Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34121 Publications

Miniature magnetic devices for laser-based, table-top free-electron lasers

Eichner, T.; Grüner, F.; Becker, S.; Fuchs, M.; Habs, D.; Weingartner, R.; Schramm, U.; Backe, H.; Kunz, P.; Lauth, W.

Truly table-top sized radiation sources based on compact laser-plasma accelerators require compact and strong focusing devices and efficient short-period undulators. Complementing our recent theoretical work on the feasibility of a table-top FEL, we here present the design and successful experimental characterizations of a 5 mm period length undulator and miniature quadrupole magnets with field gradients of the order of 500  T/m.

Keywords: PACS: 41.85.Lc; 41.60.Cr; 41.75.Jv; 52.38.Kd; magnet design; FEL

Publ.-Id: 10506

Flash-lamp annealing of semiconductor materials - Applications and process models

Mcmahon, R. A.; Smith, M. P.; Seffen, K. A.; Voelskow, M.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

Flash-lamp annealing (FLA) oil a millisecond time scale has been shown to be a promising tool in the preparation of high-quality semiconducting materials. The process imposes time varying through-thickness temperature profiles on the substrates being processed, and consequently thermal stresses. A combined thermal and optical model has been developed to predict the substrate temperature distribution and this model has been linked to a structural Model to compute stresses and deflections The paper shows how these models can be used to explore process conditions in flash lamp annealing; with particular regard to the annealing of ion implants in silicon and the crystallization of amorphous silicon layers on glass substrates.

Keywords: flash lamp; pulse annealing; thermal model; optical model; temperature profiles; stress

  • Vacuum 81(2007)10, 1301-1305
    DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2007.01.033
  • Contribution to proceedings
    VI Int. Conf. Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 26.-29.09.2006, Lublin, Poland
    Proceedings of the VI Int. Conf. Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons

Publ.-Id: 10505

Design considerations for table-top, laser-based VUV and X-ray free electron lasers

Grüner, F.; Becker, S.; Schramm, U.; Eichner, T.; Fuchs, M.; Weingartner, R.; Habs, D.; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J.; Geissler, M.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; van der Geer, B.; Backe, H.; Reiche, S.; Lauth, W.

Abstract A recent breakthrough in laser-plasma accelerators, based upon ultrashort high-intensity lasers, demonstrated the generation of quasi-monoenergetic GeV-electrons. With future Petawatt lasers ultra-high beam currents of ∼100 kA in ∼10 fs can be expected, allowing for drastic reduction in the undulator length of free-electron-lasers (FELs). We present a discussion of the key aspects of a table-top FEL design, including energy loss and chirps induced by space-charge and wakefields. These effects become important for an optimized table-top FEL operation. A first proof-of-principle VUV case is considered as well as a table-top X-ray-FEL which may also open a brilliant light source for new methods in clinical diagnostics.

Keywords: FEL, laser acceleration, PACS 41.60.Cr; 52.38.Kd


Publ.-Id: 10504

Plasmons, plasminos and Landau damping in a quasiparticle model of the quark-gluon plasma

Schulze, R.; Bluhm, M.; Kämpfer, B.

A phenomenological quasiparticle model is surveyed for 2+1 quark flavors and compared with recent lattice QCD results. Emphasis is devoted to the effects of plasmons, plasminos and Landau damping. It is shown that thermodynamic bulk quantities, known at zero chemical potential, can uniquely be mapped towards nonzero chemical potential by means of a thermodynamic consistency condition and a stationarity condition.

Keywords: QCD; quasiparticle; model; plasmon; plasmino; plasmons; plasminos; quark; gluon; plasma; Landau; damping; characteristics

Publ.-Id: 10503

Investigation of acceptor states in ZnO by junction DLTS

von Wenckstern, H.; Pickenhain, R.; Schmidt, H.; Brandt, M.; Biehne, G.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Brauer, G.

We have realized a p-type ZnO surface layer by N+ ion implantation of a high quality ZnO wafer and subsequent annealing. The conduction type of this surface layer was revealed by scanning capacitance microscopy. Rectifying current–voltage characteristics for processed devices were coherent with the existence of an internal pn junction. Deep donor- and acceptor-like defects were investigated by junction deep level transient spectroscopy. The donor-like levels correspond to those commonly observed for E1 and E3 defects. The acceptor states resolved have thermal activation energies of about 150 meV and 280 meV, respectively.

  • Superlattices and Microstructures 42(2007), 14-20

Publ.-Id: 10502

Coordination of a uranium(IV) sulfate monomer in an aqueous solution and in the solid state

Hennig, C.; Kraus, W.; Emmerling, F.; Ikeda, A.; Scheinost, A.

Uranium(IV) sulfate in an aqueous solution and the solid state has been investigated with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The coordination polyhedron comprises monodentate sulfate, bidentate sulfate, and water molecules. The coordination modes of sulfate in solution have been determined from the U-S distances with EXAFS. The U-S distance of 3.67 +/- 0.02 angstrom indicates monodentate sulfate, and the U-S distance of 3.08 +/- 0.02 A indicates bidentate c oordination. The obtained sulfur coordination numbers of a solution with a [SO4 (2-)]/[U4+] ratio of 40 suggest species with compositions of, [U(SO4,bid)(2)(SO4,(mon))(2)center dot nH(2)O](4-) and [U(SO4,bid)(3) (SO4,(mon))(2)center dot mH(2)O](6-). Charge-compensating countercations or ion pairing with Na+ and NH4+ could not be detected with EXAFS. One of the solution species, [U(SO4)(5)H2O](6-), has been conserved in a crystal. The corresponding crystal structure of Na-1.5(NH4)!
(4.5)[U(SO4)(5 center dot)H2O]center dot H2O [space group P (1) over bar, a = 9.4995(16) angstrom, b = 9.8903(16) angstrom, c = 12.744(2) angstrom, alpha = 93,669(2)degrees, beta = 103.846(2)degrees,gamma = 109.339(2)degrees] has been determined by single-crystal XRD. Two monomeric uranium(IV) sulfate complexes and three sodium units are linked in alternating rows and form a one-dimensoinal ribbon structure parallel to the a axis.

Keywords: EXAFS; XRD; single crystal structure; U(IV) sulfate

  • Inorganic Chemistry 47(2008)5, 1634-1638

Publ.-Id: 10501

Dissolution of UO2, UO3 and of some lanthanide oxides in BumimTf2N: effect of acid and water and formation of UO2(NO3)3−

Billard, I.; Gaillard, C.; Hennig, C.

UO2, UO3, Nd2O3, Eu2O3 and Pr6O11 powders were successfully dissolved in the ionic liquid
1-methyl-3-butyl-imidazolium bistriflimide (BumimTf2N) with the help of small amounts of HNO3.
The uranyl species have been characterised through UV-vis and EXAFS spectroscopies. The uranium
dissolution leads to the formation of UO2(NO3)3−, even in the presence of water. The kinetics of UO2
dissolution/oxidation is intricate, due to the transient existence of NO2−, which is absent in the case of
the UO3 dissolution, occurring with no change in the oxidation state of U.

Keywords: EXAFS; UV-Vis; UO2; UO3; ionic liquids

Publ.-Id: 10500

CFD studies on boron dilution scenarios in VVER type reactors - use of best practice guidelines

Höhne, T.

The main objective for the quantification of the fluid mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum is the demonstration of the safety of the nuclear plant during non-symmetrical transients.

This concerns two main topics: The risk of fragile brittle of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) transients and the risk of core reactivity excursion during non-symmetrical transient such as Main Steam Line Breaks (MSLB) or Boron Dilution Transients (BDT).

These scenarios are studied in the 1:5 scaled VVER-1000 reactor model at OKB “Gidropress” in the framework of a TACIS project: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet”.

Keywords: CFD; Boron DIlution; Coolant Mixing

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    COVERS/ WP3 Training, 09.10.2007, Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10499

Spatial discretization in LWR cell calculations with HELIOS 1.9: influence on kinf and flux distribution

Merk, B.; Koch, R.

Cell calculations are the fundament for all deterministic static and transient 3D full core calculations. The spatial discretization used for the cell calculations influences the results for these transport solutions significantly. The arising differences in the neutron flux distribution due to different spatial discretization are demonstrated. These differences in the flux distribution cause significant changes in the kinf value. Different optimized schemes for economic cell calculations are developed.

Keywords: Spatial Discretization; Neutron Transport; HELIOS; Collision Probabilities; Flat-Flux-Approximation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ENS TOPSAFE 2008, 01.-03.10.2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ENS TOPSAFE 2008, 01.-03.10.2008, Dubrovnik, Croatia
    Book of Abstracts with Proceedings CD, ISBN 978-92-95064-06-5, A1-067

Publ.-Id: 10498

Two-Scale Modeling of Adsorption Processes at Structured Surfaces

de Cuba, M. R.; Kundin, J.; Emmerich, H.; Gemming, S.

We present a hybrid algorithm for the simulation of vicinal surface growth which combines a lattice gas Ising model with a phase-field model. The molecular behavior of individual adatoms is resolved by the kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) generated dynamics of the anisotropic Ising model. The microstructure dynamics on the vicinal surface are calculated using the phase-field method. Therefore adsorption processes on two different scales are described. In addition to step-flow growth the hybrid algorithm describes nucleation processes on the terraces which lead to an epitaxial layer-by-layer growth controlled by temperature and by deposition rate. The method is faster than pure KMC simulation and can take into account the stochastic processes in a comparable way.

Keywords: hybdir model; phase-field; Monte Carlo; vicinal surface

Publ.-Id: 10495

Star-shaped Oligobenzoates: Non-Conventional Mesogens Forming Columnar Helical Mesophases

Lehmann, M.; Jahr, M.; Donnio, B.; Graf, R.; Gemming, S.; Popov, I.

Star-shaped mesogens with a phloroglucinol or a trimesic acid core and oligobenzoate arms with up to five repaeting units have been synthesised. These non-conventional mesogens possess various columnar mesophases over a broad temperature range. The liquid crystal phases are characterised by optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, dilatometry and Solid State NMR spectroscopy. Beside a high temperature hexagonal columnar phase, the columnar structures transform to higher ordered, undulated columns in a body-centered orthorhombic unit cell at low temperatures. A model of E-shaped folded conformers helically displaced along the columns is proposed. Helical preorganisation in the hexagonal phase precedes the transition to the low temperature phases. Space-filling and nano-segregation compete in the self-organisation process, thus aliphatic chains and polar oligobenzoate scaffold are not perfectly separated for these star-shaped mesogens.

Keywords: star-shaped mesogens; liquid crystals; columnar; mesophase; semi-empirical modelling

Publ.-Id: 10494

A superconducting RF photo-injector for operation at the ELBE linear accelerator

Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Justus, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Moeller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Xiang, R.; Stephan, J.; Lehmann, W.-D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Will, I.; Lipka, D.; Matheisen, A.; Horst, B. V. D.; vom Stein, P.; Volkov, V.

For the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator at FZD a radiofrequency photoelectron injector with a superconducting cavity (SRF gun) is under development. The SRF gun combines the excellent beam quality which can be delivered by RF photoinjectors with the possibility of continuous wave operation. The superconducting niobium cavity of the injector consists of 3½ cells and contains a Cs2Te photocathode which is normal-conducting and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The RF frequency of the cavity is 1.3 GHz. The final electron energy will be about 9.5 MeV and the average electron current will be 1 mA. In the past years the SRF photo injector has been designed and fabricated. Several critical subsystems have been tested. For the cavity, the results of the RF measurements will be shown. An UV driver laser system has been developed which fulfils the different requirements (77 pC @ 13 MHz, 1 nC @ 500 kHz) for the future operation at ELBE. A photo cathode preparation system was developed and installed. The equipment is now in operation and the first series of Cs2Te photo cathodes have been produced.

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    29th International Free Electron Laser Conference, 26.-31.08.2007, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Proceedings of FEL 2007: JACoW


Publ.-Id: 10493

A Hybrid Method for the Structural Evolution of Stepped Surfaces

Gemming, S.; Emmerich, H.; Radke De Cuba, M.; Kundin, J.

The Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model describes the structural evolution of vicinal surfaces in terms of an incoming particle flux and concentration-dependent desorption and surface diffusion terms. A continuum formulation of the BCF scheme given by a phase-field implementation for the moving-boundary problem yields the long-term evolution of the step structure during a step-flow growth mode. Phenomena like step bunching or meandering are well covered by such an approach, but the nucleation of additional structures is not. A particle-based Ising-type approach with a Metropolis-Monte-Carlo kinetics provides such nucleation processes in a temperature-controlled manner and on a shorter time and length scale.

We have integrated both approaches in a hybrid algorithm, which describes adsorption, nucleation, and structure evolution processes at solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces on both time and length scales. The short-term nucleation from individual adatoms or molecules is resolved by the Monte-Carlo generated dynamics of an anisotropic Ising model, whose interaction parameters stem from first-principles calculations. The long-term microstructure dynamics on the vicinal surface is calculated using the phase-field method. Several growth modes are distinguished by the present scheme: In addition to step-flow growth the nucleation processes on the terraces can lead to roughening or an epitaxial layer-by-layer growth controlled by temperature and by flux. This hybrid algorithm has been applied to the decoration of structured crystalline surfaces with optically active molecules and to the coverage of glass surfaces with inhibitor molecules, which suppress glass corrosion.

Keywords: vicinal surface; hybrid model; Monte-Carlo; phase field; Burton-Cabrera-Frank

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Euromat 2007, 10.-14.09.2007, Nürnberg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10492

From Clusters to Wires - DFT investigations of molybdenum sulfide nanostructures

Gemming, S.; Seifert, G.; Enyashin, A.; Popov, I.; Tamuliene, J.

The dependence of morphology and composition in molybdenum sulfide nanostructures was investigated by density-functional-based calculations. Sulfur-rich compounds preferentially form two-dimensional platelet structures, which can accomodate a large extent of excess sulfur atoms along the platelet edges. Compounds which are understoichiometric in sulfur, i.e., with a negative sulfur extent, contain a metalloid molybdenum core structure, which is stabilised by Mo-Mo metal bonds and decorated by sulfur atoms. Small species of this type are polyhedral clusters, which grow into nanowires with increasing atom number. Close to the bulk stoichiometry of Mo:S = 1:2 larger polyhedral and partially hollow clusters are obtained, which exhibit an octahedral shape at system sizes of up to a few thousands of atoms and finally grow into spherical fullerenes at even larger sizes.

Keywords: molybdenum sulfide; nanostructures; first-principles

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    iNANO-Seminar, 08.08.2007, Aarhus, Denmark

Publ.-Id: 10491

Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) as building blocks for nanocomposites

Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.; Fahmy, K.; von Ny, J.; Grenzer, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.

Nanoscaled materials comprised of organic and inorganic components are becoming more and more important in nanotechnology due to the diversity of applications. The use of self-assembling organic systems as part of such a hybrid material, serving as template for the fabrication of arrays of inorganic nanoparticles, is an attractive approach for the development of new materials. Especially the proteinaceous bacterial surface layers (S-layers) that envelop bacterial cells are attractive for fabricating and patterning of nanostructures. These proteins are composed of protein monomers with the ability to self-assemble into two-dimensional arrays. The regular distributed pores of these paracrystalline arrays work as binding sites for various metals and offer ideal structures for the formation of regular distributed metallic nanoclusters of a defined size (15). Such arrays are very attractive for technical applications ranging from the development of novel catalysts to biomedical applications, development of innovative filter materials, the programmed assembly of nanometre scale electronic devices, and optical industry (7, 9). Another approach is the embedding of S-layer proteins into ceramics thus producing metal binding functionalized nanocomposites (12).
Our current work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different S-layer templated inorganic nanoclusters. Due to quantum size effects nanosized grains often exhibit changed physical and chemical properties in comparison to bulk material. We demonstrate the fabrication of catalytic active nanoparticles such as ZnO. The photocatalytic properties of ZnO-particles are interesting for their application as nanoscaled catalytic material, i.e. for the degradation of pharmaceutical residues that are released in environment.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Nanofair 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Poster
    Nanofair 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10490

Effect of As incorporation on ZnO film structure and dielectric function

Vinnichenko, M.; Rogozin, A.; Shevchenko, N.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

Understanding the process of defect formation due to impurity incorporation is crucial for the control of electrical and optical properties of ZnO. The influence of As doping of ZnO on the film structure and properties is much less understood than the effect of N or Al incorporation. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigation of the ZnO film structure and dielectric function modification by doping with As. Two approaches to As incorporation have been used. In the first, the film has been deposited onto Al2O3 (0001) substrate by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering of a Zn-As target at a temperature of 450 °C, thereby providing an As concentration of 2.0 at % in the layer. In the second approach, epitaxial films of ZnO deposited by the same method on Al2O3 (0001) substrate at 550 °C have been implanted with As+ ions (energy 300 keV) to provide the same As concentration. The film thickness has been adjusted to rule out any ion-beam intermixing effects at the ZnO/Al2O3 (0001) interface. The As concentration has been determined by particle induced X-ray emission, whereas film structure has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Spectrscopic ellipsometry measurements have yielded the dielectric function of the films, as well as their thickness and roughness. The results have been compared with the structure and the optical properties of undoped ZnO.
Reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering of Zn target produces ZnO epitaxial layers with single-domain in-plane ordering and strong c-axis texture (rocking curve width of 0.37°). In contrast, ZnO:As layers are in nanostructured state as indicated by the broad peak at 34.2° on the XRD patterns. The doped layers also show much lower degree of in-plane ordering than the undoped films. XRD measurements suggest stronger ZnO structure modification due to the As+ ion implantation than to As incorporation during magnetron sputtering, although the impurity concentration is the same in both cases. The pole figure measurements show that the recrystallization of ZnO films heavily damaged by ion bombardment leads to a much more pronounced in-plane and off-plane textures of the samples annealed at 750-950 °C. The annealing also decreases film thickness which points to evaporation of the damaged layer [1]. The crystalline quality of the annealed ZnO is only slightly lower than that of the epitaxial undoped ZnO. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the dielectric function in the spectral range around the band gap is sensitive to the crystalline quality of the films. The increased defect density in the doped layers broadens the oscillator used for the dielectric function parameterization. The band gap of the doped layers increases compared with that of the undoped ones.

[1] V.A. Coleman, H.H. Tan, C. Jagadish, S.O. Kucheyev, and J. Zou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231912 (2005).

Keywords: ZnO films; reactive magnetron sputtering; spectroscopic ellipsometry; x-ray diffraction

  • Poster
    13th International Conference on II-VI Compounds, 10.-14.09.2007, Jeju, Korea

Publ.-Id: 10489

Phylogenetic Analysis and In Situ Identification of Bacteria Community Composition in Uranium Contaminated Soil.

Diessner, S.; Wobus, A.; Huth, C.; Großmann, K.; Arnold, T.; Röske, I.

wird nachgereicht

Keywords: wird nachgereicht

  • Poster
    18th International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry - ISEB XVIII, 11.-16.11.2007, Taupo, New Zealand

Publ.-Id: 10488

Two-color pump-probe spectroscopy of electron dynamics in doped superlattices

Wagner, M.; Stehr, D.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Andrews, M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.

With respect to their dynamics semiconductor superlattices (SL) have been much less investigated than other heterostructures like quantum wells. We have already reported on single-color pump-probe measurements on doped superlattices where we could observe the interminiband relaxation and subsequent cooling of the heated electron distribution in the lower miniband of a SL after excitation to the upper one [1]. However, superlattices have a broad absorption range so that excitation at a special k-value in the mini-Brillouin zone influences the electron distribution over the entire zone. Therefore we have performed two-color pump-probe measurements on three doped superlattices to investigate the intraminiband dynamics.
We employed infrared pulses from the free-electron laser FELBE at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf as the pump beam and synchronized broadband THz pulses generated by optical rectification in GaSe as the probe beam. The three GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices had nearly the same doping concentration but different miniband widths of 10 meV, 22 meV and 45 meV, which is smaller or larger, respectively, than the optical phonon energy of 36 meV.
We have first analyzed the cooling behavior. At low temperature, electrons were excited to the upper miniband by the FEL pulse at the zone center of the superlattice mini-Brillouin zone and the interminiband transition was probed at the zone edge. The excited electrons relax back to the ground miniband where they heat up the electronic distribution. A higher temperature leads to more absorption at the zone edge low energy transition. Therefore we found an induced absorption signal after excitation, which decays when the electronic distribution cools down. In the superlattice structures with miniband widths below the optical phonon energy we measured cooling times of 40-50 ps for pump intensities higher than 20 MW/cm². For smaller pump intensities the time constants rose up to 200 ps. The sample with the miniband width of 45 meV showed a much shorter cooling time of 3.5 ps, nearly independent of the pump intensity. This can be explained by the new relaxation channel through polar optical phonons.
Additionally we performed room temperature measurements where the lower miniband is already occupied at the zone edge so that no induced absorption should be observed. In fact we measured a positive transmission change which decays in a few picoseconds in all samples. This can be attributed to a relaxation process in the lower miniband where the electrons at the zone edge relax to the miniband center, which is depleted of electrons by the pump pulse.
[1] D. Stehr et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151108 (2006)

Keywords: two-color pump-probe; superlattice; electron dynamics; intraminiband; cooling

  • Poster
    The Ninth International Conference on Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells, 09.-14.09.2007, Ambleside, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 10487

A finite-time thermodynamics of unsteady shear flows

Noack, B. R.; Schlegel, M.; Ahlborn, B.; Mutschke, G.; Morzynski, M.; Compte, P.; Tadmor, G.

A finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) formalism (Andresen, Salamon \& Berry 1977) is proposed to compute the mean flow and fluctuation levels of unsteady, incompressible, shear flows. That formalism yields a definition for a thermodynamic degree of freedom of the velocity fluctuation as well as conditions for local thermal equilibrium. In general, the dynamics of unsteady flow is shown to be in partial thermal equilibrium, a state governed by finite time scales of energy transfer. The FTT model has been successfully applied to shear flows with simple to complex dynamics, e.g. vortex shedding and homogenous shear turbulence.

Keywords: Thermodynamics; Turbulence

  • Lecture (Conference)
    60th Annual Meeting of the Divison of Fluid Dynamics, 18.-20.11.2007, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Publ.-Id: 10484

A finite-time thermodynamics of unsteady fluid flows

Noack, B. R.; Schlegel, M.; Ahlborn, B.; Mutschke, G.; Morzynski, M.; Comte, P.; Tadmor, G.

Turbulent fluid has often been conceptualized as a transient thermodynamic phase. Here, a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) formalism (Andresen, Salamon & Berry 1977) is proposed to compute mean flow and fluctuation levels of unsteady incompressible flows. The proposed formalism builds upon the Galerkin model framework which simplifies a continuum 3D fluid motion into a finite-dimensional phase-space dynamics and subsequently, into a thermodynamics energy problem. The Galerkin model consists of a velocity field expansion in terms of flow configuration dependent modes and of a dynamical system describing the temporal evolution of the mode coefficients. Each mode may be considered as a wave, parameterized by a wave number and frequency. In our FTT formalism, the mode is treated as one thermodynamic degree of freedom, characterized by an energy level. The dynamical system approaches local thermal equilibrium where each mode has the same energy if it is governed only by internal (triadic) mode interactions. However, in the generic case of unsteady flows, the full system approaches only partial thermal equilibrium with unequal energy levels due to strongly mode-dependent external interactions. In these interactions, large-scale modes typically gain energy from the mean flow while small-scale modes loose energy to the heat bath. The energy flow cascade from large to small scales is thus a finite-time transition phenomenon. The FTT model is first illustrated by a traveling wave governed by a 1D Burgers equation. It is then applied to two flow benchmarks: the relatively simple laminar vortex shedding which is dominated by 2 eigenmodes, and the homogeneous shear turbulence which has been modeled with 1459 modes.

Keywords: Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics; Nonlinear dynamics and chaos; Dynamical systems approaches; Statistical theories and models; Flow control; Turbulence control; Turbulent flows; Isotropic turbulence; homogeneous turbulence; Instability of shear flows

  • Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics 33(2008)2, 103-148

Publ.-Id: 10483

Identification of Fluorescent U(V) and U(VI) Microparticles in a Multispecies Biofilm by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy.

Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Diessner, S.; Wobus, A.

A combined approach of laser fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to study in vivo fluorescent particles in living multispecies biofilms which were exposed to 10-5 M and 5×10-6 M uranium, respectively. These particles ranged between 1 and 7 µm in width and up to 20 µm in length and were located at the bottom and at the edges of biofilms colonies.
Analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments have shown that the biofilm consisted of members of the alpha-, beta-, and, gamma-subgroup of Proteobacteria, as well as of representatives of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) screening and cloning of selected clones indicated a similar composition of the microbial communities in biofilm reactors with and without U addition. Both clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated to the alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with group specific probes indicated a slightly higher coverage of the uranium contaminated biofilm by cells affiliated with the beta-Proteobacteria. Beta-Proteobacteria are recognized for their ability to reduce uranium in the presence of nitrate. However, an enrichment of additional bacteria known for their ability to reduce U(VI) did not become apparent, neither by 16S rRNA gene retrieval nor by the FISH technique. From both techniques it can be concluded that the multispecies biofilms grown without and with uranium addition were very similar regarding their microbial composition.
Laser fluorescence spectroscopy was used to identify these particles. The particles showed either a characteristic fluorescence spectrum in the wavelength range of 415-475 nm, indicative for uranium-(V), or in the range of 480-560 nm, which is typical for uranium(VI). Particles of uranium(V) as well as uranium-(VI) were simultaneously observed in the biofilms. These uranium particles were attributed for uranium(VI) to biologically mediated precipitation and for uranium(V) to redox processes taking place within the biofilm. The detection of uranium(V) in a multispecies biofilm was interpreted as a short-lived intermediate of the uranium(VI) to uranium-(IV) redox reaction. Its presence clearly documents that the uranium(VI) reduction is not a two electron step but that only one electron is involved.

Keywords: uranium(V); uranium(VI); biofilm; Laser fluorescence spectroscopy; Confocal laser scanning microscopy

  • Poster
    18th International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry at the Extremes - ISEB XVIII, 11.-16.11.2007, Taupo, New Zealand
  • Contribution to proceedings
    18th International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry at the Extremes - ISEB XVIII, 11.-16.11.2007, Taupo, New Zealand

Publ.-Id: 10482

Validation of the multiple velocity multiple size group (CFX10.0 N x M MUSIG) model for polydispersed multiphase flows

Shi, J.-M.; Rohde, U.; Prasser, H.-M.

To simulate dispersed two-phase flows CFD tools for predicting the local particle number density and the size distribution are required. These quantities do not only have a significant effect on rates of mixing, heterogeneous chemical reaction rates or interfacial heat and mass transfers, but also a direct relevance to the hydrodynamics of the total system, such as the flow pattern and flow regime. The Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) model available in the commercial codes CFX-4 and CFX-5 was developed for this purpose. Mathematically, this model is based on the population balance method and the two-fluid modeling approach. The dispersed phase is divided into N size classes. In order to reduce the computational cost, all size groups are assumed to share the same velocity field. This model allows to use a sufficient number of particle size groups required for the coalescence and breakup calculation. Nevertheless, the assumption also restricts its applicability to homogeneous dispersed flows. We refer to the CFX MUSIG model mentioned above as the homogeneous model, which fails to predict the correct phase distribution when heterogeneous particle motion becomes important. In many flows the non-drag forces play an essential role with respect to the bubble motion. Especially, the lift force acting on large deformed bubbles, which is dominated by the asymmetrical wake, has a direction opposite to the shear induced lift force on a small bubble. This bubble separation cannot be predicted by the homogeneous MUSIG model. In order to overcome this shortcoming we developed an efficient inhomogeneous MUSIG model in cooperation with ANSYS CFX. A novel multiple velocity multiple size group model, which incorporates the population balance equation into the multi-fluid modeling framework, was proposed. The validation of this new model is discussed in this report.

Keywords: Bubbly flow; momentum transfer; bubble forces; multi bubble size group modelling

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-487 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10481

Turbulent dispersion of bubbles in poly-dispersed gas-liquid flows in a vertical pipe

Shi, J.-M.; Rohde, U.; Prasser, H.-M.

Turbulence dispersion is a phenomenon of practical importance in many multiphase flow systems. It has a strong effect on the distribution of the dispersed phase. Physically, this phenomenon is a result of interactions between individual particles of the dispersed phase and the continuous phase turbulence eddies. In a Lagrangian simulation, a particle-eddy interaction sub-model can be introduced and the effect of turbulence dispersion is automatically accounted for during particle tracking. Nevertheless, tracking of particleturbulence interaction is extremely expensive for the small time steps required. For this reason, the Lagrangian method is restricted to small-scale dilute flow problems. In contrast, the Eulerian approach based on the continuum modeling of the dispersed phase is more efficient for densely laden flows. In the Eulerian frame, the effect of turbulence dispersion appears as a turbulent diffusion term in the scalar transport equations and the so-called turbulent dispersion force in the momentum equations. The former vanishes if the Favre (mass-weighted) averaged velocity is adopted for the transport equation system. The latter is actually the total account of the turbulence effect on the interfacial forces. In many cases, only the fluctuating effect of the drag force is important. Therefore, many models available in the literature only consider the drag contribution. A new, more general derivation of the FAD (Favre Averaged Drag) model in the multi-fluid modeling framework is presented and validated in this report.

Keywords: Bubbly flow; momentum transfer; bubble forces; turbulent dispersion force; Favre averaging

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-487 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10480

CFD models for polydispersed bubbly flows

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.

Many flow regimes in Nuclear Reactor Safety Research are characterized by multiphase flows, with one phase being a continuous liquid and the other phase consisting of gas or vapour of the liquid phase. In dependence on the void fraction of the gaseous phase the flow regimes e.g. in vertical pipes are varying from bubbly flows with low and higher volume fraction of bubbles to slug flow, churn turbulent flow, annular flow and finally to droplet flow. In the regime of bubbly and slug flow the multiphase flow shows a spectrum of different bubble sizes. While disperse bubbly flows with low gas volume fraction are mostly mono-disperse, an increase of the gas volume fraction leads to a broader bubble size distribution due to breakup and coalescence of bubbles. Bubbles of different sizes are subject to lateral migration due to forces acting in lateral direction different from the main drag force direction. The bubble lift force was found to change the sign dependent on the bubble size. Consequently this lateral migration leads to a de-mixing of small and large bubbles and to further coalescence of large bubbles migrating towards the pipe center into even larger Taylor bubbles or slugs. An adequate modeling has to consider all these phenomena. A Multi Bubble Size Class Test Solver has been developed to investigate these effects and test the influence of different model approaches. Basing on the results of these investigations a generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model based on the Eulerian modeling framework has been proposed and was finally implemented into the CFD code CFX. Within this model the dispersed gaseous phase is divided into N inhomogeneous velocity groups (phases) and each of these groups is subdivided into Mj bubble size classes. Bubble breakup and coalescence processes between all bubble size classes Mj are taken into account by appropriate models. The inhomogeneous MUSIG model has been validated against experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility.

Keywords: Bubbly Flow; CFD; Bubble Forces; Coalescence; Breakup; Pipe Flow

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-486 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10479

Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of slug flow in horizontal channels

Vallée, C.; Höhne, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Sühnel, T.

For the investigation of stratified two-phase flow, two horizontal channels with rectangular cross-section were built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The channels allow the investigation of air/water co-current flows, especially the slug behaviour, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The test-sections are made of acrylic glass, so that optical techniques, like high-speed video observation or particle image velocimetry (PIV), can be applied for measurements. The rectangular cross-section was chosen to provide better observation possibilities. Moreover, dynamic pressure measurements were performed and synchronised with the high-speed camera system. CFD post-test simulations of stratified flows were performed using the code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two fluid model with the free surface option was applied on grids of minimum 4∙105 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging and shows that CFD can be a useful tool in studying horizontal two-phase flow.
Furthermore, CFD pre-test calculations were done to show the possibility of slug flow generation in a real geometry and at relevant parameters for nuclear reactor safety. The simulation was performed on a flat model representing the hot-leg of the German Konvoi-reactor, with water and saturated steam at 50 bar and 263.9°C. The results of the CFD-calculation show wave generation in the horizontal part of the hot-leg which grow to slugs in the region of the bend.

Keywords: horizontal two-phase flow; interfacial area; slug flow

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-485 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10478

Experimentelle Untersuchung von geschichteten Luft/Wasser Strömungen in einem horizontalen Kanal

Vallée, C.; Prasser, H.-M.; Sühnel, T.

Für die Untersuchung von Luft/Wasser-Strömungen wurde ein horizontaler Acrylglas-Kanal mit rechteckigem Querschnitt gebaut. Der Kanal ermöglicht Gleich- und Gegenstrom-Versuche bei Atmosphärendruck, insbesondere die Untersuchung der Schwallströmung.
Es wurden optische Messungen mit einer Hochgeschwindigkeits-Kamera durchgeführt, die durch synchronisierte dynamische Druckmessungen ergänzt wurden. Für die Analyse der Bilder wurde eine Methode zur Erfassung der Phasengrenze entwickelt und diese anhand möglicher Anwendungen getestet. Die Druckmessungen zeigten, dass der Druck bei Schwallströmungen um einige Kilopascal ansteigt und wieder abfällt, sobald der Schwall aus dem Kanal austritt. Zudem wurden Geschwindigkeiten in der flüssigen Phase mittels nicht invasiver Verfahren gemessen. Das durchschnittliche Geschwindigkeits-Profil am Kanaleintritt wurde mit Ultraschall-Köpfen bestimmt. Die Ermittlung des Geschwindigkeitsfeldes in einem Schwall erfolgte mit PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry).

Keywords: dynamic pressure measurement; horizontal two-phase flow; optical high-speed observation; image processing; PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry); interfacial area; slug flow

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-484 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10477

Experiments on two-phase flow in a vertical tube with a moveable obstacle

Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Al Issa, S.; Schütz, P.; Pietruske, H.

A novel technique to study the two-phase flow field around an asymmetric diaphragm in a vertical pipe is presented, that enables producing data for CFD code validation in complex geometries. Main feature is a translocation of the diaphragm to scan the 3D void field with a stationary wire-mesh sensor. Besides the measurement of time-averaged void fraction fields, a novel data evaluation method was developed to extract estimated liquid velocity profiles from the wire-mesh sensor data. The flow around an obstacle of the chosen geometry has many topological similarities with complex flow situations in bends, T-junctions, valves, safety valves and other components of power plant equipment and flow phenomena like curved stream lines, which form significant angles with the gravity vector, flow separation at sharp edges and recirculation zones in their wake are present. In order to assess the quality of the CFD code and their underlying multiphase flow and turbulence models pre-test calculations by ANSYS CFX 10.0 were carried out. A comparison between the calculation results and the experimental data shows a good agreement in term of all significant qualitative details of the void fraction and liquid velocity distributions. Furthermore, the report contains a method to assess the lateral components of bubble velocities in the form of a basic theoretical description and visualisation examples. The plots show the deviation of the flow around the obstacle in term of vectors represented the average velocities of the instantaneous cross-sections of all bubbles in the time interval when they pass the measuring plane. A detailed uncertainty analyse of the velocity assessments concludes the presented report. It includes remarks about the comparison with a second method for calculating bubble velocity profiles – the cross-correlation. In addition, this chapter gives an overview about the influence of acceleration and deceleration effects on the velocity estimation.

Keywords: Two-Phase Flow; Gas bubbles; Gas volume fraction distribution; velocity fields

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-483 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10476

Experiments on upwards gas/liquid flow in vertical pipes

Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Manera, A.; Schütz, H.; Pietruske, P.

Two-phase flow experiments at vertical pipes are much suitable for studying the action of different constitutive relations characterizing the momentum exchange at the gas/liquid interface as well as the dynamic behaviour of the gas/liquid interface itself. The flow can be observed in its movement along the pipe and, in particular, within the shear field close to the pipe wall over a considerable vertical distance and, consequently, over a comparatively long time without the immediate separation of gas and liquid characteristic for horizontal flows.
Wire-mesh sensors, which were the working horse in the described experiments, supplied sequences of instantaneous two-dimensional gas fraction distributions with a high-resolution in space and time. This allows to derive from the data not only void fraction and bubble velocity profiles, but also bubble size distributions, bubble-size resolved radial gas fraction profiles as well as the axial evolution of these distributions. An interfacial surface reconstruction algorithm was developed in order to extract the extension of interfacial area from the wire-mesh sensor data. The sensors were upgraded to withstand parameters that are close to nuclear reactor conditions. Most of the experiments were performed for both air/water flow at ambient pressure and steam/water flow of up to 6.5 MPa at identical combinations of the gas and liquid superficial velocities. This offers excellent conditions for studying the influence of the fluid properties.

Keywords: Two-Phase Flow; Gas bubbles; Gas volume fraction distribution; velocity fields

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-482 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10475

Construction and execution of experiments at the multi-purpose thermal hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW for generic investigations of two-phase flows and the development and validation of CFD codes - Final report

Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Vallée, C.; Krepper, E.; Höhne, T.; Manera, A.; Carl, H.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Al Issa, S.; Zaruba, A.; Shi, J.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.

The works aimed at the further development and validation of models for CFD codes. For this reason, the new thermal-hydraulic test facility TOPFLOW was erected and equipped with wire-mesh sensors with high spatial and time resolution. Vertical test sections with nominal diameters of DN50 and DN200 operating with air-water as well as steam-water two-phase flows provided results on the evaluation of flow patterns, on the be¬haviour of the interfacial area as well as on interfacial momentum and heat transfer. The validation of the CFD-code for complex geometries was carried out using 3D void fraction and velocity distributions obtained in an experiment with an asymmetric obstacle in the large DN200 test section. With respect to free surface flows, stratified co- and counter-current flows as well as slug flows were studied in two horizontal test channels made from acrylic glass. Post-test calculations of these experiments succeeded in predicting the slug formation process.
Corresponding to the main goal of the project, the experimental data was used for the model development. For vertical flows, the emphasis was put on lateral bubble forces (e.g. lift force). Different constitutive laws were tested using a Multi Bubble Size Class Test Solver that has been developed for this purpose. Basing on the results a generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model has been proposed and implemented into the CFD code CFX (ANSYS). Validation calculations with the new code resulted in the conclusion that particularly the models for bubble coalescence and fragmentation need further optimisation.
Studies of single effects, like the assessment of turbulent dissipation in a bubbly flow and the analysis of trajectories of single bubbles near the wall, supplied other important results of the project.

Keywords: Two-phase flow; 3D-void fraction distribution; 3D-velocity distribution; CFD-simulation

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-481 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10474

Aufbau und Durchführung von Experimenten an der Mehrzweck-Thermohydraulikversuchsanlage TOPFLOW für generische Untersuchungen von Zweiphasenströmungen und die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von CFD-Codes - Abschlussbericht

Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Vallée, C.; Krepper, E.; Höhne, T.; Manera, A.; Carl, H.; Pietruske, H.; Schütz, P.; Zaruba, A.; Al Issa, S.; Shi, J.-M.; Weiß, F.-P.

Ziel der Arbeiten war die Weiterentwicklung und Validierung von Modellen in CFD-Codes. Hierzu wurde am FZD die thermohydraulische Versuchsanlage TOPFLOW aufgebaut und mit räumlich und zeitlich hochauflösenden Gittersensoren ausgestattet. Vertikale Teststrecken mit Nenndurchmessern von DN50 bzw. DN200 für Luft/Wasser- sowie Dampf/Wasser-Strömungen lieferten Ergebnisse zur Entwicklung von Strömungsformen, zum Verhalten der Zwischenphasengrenzfläche sowie zum Wärme- und Impulsaustausch zwischen den Phasen. Die Validierung des CFD-Codes in komplexen Geometrien erfolgte anhand von 3D Gasgehalts- und Geschwindigkeitsfeldern, die bei Umströmung eines asymmetrischen Hindernisses auftreten, das in der Teststrecke DN200 eingebaut war. Im Hinblick auf Strömungen mit freier Oberfläche untersuchte das FZD in zwei horizontalen Acrylglas-Kanälen geschichtete Zweiphasenströmungen im Gleich- bzw. Gegenstrom sowie Schwallströmungen. Bei den Nachrechnungen dieser Versuche gelang die Simulation der Schwallentstehung.
Entsprechend des Projektziels wurden die experimentellen Ergebnisse zur Modellentwicklung genutzt. Bei vertikalen Strömungen stand die Wirkung der lateralen Blasenkräfte (z.B. Liftkraft) im Vordergrund. Zum Test unterschiedlicher Modellansätze wurde hierzu ein Mehrblasenklassen-Testsolver entwickelt und genutzt. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein neues Konzept für ein Mehrblasenklassenmodell, das Inhomogene MUSIG Modell erarbeitet und in den kommerziellen CFD Code CFX (ANSYS) implementiert. Bei Validierungsrechnungen zeigte sich, dass vor allem die Blasenkoaleszenz- und –zerfallsmodelle weiter optimiert werden müssen. Untersuchungen zu Einzeleffekten, wie z.B. die Abschätzung von Turbulenzkoeffizienten und die Analyse der Trajektoren von Einzelblasen in unmittelbarer Wandnähe, lieferten weitere wichtige Ergebnisse des Projekts.

Keywords: Two-phase flow; 3D-void fraction distribution; 3D-velocity distribution; CFD-simulation

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-480 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10473

Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lipids in adipose tissue at high spatial resolution in mice in vivo

Strobel, K.; van den Hoff, J.; Pietzsch, J.

We describe a localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) method for in vivo measurement of lipid composition in very small voxels
(1.5 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) in adipose tissue in mice. The method uses localized point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) to collect 1H-spectra from voxels in intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits. Nonlinear least squares fits of the spectra in the frequency domain allow for accurate calculation of the relative amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
All spectral data are corrected for spin-spin relaxation. The data show BAT of NMRI mice to be significantly different from BAT of NMRI nu/nu mice in all aspects except for the fraction of monounsaturated fatty acids; for WAT only the fraction of monounsaturated fatty acids is different. BAT and WAT of NMRI mice differ in the amount of saturated and diunsaturated fatty acids. This method provides a potential tool for studying lipid metabolism in small animal models of disease during initiation, progression and manifestation of obesity-related disorders in vivo.

Our results clearly demonstrate that localized 1H-MRS of adipose tissue in vivo is possible at high spatial resolution with voxel sizes down to 3.4 ml.

Publ.-Id: 10472

Hydrogen interaction with vacancies in electron irradiated niobium

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Gemma, R.; Nikitin, E.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

Defect studies of Nb irradiated with 10 MeV electrons were performed in the present work by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy. The lattice defects were characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Moreover, defect depth profiles were studied by slow positron implantation spectroscopy. The experimental investigations were accompanied by first principles theoretical calculations of positron parameters. It was found that irradiation-induced vacancies in Nb specimens are surrounded by H, which causes a shortening of the lifetime of trapped positrons. The influence of a Pd and Cr over-layer on the H concentration in the Nb specimens was examined.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland
  • Open Access Logo Acta Physica Polonica A 113(2008), 1293-1299

Publ.-Id: 10471

Characterization of ZnO by positron annihilation

Brauer, G.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland

Publ.-Id: 10470

A microsensor study on the O2 consumption in a U(VI) contaminated multispecies biofilm

Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Großmann, K.; Arnold, T.; Wobus, A.; Diessner, S.

Multispecies biofilms were cultured in annular rotating biofilm reactors and subsequently exposed to U(VI) in ecological relevant concentration (5×10-5 M and 5×10-6 M). Such concentrations are comparable with uranium concentrations typically found in seepage waters of uranium tailings, e.g. in Saxony/Germany. The resulting response of the microbial biofilm community to the added U(VI) was then studied by electrochemical oxygen microsensors with tip diameters of 10 µm and by staining methods using the fluorogenic redox indicator 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and the DNA-binding fluochrome 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The visualized ratio of CTC-formazan to DAPI intensity was used as an indication of the specific respiratory activity within the biofilms. In addition, 16S rDNA analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigations were carried out to study the effect of added uranium on the bacterial diversity.

The microsensor measurements revealed that the oxygen concentration in the multispecies biofilms exposed to uranium decreased faster with increasing biofilm depths in comparison to the uranium free biofilms. Analyses of the amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments showed that the addition of uranium induced no changes to the bacterial diversity in the multispecies biofilms. However, the analyses clearly indicated that a stable multispecies biofilms had developed. The metabolic activity, determined by CTC measurements increased in the upper layers of the biofilms by the addition of the uranium shown by faster oxygen consumptions. This indicates that the bacteria in the biofilms battle the toxic effects of aqueous uranium with an increased metabolic activity proven by the increased CTC activity and in particular by faster oxygen consumption in the biofilm profiles.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    6. Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium, 04.-05.10.2007, Jena, Germany
  • Poster
    6. Jenaer Sanierungskolloquium, 04.-05.10.2007, Jena, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10469

Reduktion von Uran(VI) durch Glucose

Gründig, I.

... Die Untersuchungsergebnisse sind von grundlegender Bedeutung für Aussagen zur Mobilität dieser nuklide in der Geo- und Biosphäre, denn in wässrigen Sysstemen sind besonders die Actinide in verschiedenen Oxidationsstufen stabil und sie bilden eine Reihe von Komplexen mit anorganischen und organischen Liganden. Durch den sehr niedrigen Konzentrationsbereich, der teilweise durch die geringe Löslichkeit der Actiniden verursacht wird, weisen Datenbanken oft große Lücken und Unsicherheiten auf. Diese gelten vor allem für die unter natürlichen reduzierenden Bedingungen stabilen, niedrigen Oxidationsstufen dieser Elemente.
Die meisten erforschten Reduktionsvorgänge verschiedener Actinide liegen im sauren pH-Bereich, die neutralen beziehungsweise basischen pH-Bereiche wurden selten betrachtet. Dabei spielen auch diese pH-Werte eine wichtige Rolle für die Weiterentwicklung thermodynamischer Datenbanken, da diese Datensätze eine entscheidende Voraussetzung zu Aussagen für die Langzeitsicherheit von nuklearen Endlager und Sanierungsvorhaben der Altlasten des Uranerzbergbaus bilden.
Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Reduktion von U(VI) mit dem Bioliganden Glucose in dem pH-Bereich vier bis neun zu erforschen.

  • Other report
    Praktikumsbericht: Dresden: Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft, 2007
    55 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 10466

Air/water flow experiments in the hot leg model of the TOPFLOW facility

Vallee, C.; Deendarlianto; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Pietruske, H.

The presentation gives an overview about the air/water experiments performed in the hot leg model built in the pressure vessel of the TOPFLOW facility.
These experiments were conducted in a flat test-section representing a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. The region of the elbow and of the steam generator inlet chamber are equipped with glass side walls in order to allow high-speed video observations of the two-phase flow in this region. Three types of experiments were performed: co-current flow experiments, steady counter-current flow experiments and counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. The test procedures, detailed test matrices and selected examples of the measured data are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the CCFL experiments is shown, including a comparison with similar experiments and empirical correlations available in the literature.
In the next future, the acquired data will be treated to allow the validation of CFD codes.

Keywords: hot leg; pressurised water reactor; PWR; two-phase flow; counter-current flow; counter-current flow limitation; CCFL

  • Lecture (others)
    10th Meeting of the German CFD Network, 17.-18.09.2007, Garching, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10465

Post Mortem Investigations of the NPP Greifswald WWER-440 Reactor Pressure Vessels

Viehrig, H.-W.; Rindelhardt, U.; Schuhknecht, J.

The investigation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials from decommissioned NPPs offers the unique opportunity to scrutinize the irradiation behaviour under real conditions. Trepans taken from the whole RPV wall enable a comprehensive material characterisation. The paper describes the trepanning technology applied to the decommissioned WWER-440/230 RPVs of the Greifswald NPP. The Greifswald RPVs represent different material conditions such as irradiated, irradiated and recovery annealed and irradiated, recovery annealed and re-irradiated. The working program is focussed on the characterisation of the RPV steels (base and weld metal) through the RPV wall. The key part of the testing is aimed at the determination of the reference temperature T0 following the ASTM Test Standard E1921-05 to determine the fracture toughness of the RPV steel in different thickness locations. In a first step the material of the core welding seam was investigated. It could be shown that the Master Curve approach as adopted in E1921 is applicable to the investigated original RPV weld metal. The weld metal located in a distance of about 22 mm from the inner surface of the RPV wall yielded a T0 of 50°C which is about 40K higher than T0 close to the inner surface. This outcome is important for the assessment of results retrieved from so called boat samples taken directly from the RPV surface after the recovery annealing. It shows that boat samples do not represent the material with the lowest toughness.

Keywords: reactor pressure vessel steels; fracture toughness; Master Curve; nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment

  • Contribution to proceedings
    33. MPA-Seminar Werkstoff- und Bauteilverhalten in der Energie- und Anlagentechnik, 11.-12.10.2007, Stuttgart, Germany
    Proceedings 33. MPA-Seminar "Werkstoff- & Bauteilverhalten in Energie- & Anlagentechnik", Stuttgart: Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart, 4-1-4-9

Publ.-Id: 10464

Surface roughness evolution and growth mechanism of carbon films from hyperthermal species

Lifshitz, Y.; Edrei, R.; Hoffman, A.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Berthold, J.; Schultrich, B.; Jäger, H. U.

The roughness evolution of carbon films deposited from hyperthermal species was investigated by AFM. 10 eV C deposition at normal incidence angle starts with formation of 10 nm high islands followed by continuous, sp2 rich films at larger doses with essentially the same feature height and film roughness. 40 eV C deposition at normal incidence angle (0°) forms sp3 rich, atomically smooth films, which become sp2 rich and rough at oblique angles (≥60°). The limitations of currently available molecular dynamic simulations prevent their use to describe the island formation during 10 eV C bombardment. Dedicated calculations probing the effect of incidence angle on 40 eV C deposition exhibit similar trends to the experimental data i.e. decrease of the sp3 fraction and increase of the roughness with increasing incidence angle. The results are in accord with the “subplantation” scheme, linking roughness and sp2 bonding to surface entrapment. Implications on recent works discussing growth mechanisms or surface smoothening are given.

Keywords: DLC; Amorphous carbon; Growth; Surface roughness; Subplantation; AFM

  • Diamond and Related Materials 16(2007), 1771-1776
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    6th Specialists Meeting on Amorphous Carbon (SMAC 2006), 10.-13.09.2006, Heraclion, Crete, Greece

Publ.-Id: 10463

In-medium modification and decay asymmetry of omega mesons in cold nuclear matter

Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, B.

We discuss an asymmetry of the decay omega -> e+ e- in nuclear matter with respect to the electron and positron energies. This asymmetry is sensitive to the properties of the omega meson self-energy and, in particular, it has a non-trivial dependence on the omega energy and momentum. Therefore, this asymmetry may serve as a powerful tool in studying the properties of the omega meson in the nuclear medium.

Keywords: omega meson in nuclear matter; decay asymmetry

Publ.-Id: 10462

Asymptotic methods for spherically symmetric MHD α2-dynamos

Günther, U.; Kirillov, O.

We consider two models of spherically-symmetric MHD α2-dynamos; one with idealized boundary conditions (BCs); and one with physically realistic BCs. As it has been shown in our previous work, the eigenvalues λ of a model with idealized BCs and constant α-profile α0 are linear functions of α0 and form a mesh in the (α0, λ)-plane. The nodes of the spectral mesh correspond to double-degenerate eigenvalues of algebraic and geometric multiplicity 2 (diabolical points). It was found that perturbations of the constant α-profile lead to a resonant unfolding of the diabolical points with selection rules of the resonant unfolding defined by the Fourier coefficients of the perturbations. In the present contribution we present new exact results on the spectrum of the model with physically realistic BCs and constant α. For non-degenerate (simple) eigenvalues perturbation gradients are found at any particular α0. We briefly discuss the spectral behavior of the α2-dynamo operator over a family of homotopic deformations of the BCs between idealized ones and physically realistic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although the spectral singularities are lifted, a memory about their locations remains deeply imprinted in the homotopic family of spectral deformations due to a hidden underlying invariance.

Keywords: MHD dynamo; diabolical point; perturbation theory; boundary conditions; homotopy; deformation; gradient technique; resonance pattern

Publ.-Id: 10460

XAS study of (U1−yPuy)O2 solid solutions

Martin, P.; Grandjean, S.; Valot, C.; Carlot, G.; Ripert, M.; Blank, P.; Hennig, C.

A new procedure for (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel manufacturing based on the oxalic coprecipitation of U(IV) and Pu(III) followed by the thermal conversion of the coprecipitate into oxide is under development. In order to fully investigate the ideality of solid solution with Pu content equal to 50, 30, 15 and 7 at.%, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) characterizations at uranium and plutonium LIII edges have been undertaken. Using XRD, a face centred cubic structure was observed in each case, and the cell parameter deduced follows satisfactorily the Vegard’s law. However, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements moderate these results; only the (U0.5Pu0.5)O2 sample leads to the same conclusion as XRD. For the lower plutonium concentration, a disordered hyperstoichiometric structure (U1−yPuy)O2+x has been revealed. In those compounds, cuboctahedral oxygen defects are only located around uranium atoms and not in the Pu environment. A much more complex structure than that suggested by the XRD is thus observed with a non-random distribution of plutonium atoms within the uranium sites of the (U1−yPuy)O2+x structure.

Keywords: Actinide alloys and compounds; Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS); Oxide materials; Solid state reactions

  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds 444-445(2007), 410-414

Publ.-Id: 10459

Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research Report January 1998- June 1999

von Borany, J.; Jäger, H.-U.; Möller, W.; Wieser, E.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZR-269 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10458

Structural Determination of Individual Chemical Species in a Mixed System by Iterative Transformation Factor Analysis (ITFA)-based X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with UV-Visible Absorption and Quantum Chemical Calculation

Ikeda, A.; Hennig, C.; Rossberg, A.; Tsushima, S.; Scheinost, A. C.; Bernhard, G.

A multi-technique approach using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, EXAFS spectroscopy combined with the factor analysis based on iterative target testing (ITT), and DFT calculations has been performed in order to investigate the speciation of uranium(VI) nitrate species in acetonitrile and to identify the complex structure of each fundamental species in the system. UV-visible spectral titration suggests that there are four different species in the system, that is, pure solvated species, mono-, di-, and trinitrate species. ITT-based factor analysis extracts the pure EXAFS spectra of fundamental species from the measured spectral mixtures on the basis of the speciation diagram calculated from the UV-visible data. Data analysis of the extracted EXAFS spectra and DFT calculations provide the most probable complex structures of fundamental species. That is, the pure solvated species corresponds to a 5-fold uranyl hydrate complex of [UO2(H2O)5]2+. Nitrate ions tend to coordinate to the uranyl(VI) ions with a bidentate fashion rather than a unidentate one in acetonitrile. The mononitrate species forms a 5-fold complex of [UO2(H2O)3NO3]+, while the di- and trinitrate species show a 6-fold complex arrangement, corresponding to [UO2(H2O)2(NO3)2]0 (D2h) and [UO2(NO3)3]- (D3h), respectively. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-visible absorption and EXAFS spectroscopies with DFT calculations is very powerful for the structural determination of individual species in the mixed system, in which several different species coexist together.

Keywords: Uranium; Nitrate; Acetonitrile; UV-visible; EXAFS; DFT calculations; Factor analysis; Speciation; Complex structure


Publ.-Id: 10457

Positron depth profiling in solid surface layers

Grynszpan, R. I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Coleman, G.

We briefly review the principles of the Doppler Broadening of the positron annihilation radiation line, the most common technique used in defect depth profiling of solids relevant to dc-beams. We focus on some specific examples of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations related to technological issues such as, for instance,
i) phase transitions in metal coatings possibly induced by internal stresses,
ii) substrate pre-treatment or annealing dependence of defect profiles at metal/polymer interfaces or in the deposited layers, and
iii) near-surface structural modification by ion implantation in ceramics and multilayers.
In each case we elaborate on the possibility of using SPIS results and possible depth profile features as criteria for on- or off-line quality control in industrial processes. We finally conclude with an overall picture of the operating characteristics of positron annihilation techniques.

  • Annales de Chimie - Science des Matériaux 32(2007)4, 365-382

Publ.-Id: 10456

Micro- and nanoscale magnetic patterning of paramagnetic FeAl alloys by means of nanoindentation or selective ion irradiation

Sort, J.; Menendez, E.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heyderman, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Concustell, A.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baró, M. D.; Nogues, J.

Some intermetallic alloys exhibit a transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic states when they are atomically disordered. This is the case, for example, of the atomically-ordered Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloy, which is paramagnetic at room temperature but becomes ferromagnetic when subject to structural disordered. This effect has been used to generate arrays of ferromagnetic dots embedded in a paramagnetic matrix. This can be accomplished by two different routes: (i) selective mechanical deformation by means of nanoindentation and (ii) local irradiation procedures, either through lithographed masks or using focused ion beam. Concerning route (i), two types of geometries were designed: periodic arrays of triangular dots (resulting from the pyramidal shape of the Berkovich indenter) and arrays of straight lines produced by scratch [1]. Route (ii) has the advantage over nanoindentation that, due to the low doses used, it does not induce any roughening of the surface, avoiding tribological problems. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of a magneto-optical Kerr effect setup, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. Furthermore, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures (i.e., around 800 K), the magnetic properties are lost due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. This method may be easily extrapolated to a variety of other intermetallic systems such as Fe2AlMn, Ni3Sn2, CoAl or CoGa and the obtained magnetic structures may have interesting applications, such as patterned recording media (free tribological problems and detrimental exchange interactions) or magnetic sensors.

[1] J. Sort, A. Concustell, E. Menéndez, S. Suriñach, K.V. Rao, S.C. Deevi, M.D. Baró and J. Nogués. Periodic arrays of micrometer and sub-micrometer magnetic structures prepared by nanoindentation of a nonmagnetic intermetallic compound. Adv. Mater. 18, 1717-1720 (2006).

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; FIB; intermetallic alloys; phase transformation

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    First workshop on nanolithography and their applications, 23.-26.10.2007, Zaragoza, Spain

Publ.-Id: 10455

Evidence for low freeze- out temperature and large transverse flow in central collisions of Pb + Pb at 158 AGeV

Kämpfer, B.

  • Open Access Logo Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR 149 1996
    ISSN: 1436-3976


Publ.-Id: 10446

PT-symmetric brachistochrone problem, Lorentz boosts and nonunitary operator equivalence classes

Günther, U.; Samsonov, B.

The PT-symmetric (PTS) quantum brachistochrone problem is re-analyzed as a composite quantum system consisting of a non-Hermitian PTS component and a purely Hermitian component simultaneously. A general approach is proposed for the construction of partially PTS systems which are not reducible to purely Hermitian ones. A natural ingredient of these systems are non-unitary operator equivalence classes (conjugacy orbits) with at least one Hermitian representative. With the help of a geometric analysis the compatibility of the vanishing passage time solution of a PTS brachistochrone with the Anandan-Aharonov lower bound for passage times of Hermitian brachistochrones is demonstrated. Via embedding of the PTS Hamiltonian into a Dirac Hamiltonian the vanishing passage time solution is related to an ultra-relativistic regime.

Keywords: PT-symmetric Quantum Mechanics; quantum brachistochrone problem; exceptional point; singularity; Dirac equation; chiral spinors; ultra-relativistic limit; Krein space

Publ.-Id: 10445

Millisecond processing beyond chip technology: From electronics to photonics

Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.; Posselt, M.; Prucnal, S.; Rebohle, L.; Voelskow, M.; Zhou, S.; Mcmahon, R. A.; Smith, M.; Gebel, T.; Hentsch, W.; Fendler, R.; Lüthge, T.; Satta, A.; Moe Børseth, T.; Kuznetsov, A. Y.; Svensson, B. G.

There is a clear and increasing interest in short time annealing processing far below one second, i.e. the lower limit of Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) called spike annealing. This was driven by the need of suppressing the so-called Transient Enhanced Diffusion in advanced boron-implanted shallow pn-junctions in silicon technology. Meanwhile the interest in flash lamp annealing (FLA) in the millisecond range spread out into other fields related to silicon technology and beyond. This paper reports on recent experiments regarding shallow junction engineering in germanium, annealing of ITO layers on glass and plastic foil to form an conductive layer as well as investigations which we did during the last years in the field of wide band gap semiconductor materials (SiC, ZnO). A more common feature evolving from our work was related to the modeling of wafer stress during millisecond thermal processing with flash lamps. Finally recent achievements in the field of silicon-based light emission basing on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Light Emitting Devices will be reported.

Keywords: Flash lamp annealing; silicon; silicon carbide; germanium zinc oxide; silicon-based light emission; ITO layers

  • Contribution to proceedings
    15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors IEEE RTP 2007, 02.-07.10.2007, Catania, Italy
    Millisecond processing beyond chip technology: From electronics to photonics, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Electron Devices Society, 1-4244-1227-7, 41-49
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    15th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors IEEE RTP 2007, 02.-07.10.2007, Catania, Italy

Publ.-Id: 10443

Bakterielle Hüllproteine (S-Layer) als Werkzeug für die Entwicklung nanoskaliger Katalysatoren, Biosensoren und Filtermaterialien

Raff, J.; Pollmann, K.

- wird nachgereicht

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Innovationsforum "REDUPHARM", 07.09.2007, Dessau, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10442

Pre-test CFD simulations of Gidropress Mixing Facility Experiments using ANSYS CFX

Höhne, T.; Rohde, U.; Melideo, D.; Moretti, F.; D’Auria, F.; Shishov, A.; Lisenkov, E.

The main objective for the quantification of the fluid mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum is the demonstration of the safety of the nuclear plant during non-symmetrical transients. This concerns two main topics: The risk of fragile brittle of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) transients and the risk of core reactivity excursion during non-symmetrical transient such as Main Steam Line Breaks (MSLB) or Boron Dilution Transients (BDT). These scenarios are studied in the 1:5 scaled VVER-1000 reactor model at OKB “Gidropress” in the framework of a TACIS project: ““Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration) at core inlet”.

The 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes provide an effective tool for mixing calculations. In recent years, the rapid development of both the software and the computers has made it feasible to study the coolant mixing in sufficient detail and to perform the calculations for transient conditions. The CFD-Code used was ANSYS CFX. The geometric details of the construction internals inside the RPV have a strong influence on the flow field and on the mixing. Therefore, a detailed representation of the inlet region, the spacer in the downcomer, the elliptical perforated plate and the complicated structures in the lower plenum was necessary. All parts of the lower plenum structures were modeled in detail. The computational grid contained 4.3 Million nodes. In the VVER-1000 reactor, similar characteristic flow and mixing pattern are observed in the case of nominal flow conditions like for Western type PWR. Sensitivity analyses were performed following recommendations included in the ECORA Best Practice Guidelines.

Regarding the flow field and mixing in the downcomer during four loop operation at nominal flow rates, it has been shown that a sharp sector formation like in western 4-loop reactors appears, the flow field is inhomogeneous; in fact high velocity values occur beside the loop positions, and not below the inlet nozzles, which indicates the presence of recirculation areas or stagnant zones. Regarding the flow field and mixing at the core inlet, it has been shown that the mass flow rate distribution is more or less homogenous over the core diameter due to the lower plenum internals, the perturbed sector covers more or less one fourth of the core; a sharp sector formation like in western 4-loop reactors appears, weak mixing zones appear (around 97% of the unperturbed concentration). In most cases, the sensitivity analyses performed did not show any appreciable dependence of the results with respect to the addressed parameters. A three loop operation was chosen to show the differences of the flow and mixing behavior compared to the four loop operation.

An extensive experimental program is now running, studying different flow conditions in the reactor mock up, like the start of the 1st coolant pump or natural circulation conditions with density differences of the primary coolant. Pre and post test CFD simulations are carried out for code validation and for a deeper understanding of the flow and mixing behavior in the VVER-1000 reactor also in the future of the project.

Keywords: CFD; Coolant Mixing

  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine
    Proceeding, 555-571
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine

Publ.-Id: 10441

Electronic structure study of the "ferric star" single molecule magnet

Prinz, M.; Takacs, A. F.; Kuepper, K.; Postnikov, A. V.; Scheurer, A.; Saalfrank, R. W.; Sperner, S.; Prince, K. C.; Neumann, M.

New materials based on metal-oxygen clusters are promising stages of development in nano/micro electronic applications that can lead to the emergence of a new technology. Molecules containing several transition metal ions can exhibit properties similar to nanoscale magnetic particles. Our approach in this field is the study of the electronic structure of these materials by means of spectroscopic investigations in combination with theoretical calculations. The electronic structure of magnetic molecules of the type [Fe(FeL2)3]*4CHCl3 where L=CH3N(CH2CH2O)^2-_2 NO2 has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray emission spectroscopy as well as theoretical density-functional-based methods. Experimental XPS results are in a good agreement to the calculated tDOS, also the partial DOS agrees very well with the XES results. The Fe core level spectra indicate that Fe is in the Fe 2+ state, which is in a good agreement with the calculated magnetic moment of 4 muB/f.u. The neighbouring atoms primarily oxygen and nitrogen exhibit a magnetic polarisation yielding effective spin S=5/2 per iron atom. Due to antiparallel orientation of the magnetic moments of the central Fe ion relatively to three peripheric Fe, the total resulting spin per molecule in the ground state amounts to S=5.

Keywords: Molecular magnetism; high-spin state; electronic structure; x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

  • Poster
    VUV XV The 15th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 29.07.-03.08.2007, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10440

Magnetization Dynamics investigated by X-Ray Microscopy

Quitmann, C.; Back, C.; Buess, M.; Fassbender, J.; Kuepper, K.; Raabe, J.

Magnetic micro-objects and their dynamics have attracted considerable attention recently. When excited by either a short (~100ps) magnetic field pulse [1,2], or by a high frequency (>100MHz) sine wave [3] it is possible to investigate various excitations of the magnetization in such thin film structures[4]. Depending on the size and geometry these objects contain either only a single magnetic domain, or a pattern consisting of several domains separated by domain walls and by vortices or antivortices.
We combine time resolved x-ray microscopy experiments with micro-magnetic simulations to gain insight into the dynamics of such objects and into the coupling between the various excitations.
We start with simple discs or squares, where three modes connected to the homogenously magnetized domains, the domain walls and the vortex exist. From there we move to more complex objects. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combination of vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single cross-tie wall can be understood as being a coupled micromagnetic system with three static solitons. We report on its magnetization dynamics including the vortex-antivortex interactions. The spectrum of eigenmodes is investigated as well as the effect of different vortex core orientations. We show that the vortex dynamics can be used to identify the core configuration which is not directly accessible to x-ray microscopy because of its limited spatial resolution.

[1] J. Raabe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 217204 (2005)
[2] M. Buess et al., Phys Rev. B 74, 100404 (2006)
[3] B. Van Waeyenberge et al., Nature 444, 461 (2006)
[4] R. Hertel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 177202 (2006)

Keywords: Magnetism; vortex; antivortex; magnetization dynamics

  • Lecture (Conference)
    VUV XV The 15th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, 29.07.-03.08.2007, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10439

New aspects in modelling buoyancy driven flow at the ROCOM test facility

Vaibar, R.; Hoehne, T.

The influence of density differences on the mixing of the primary loop inventory and the Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water in the downcomer of a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) was analyzed at the ROssendorf COolant Mixing (ROCOM) test facility. ROCOM is a 1:5 scaled model of a German PWR, and has been designed for coolant mixing studies. It is equipped with advanced instrumentation, which delivers high-resolution information for temperature or Boron concentration fields. This paper presents ROCOM experiments in which water with higher density was injected into a cold leg of the reactor model. Wire-mesh sensors measuring the concentration of a tracer in the injected water were installed in the cold leg, in the upper and lower part of the downcomer. An experiment with 15 % of the design flow rate in one loop and 10 % density difference between the ECC and loop water was selected for validation of the CFD software ANSYS CFX. A mesh with two million control volumes was used for the calculations. The effects of turbulence on the mean flow were modelled with a Reynolds stress turbulence model, Shear stress transport model including gravity terms in turbulence production and dissipation. The results of previous numerical studies showed allready that mixing is influenced by buoyancy effects. In this recent study the numerical grid was improved and extendend.
Therefore ANSYS CFX could predict the observed flow patterns and mixing phenomena a lot better than in previous studies.

Keywords: density difference; mixing; Pressurised Water Reactor; ROCOM; turbulence modelling

  • Contribution to proceedings
    ANSYS Conference & 25. CADFEM Users´ Meeting, 21.-23.11.2007, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10438

Buoyancy driven turbulent flow and experimental validation at the VeMix test facility

Vaibar, R.; Sühnel, T.; Da Silva, M. J.

Buoyancy driven flow is often presented in many engineering application such as mixing process of fluids with different density. The aim of our study is to simulate mixing processes that are relevant in safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The boron dilution problem is one such safety analysis issue.
Borated and unborated water are of different densities and may be of different temperatures, what causes additional density differences. The degree of mixing of low and high borated coolant is a critical issue with respect to reactivity insertion into the reactor core.
As nuclear reactor geometries are complex, the mixing process not widely understood and the influence of the buoyancy is small, a VeMix (Vertical Mixing) test facility was chosen for validation of numerical models of the mixing process. The experimental data was taken from the optical method and surface wire mesh method.

Keywords: turbulent buoyancy driven flow; surface wire mesh; VeMix; mixing process

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Computational Mechanics 2007, 05.-07.11.2007, Castle Nectiny, Czech Republic
  • Open Access Logo Applied and Computational Mechanics 1(2007), 677-684

Publ.-Id: 10437

The dance of the domains: Excitations in magnetic microstructures

Quitmann, C.; Raabe, J.; Buess, M.; Back, C.; Perzelmaier, K.; Kuepper, K.; Fassbender, J.

Magnetic objects of nano- or micrometer dimensions have fascinating properties. They contain regions with long range order between the atomic moments (domains) which are separated by domain walls. These domain patterns can be controlled by the size, the shape and the material. We use x-ray microscopy to study such magnetic micro-objects and investigate their dynamics. Using a stroboscopic pump-probe technique we determine the eigen-modes, their frequencies, damping and the coupling between them.
Starting from simple objects like squares containing only domains, domain walls and a single vortex, we move to more complex objects like rectangles with a cross-tie configuration. The latter contain two vortices and one anti-vortex. Because these three vortices are coupled their dynamics is very complex and depends on the relative vortex orientation despite of a degenerate ground state.
Magnetic microstructures imaged using a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) and showing homogenous domains separated by domain walls. The square (left) contains a single vortex, the rectangle (right) contains two vortices and an anti-vortex in the center.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; vortex; antivortex; PEEM

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ALC'07 - 6th International Symposium on Atomic Level Characterizations for New Materials and Devices '07, 28.10.-02.11.2007, Kanazawa, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10436

Ionenmodifizierte Oberflächen für die Magnetsensorik

Fassbender, J.

Übersichtsvortrag zu neueren Arbeiten zur Funktionalisierung von Oberflächen für Magnetsensor-Anwendungen.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; ion implantation; self-organization; sensors; exchange-bias

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop "Funktionalisierte Oberflächen", 22.11.2007, Augsburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10435

Ions hit magnetism - new challenges for the design of artificial nanostructures

Fassbender, J.

In recent years the tailoring of magnetic properties by means of ion irradiation techniques has become fashionable. Since the magnetic properties of multilayers depend sensitively on the mutual interfaces a modification of these interfaces by light ion irradiation leads to a local modification of the magnetic anisotropy, the exchange bias or the interlayer exchange coupling [1]. As an example it will be demonstrated that ion irradiation in an applied magnetic field allows to set the uniaxial anisotropy direction on a micrometer scale in the case of soft magnetic alloys [2]. However, in order to modify the structural and magnetic properties not only light ion irradiation but also ion implantation doping can be used. If, for example, Cr is implanted in thin Permalloy films the Curie temperature and the saturation mag¬netization can be reduced, which consecutively leads to a decrease of the magnetic anisotropy and an increase of the magnetic damping behavior [3]. The formation of magnetically dead layers at the interfaces to buffer and cap layers can be investigated using Ni implantation [4].
In an alternative route to design magnetic properties periodically modulated substrates are employed [5]. These modulated substrates are created by means of low energy ion erosion. A ripple structure with a typical periodicity of 30 – 50 nm and a ripple height of about 2 nm is created on a Si substrate. Subsequently deposited Permalloy films exhibit a uniaxial anisotropy which is about a factor of 20 larger than conventionally prepared films. If exchange bias bi¬layers are deposited the interplay between the unidirectional and the ripple-induced uniaxial anisotropy contributions can be investigated.

1. J. Fassbender, D. Ravelosona, Y. Samson, J. Phys. D 37, R179 (2004).
2. J. McCord, T. Gemming, L. Schultz, J. Fassbender, M. O. Liedke, M. Frommberger,
E. Quandt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 162502 (2005).
3. J. Fassbender, J. von Borany, A. Mücklich, K. Potzger, W. Möller, J. McCord,
L. Schultz, R. Mattheis, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184410 (2006).
4. J. Fassbender, J. McCord, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 252501 (2006).
5. M. O. Liedke, B. Liedke, A. Keller, B. Hillebrands, A. Mücklich, S. Facsko,
J. Fassbender, Phys. Rev. B 75, 220407(R) (2007).

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; ion implantation; ripple formation; self organization; patterning; FIB

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 09.10.2007, Sydney, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 11.10.2007, Canberra, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag, 21.11.2007, Augsburg, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium, 14.11.2007, Chemnitz, Germany
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Magnetic Nanomaterials, 05.02.2008, Leuven, Belgien
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Kolloquium, 06.05.2008, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag, 29.05.2008, Saarbrücken, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Kolloqium an der University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu, China, 10.09.2012, Chengdu, China
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium an der Universtität Osnabrück, 18.10.2012, Osnabrück, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 10434

Dynamic vortex-antivortex interaction in a single cross-tie wall

Kuepper, K.; Buess, M.; Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; Fassbender, J.

A fascinating property of micromagnetism comes from the possibility to control the domain and vortex configuration through the sample shape and size. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combination of two vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single cross-tie wall can be understood as being a coupled micromagnetic system with three static solitons. Here we report on its magnetization dynamics including the vortex-antivortex interactions [1]. The spectrum of eigenmodes is investigated as well as the effect of different vortex core orientations. These are important for the magnetization dynamics since they determine the sense of rotation for the gyrotropic motion. Since three cores are present in total 23 = 8 configurations are possible. On the left side of the figure micromagnetic simulations of the vortex (left, right) and antivortex displacements upon field pulse excitation are shown for the first 16 ns. It is clearly observed that different types of configurations lead to completely different dynamic behaviors. The origin is the dynamic coupling of the cores which is mediated by the exchange coupling through the adjacent domain walls. This coupling is significant and introduces unexpected effects, such as the quenching of gyrotropic motion for the antivortex in certain core configurations. Another consequence is the absence of simple eigen modes describing the vortex gyration. The experimental investigation of the vortex core dynamics by means of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy using x-ray magnetic dichroism as a contrast mechanism allows to determine the actual core configuration although the lateral core size is below the spatial resolution of the microscope. This is done by comparing the experimentally determined core displacements with the micromagnetically simulated ones as shown on the right side of the figure.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; PEEM; vortex; antivortex; interaction

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers, 15.-19.10.2007, Perth, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag an der Université Paris Sud, 30.11.2007, Orsay, France

Publ.-Id: 10433

Ion mass dependence of the irradiation induced local creation of ferromagnetism in Fe60Al40 alloys

Fassbender, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Möller, W.; Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Nogues, J.

Ion irradiation of Fe60Al40 alloys results in the phase transformation from the paramagnetic, chemically ordered B2-phase to the ferromagnetic, chemically disordered A2-phase. The magnetic phase transformation is related to the number of displacements per atom (dpa) during the irradiation. For heavy ions (Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) a universal curve is observed with a steep increase in the fraction of ferromagnetic phase reaching saturation, i. e., a complete phase transformation, at about 0.5 dpa. However, already less than 0.05 dpa are sufficient to create significant ferromagnetism without a change of surface topography. If light ions are used (He+, Ne+) a pronounced deviation from the universal curve is observed. This is attributed to bulk vacancy diffusion from dilute collision cascades, which leads to a partial recovery of the thermodynamically favored B2-phase. In any case the initial paramagnetic state can be restored by annealing the samples to 800 K. In addition, the potential to create local ferromagnetic areas embedded in a paramagnetic matrix is demonstrated.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; phase transformation; intermetallic alloys

Publ.-Id: 10432

Creation of sub-100 nm ferromagnetic dots by selective irradiation of a paramagnetic intermetallic alloy

Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.

Sub-50 nm ferromagnetic dots embedded in a non-magnetic matrix have been controllably generated by selective, low fluence, ion irradiation of paramagnetic Fe60Al40 (atomic %) intermetallic sheets. The process is demonstrated by sequential focused ion beam irradiation and by broad beam irradiation through lithographically defined masks. Due to the low fluences required, this method does not induce any corrugation of the surface. The dots exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape of the structures, with the smallest ones (<50 nm) having square hysteresis loops with coercivities in excess of µ0HC = 50 mT. This presents a promising novel type of patterned recording media free from tribological and exchange coupling effects.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; phase transformation; intermetallic alloy; patterning; FIB

  • Small 5(2009), 229
    DOI: DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800783
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2008), 04.-08.05.2008, Madrid, Spain

Publ.-Id: 10431

Transition metal doping of semiconductors by ion beams - diluted vs. granular magnetism

Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.; Reuther, H.; Helm, M.; Brauer, W.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.; Denlinger, J. D.; Zeitz, W.-D.; Imielski, P.

Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are based on common semiconducting material like GaAs, Si, Ge, GaN or ZnO doped with a few percent of a transition or rare earth metal. While early work has been performed mainly by polish groups in the 1970ies and 80ies, DMS have attracted worldwide scientific attention during the last 7 years due to their application potential in spintronics. This was triggered by the discovery of ferromagnetic GaMnAs and the theoretical prediction of room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO:Mn and GaN:Mn by T. Dietl and H. Ohno [1]. One of the main obstacles while creating a DMS is secondary phase formation. Since solubility limits are rather low, non-equilibrium doping techniques like low temperature film growth are commonly used. On the other hand, ion implantation offers superb possibilities for low temperature doping but is always connected with lattice damage of the target material. Combining ion implantation with another non-equilibrium technique, i.e. rapid thermal annealing, leads to a diluted state while the crystallinity of the target material is restored. This has been shown for Si:Mn [2].
Recently, we investigated the secondary phase formation for Fe,Co and Ni as well as Gd, Tb implanted in ZnO single crystals. We found, that at elevated temperatures tiny superparamagnetic nanoparticles are formed in all transition metal (TM) doped samples. These phases can hardly be identified using lab X-ray diffraction (XRD), e.g. in the case of Fe. Only application of high resolution methods like synchrotron XRD, susceptometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy allows their identification [3]. On the other hand, low temperature implantation leads to ferromagnetic properties not originating from conventional superparamagnetism. The applicability of both the granular as well as the diluted magnetic materials will be discussed.

[1] T. Dietl, et al., Science 287, 1019 (2000).
[2] M. Bolduc, et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 033302 (2005).
[3] K. Potzger, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052508 (2006).

Keywords: DMS; ion implantation; ZnO

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Eastmag 2007, 23.-26.8.2007, Kazan, Russia

Publ.-Id: 10430

Micro-/nano-scale magnetic patterning of paramagnetic FeAl intermetallic alloys

Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Concustell, A.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.

Atomically ordered Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloys are paramagnetic at room temperature, while disordered Fe60Al40 becomes ferromagnetic. This effect can be used to generate arrays of ferromagnetic dots embedded in a paramagnetic matrix. This can be accomplished by two different routes: (i) selective mechanical deformation by means of nanoindentation and (ii) local irradiation procedures, either through lithographed masks or using focused ion beam. Concerning route (i), two types of geometries were designed: periodic arrays of triangular dots (resulting from the pyramidal shape of the Berkovich indenter) and arrays of straight lines produced by scratch [1]. Route (ii) has the advantage over nanoindentation that due to the low doses used it does not induce any roughening of the surface, avoiding tribological problems. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of a magneto-optical Kerr effect setup, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. Furthermore, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures (i.e., around 900 K), the magnetic properties are lost due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. Hence, these methods may lead to a novel type of patterned recording media free from exchange coupling effects. Moreover, they can be easily extrapolated to a variety of other systems, such as CoZr, CoAl, CoGa, CoV, NiSn, FeGe, FePt3, FeV or even austenitic stainless steel.

[1] J. Sort, A. Concustell, E. Menéndez, S. Suriñach, K.V. Rao, S.C. Deevi, M.D. Baró and J. Nogués. Periodic arrays of micrometer and sub-micrometer magnetic structures prepared by nanoindentation of a nonmagnetic intermetallic compound. Adv. Mater. 18, 1717-1720 (2006).

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; intermetallic alloy; FIB

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Winter School "Women in Nano", 07.-09.02.2007, Kranjska Gora, Slovenia

Publ.-Id: 10429

Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a stirred reactor

Hristov, H. V.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.; Kryk, H.

Experimental and numerical studies of a gas-liquid two-phase flow were applied to a non-baffled laboratory-scale stirred tank reactor, mechanically agitated by a gas-inducing turbine. The dispersion of air as gas phase into isopropanol as liquid phase at room temperature under different stirrer speeds was investigated. The X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements were taken at five different stirrer speeds starting from 1000 rpm at which the gas inducement occurs for the given operating conditions. The considerable difficulties in acquiring the phase distribution due to beam hardening and radiation scattering effects were overcome by developing a suitable measurement setup as well as by calibration and software correction methods to achieve high accuracy. The computational fluid dynamics analyses of the stirred tank reactor were performed in 3D with CFX 10.0 numerical software.

Keywords: CFD; X-Ray tomography; stirred vessel; two-phase flow; gas-inducing impeller

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    Paper No PS6_8
  • Poster
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10428

Germination pathway of long-time storable biocer layers with immobilized bacterial endospores

Matys, S.; Raff, J.; Soltmann, U.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Böttcher, H.; Pompe, W.

- wird nachgereicht

  • Poster
    XIVth International Sol-Gel Conference, 02.-07.09.2007, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 10427

The GDT-based fusion neutron source as driver of minor actinide burners

Noack, K.

From today´s point of view, the so called Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to have a good chance for playing an important role in a long-term utilization of fission reactor technology. The special task which could be solved by means of these facilities is the incineration of minor actinides, which represent the component of nuclear waste causing the greatest concern. Current concepts of such ADS use an intense spallation neutron source for driving the sub-critical fission system in which the minor actinides are to be burned. The Budker Institute Novosibirsk (Russia) is developing a project of a 14 MeV fusion neutron source, which is primarily destined as irradiation facility for fusion material research. The potential of this neutron source as driver of a minor actinides burner was studied and compared with the spallation driven burner. The lecture presents the main results of the study.

Keywords: nuclear waste; transmutation; minor actinides; driven sub-critical system; fusion neutron source

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutsseminar, 24.08.2007, Uppsala, Sweden

Publ.-Id: 10426

Focused ion beam induced synthesis of a porous antimony nanowire network

Schöndorfer, C.; Lugstein, A.; Hyun, Y.-J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Bischoff, L.; Nellen, P. M.; Callegari, V.; Pongratz, P.

We present a focused ion beam-based approach for the synthesis of an nanofiber network.
The nanofibers, with a homogeneous distribution of diameters of about 25 nm and lengths up to several microns, are synthesized in a self-assembling process without any additional material source at room temperature. It is possible to recrystallize the as-grown amorphous nanofibers by moderate rapid thermal annealing at 473 K. These results have been verified by means of scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. As this approach is not limited solely to the material discussed here, other substrates (e.g., GaSb and Ge ) and ion sources should extend this method to other materials, which offers a great potential for future nanoscale devices and applications.

Keywords: focused ion beam; antimony; nanofiber network; nanoscale devices

Publ.-Id: 10425

Do we know eventually p(e)?

Kämpfer, B.; Bluhm, M.; Schade, H.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.

A quasi-particle model is employed to derive from available lattice QCD calculations an equation of state useable in hydrodynamical simulations of the expansion stage of strongly interacting matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Various lattice results give an astonishing agreement of the pressure as a function of energy density at large energy densities supposed the pseudo-critical temperature is in the range $170 \pm 15$ MeV, while in the transition region the equation of state is not yet well constrained. Therefore, one can construct a family of equations of state by bridging the uncertain region from the uniquely given high-energy density region part to a hadronic equation of state by suitable interpolation together with the extrapolation to non-zero baryon density by means of the quasi-particle model. We present a series of tests of the model, discuss the chiral extrapolation and the role of Landau damping. We also briefly sketch the path of cosmic matter in the early universe in the phase diagram.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10424

Planar array sensor for high-speed component distribution imaging in fluid flow applications

Da Silva, M. J.; Sühnel, T.; Schleicher, E.; Vaibar, R.; Lucas, D.; Hampel, U.

A novel planar array sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements is presented which may be applied to visualize surface fluid distributions. The sensor is manufactured using printed-circuit board fabrication technology and comprises of 64 x 64 interdigital sensing structures. An associated electronics measures the electrical conductivity of the fluid over each individual sensing structure in a multiplexed manner by applying a bipolar excitation voltage and by measuring the electrical current flowing from a driver electrode to a sensing electrode. After interrogating all sensing structures, a two-dimensional image of the conductivity distribution over a surface is obtained which in turn represents fluid distributions over sensor’s surface. The employed electronics can acquire up to 2500 frames per second thus being able to monitor fast transient phenomena. The system has been evaluated regarding measurement accuracy and depth sensitivity. Furthermore, the application of the sensor in the investigation of two different flow applications is presented.

Keywords: planar sensor; interdigital electrode; flow imaging; multiphase flow; multicomponent flow; phase distribution

  • Open Access Logo Sensors 7(2007), 2430-2445


Publ.-Id: 10423

Structural and magnetic properties of non-stoichiometric Fe2Zr

Mattern, N.; Zhang, W. X.; Roth, S.; Reuther, H.; Baehtz, C.; Richter, M.

The lattice parameters and magnetic properties of the C15 Laves phase Fe2Zr vary systematically within the homogeneity range of the compound from 66.7 at.% to 74.5 at.% Fe. In the non-stoichiometric compounds Zr is partly substituted by the excess Fe. Themagnetic moment per iron atom increases with the Fe content. Electronic structure calculations show an enhanced magnetic moment of the excess Fe at the Zr site, which explains well the composition dependence.

Publ.-Id: 10422

Ultra fast limited-angle type X-ray tomography

Bieberle, M.; Fischer, F.; Schleicher, E.; Koch, D.; Aktay, K. S. D. C.; Menz, H.-J.; Mayer, H.-G.; Hampel, U.

We present an ultra-fast electron beam X-ray computed tomography technique usable for imaging of fast processes, such as multi phase flows or moving parts in technical or biological objects. The setup consists of an electron beam unit with fast deflection capability and an ultra fast multi-element X-ray detector and achieves 10,000 frames per second image rate. Since full sampling of the Radon space requires an angular overlap of source path and detector which strongly decreases axial resolution we devised a limited-angle type tomography. As a demonstration we visualised the movement of particles and gas bubbles rising in a stagnant liquid.

Keywords: electron beam X-ray tomography; computed tomography; flow measurement

Publ.-Id: 10421

Sensoren zur Strömungsdiagnostik im industriellen und umwelttechnischen Einsatz

Schleicher, E.; Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.

In vielen Bereichen der Industrie bestimmen Mehrphasenströmungen die Effizienz und Sicherheit von technischen Verfahren und Prozessen. Ob in Chemiereaktoren, bei der Erdölförderung und -verarbeitung, in Wasseraufbereitungsanlagen, Biogasanlagen, Kraftwerkskühlkreisläufen oder bei Strömungsmaschinen wie Pumpen und Turbokupplungen komplexe mehrphasige Strömungsformen von Stoffgemischen sind im industriellen Umfeld immer schwierig messtechnisch zu erfassen. Im Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf wurden Sensoren entwickelt, die mehrphasige Strömungen mit sehr hoher räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung vermessen. Erstmalig können damit komplexe Strömungen in beliebigen Stoffgemischen sichtbar gemacht werden.

Publ.-Id: 10420

Nitrogen plasma ion implantation in silicon using short pulse high voltage glow discharges

Tan, I. H.; Ueda, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Diaz, B.; Abramof, E.; Reuther, H.

A high voltage (HV) pulse generator based on Blumlein technology was used to implant nitrogen ions into silicon substrates by immersion in a plasma generated by the HV pulse itself. Working pressures, applied HVs and treatment times were varied. Elemental depth profiles determined by Auger electron spectroscopy showed deeper penetration for higher voltages and broader profiles for increased treatment times indicating higher diffusion, as expected. Penetration depths, however, were about half of the values calculated by the SRIM code, probably due to the short duration of the HV pulse. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction ω/2θ scans measured around the (0 0 4) Si Bragg reflection of implanted samples had shoulders in the lower ω side, indicating a lattice expansion in the direction normal to the surface. Dynamical diffraction theory of Takagi–Taupin was used to fit the measured spectra, thus finding the strain profiles in the implanted samples. Both maximum strain values and integrated strains increased for samples implanted with higher voltages and treatment times and were almost independent of pressure.

Publ.-Id: 10419

Structural Characterization of U(VI) Surface Complexes on Kaolinite in the Presence of Humic Acid Using EXAFS Spectroscopy

Krepelova, A.; Reich, T.; Sachs, S.; Drebert, J.; Bernhard, G.

To determine the influence of humic acid (HA), pH, and presence of atmospheric CO2 on the sorption of U(VI) onto kaolinite, the structure of the surface complexes was studied by U LIII edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The best fits to the experimental EXAFS data were obtained by including two uranium coordination shells with two axial and five equatorial oxygen atoms at 1.77 ± 0.02 and 2.34 ± 0.02 Å, respectively, and two coordination shells with one Al/Si atom each at 3.1 and 3.3 Å. As in case of the binary system U(VI)-kaolinite, uranium forms inner-sphere surface complexes by edge-sharing with aluminum octahedra and/or silicon tetrahedra. HA and atmospheric CO2 as well as pH had no influence on the EXAFS structural parameters in the pH range of 5 – 8. In spite of the presence of HA, U(VI) prefers to sorb directly onto kaolinite and not to HA that is bound to the clay surface. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of kaolinite particles that had been exposed to HA suspensions showed that significant parts of the kaolinite surface are not covered by HA.

Keywords: uranium(VI); kaolinite; humic acid; sorption; EXAFS; XPS; surface complexes

Publ.-Id: 10418

Photoproduction of phi meson off the deuteron near threshold

Titov, A.; Kämpfer, B.

We discuss coherent and incoherent phi meson photoproduction off the deuteron at low energy and small momentum transfer with the aim to check whether the recent experimental data need for their interpretation an inclusion of exotic channels. Our analysis of the differential cross section and spin-density matrix elements shows that new data on the gamma D phi X reaction at E_gamma 2~GeV may be understood on the basis of conventional dynamics. However, a certain ambiguity of the deviation between the model predictions and the LEPS data on gamma p phi p reaction still remains. For a firm conclusion about a possible manifestation of exotic channels one has to improve the resolution of the data with providing additional information on channels with spin- and double-spin flip transitions being sensitive to the properties of the photoproduction amplitude in gamma p and gamma D reactions which may be used as an additional independent test of the phi meson photoproduction mechanism.

Publ.-Id: 10417

Hemocompatibility of titanium-based coatings prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

Tsyganov, I. A.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.; Reuther, H.; Mashina, A. I.; Rustichelli, F.

Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) has been proved to be an effective approach to enhance surface properties of various types of materials. In this work structure, phase composition, microhardness and surface properties, such as wettability and surface energy of layers of the ternary system Ti-N-O produced by MePIIID were investigated. To study the correlation between structure of coating and hemocompatibility the thrombocyte adhesion as well as the fibrinogen adsorption on the surface were measured. The blood compatibility of Ti oxide can be improved by the addition of nitrogen into the layer. The thrombocyte adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were lower for TiNxOy than for TiO2. This correlates with a lower hydrophobicity and higher polar component of the surface energy for TiNxOy. The best hemocompatibility as well as the maximal microhardness have been found for the coating TiN0.4O1.6.

Keywords: Titanium oxynitride; Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII); Filtered arc; Phase formation; Hemocompatibility

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 257(2007), 122-127

Publ.-Id: 10416

Fragmentation Reactions of Singly and Doubly Protonated Thiourea- and Sugar-substituted Cyclams and their Transition Metal Complexes

Felder, T.; Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Schalley, C. A.

Cyclam macrocycles tetrasubstituted with amino-, thiourea-, and sugar-terminated side chains are ionized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as singly or doubly protonated species or as transition-metal complexes. Their fragmentation behavior is examined in a Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Typically, fragmentation occurs within the side chains through a number of different 1,2-elimination reactions irrespective of the absence or presence of a transition metal ion such as Co2+, Ni2+, or Zn2+. A remarkable exception is Cu2+ which induces ring cleavage reactions. This is traced back to an electron transfer from the cyclam nitrogen atoms to the Cu2+ ion. The electron transfer creates a cation-radical within the macrocycle which induces typical fragmentation reactions such as -cleavages that lead to fragmentation within the macrocycle. This interpretation is in line with fragmentation experiments on unsubstituted cyclam and its complexes

Publ.-Id: 10415

Copper(II)-mediated self-assembling of hydrophilic oxybathophenanthroline dendrons

Stephan, H.; Juran, S.; Geipel, G.; Hahn, U.; Werner, N.; Vögtle, F.

Derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline and their metal complexes are of considerable interest in bioinorganic chemistry, biology and medicine.1 In this nexus, dendritic modification gain in importance as they open the way for tailoring nano dimension, and solubility or complexation behaviour.2 We described hydrophobic oxybathophenanthroline ligands with attached Frechet-type dendrons capable of forming stable copper(II) complexes in organic media.3 Currently, effort is also to be devoted to the synthesis of hydrophilic 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands LG1 – LG3 containing short methoxypolyethoxy (‘PEG’) groups on the surface. Radiotracer experiments using 64Cu and time-resolved laser-induced spectroscopy point to a spontaneous formation of stable 1:2 complexes (metal:ligand) with copper(II) in aqueous solution.

  • Poster
    Templates in Chemistry and Beyond, 13.-14.09.2007, Bonn, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10414

Synthese und Charakterisierung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit Zucker- und Peptidgruppen

Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.

Ziel ist die Herstellung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit peripheren Biomolekülen sowie einem metallbindenden Zentrum. Als Kernbaustein wird Cyclam ausgewählt, das zur stabilen Bindung von diagnostisch und therapeutisch relevanten Radiometallnukliden, wie 64/67Cu, 99mTc und 188Re, geeignet ist. Die Anknüpfung von Biomolekülen, wie Zucker oder Peptide, an die Oberfläche des Ligandgerüstes soll die Einstellung definierter Löslichkeits- und selektiver Bindungseigenschaften erlauben.

  • Lecture (others)
    15. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 27.-29.09.2007, Morschach, Switzerland

Publ.-Id: 10413

Carbohydration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam): synthesis and binding properties toward concanavalin A

Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.; Kirchner, R.; Seidel, J.

Two novel glycocluster ligands with cyclam core bearing thiourea-linked D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose at the periphery have been synthesized. The interaction with concanavalin A has been studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry for characterizing protein-ligand interactions. The sugar-containing multivalent ligands showed higher association affinity compared to the sugar monomers which is attributed to an entropy driven glycoside clustering effect.

Publ.-Id: 10412

Towards bioinspired dendritic ligands for imaging and therapeutic purposes

Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.

Metalloradiopharmaceuticals of the metallic radionuclides 64/67Cu, 99mTc, 186/188Re and 90Y are often used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.1 Ligand multimers derived from radionuclide chelating macrocycles are attractive candidates for applications in oncologic diagnostics and endoradiotherapy. In this perspective, cyclam and its derivatives form very stable complexes in particular with transition and rare earth metal ions as the radionuclides mentioned above.2 Recently, we could show that a star-like cyclam ligand appended with four PEG-arms rapidly forms stable copper(II) complexes.3

Currently, we are focusing our attention on the development of dendritic ligands having both enhanced complex stability and improved bio-availability. Branched ligands possessing biomolecules such as sugar and peptide moieties may show both unique cell uptake behaviour and specific ligand-receptor interaction. In this nexus, we built up ligands I and II with a cyclam core. D-glucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose and the hexapeptide (Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) have been chosen as biomolecules.

The interaction of the sugar-containing ligands I with concanavalin A has been studied using isothermal titration microcalorimetry in order to characterize protein-ligand interaction. The results clearly indicate a cluster glycoside effect.

The preparation of asymmetric branched ligands possessing peptide moieties is currently in progress. Using this synthetic concept, it appears possible to adjust the solubility properties, the binding behaviour, and the biodistribution of these bioinspired ligands. The corresponding radiocopper complexes would allow the non-invasive in vivo imaging and therapeutic application.

1 X. Liang and P. Sadler, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2004, 33, 246.
2 R. M. Izatt, K. Pawlak, J. S. Bradshaw and R. L. Bruening, Chem. Rev., 1991, 91, 1721.
3 H. Stephan, G. Geipel, D. Appelhans, G. Bernhard, D. Tabuani, H. Komber and B. Voit, Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 3209.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Dendrimer Symposium, 28.08.-01.09.2007, Toulouse, France

Publ.-Id: 10411

Expeditious synthesis of steroids containing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain as potential glucocorticoid receptor imaging agents

Wüst, F.; Carlson, K. E.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.

In our effort to develop imaging agents for brain glucocorticoid receptors, we have prepared several novel glucocorticoids possessing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain. The synthesis was accomplished via a Mitsunobu reaction with thiobenzoic acid starting from cortisol, prednisolone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide to give the corresponding S-thiobenzoates in 75-82% yield. Subsequent saponification and reaction with methyl iodide afforded C-21 methylthioethers in 68-82% yield. All compounds were tested in an in vitro glucocorticoid receptor binding assay. Triamcinolone acetonide-based compound 12 showed promising binding affinity of 144% relative to dexamethasone (100%).
Compound 12 was selected for radiolabeling with the short-lived positron emitter carbon-11. The radiolabeling was carried out starting from S-thiobenzoate 8 and in situ formation of the corresponding sodium thiolate, which was further reacted with [11C]methyl iodide. The obtained radiochemical yield was 20-30%. The specific activity was determined to be 20-40 GBq/µmol at the end-of-synthesis, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 98%.

Publ.-Id: 10410

Dielectron production in 12C+12C collisions at 2 A GeV with HADES

Markert, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Boehmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Froehlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krizek, F.; Kruecken, R.; Kuehn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marin, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Moriniere, E.; Mousa, J.; Muentz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palk! A, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Cavalcanti, T. P.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.

We report on a measurement of electron pair production in 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon with the HADES spectrometer. The measured pair production probabilities span over five orders of magnitude from the pi0-Dalitz to the rho/omega invariant-mass region. Dalitz decays of pi0 and account for all the yield up to 0.15 GeV/c2, but for only about 50% above this mass. The excess yield is in agreement with the former DLS result if one assumes that it scales with beam energy like pion production. A preliminary analysis of 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 1 A GeV, measured with the HADES detector, supports this scenario.

Publ.-Id: 10408

Tomography applied to multiphase flow measurement

Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.

The presentation gives an overview over tomographic and imaging techniques applied to multiphase flow diagnostic, including wire-mesh sensors, gamma and X-ray tomography. Industrial and scientific applications are being discussed.

Keywords: process tomography; multiphase flow; flow imaging

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proceedings of Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Publ.-Id: 10407

Novel wire-mesh sensor modalities for the investigation of single phase and multiphase flows

Da Silva, M. J.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

The experimental investigation of flow phenomena plays an important role in many fields of research as well as in industrial applications. Wire-mesh sensors allow the study of flows with high spatial and temporal resolution. This type of sensor was introduced about ten years ago and since then it has been employed to investigate a number of single phase and two-phase flow phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the principles of operation and the obtaining of physical flow parameters from the electrical measured signals of wire-mesh sensors. Besides describing the state of the art of wire-mesh sensor technology, the latest development of a temperature wire-mesh sensor is depicted in detail.

Keywords: Wire-mesh sensors; multiphase flow; conductivity measurement; capacitance measurement; temperature measurement

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany
    VDI-Berichte 2011, Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag, 978-3-18-092011-5, 625-634
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 10406

Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkörperoberflächen

Kost, D.

Motiviert durch die in der Literatur bisher unvollständige Beschreibung der Relaxation hochgeladener Ionen vor Festkörperoberflächen, besonders in Bezug auf den Eintrag potenzieller Energie in Oberflächen und der Aufstellung einer vollständigen Energiebilanz, werden in dieser Arbeit komplement äre Studien präsentiert, die sowohl die Ermittlung des Anteils der deponierten potenziellen Energie als auch die Ermittlung der emittierten potenziellen Energie ermöglichen. Zum Einen wird
zur Bestimmung des eingetragenen Anteils der potenziellen Energie eine kalorimetrische Messanordnung verwendet, zum Anderen gelingt die Bestimmung der emittierten potenziellen Energie mittels doppeldifferenzieller Elektronenspektroskopie. Für vertiefende Studien werden Materialien unterschiedlicher elektronischer Strukturen (Cu, n-Si, p-Si und SiO2) verwendet. Im Falle der Kalorimetrie wird festgestellt, dass die eingetragene potenzielle Energie linear mit der inneren potenziellen Energie der Ionen wächst. Dabei bleibt das Verhältnis zwischen der eingetragenen potenziellen Energie und der inneren potenziellen Energie nahezu konstant bei etwa (80±10)%. Der Vergleich von Cu, n-Si und p-Si zeigt im Rahmen der Messfehler keine signifikanten Unterschiede in diesem Verhältnis. Es liegen jedoch deutlich unter jenem von SiO2. Die Elektronenspektroskopie liefert ein dazu komplementäres Ergebnis. Für Cu und Si konnte ebenfalls eine lineare Abhängigkeit zwischen emittierter Energie und innerer potenzieller Energie festgestellt werden. Das Verhältnis wurde hierfür bis zum Ladungszustand bis Ar7+ zu etwa (10±5)% unabhängig vom Ladungszustand bestimmt. Im Gegensatz dazu liefert SiO2 eine nahezu verschwindende Elektronenausbeute. Für Ar8+ und Ar9+ steigt die Elektronenausbeute wegen der Beiträge der LMM-Augerelektronen f¨ur alle untersuchten Materialien leicht an. Der Anteil der emittierten Energie eines Ar9+-Ions wird f¨ur Cu und Si zu etwa 20% und f¨ur SiO2 zu etwa 10% angegeben. Diese Ergebnisse sind in guter Übereinstimmung mit den Kalorimetrieexperimenten und erfüllen die Energiebilanz.
Zusätzlich werden die experimentellen Ergebnisse mit einer Computersimulation modelliert, welche auf dem erweiterten dynamischen klassischen Barrierenmodell basiert. Aus diesen Rechnungen kann zudem jener Anteil der deponierten potenziellen Energie erhalten werden, welcher durch Bildladungsbeschleunigung vor der Oberfläche in kinetische Energie umgewandelt wurde.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-479 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10405

Efficient melt stirring using pulse sequences of a rotating magnetic field: II – Application during solidification of Al-Si alloys

Willers, B.; Eckert, S.; Nikrityuk, P. A.; Räbiger, D.; Dong, J.; Eckert, K.; Gerbeth, G.

The present study considers the solidification of an Al-7wt%Si alloy under the influence of electromagnetic melt stirring using a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The effect of a continuously applied RMF is compared with an RMF pulse sequence of alternating direction (RMF-PSAD). The resulting flow structure in a cylindrical liquid metal column has been measured by isothermal experiments using the ternary alloy GaInSn. The solidification experiments performed with the Al-7wt%Si alloy confirm our numerical predictions concerning the temperature field during solidification and the distribution of primary crystals and eutectic phase in the solidified samples. The application of the RMF-PSAD regime at suitable frequencies of the reversals of the magnetic field direction fP delivers an equiaxed microstructure without macrosegregation.

Keywords: solidification; fluid flow; electromagnetic stirring; macrosegregation

  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 39(2008)2, 304-316

Publ.-Id: 10404

Structural changes in flash lamp annealed amorphous Si layers probed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy

Anwand, W.; Xiong, S. Z.; Wu, C. Y.; Gebel, T.; Schumann, T.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

At the present time, great efforts are undertaken in order to improve the properties of photovoltaic elements. In case of Si-based solar cells the interest is focussed on a higher electrical efficiency connected with a more effective technology and with economies of scale. One of the possible methods for the realisation of this ambitious goal represents the Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) technology. FLA allows a fast heating up of solid surfaces with a single light flash between some hundred microseconds and some milliseconds. Thereby, the achievable final temperature of the surface layer could be higher than the melting point depending on the intensity of the light flash. This method was applied to the modification of thin amorphous Si layers on SiO2 and glass. Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) was used for the characterisation of the microstructure before and after FLA. Changes in the structure down to a depth of some micrometers below the surface observed with SPIS will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing; slow positron implantation spectroscopy; amorphous Si

  • Open Access Logo Acta Physica Polonica A 113(2008)5, 1273-1278
  • Lecture (Conference)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland

Publ.-Id: 10403

Piezoresistive and self-actuated 128-cantilever arrays for nanotechnology applications

Rangelow, I. W.; Ivanov, T.; Ivanova, K.; Volland, B. E.; Grabiec, P.; Sarov, Y.; Persaud, A.; Gotszalk, T.; Zawierucha, P.; Zielony, M.; Dontzov, D.; Schmidt, B.; Zier, M.; Nikolov, N.; Kostic, I.; Engl, W.; Sulzbach, T.; Mielczarski, J.; Kolb, S.; Latimier, D. P.; Pedreau, R.; Djakov, V.; Huq, S. E.; Edinger, K.; Fortagne, O.; Almansa, A.; Blom, H. O.

A major limitation for future nanotechnology, particularly for bottom-up manufacturing is the non-availability of 2-dimensional massively parallel probe arrays. Scanning proximity probes are uniquely powerful tools for analysis, manipulation and bottom-up synthesis: they are capable of addressing and engineering surfaces at the atomic level and are the key to unlocking the full potential of Nanotechnology. Generic massively parallel intelligent cantilever-probe platforms is demonstrated through a number of existing and ground-breaking techniques. A packaged VLSI NEMS-chip (Very Large Scale Integrated Nano Electro Mechanical System) incorporating 128 proximal probes, fully addressable with control and readout interconnects and advanced software will be presented.

Keywords: nanotechnology; AFM probe arrays

  • Microelectronic Engineering 84(2007)5-8, 1260-1264

Publ.-Id: 10401

AER working group D on VVER safety analysis – report of the 2007 meeting

Kliem, S.

The AER working group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its 16th meeting in Paris, France during the period 08-09 May 2007. The meeting was hosted by the CEA France. It followed the final workshop on the OECD/DOE/CEA VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark held at 07 May. Altogether 11 participants attend the meeting of the working group D, 7 from AER member organizations and 4 guests from non-member organizations. The co-ordinator of the working group, Mr. S. Kliem, served as chairman of the meeting.
The meeting started with a general information exchange about the recent activities in the participating organizations. The given presentations and the discussions can be attributed to the following topics:
• Code development and benchmarking for reactor dynamics applications
• Safety analysis methodology and results
• Future activities
New solutions for three different benchmarks were presented and discussed. These are the Second AER Dynamic Benchmark on control rod ejection at hot zero power (S. Kliem, FZD), the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark (E. Syrjälahti, VTT) and the stationary AER-FCM101 Benchmark considering a VVER-1000 reactor (C. Parisi, UniPisa).
A. Kereszturi (AEKI) presented a statistical evaluation of the possibility to observe a fuel assembly misloading event. The second presentation of E. Syrjälahti was dedicated to the description how best-estimate coupled code calculations at VTT are supported by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. K. Velkov (GRS) presented preliminary results of BIPR8KN/ATHLET calculations with a very detailed resolution of the calculation grid on the assessment of coolant mixing inside VVER-1000 assembly heads. Coolant mixing experiments at three different mixing test facilities, modeling different reactor types, were presented and compared by S. Kliem. A calculation study using the coupled code system KORSAR/GP on the consequences of the injection of a slug of unborated water into the reactor core was described by G. Ponomarenko (Gidropress).
A list of the participants and a list of the handouts provided at the meeting are attached to the report. The handouts can be obtained in electronic form from the chairman.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine
    Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Budapest, 9789633726358, 573-579
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine

Publ.-Id: 10400

Defect study in ZnO related structures - a multi-spectroscopic approach

Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Gu, Q. L.; Dai, X. M.; Xu, S. J.; Zhu, C. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Tam, K. H.; Djurisic, A. B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L. W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H. C.

ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using amulti-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H2O2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 58-62

Publ.-Id: 10399

Progress of the intense positron beam project EPOS

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.; Jungmann, M.; Krille, A.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.

EPOS (the ELBE POsitron Source) is a running project to build an intense, bunched positron beam for materials research. It makes use of the bunched electron beam of the ELBE radiation source (Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (40 MeV, 1 mA). ELBE has unique timing properties, the bunch length is <5 ps and the repetition time is 77 ns. In contrast to other Linacsmade for Free Electron Lasers (e.g., TTF at DESY, Hamburg), ELBE can be operated in full cw-mode, i.e., with an uninterrupted sequence of bunches. The article continues an earlier publication. It concentrates on details of the timing system and describes issues of radiation protection.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 22-24

Publ.-Id: 10398

Radiation damage in zirconia investigated by positively charged particles

Grynszpan, R. I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Malaquin, L.; Saudé, S.; Vickridge, I.; Briand, E.

Positrons, positive muons and deuterons were used – when applicable – to probe the production and thermal stability of defects at room temperature either by electron irradiation or He-ion implantation in zirconia stabilized by yttria in the cubic phase. change in the positron lifetime or in the muon spin relaxation occurs after electron irradiation, indicating a positron saturation trapping the annealed state, owing to the presence of structural defects inherent to phase stabilization. In contrast, after helium implantation, even at low fluence (~10^14 cm^-2), slow positron implantation spectroscopy reveals the presence of a new type of defect (being trapping effective than the native ones), whereas neither positronium nor muonium are detected. The diffusion of helium was followed after 3He-ion implantation and subsequent annealing using the 3He(d,p)4He nuclear reaction. A two-Gaussian distribution fit indicates
a part of the helium atoms is trapped at the projection range location, most likely in gas bubbles, while the other part diffuses gasses after heat treatment already at around 1/5 of the melting temperature. In spite of differences in depths and concentrations by the present techniques, a fairly good correlation is observed between the various results.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261(2007), 888-891

Publ.-Id: 10397

Phase Transition and Internal Stresses in Tungsten Coatings

Benayoun, S.; Grynszpan, R. I.; Hantzpergue, J. J.; Anwand, W.; Eichhorn, F.; Brauer, G.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Publ.-Id: 10396

Defect studies of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

The present work reports on microstructure investigations of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films by means of slow positron implantation spectroscopy combined with in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. It is found that the virgin films contain a high density of vacancy-like open volume defects at grain boundaries which trap positrons. These defects represent trapping sites also for hydrogen. With increasing hydrogen concentration the transformation from the a- into the b-phase (GdH2) takes place in the film. Accumulation of hydrogen at grain boundaries causes a decrease of positron localization at defects. The transformation into the b-phase is completed at xH ≈ 1.6 H/Gd. Contrary to bulk Gd specimens, the g-phase (GdH3) is not formed in the nanocrystalline Gd films.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 251-253

Publ.-Id: 10395

Construction and timing system of the EPOS beam system

Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Publ.-Id: 10393

Hydrogen-induced buckling of Pd films studied by positron annihilation

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Dobron, P.; Chmelik, F.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Nikitin, E.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

Hydrogen loading of thin films introduces very high compressive stresses which grow in magnitude with increasing hydrogen concentration. When the hydrogen-induced stresses exceed a certain critical inplane stress value, the loaded film starts to detach from the substrate. This results in the formation of buckles of various morphologies in the film layer. Defect studies of a hydrogen loaded Pd film which undergoes a buckling process are presented, using slow positron implantation spectroscopy, in situ acoustic emission, and direct observations of the film structure by transmission electron and optical microscopies. It is found that buckling of the filmoccurs at hydrogen concentrations xH ≥ 0.1 and causes a significant increase of the dislocation density in the film.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 241-244

Publ.-Id: 10392

New red luminescence defects in nitrogen-implanted ZnO crystals

Dai, X. M.; Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Xu, S. J.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 10390

Electrical characterization of deep levels in N+-implanted ZnO single crystal

Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

  • Poster
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 10389

Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

Stehr, D.

This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2pz confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. Intersubband absorption experiments, which can be nearly perfectly reproduced by the theory, corroborate this interpretation, showing that at low temperatures in the low doping density regime all optical transitions originate from impurity transitions. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data.
The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 μm and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. These measurements allow a separate specification of the cooling times after a strong excitation, exhibiting time constants from 230 ps to 3 ps for different excitation densities and miniband widths. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements.
Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. From the data we can directly extract the density and temperature dependence of the intersubband dephasing time between the two lowest subbands, ranging from 50 up to 400 fs. This all optical approach gives us the ability to tune the carrier concentration over an extremely wide range which is not accessible in a doped quantum well sample. By varying the carrier density, many-body effects such as the depolarization and their influence on the spectral position as well as on the lineshape on the intersubband dephasing are studied. Also the difference of excitonic and free-carrier type excitation is discussed, and indication of an excitonic intersubband transition is found.

Keywords: ultrafast spectroscopy; infared spectroscopy; impurity transitions; semiconductor heterostructures; quantum well; superlattice

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-477 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 10388

Picosecond electron dynamics in doped superlattices studied by two-color infrared pump-probe spectroscopy

Stehr, D.; Wagner, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Andrews, A. M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.

Recently we reported on single-color pump-probe measurements in doped superlattices (SLs) where we could observe a fast interminiband relaxation (1-2 ps) and much slower components due to subsequent cooling of the electron gas [1]. Pumping and probing at the same wavelength always results in a mixture of these two processes. However, strongly coupled SLs exhibit a broad absorption range so that excitation at a specific k-value in the mini-Brillouin zone influences the electron distribution over the entire zone (see inset of Fig. 1). In order to separate the inter- from the intra-miniband contributions we have performed two-color pump-probe experiments allowing to monitor exclusively the dynamics within the lower miniband. Infrared pulses from the free-electron laser FELBE were used as pump, and broadband THz pulses, generated by phase-matched optical rectification of 10 fs near-infrared pulses, as the probe. The relaxation behavior was studied for three GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As SLs having nearly he same doping concentration but different widths of the lower miniband, i.e., 10, 22, and 45 meV. To study the cooling behavior at T=5 K, the FEL pulses were tuned to the high-energy transition at the zone center, while the probe pulse was set to the zone-edge transition. After excitation to the second miniband, the electrons thermalize and relax back to the ground miniband, efficiently heating the electron gas. According to the linear absorption spectrum, this heating leads to induced absorption at the probe energy. For the SL structures with miniband widths below the optical phonon energy we measured cooling times of 40-50 ps for pump intensities higher than 20 MW/cm². For smaller pump intensities the time constants rose up to 200 ps (see Fig. 1). The sample with the miniband width of 45 meV showed a much shorter cooling time of 3.5 ps. This can be explained by the enhanced relaxation via the emission of LO phonons. We will also report room-temperature measurements, where the initially strong absorption is reduced by relaxation towards the zone center which has been depleted by the pump pulse.
[1] D. Stehr et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151108 (2006).

  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, 22.-27.07.2007, Tokyo, Japan

Publ.-Id: 10387

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