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10383 - Permalink


Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations
Gyürky, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Confortola, F.; Costantini, H.; Formicola, A.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Lozza, V.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.;
Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line ? -detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.
Keywords: Big-bang nucleosynthesis, solar neutrinos, lithium problem

Publ.-Id: 10382 - Permalink


Big-bang nucleosynthesis studied experimentally at LUNA / Gran Sasso
Bemmerer, D.;
The nuclear physics input from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section is a major uncertainty in the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun predicted by solar models and in the 7Li abundance obtained in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations. In the seminar I will report on a new precision experiment on this reaction performed by the LUNA collaboration.

Using a windowless gas target, the high beam intensity of the LUNA2 accelerator, and the Gran Sasso low background gamma-counting facilities, the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section has been determined by the activation method [1] and by in-beam gamma spectrometry [2] at 90 -- 170 keV center-of-mass energy with a total uncertainty as low as 4%. The new LUNA data can be used in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations and to constrain the extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor to solar energies.

The talk will end with an outlook on the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li experiment planned for the next year at LUNA.

[1] D. Bemmerer et al. (LUNA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 122502 (2006)
[2] F. Confortola et al. (LUNA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 75, 065803 (2007)
Keywords: Big bang nucleosynthesis, solar neutrinos, lithium-6, lithium-7, lithium problem, gran sasso
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physics Seminar, 16.07.2007, Padova, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10381 - Permalink


Photoactivation of 92Mo and investigation of the short-lived isomer in 91Mo with the new pneumatic delivery system at ELBE
Erhard, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Crespo, P.; Fauth, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.;
The photodisintegration cross section of the nucleus 92Mo is important for p-process nucleosynthesis. The superconducting electron accelerator ELBE at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf provides the possibility to investigate photodisintegration with bremsstrahlung using the photoactivation technique. The reaction 92Mo(gamma,p)91Nb was studied using the decay of 91mNb with a 60.9 d half-life at ELBE [1]. Now the reaction 92Mo(gamma,n)91Mo has been probed using the new pneumatic delivery system to determine the activity of 91mMo (half-life: 65 s). Since the isomer 91mMo decays also into 91mNb it was necessary to measure this process to separate the (gamma,n) from (gamma,p) contributions.
[1] M. Erhard, C. Nair et al., PoS (NIC-IX) 056 (2006)
Keywords: photodisintegration, p-process, nucleosynthesis, bremsstrahlung, photoactivation, pneumatic delivery
  • Poster
    Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III (NPA3), 29.03.2007, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10380 - Permalink


The inhomogeneous MUSIG model for the simulation of polydispersed flows
Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Frank, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Zwart, P.;
A generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model based on the Eulerian modeling framework was developed in close cooperation of ANSYS-CFX and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and implemented into the CFD code CFX. The model enables the subdivision of the dispersed phase into a number of size groups regarding the mass balance as well as regarding the momentum balance.

In this work, the special case of polydispersed bubbly flow is considered. By simulating such flows, the mass exchanged between bubble size classes by bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, as well as the momentum transfer between the bubbles and the surrounding liquid due to bubble size dependent interfacial forces have to be considered. Particularly the lift force has been proven to play an important role in establishing a certain bubble size distribution dependent flow regime.

In a previous study (Krepper et al. 2005) the application of such effects were considered and justified and a general outline of such a model concept was given. In this paper the model and its validation for several vertical pipe flow situations is presented. The experimental data were obtained from the TOPFLOW test facility at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The wire-mesh technology measuring local gas volume fractions, bubble size distributions and velocities of gas and liquid phases was employed.

The inhomogeneous MUSIG model approach was shown as capable of describing bubbly flows with higher gas content. Particularly the separation phenomenon of small and large bubbles is well described. This separation have been proven as a key phenomenon in the establishment of the corresponding flow regime. Weaknesses in this approach can be attributed to the characterization of bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, which must be further investigated.
Keywords: bubbly flow, CFD, non-drag forces, bubble breakup, bubble coalescence, population balance, validation
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 238(2008), 1690-1702

Publ.-Id: 10378 - Permalink


Environmental Soil Chemistry with Synchrotron Methods
Scheinost, A.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag am Institut fuer Oekologie der TU Berlin, 24.04.2007, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10376 - Permalink


The Structure of Trimeric Uranyl Hydroxo Complexes in Aqueous Solution
Tsushima, S.; Rossberg, A.; Hennig, C.; Moll, H.; Scheinost, A.;
The solubility and the speciation of uranium(VI) in water at neutral pH with mM total uranium concentrations (Utot) is dominated by polymeric hydroxo species (e.g., (UO2)2(OH)22+ and (UO2)3(OH)5+). Thermodynamic data of various polymeric species had been reviewed and were published as OECD/NEA database [1]. However, direct structural information of polymeric uranyl hydroxo species are scarce. Here EXAFS in combination with quantum chemical calculations can serve as a powerful tool to explore the structure of polymeric uranyl hydroxo species in order to correlate thermodynamic speciation [1] with structural information from EXAFS. For instance, this method can provide both U-U distances and U-U coordination numbers, and can be a direct proof of the presence of dimeric and trimeric complexes. (UO2)3(OH)5+ and (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ are stoichiometric equivalent but they significantly differ in the U-U distance and can be distinguished by EXAFS. In this work, the structures of uranyl trimeric hydroxo complexes in aqueous solution have been studied by the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations and were compared with EXAFS structural information and thermodynamic speciation.
We studied the structure of trimeric uranyl(VI) hydroxo species including (UO2)3(OH)5+ and (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ by DFT calculations, and obtained that the U-U distances vary between 3.83 and 4.30 Å. Among them, two species were found to be energetically favorable. One is (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ having oxo bridging in the center with an average U-U distance of 3.83 Å. The other is (UO2)3(OH)5+ with no bridging oxygen in the center and an average U-U distance of 4.30 Å. A previous EXAFS and 17O-NMR study on the trimeric uranyl hydroxo complex by Moll et al.[2] reports the U-U distance of 3.80 Å and coincides well with the structure of (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ obtained by DFT calculations. The EXAFS/DFT results are also discussed together with thermodynamic speciation of uranyl(VI) under the given condition (pH, Utot, I, etc.) and with Raman spectroscopic data of various polymeric hydroxo species obtained by Nguyen-Trung et al. [3]. Not only the structural information, but also the kinetics of the proton transfer in (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ to yield (UO2)3(OH)5+ was studied.
[1] Guillaumont, R.; Fanghänel, T.; Fuger, J.; Grenthe, I.; Neck,V.; Palmer, D.A.; Rand, M.H. Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium; Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc.: New York, 2003; Vol. 5.
[2] Moll, H.; Reich, T.; Szabo, Z. Radiochim. Acta 2000, 88, 411.
[3] Nguyen-Trung, C.; Palmer, D.A.; Begun, G.M.; Peiffert, C.; Mesmer, R.E. J.Sol.Chem. 2000, 29, 101.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Migration 2007, 26.-31.08.2007, München, Germany
    11th Conference on the Chemistry and Migration Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere, 196-197
  • Poster
    Migration 2007, 26.-31.08.2007, München, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10375 - Permalink


EXAFS studies of Zn/Al and Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxides
Funke, H.; Chukalina, M.; Scheinost, A.; Voegelin, A.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    ESRF Users' Meeting 2007, 07.-09.02.2007, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 10374 - Permalink


EXAFS Investigation of U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV)Sulfato Complexes in Aqueous Solution
Hennig, C.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Moll, H.; Tsushima, S.; Scheinost, C.;
The structures of aqueous U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) sulfato complexes were investigated by LIII edge EXAFS spectroscopy in solutions with total sulfate concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 3 M. U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) sulfate samples comprises both, sulfate in monodentate and bidentate co-ordination. In equimolar [SO4 2-]total/U(VI) solutions, the species distribution is dominated by monodentate sulfate co-ordination with a U-Smon distance of 3.57±0.02 Å. With increasing [SO4 2-]total/U(VI) ratio, bidentate co-ordination becomes dominant with a U-Sbid distance of 3.11±0.02 Å. In general, in all systems the bidentate co-ordination becomes dominant with increasing sulfate co-ordination. An exclusively bidentate co-ordination was observed only for U(VI) with high total sulfate concentration. The aqueous Th(IV) sulfate comprises both, monodentate and bidentate co-ordination with Th-S distances of 3.14±0.02 and 3.81±0.02 Å, respectively. A similar co-ordination is obtained for U(IV) sulfato complexes at pH 1 with U-S distances of 3.08±0.02 Å and 3.67±0.02 Å. These parameters were used to identify the structure of some corresponding thermodynamic species. The EXAFS data suffer from double-electron resonances that will be discussed in a second contribution.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Actinide-XAS 2006, 18.-20.09.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Speciation Techniques and Facilities for Radioactive Materials at Synchrotron Light Sources: OECD, 978-92-64-99006-7, 33

Publ.-Id: 10373 - Permalink


Selenite reduction by nano-crystalline green rust, magnetite, siderite and mackinawite: EXAFS identification of Se species
Scheinost, A.; Charlet, L.;
Selenium oxoanions are abiotically reduced on Fe(II/III) hydroxide (green rust) and Fe(0) metal surfaces to Se oxidation states of 0, -I or –II with relatively slow reaction kinetics [1, 2]. The unequivocal phase characterization by EXAFS spectroscopy, which is a key for the determination/prediction of Se solubility, was hindered by incomplete reduction, insufficient spectral data ranges and the similarity in short-range structures of the potential mineral phases. In a recent study [3], however, we were able to clearly identify the reduction product of selenite co-sorbed with Fe2+ to montmorillonite as nano-particulate, trigonal Se(0) by collecting low-noise EXAFS spectra at 15 K (Rossendorf Beamline at ESRF, Grenoble, France) and by employing advanced data analysis methods [4, 5]. Here, we present data on the reduction of selenite by green rust, magnetite, siderite and mackinawite. In the presence of green rust, selenite was completely reduced to trigonal Se(0) within one day, which was further converted to ferroselite (orthorombic FeSe2) within one month. The associated Fe(II) oxidation and magnetite formation quantified by Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed us to establish the following reaction scheme: 32 [FeII 12FeIII 5(OH)34 Cl-5 H2O](s) + 38 SeIVO3 2- ⇔ 19 [FeIISe-I 2](s) + 175 [FeIIFeIII 2O4](s) + 160 Cl- + 502 H2O + 84 H+ Similar to green rust, mackinawite and magnetite reduced all selenite within one day, whereas reduction by siderite was incomplete. Depending on type of mineral and Se-to-mineral ratio, trigonal Se(0), ferroselite or achavalite (hexagonal FeSe) formed. The observed differences in reaction end products and reduction kinetics may significantly affect Se bioavailability and Se migration.
References
[1] Myneni, S. C. B., Tokunaga, T. K., and Brown, G. E.
(1997) Science 278, 1106-1109.
[2] Scheidegger, A. M., Grolimund, D., Cui, D., et al. (2003)
J Phys. IV 104, 417-420.
[3] Charlet, L., Scheinost, A. C., Tournassat, C., et al. (2007)
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in review.
[4] Scheinost, A. C., Rossberg, A., Vantelon, D., et al. (2006)
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 3299-3312.
[5] Rossberg, A., Reich, T., and Bernhard, G. (2003) Anal.
Bioanal. Chem. 376, 631-638.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt Conference 2007, 19.-24.08.2007, Köln, Germany
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71(2007)15, A886-A886

Publ.-Id: 10372 - Permalink


Synchrotron Research in Environmental Chemistry: Linking Space, Time, Redox and Biota
Scheinost, A.;
- wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    Kolloquium, 13.06.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10371 - Permalink


THz physics at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf: From scalable photoconductive THz antennas to near-field microscopy of ferroelectrics using a free-electron laser
Helm, M.;
THz physics at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf: From scalable photoconductive THz antennas to near-field microscopy of ferroelectrics using a free-electron laser
Keywords: terahertz emitter, near-field microscopy, free-electron laser, ferroelectrics
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar am Physics Department der Kyoto University, Japan, 30.07.2007, Kyoto, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10370 - Permalink


Stoichiometry and structure of uranyl (VI) hydroxo dimer and trimer complexes in aqueous solution
Tsushima, S.; Rossberg, A.; Ikeda, A.; Müller, K.; Scheinost, A. C.;
The structures of uranyl(VI) hydroxo dimer and trimer in aqueous solution were studied by EXAFS, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy and also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that (UO2)2(OH)22+ have two bridging hydrxo groups with the U-U distance of 3.88 Å which had a good agreement with EXAFS measurement. For hydroxo trimer complex, DFT calculations show that (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ with oxo bridging in the center is energetically favored above its stoichiometric equivalent (UO2)3(OH)5+. This idea was confirmed by the EXAFS measurements where a shorter U-U distance of 3.83 Å was observed and the presence of oxo bridging in the center was confirmed. Several stable intermediates which lie several tens of kJ/mol above the stable energy minimum, (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+, were identified and their structures, energies, and intramolecular proton transfer reaction are discussed.

Publ.-Id: 10368 - Permalink


Energy distribution measurements with a BiGa liquid metal alloy ion source
Ganetsos, T.; Bischoff, L.; Pilz, W.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Kotsos, B.; Laskaris, N.;
The liquid metal ion source, is now the basis of focused ion beams systems that use a variety of heavy metal ions (with currents of 1pA – 30nA) which can be focused into diameters smaller than 10nm with current densities of several A/cm2. The predominate use of these systems has been in various aspects of IC fabrication. Implantation is an essential process for the fabrication of electronic devices and integrated circuits. One of the most important parameters in the operation of focused ion beam (FIB) columns is the energy spread of the ion beam, normally expressed as the full width at half the maximum height of the energy distribution (FWHM). When it was demonstrated that failure analysis and integrated circuit modification could be done with focused ion beams utilizing liquid metal ion sources, the resulting technological “push” for high performance caused the rapid development of new ion beam instrumentation. Among other applications, FIBs are now used for research lithography, direct implantation (using alloy metal ion sources with ion species including As, B, Bi, Ga, Ge, Au and Be), lithographic mask repair and a wide variety of micromachining uses.
An interesting element for materials investigation and modification is bismuth, which offers a broad spectrum of applications. Silicon doped with bismuth is an interesting choice because the ionization energy of Bi in Si is much larger than that of other group-V elements. Turning now to the present work we investigated a BiGa LMIS. We present the energy spread (ΔΕ) of the main ions of the beam drawn from the BiGa source as a function of source current (i). In conclusion, even though the deviation from the 2/3 power law of the low – current portion of the ΔΕ versus I curves has been explained in terms of instabilities at the emitter that set in at a particular level of current.
Keywords: liquid metal ion source; alloy; energy spread
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XXIII IUPAP International Conference on Statistical Physics, 09.-13.07.2007, Genova, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10367 - Permalink


Simultaneous Formation of Two Ripple Modes on Ion Sputtered Silicon
Keller, A.; Rossbach, S.; Facsko, S.; Möller, W.;
It is well known that oblique low and medium energy (typically 0.1 – 100 keV) ion erosion of solid surfaces can lead to the formation of periodic ripple patterns with wavelength ranging from 10 to 1000 nm. The ripples produced in this way are oriented either parallel or normal to the projection of the ion beam and their wavelength scales with ion energy. These structures were found on a large variety of materials, such as semiconductors, metals, and insulating surfaces. The formation and early evolution of the ripple patterns can be qualitatively reproduced by a linear continuum equation derived by Bradley and Harper. However, at longer times nonlinear terms have to be taken into account, leading to nonlinear models based on the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation.
In this work we report on the simultaneous formation of two perpendicular ripple modes on amorphized Si(100) during high fluence sputtering at sub-keV energies. The evolution of both modes was studied for two different energies and over a wide range of fluence. Coarsening of both ripple modes was found. The wavelengths of the two modes are of the order of a few ten and several hundred nanometers, respectively, and show similar time dependence. To gain better understanding of the evolution of the surface morphology, the results are compared to simulations of the damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, finding good qualitative agreement.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Workshop on SEMIconductor NANOstructures 2007, 13.-16.06.2007, Bad Honnef, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10366 - Permalink


Two phase flow 1D turbulence model for poly disperse upward flow in a vertical pipe
Al Issa, S.;
For an adequate simulation of poly-disperse bubbly flows the consideration of the bubble size distribution is required, since the interaction between the liquid and the gas bubbles sensitively depends on the bubble size. In the frame of multi-fluid models this can be done by dividing the gas phase into a number of bubble classes. To test sub-models suitable for implementation into CFD codes a simplified test solver suitable for vertical pipe flow was developed and successfully applied in the last years. It considers a number of bubble classes, but resolves volume fractions of the single bubbles classes, velocities and turbulence parameter only in radial direction. Progress was achieved especially for the models reflecting the momentum transfer between gas and liquid phases (models on bubble forces). The situation is still unsatisfying regarding the simulation of bubble coalescence and break-up. One of the reasons may come from shortcoming in the calculation of turbulence parameters. Local bubble coalescence and break-up rates strongly depend on local turbulence parameter, namely and i. Bubble induced turbulence is presently considered in most CFD codes as well as in the Test-Solver by an additional term for the turbulent viscosity to obtain more accurate velocity calculations. In order to improve the local values of turbulence parameter it is necessary to include source term into the equations of the turbulence model itself. For the case of the Turbulence model such source term can be found in Literature. A simplified turbulence model was implemented in the test solver. In this work this simple model was replaced by two-phase model along with a source term out of the literature. The model was numerically solved and successfully implemented into the Test-Solver. The new calculated results were validated against old simple model calculations as well as against experimental data from MTLoop (DN50) and TOPFLOW (DN200). New calculations with model and source term bring clear improvements upon old ones and resolves significant discrepancies appeared in old calculations in DN200 data. A comparison with CFX 5.7 calculations for some points in DN50 is presented as well. The comparison shows the need for implementation of the source term in CFD calculations.
Keywords: poly-disperse Bubbly upward Flow Turbulence model CFD
  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    FZD\FWS\2007\09
    65 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 10365 - Permalink


On the influence of spatial discretization in cell- and lattice calculations with HELIOS 1.9
Merk, B.; Koch, R.;
Cell- and lattice calculations are the fundament for all deterministic static and transient 3D full core calculations. The spatial discretization used for the cell- and lattice calculations influences the results for these transport solutions significantly. The arising differences in the neutron flux distribution due to different spatial discretization are demonstrated. These differences in the flux distribution cause significant changes in the kinf value. An evaluation of the kinf value for the case of infinitely fine discretization is made. The influence of the discretization on the calculation of homogenized few group cross sections which are forwarded to the 3D full core calculations is investigated. Strategies for improving the discretization are developed and their influence on the calculation time is evaluated.
Keywords: Spatial Discretization, Neutron Transport, HELIOS, Collision Probabilities, Flat-Flux-Approximation

Publ.-Id: 10364 - Permalink


d-α correlation functions and collective motion in Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV
Verde, G.; Danielewicz, P.; Lynch, W. G.; Chan, C. F.; Gelbke, C. K.; Kwong, L. K.; Liu, T. X.; Liu, X. D.; Seymour, D.; Shomin, R.; Tan, W. P.; Tsang, M. B.; Wagner, A.; Xu, H. S.; Brown, D. A.; Davin, B.; Larochelle, Y.; de Souza, R. T.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Yanez, R.;
The interplay of the effects of geometry and collective motion on d–α correlation functions is investigated for central Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV. The data cannot be explained without collective motion, which could be partly along the beam axis. A semi-quantitative description of the data can be obtained using a Monte Carlo model, where thermal emission is superimposed on collective motion. Both the emission volume and the competition between the thermal and collective motion influence significantly the shape of the correlation function, motivating new strategies for extending intensity interferometry studies to massive particles.
Keywords: collective motion d–α correlation Xe Au 50 MeV thermal emission volume intensity interferometry

Publ.-Id: 10363 - Permalink


Influence of Humic Acid on the Sorption of Uranium(VI) and Americium(III) onto Kaolinite
Krepelova, A.;
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-475 2007

Downloads:

Publ.-Id: 10362 - Permalink


Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low Pressure Conditions - PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations
Paladino, D.; Huggenberger, M.; Schäfer, F.;
Natural-circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations.
The PANDA large scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural-circulation loops in a range with increased attention.
This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “Natural circulation and stability performance of Boiling Water Reactors”. It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.
Keywords: Natural Circulation, BWR, Stability, PANDA, ATHLET

Publ.-Id: 10360 - Permalink


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