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38996 Publications

Models for Material Damage with Viscoplasticity

Altstadt, E.

Two models of material damage occuring with viscoplasticity are presented:

1. accumulation model based on rupture strain
2. constitutive model based on the volume fraction of creep cavities

The creep model for porous material is developed by numerical simulation experiments with a FE model representing the simplified microstructure of a representative volume element.

The damage accumulation model is integrated into ANSYS via the user programmable features.

Keywords: ANSYS; Viscoplasticity; Damage; Finite Element Method; Porous Material

  • Lecture (Conference)
    CADFEM Users Meeting, International Congress on FEM Technology, October 17-19, 2001, Potsdam (Germany)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CADFEM Users Meeting, International Congress on FEM Technology, October 17-19, 2001, Potsdam (Germany)

Publ.-Id: 4096

Enhanced Thermal Stability of Ta-based Thin Diffusion Barrier by Ion Implantation

Peikert, M.; Wieser, E.; Reuter, H.; Wenzel, C.

The efficiency as diffusion barrier of RF-Magnetron sputtered Ta-layer modified by ion implantation has been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Two systems were prepared : 50nm-Ta/500nm-Cu/50nm-Ta/ on SiO2 and 200nm-Cu/50nm-Ta/ on SiO2. The samples were annealed at temperatures from 600 to 850°C in a vacuum of 2 x 10-4 Pa. The thermal stability was determined by interdiffusion of Cu into the diffusion barrier. The as-deposited Ta barriers are polycrystalline. After annealing at 600°C for 1 hour interdifusion of Cu is observed for the non-implanted barrier. Ion implantation of nitrogen into the Ta layer leads to a nanocrystalline or amorphous-like structure with an important improvement of the barrier effect. The nitrogen implanted 50 nm Ta-barrier on Cu is stable up to 750°C for 1h. A higher thermal stability reveals the Ta layers between the Cu and SiO2. Cu/Ta/SiO2 system shows beginning of copper diffusion and a strong interaction between Ta and SiO2 after annealing at 800°C without implantation. The implanted Ta-barriers in this system are still effective, after annealing with 850°C for 3h.

Keywords: Diffusion barrier; Tantalum; Ion implantation

  • Vacuum 69 (2002) 91-95

Publ.-Id: 4095

Adsorption of radiotoxic heavy metals by colloid particles - evidence from mine waters of the Königstein mine

Zänker, H.; Jenk, U.

Acidic pore waters are the waters of most chemical importance in abandoned ore mines before the mines' flooding. These waters possess high concentrations of sulfuric acid and reach pH values of 3 to 1. In particular in the case of the Königstein uranium mine they contain high amounts of sulfuric acid because of the former ore extraction technology (acidic underground leaching with sulfuric acid). Typically, acidic pore waters have iron concentrations of the range of grams per liter. This iron is partly dissolved and partly colloidal (particle size < 5 nm, cf. [1]). Most of the heavy metals, including U(VI), are truly dissolved in acidic pore waters. Only As and Pb have been found in a colloid-borne form [1].

From a chemical point of view, the flooding of a mine is primarily the dilution of the pore waters by groundwaters. The following concomitant phenomena are accompanying this process in the Königstein mine: a decrease in heavy metal concentrations, a decrease in H2SO4 concentration (increase of the pH), an ingress of oxygen and an ingress of carbonate. This gives rise to chemical reactions such as the neutralization of sulfuric acid by carbonate, the degassing of carbonate as CO2, the oxidation of Fe2+ into Fe3+ and the hydrolysis of Fe3+, i.e. the formation of Fe(III) particles. We asked ourselves what the interactions of the radiotoxic heavy metals with these Fe(III) particles are and what the behavior and later fate of the particles (possibly carrying radiotoxic heavy metals) is.

According to the existing knowledge there should not be much interaction between the < 5 nm Fe(III) particles and the radiotoxic heavy metals in the acidic pore waters (exception: 210Pb). With increasing pH, elements such as Th, Po, Ac etc. begin to adsorb strongly onto the particles. Also the uranyl increasingly tends to sorb onto the particles with increasing pH. However, uranyl adsorption to the particles is counteracted by carbonate complexation in the solution the importance of which also increases with increasing pH. Therefore, uranyl is often assumed to be truly dissolved under the conditions of real mine waters, either due to high acidity (low pH region) or due to carbonate complexation (higher pH). It remains to be elucidated if there is a pH region where also the uranyl occurs colloid-borne in a mine.

We investigated flooding waters from the Königstein mine by light scattering, centrifugation, filtration, ultrafiltration, scanning electron microscopy, laser doppler electrophoresis, ICP-MS, AAS, ion chromatography and diverse radiometric methods. The waters had a pH of 5.6 and an Eh of 450 mV, the concentrations of important constituents were CCa 0.9 mM, CFe 0.3 mM, CU 0.05 mM, Csulfate 1.2 mM, Ccarbonate 1,0 mM and CO2 0.11mM. Almost 90 % of the iron was divalent. Because of the Eh value we assume that the uranium was hexavalent. Colloid concentrations in the range of 2 to 3 mg/L were found; they rose rapidly if the access of oxygen was allowed. The particle size was about 100 nm. We measured a zeta potential of only -7.5 mV, i.e. the electrostatic stabilization of the particles was weak. Therefore the particles showed a pronounced tendency to aggregate and sediment. Strongly-sorbing radionuclides such as 210Po and 210Pb, but also significant fractions of the uranyl (up to 100 %) were colloid-borne. The amount of the sorbed uranyl was very sensitive to pH changes of only few tenth of pH units. This senstivity is obviously attributable to the fact that the pH of the water was in the vicinity of the point of inflection of the uranyl - Fe oxyhydroxide "adsorption edge". The uranium and the other radiotoxic heavy metals studied, with the exception of radium, followed the tendency of the iron(III) particles to aggregate and sediment.

We conclude that there is a pH range where the U(VI) occurs colloid-borne in mine waters, even if carbonate is present. This range is pH 4 to 6 (see also [2]). The assumption of an unretarded m...

  • Lecture (Conference)
    The 8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'01). September 30 - October 4, 2001, Bruges (Brugge), Belgium
  • Poster
    8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM ´01). Session 68 (UMREG). Bruges (Belgium), September 30 - October 4, 2001. Proceedings Session 68
  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM ´01). Session 68 (UMREG). Bruges (Belgium), September 30 - October 4, 2001. Proceedings Session 68

Publ.-Id: 4094

Differential Directed Flow in Au+Au Collisions

Andronic, A.; Reisdorf, W.; Alard, J. P.; Barret, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Caplar, R.; Crochet, P.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Finck, C.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Hartmann, O. N.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koczon, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Kress, T.; Kutsche, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; de Schauenburg, B.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K. S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Stockmeier, M. R.; Stoicea, G.; Wagner, P.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A.

We present experimental data on directed flow in semi-central Au+Au collisions at incident energies from 90 to 400 AMeV. For the first time for this energy domain, the data are presented in a transverse momentum differential way. We study the first order Fourier coefficient v1 for different particle species and establish a gradual change of its pattern as function of incident energy and for different regions in rapidity.

Keywords: PACS: 25.75.Ld

  • Phys. Rev. C 64 (2001) 41604

Publ.-Id: 4093

Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand oxorhenium(V) complexes with new [(PNO/S)(S)] donor atom sets

Correia, J. D. G.; Domingos, A.; Santos, I.; Spies, H.

New oxorhenium complexes with 2(diphenylphosphanyl)-N-(1-thioethyl)benzamide (H2PNS) and 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)bezamide (H2PNO) and various monodentate thiols as co-ligands are reported. These new complexes, 1-6, have been prepared by reacting [nBu4][Re(O)Cl4] or [Re(O)Cl3(PPh3)2] with the tridentate H2PNX (X=O, S) ligands and different monothiols. The characterization of the complexes involved IR. 1H and 31PNMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallographic analysis in the case of 1 and 2. Complexes [Re(O)(kappa3-PNO)(SPh)] (1), and [Re(O)(kappa3-PNS)(SPh)] (2), adopt a distorted square pyramidal geometry (delta=3.0°, 1 and delta=1.3° for 2), with the oxo group in the axial position and the equatorial plane being defined by the phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen (1) or sulfur (2) atoms of the tridentate chelate and by the sulfur atom of the monothiol.

  • J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (2001) 2245-2250

Publ.-Id: 4092

Robuste Gemischtligandkomplexe des Technetiums zur Kopplung des dreiwertigen Metalls an biologisch aktive Moleküle

Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Drews, A.; Syhre, R.; Spies, H.; Tisato, F.; Refosco, F.

Der Zugang zu diagnostisch relevanten Komplexverbindungen des Tc-99m wird in der Kopplung des Metalls an biologisch aktive Moleküle gesucht. Bisher dominieren Tc(V)-Chelate mit charakteristischem [Tc=O]3+ core. Die hohe Polarität der Metall-Sauerstoff-Bindung sowie die Austauschfähigkeit der Liganden in vivo stimulieren die Suche nach stabilen Systemen auf niederen Oxidationsstufen.
Wir beschreiben hier zwei neue Typen von Tc(III)-Komplexen. Sie erfüllen die Forderung nach niedriger Polarität und hoher in-vivo-Stabilität.
Gekoppelte Substitutions-Reduktionsreaktionen von Tc(V)-Verbindungen 1 mit zwei-zähnigen PS-Liganden führen zu Tc(III)-Komplexen der Struktur 2.
Die Reduktion von Pertechnetat mit tertiären Phosphinen in Gegenwart des tripodalen Liganden Tris(2-mercaptoethyl)amin ergibt Gemischtligandkomplexe 3 mit NS3/P-Koordination. Der monodendate Phosphinligand kann in einfacher Weise durch Isocyanide unter Bildung der Spezies 4 substituiert werden.
Die neuen Tc(III)-Chelate 2 und 4 zeichnen sich durch eine hohe Variabilität hinsichtlich des zu koppelnden Biomoleküls (R) aus. Challenge-Experimente mit Glutathion unter physiologischen Bedingungen belegen die hohe in-vivo-Stabilität der Verbindungen.

Keywords: Tc-99m; Tc(III) mixed-ligand complexes; thiolato ligands; isocyanides; phosphines

  • Lecture (Conference)
    GDCh-Jahrestagung 2001, Würzburg, 23.-29.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4091

Development of technetium-99m-based CNS receptor ligands: have there been any advances?

Johannsen, B.; Pietzsch, H.-J.

By virtue of its ideal nuclear physical characteristics for routine nuclear medicine diagnostics and its ready availability, technetium-99m (99mTc) is of outstanding interest in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals. The potential of developing 99mTc-based radioligands also for studying the receptor function in the central nervous system (CNS) is well recognized despite the difficulties to be overcome. A fundamental challenge is the pharmacologically acceptable integration of the transition metal technetium with its peculiar coordination chemistry into the molecular entity of CNS receptor ligands. Conceptually, the ligand molecule can be assembled by three building blocks: a small neutral chelate unit, an organic linker that may also serve as pharmacological modifier and a receptor-binding region derived from selective receptor antagonists. The recent introduction of novel technetium chelate units, particularly mixed-ligand complexes and low-valency organometallic compounds of technetium, provides an impetus for the further development of CNS receptor ligands. Moreover, progress in receptor pharmacology and experience gained with PET radiotracers have facilitated the design of numerous 99mTc-based CNS receptor ligands. The formidable challenge of developing 99mTc probes as SPET imaging agents targeting CNS receptors can be meet with optimism in view of the successful development of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 as a 99mTc complex for imaging dopamine transporters in the brain, although there are a number of receptor-specific imaging agents that have so far resisted all efforts to develop them.
This review presents recent advances and discusses the remaining hurdles in the design of 99mTc-based CNS receptor imaging agents.

Keywords: technetium-99m; CNS receptors; receptor binding; blood-brain barrier; radiotracer design

  • Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 29 (2002) 263-275

Publ.-Id: 4090

A Kinetics Study of Vacancy Cluster Evolution Under VVER-Type Reactor Condition

Gokhmann, A.; Böhmert, J.

The vacany clusters (VC) evolution in the neutron-irradiated VVER-type reactor pressure vessel steels is investigated, beginning at the nucleation stage and finishing in the coarsening stage. For this, characteristic VVER-type reactor conditions are considered. VC evolution in the nucleation stage is analysed on the basis of the computer simulation data. During the deterministic and the coarsening stage, elastic interaction between iron matrix and VC is accounted, that provides the stability of the peak of the size distribution function under the condition of increasing neutron fluence in correspondence to the experiments.The results are compared with the results of SANS experiments which were carried out on specimens irradiated at surveillance positions of VVER reactors. The presented approach may be used for analyses of the small inhomogeneities (about 1 nm) in the irradiated damage structure of the VVER-type steels.

Keywords: irradiation; microstructure; reactor pressure vessel steel; vacancy cluster

  • Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, July 2003, Vol. 158, No . 7, pp. 499-511

Publ.-Id: 4089

Use of Instrumented Charpy Impact Tests for Master Curve Determination

Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.; Dzugan, J.

The Master Curve concept (MC) allows to quantify the variation of fracture toughness with the temperature through-out the ductile-to-brittle transition region. Limit curves of fracture toughness for defined failure probabilities and a reference temperatures can be determined using this method. Thus, fracture mechanical values can be supplied for an integrity assessment of structural components.
The paper links MC concept and Charpy-V impact test to determine dynamic fracture mechanical parameters of ASTM A 533 B Cl. 1 nuclear pressure vessel steel. The MC based reference temperature, T0dy, is measured under impact loading using the instrumented impact test. The change in T0dy is determined in dependence on the thickness position of a steel plate and compared with the quasi-static reference temperature, T0st, and the Charpy-V transition temperature (TT). All three parameters increase from the surface to the middle of the steel plate in the same course. However, in the middle section of the plate T0dy is in average approximately 38 K higher than TT and 88 K higher than T0st. The results show that the MC concept is applicable for the fracture mechanical characterisation of material with different microstructure using Charpy size specimens.

Keywords: instrumented impact testing; cleavage failure; fracture toughness; Master Curve; ductile-to brittle transition; reference temperature; reactor pressure vessel steel

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting on Master Curve Testing and Results Application, 17-19 September 2001, Prague, Czech Republic, paper 15
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting on Master Curve Testing and Results Application, 17-19 September 2001, Prague, Czech Republic, paper 15

Publ.-Id: 4088

Quantitative analysis of carbon distribution in steel used for thermochemical polishing of diamond films

Weima, J. A.; von Borany, J.; Kreißig, U.; Fahrner, W. R.

Cylindrical steel plates used for the thermochemical polishing of CVD diamond films at elevated temperatures are investigated regarding their carbon content using X-ray and ion beam analysis. The surface distribution of carbon is investigated at randomly selected areas on two plates - one virgin and another on which a CVD diamond film is polished for one hour at 950°C. The investigation is carried out with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) operated at an energy of 5 keV. Analysis of the SEM-EDX spectra manifest inhomogeneity in the surface distribution of carbon on both steel samples. Moreover, the absolute concentration of carbon on the steel plate on which diamond is polished for one hour almost triples that of the virgin sample. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) depth profiling is performed on several steel plates used to polish as grown CVD diamond films for periods between 0.5-8 hours at 950°C. ERDA carbon profiles show inhomogeneity for three samples on which polishing is successively done for 8 hours. Raman spectra of post-polished steel plates reveal graphite bands and C-Hn complexes at exactly the wave numbers they appear on the diamond samples. This is a clear manifestation that the steel surfaces do not necessarily contain only atomic carbon after thermochemical polishing.

Keywords: Diamond; Diamond polishing; Ion beam analysis

  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society 148 (11) (2001) G607-G610

Publ.-Id: 4087

Entwicklung einer neuen Technologie zur Probenpräparation für die Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM) auf der Basis der Ionenfeinstrahlbearbeitung

Köhler, B.; Bischoff, L.

Aufgabe des Projektes war die Entwicklung einer neuen Technologie zur Probenpräparation für die Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM) auf der Basis der Ionenfeinstrahlbearbei-tung. Dazu wurden Prozesse der ionenstrahlgestützten Abtragung (Sputtern), der Abschei-dung, des Probenhandling sowie systemeigener Komponenten untersucht. Als Alternative zur Ga- Quelle wurde eine Flüssigmetall-Ionenquelle auf der Basis einer AuGeSi Legierung entwi-ckelt, charakterisiert und in der FIB 4400 eingesetzt.
Um eine automatische Bearbeitung bei der Herstellung von TEM-Lamellen zu ermöglichen, erfolgte eine Modifikation der FIB-4400 Software. Das LabView Programm wurde entsprechend modifi-ziert und zusätzlich um nützliche Komponenten ergänzt.
Abtragsraten auf der Basis der Volumenverlustmethode wurden experimentell bestimmt. Diese Werte dienen als Ausgangspunkt für eine weiter ausbaubare Datensammlung, die die entwi-ckelte Prozessautomatisierung verfeinert.
Für den Tranfer von TEM -Lamellen, die aus dem Volumen präpariert werden, wurde ein spe-zieller lift-off Manipulator entwickelt, gebaut und getestet.
Es wurde ein Angebotskatalog erarbeitet, der anhand von Applikationsbeispielen mit verschie-denen Anforderungen (raue Oberflächen, Hochauflösung, poröse Materialien, Materialien mit verminderter Leitfähigkeit) die Kooperationsmöglichkeiten im Dresdener Raum im Rahmen des Materialforschungsverbundes aufzeigt.

Keywords: Ionenfeinstrahl; Sputtern; Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM); Probenpräparation

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-329 August 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 4086

Die Sorption des U(VI) und anderer radiotoxischer Schwermetalle an Kolloidpartikeln im Flutungswasser eines stillgelegten Uranbergwerks

Zänker, H.; Richter, W.

In früheren Kolloquien des Schwerpunktprogramms berichteten wir über den Einfluß von Kolloidpartikeln auf das Spurenmetallverhalten in Acid Rock Drainage (vgl. auch Zänker et al., 2001) sowie in "Bulk-Wasser" (Stollenwasser) aus einem Bergwerk (vgl. Zänker et al., 2000). Flutungswässer sind, chemisch gesehen, zwischen die Zustände "Acid Rock Drainage" und "Bulk-Wasser" einzuordnen. Die Flutung eines Bergwerks stellt eine Verdünnung von Acid-Rock-Drainage-Lösungen dar. Sie ist mit wichtigen kolloidchemischen Vorgängen verbunden.

Wir untersuchten Flutungswasser aus der Urangrube Königstein (Sachsen), wobei in der Hauptsache die Streulichtmessung, die Zentrifugation, die Filtration, die Ultrafiltration, die Rasterelektronenmikroskopie, die Laser-Doppler-Elektrophorese, die ICP-MS, die AAS, die Ionenchromatographie sowie diverse radiometrische Meßmethoden zum Einsatz kamen. Das Wasser besaß einen pH-Wert von 5,6 und einen Eh-Wert von 450 mV; die Konzentrationen wichtiger Wasserinhaltstoffe waren CCa 0,9 mM, CFe 0,3 mM, CU 0,05 mM, CSulfat 1,2 mM, CCarbonat 1,0 mM und CO2 0,11 mM. Nahezu 90% des Eisens waren zweiwertig. Die Kolloidkonzentration lag im Bereich von 2 bis 3 mg/l, die Partikelgröße war ca. 100 nm. Eisen(III)verbindungen stellten den Hauptbestandteil der Kolloidmatrix dar. Mit einem Zetapotential von -7,5 mV wiesen die Partikel eine nur schwache elektrische Ladung auf; sie neigten stark zur Flockulation und Sedimentation. Neben stark adsorbierenden Radionukliden wie 210Po und 210Pb waren auch erhebliche Anteile des Urans kolloidgetragen (auf Grund des Eh-Wertes gehen wir davon aus, daß das Uran sechswertig vorlag).

Der Zutritt von Luftsauerstoff beeinflußte die Proben erheblich. Durch die Oxidation des Fe2+ stieg der Gehalt an Fe(III)-Partikeln (ca. Faktor 10). Trotz der höheren Trägerkolloidkonzentration sank der filtrierbare (kolloidgetragene) Uranylanteil zunächst. Grund war der pH-Abfall (bis auf etwa 4,5), den die Fe-Oxidation verursacht; durch die Fe(III)-Hydrolyse werden Protonen freigesetzt. Mit einiger Verzögerung stieg der pH-Wert wieder, weil die Carbonatkonzentration durch CO2-Entgasung sinkt; der Gehalt an Carbonat/Hydrogencarbonat fiel bis auf <0,05 mM. Dies bewirkte einen Anstieg des filtrierbaren Urananteils auf fast 100%. Das Uran und alle anderen analysierten radiotoxischen Schwermetalle mit Ausnahme des Radiums folgten in dieser Situation der Neigung der Eisen(III)-Partikel zur Aggregation/Sedimentation. Alle hier im Labor beobachteten Vorgänge (O2-Zutritt, pH-Variationen, CO2-Entgasung, Eisen(III)-Sedimentation) spielen auch im Bergwerk eine Rolle.

Die oft getroffene Annahme einer ungehinderten Migration von Uranyl in gelöster Form ist für pH-Werte von 4 bis 6 "überkonservativ". Scavening durch Fe(III)-Partikel und Kolloidkoagulation plus Sedimentation kann in diesem pH-Bereich das U(VI) in erheblichem Maße immobilisieren (Natural Attenuation).


The colloid chemistry of acid rock drainage solution from an abondaned Zn-Pb-Ag mine. Appl. Geochem. (accepted).

ZÄNKER, H.; RICHTER, W.; BRENDLER, V.; NITSCHE, H. (2000): Colloid-borne uranium and other heavy metals in the water of a mine drainage gallery. Radiochim. Acta 88 (2000) 619-624.

  • Lecture (others)
    7. Kolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms "Geochemische Prozesse mit Langzeitfolgen im anthropogen beeinflußten Sickerwasser und Grundwasser". Berlin, 13.-15. September 2001

Publ.-Id: 4083

Upgrade of the Gas Dynamic Trap: Physical Concepts and Numerical Models

Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Noack, K.; Strogalova, S. L.

The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Novosibirsk develops a project of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (NS) based on a gas dynamic trap (GDT) which is mainly intended for fusion material irradiation. Its actual disadvantage is the lack of data for the parameter range of the projected GDT-NS which does not yet allow a reliable interpolation from the parameters of the existing GDT experimental facility to the neutron source. At present, experimental and computational researches are carried out to complete the required data base.
So far, rather promising results have been achieved concerning the main plasma-physical issues like MHD stability, longitudinal confinement, cross-field transport and the fast ion behaviour [1,2]. For the investigations in the latter field the Integrated Transport Code System (ITCS) has been used [3,4]. These investigations must be extended to a higher level of plasma parameters. To this end a substantial upgrade of the GDT facility is planned. The main subsystems which are to be upgraded are the neutral beam injection (NBI) system and the magnetic field power supply. The higher power and the longer duration of the injection will provide a substantially higher energy content of the fast ions and, consequently, will increase the electron temperature.
During the last years several transport codes have been developed and applied for computational studies in parallel to the experimental research. They have been coupled by appropriate data file transfers to the ITCS. The report is focused on the application of the code system to study possible operation regimes of the upgraded GDT. The results of numerical simulations enable us to conclude that an electron temperature of 250-300 eV can be achieved in the GDT-Upgrade with a NBI of 10 MW and a duration of 3-6 ms. The maximum fast ion density in the region of their turning points is estimated at ~5x1013 cm-3.

Keywords: plasma physics; gas dynamic trap; magnetic mirror; neutron source; fusion materials

  • Poster
    28th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Madeira, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001, Proceedings, Poster P1.026
  • Contribution to proceedings
    28th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Madeira, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001, Proceedings, Poster P1.026

Publ.-Id: 4081

Impact of ambient atmosphere on as-implanted amorphous insulating layers

Schmidt, B.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

Low energy ion implantation into SiO2 causes a damaged layer near the surface. The high amount of broken bonds due to displaced Si and O atoms forms a more or less "open glassy network" in which moisture from the ambient can be absorbed. Therefore chemical reactions of the implanted impurities with hydrogen and oxygen must be expected during subsequent annealing. Water absorption in heavy ion damaged SiO2 layers has been studied by hydrogen depth profiling using the Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). SiO2 was implanted with ions of different mass (Si, Ge, Sn) and doses in the range 1013...1016 cm-2. H depth profiles were measured after a certain storage under clean room conditions (40 % rel.hum.) and after additional wet cleaning as well as after certain annealing. At the surface and in the region of the implanted profile the H concentration reaches (5...10) at% after storage and increases during wet chemical cleaning up to 12 at% for implantation doses > 1*1014 cm-2.

Keywords: SiO2; ion implantation; water absorption

  • Poster
    11th International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators, September 03-07, 2001, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 191(2002)1-4, 482-486

Publ.-Id: 4080

Distribution of estrone sulfatase in rat brain determined by in vitro autoradiography with 16alpha-[18F]fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate

Rodig, H.; Brust, P.; Römer, J.; Kasch, H.; Bergmann, R.; Füchtner, F.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.

16alpha-Fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate (FESDS) strongly inhibits estrone sulfatase (ES), an enzyme which is also present in the brain. The enzyme is probably involved in important regulatory functions of neurosteroids which may be disturbed in certain brain diseases. In the present study [18F]FESDS was used to measure the amount of ES in various rat brain regions using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The obtained values vary between 0.29 pmol (mg protein)-1 (pons) and 11.5 pmol (mg protein)-1 (striatum). They are positively correlated with the enzyme activity measured in homogenates of the corresponding regions. Because this radiotracer binds also to carbonic anhydrase in the brain it is only limited use for in vivo imaging studies.

Keywords: autoradiography; brain; disulfamate; estrone sulfatase; 18F; positron emission tomography; steroids

  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 773-780

Publ.-Id: 4079

Azacage compounds as efficient tools for enhancing metal ion and anion extraction

Wichmann, K.; Grotjahn, M.; Gloe, K.; Moder, M.; Dunsch, L.; Stephan, H.; Vögtle, F.

Azacage compounds have been investigated in order to find typical structure extractability relationships towards selected metal ions [Ag(I), Hg(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(I) and Cu(II)] and anions [I, Cl, SO4 2-, TcO4 -]. The influence of different parameters [concentration, pH, diluent, time, temperature] on the extraction equilibrium will be discussed. The complexation and extraction behaviour observed will be interpreted using ESI mass spectroscopic studies, cyclovoltammetric measurements and molecular modeling calculations.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5. ACHEM ASIA, Peking/China, 8.-12.5.2001
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 73 (2001), 716

Publ.-Id: 4077

Coulomb dissociation of 8B at E(8B) = 254 MeV/nucleon

Baumann, T.; Blank, B.; Boue, F.; Czajkowski, S.; Förster, A.; Gai, M.; Geissel, H.; Grosse, E.; Hammache, F.; Hellström, M.; Iwasa, N.; Kohlmeyer, B.; Koczon, P.; Kulessa, R.; Laue, F.; Marchand, C.; Motobayashi, T.; Oeschler, H.; Pravikoff, M. S.; Schümann, F.; Schwab, E.; Senger, P.; Sümmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Surowka, G.; Wagner, A.; Walus, W.

The precise knowledge of the solar thermonuclear fusion reaction of 7Be(p, γ)8B is crucial for estimating the 8B solar neutrino flux and the predicted neutrino rates in terrestrial neutrino detectors. The flux of 8B solar neutrinos is particularly important for the results of the Homestake, Super-Kamiokande, and SNO experiments, because they measure high-energy solar neutrinos mainly or solely from the 8B decay.

We have measured the Coulomb dissociation of 8B into 7Be and proton on a 208Pb target at 254 MeV/nucleon using the large acceptance focusing spectrometer KaoS at GSI. Since the dissociation process can be regarded as absorption of a virtual photon, the Coulomb dissociation cross section is converted to the photo-absorption 8B( γ,p)7Be cross section which is directly related to the 7Be(p, γ)8B cross section.

In a first experiment the astrophysical S factor for the 7Be(p,γ)8B reaction is extracted to be S17(0)=20.6 ±1.2(exp) ±1.0(theo) eV-b for 0.25-2.78 MeV (1). This result agrees with the presently adopted zero-energy S17 factor obtained in direct-reaction measurements and with the results of other Coulomb dissociation studies performed at 46.5 and 51.2 A MeV. A second run allowed to also obtain information on the E1/E2 ratio by analysing the angular correlation of 7Be and the proton.

Keywords: solar thermonuclear fusion reaction Be B; neutrino flux detector; Coulomb dissociation; proton spectrometer; photo-absorption; astrophysical S factor; KaoS GSI; virtual photon

  • Poster
    Poster presentation at the INPC 2001, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA, July 30 - Augst 3, 2001
  • Contribution to external collection
    Poster presentation at the INPC 2001, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA, July 30 - Augst 3, 2001

Publ.-Id: 4076

Aspects of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA preparation: Precursor synthesis, preparative HPLC purification and determination of radiochemical purity

Füchtner, F.; Angelberger, P.; Kvaternik, H.; Hammerschmidt, F.; Peric Simovc, B.; Steinbach, J.

A modified method for the synthesis of the intermediate product N-Boc-3,4-di(Boc-O)-6-iodo-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester of the [18F]FDOPA precursor preparation was developed. With the application of bis-(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodobenzene for the iodination step with elemental iodine the yield of the intermediate can be increased from 12% to 50-60%. By replacing silica-gel-based RP HPLC column by a polymer-based column for semi-preparative purification of [18F]FDOPA from the reaction mixture the radiochemical purity of the final product can be increased up to > 99 %. For the determination of the radiochemical impurity [18F]fluoride a HPLC method using a column with polymer-based RP material was introduced.

Keywords: 18F; FDOPA preparation; FDOPA quality control; PET

  • Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 29 (2002) 477-481

Publ.-Id: 4075

The EC-FOREVER-2 experiment: the pre-test analysis and comparisons with the experiment

Willschütz, H.-G.; Sehgal, B. R.

Scaled coupled melt pool convection and vessel creep failure experiments are being performed in the FOREVER program at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a pressurized reactor vessel under the thermal load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. Due to the multi axial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a highly non-uniform temperature field these experiments offer an excellent opportunity to validate numerical creep models. A Finite Element model is developed and using the Computational Fluid Dynamic module, the melt pool convection is simulated and the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are then performed applying a new creep modelling procedure. Additionally, the material damage is evaluated considering the creep deformation as well as the prompt plasticity.
After post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment, pre-test calculations for the forthcoming experiments are performed. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios.

Keywords: Scaled core meltdown experiments; reactor pressure vesel; multi-axial creep; FE-Simulation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    OECD LOWER HEAD FAILURE, 4th Program Committee Meeting, March 5-7, 2001, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, Proceedings, Paper No. 8.6
  • Contribution to proceedings
    OECD LOWER HEAD FAILURE, 4th Program Committee Meeting, March 5-7, 2001, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, Proceedings, Paper No. 8.6

Publ.-Id: 4074

Coupled Melt Pool Convection and Vessel Creep Failure: The FOREVER Program

Sehgal, B. R.; Theerthan, S. A.; Willschütz, H.-G.; Nourgaliev, R. R.; Karbojian, A.

The FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) program is concerned with the phenomena of melt-vessel interactions during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor. The objectives of the FOREVER program are to obtain data and develop validated models on (i) the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure) and (ii) the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside or outside of the lower head.
Integral experiments were performed in a 1/10 scaled carbon steel vessels of 0.4 m diameter, 15 mm thickness and 60 mm height. Up to 20 litres of binary oxide melt (30wt% CaO -70wt% B2O3 ) was poured into the vessel and maintained at about 1300 °C by a specially designed electrical heater operating at about 40 kW. The melt pool undergoes natural con-vection as it would in the prototypic scenario and the vessel wall temperatures vary from ~ 600 to 1000 °C azimuthally. The pressure inside the vessel was maintained at about 2.6 MPa. The main diagnostics were several types of thermocouples and linear position transducers (LPT) which measure the displacement of the vessel due to its creep deformation.
The first three experiments, described here, are focussed on vessel creep and failure.The FOREVER/CI test was performed with the German steel (15Mo3) lower head, at about 25 bars of internal pressure and at the input power level of 22 kW. The maximum essel wall temperature was about 800 °C. A sizable database was obtained for the creep deformation rates over a period of 24 hours and the maximum creep strain obtained was about 5 %. The second test FOREVER/C2 employed a French reactor vessel steel (16MND5) lower head, and a power level of 40 kW. The maximum vessel wall temperature was measured to be about 1000 °C and the maximum creep strain obtained was about 10 %. The test ended without the failure of the lower head as the heater failed due to its unconvering from the melt as the melt level receded due to vessel expansion.
The third test, the EC-FOREVER-I, incorporated higher initial melt level to avoid heater failure. Although, the heater power level was maintained same, at about 40 kW, the internal pressure was increased to 28 bars in order to obtain the lower head failure. The lower head failure was achieved, albeit, at a lower than expected creep strain of only 6%. The failure site was located just above the welding joint between the hemispherical part and the cylindrical part. The cause for this mode of failure is being investigated.
A coupled thermal-structural analysis of these FOREVER tests was performed with the ANSYS Multiphysics code. An improvised creep model was incorporated into this code which avoids the use of a single creep law for the entire lower head. Instead, a three dimensional array was developed where the creep strain is evaluated according to the actual total strain, temperature and equivalent stress for each element. The material damage is evaluated considering the creep and the prompt plastic deformations. The calculated results for the creep strain and vessel failure time are in good agreement with those from the experiments.

Keywords: FOREVER-experiments; reactor pressure vessel; melt pool; creep failure

  • Lecture (Conference)
    CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany

Publ.-Id: 4073

Pre-test Calculations for a Core Meltdown Experiment

Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.

Scaled coupled melt pool convection and vessel creep failure experiments are being performed in the FOREVER program at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a pressurized reactor vessel under the thermal load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. Due to the multi axial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a highly non-uniform temperature field these experiments offer an excellent opportunity to validate numerical creep models. A Finite Element model is developed and using the Computational Fluid Dynamic module, the melt pool convection is simulated and the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are then performed applying a new creep modelling procedure. Additionally, the material damage is evaluated considering the creep deformation as well as the prompt plasticity.
After post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment, pre-test calculations for the forthcoming experiments are performed. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios. After analysing the calculations, it seems to be advantageous to introduce a vessel support which can unburden the vessel from a part of the mechanical load and, therefore, avoid the vessel failure or at least prolong the time to failure. This can be a possible accident mitigation strategy. Additionally, it is possible to install an absolutely passive automatic control device to initiate the flooding of the reactor pit to ensure external vessel cooling in the event of a core melt down.

Keywords: Severe nuclear power plant accident; core melt down; multi-axial creep deformation; ANSYSâ User Programmable Feature

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19. CAD-FEM Users´ Meeting, 17.-19. Oktober 2001, Berlin, Potsdam, Germany, Proceedings Vol. 1, 1.6.9
  • Contribution to proceedings
    19. CAD-FEM Users´ Meeting, 17.-19. Oktober 2001, Berlin, Potsdam, Germany, Proceedings Vol. 1, 1.6.9

Publ.-Id: 4072

Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien in Ostdeutschland

Rindelhardt, U.

Im Beitrag wird die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung bis Ende 2000 im Einzelnen dargestellt sowie auf die möglichen Perspektiven eingegangen. Die Entwicklung in Ostdeutschland war einerseits durch einige - historisch bedingte - Besonderheiten geprägt, spiegelt aber andererseits auch generelle Tendenzen bei der Nutzung von erneuerbaren Energien zur Stromerzeugung in Deutschland wider.
Im Jahr 2000 wurde aus erneuerbaren Energien in Ostdeutschland eine Strommenge von 3,5 TWh erzeugt, was einem Anteil von 4,8 % am Nettostromverbrauch (abzüglich Netzverluste) entsprach. Mit Abstand dominierende erneuerbare Energie ist mit 70 % die Windenergie, gefolgt von Biomasse und Wasserkraft mit je 15 %. Die Photovoltaik spielt nur eine marginale Rolle. Der Anteil erneuerbarer Energien kann sich in diesem Jahrzehnt verdoppeln.

Keywords: Strom; erneuerbare Energien

  • Elektrizitätswirtschaft 100, Heft 25, S.30-39

Publ.-Id: 4071

Analyses of the OECD - MSLB Benchmark with the Codes DYN3D and DYN3D/ATHLET

Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.

The code DYN3D coupled with the thermal-hydraulic plant model ATHLET was used for the analysis of the OECD Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark which is based on real plant design and operational data of the TMI-1 PWR. DYN3D is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state and transient analyses of thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel as-semblies. The neutron kinetic model is based on the solution of the three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equation by nodal expansion. Models for the thermal hydraulics of the reactor core and the fuel pins are implemented in the DYN3D. The reactor core is modeled by parallel cooling channels which can describe one or more fuel elements. DYN3D can be used as a stand alone code with given thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions of the core. Besides the standard simulation given by the specification, modifications are introduced for sen-sitivity studies. The results presented here show the influence of a reduced number of thermal-hydraulic channels for the core for the exercise 2 and the influence of coolant mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel exercise 3. Based on the presented investigations, it can be concluded that the maximum values of local parameters as fuel temperatures are not conservative, if a few number of coolant channels is used for the simulation of the reactor core. If coolant mixing in the reactor vessel is modeled, the accident consequences are mitigated.

Keywords: nuclear reactors; transients; computer codes; simulation; benchmarks; best-estimate analysis; three-dimensional models; neutron kinetics; thermal hydraulics; nodal methods

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, June 2001, Volume 84, page 23 - 25
  • Contribution to external collection
    Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, June 2001, Volume 84, page 23 - 25

Publ.-Id: 4067

Relation between stress in cubic boron nitride films and the in plane TO phonon energy

Fitz, C.; Fukarek, W.; Möller, W.

The high intrinsic stresses in as-deposited cBN films are relaxed employing thermal treatment and ion implantation. In-situ stress measurement and ex-situ polarized infrared reflection spectroscopy are utilized to study correlations between stress and cBN TO phonon energy. The in plane TO phonon energy of cBN films is found to be not unambiguously dependent upon the film stress in contrast to the dependence of the phonon energy of cBN crystallites upon hydrostatic pressure. Factors affecting the relation between stress and phonon position are discussed.

Keywords: cubic boron nitride; stress; infrared; phonon

  • Diamond and Related Materials 11 (8): 1532-1536 AUG 2002

Publ.-Id: 4066

Sorption of U(VI) on muscovite. Comparing SCM modeling with spectroscopic and microscopic results.

Arnold, T.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Walter, M.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

The sorption of uranyl(VI) on muscovite was studied with the diffuse double layer model (DDLM). The required values for the surface site density, the surface acidity constants, the specific surface area, and the experimental sorption data were determined in [1].
The modeling favored the formation of two uranyl surface complexes. Both surfave complexes were simultaneously calculated with FITEQL [2]. The first one is a monodentate mononuclear surface complex:

XOH + UO22+ = (XO-UO22+)+ + H+

The second surface complex is a bidentate mononuclear surface complex:

X(OH)2 + UO22+ = (XO22-UO22+)+ + 2 H+

The results of the SCM (surface complexation model) modeling were compared with results obtained from extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).
An EXAFS sample representing the sorption of U(VI) on muscovite at pH 5.8 with an initial U concentration of 1H10-4 M indicated that U(VI) is bound to the muscovite surface as an outer-sphere complex, as indicated by the missing Si/Al to U distance.
HRTEM investigations, representing the sorption of uranium on muscovite at pH 6.5 using an initial U concentration of 5H10-4 M, showed sorbed uranium particles on the muscovite surface. The particles were 5 to 10 nm in diameter. Diffraction patterns of these nano-sized particles gave indication for schoepite and metallic uranium.
TRLFS studies conducted with a muscovite suspension at pH 6.5 using an initial uranium concentration of 1×10-5 M revealed the presence of an uranium-muscovite surface species with a fluorescence lifetime of 120 ns ± 10 ns.


[1] Arnold, T. et al. (2001) Sorption Behavior of U(VI) on Phyllite: Experiment and Modeling. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 47, 219-231.

[2] Herbelin, A. and Westall, J. (1996) FITEQL A Computer Program for Determination of Chemical Equilibrium Constants from Exp. Data, Version 3.2. Rep. 96-01, Dep. of Chem., Oregon St. Uni., Corvallis, Oregon.

  • European Journal of Mineralogy (2001)13, 17

Publ.-Id: 4065

Nuclear temperatures obtained from light-charged-particle yields in low-energy ternary fission

Andronenko, M.; Andronenko, L.; Neubert, W.; Seliverstov, D.

Nuclear temperatures were determined from yields of isotopes with 1<Z<14 accompanying the spontaneous and neutron-induced fission of heavy elements. The mean temperature derived from the corresponding temperature distributions amounts to 1.10 +- 0.15 MeV.

Keywords: fission; isotopes; nuclear temperature; fragmentation

  • European Physical Journal A 12 (2001) 185

Publ.-Id: 4064

Construction of the Multipurpose Thermohydraulic Test Facility TOPFLOW using CAD Applications

Schaffrath, A.; Schmeisser, N.; Pietruske, H.; Schubert, S.

The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e.V. is building the large-scale test facility TOPFLOW for thermal hydraulic single effect tests. The acronym TOPFLOW stands for Transient Two Phase Flow Test Facility. It will mainly be used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena in power- and process industries. Main research activities are the investigation of:

  • transient flow regimes in horizontal, vertical and inclined tubes,
  • the dynamic behaviour of interphase areas in gas-liquid flows,
  • critical mass flows and oscillations during depressurization of chemical reactors,
  • natural convection in large pools with local heating,
  • natural convection in parallel channels and feed pipes and
  • condensation phenomena.

CAE tools were consequently established for planning and construction of the facility. This includes e.g. in the basic/detail engineering phase pipe and process flow diagrams, three dimensional plot plans and isometric projections for construction. The 3D model of the facility was used for generation of cutaway sectional drawings, determination of connecting points of components, collision checking and generation of reports such as data sheets and part lists. At last the plant model will be used for the documentation of the built isometric projection. From this version a VRML-model will be created. It will be used for presentation in an immersive virtual-reality environment which was developed at FZR. Alternatively the model can be inspected by any web browser with a standard VRML viewer like CosmoPlayer.


  • Contribution to external collection
    Proceedings CAD2002 Corporate Engineering Research, 4-5.03.2002, Dresden, Germany, ISBN 3-86005298-5, 289-298.

Publ.-Id: 4063

Radiochemisches Laborgebäude für die Actiniden Forschung -Technik. Strahlenschutz, Methoden-

Bernhard, G.; Friedrich, H.; Nitsche, H.

In diesem Artikel werden die erforderliche Technik, die Strahlenschutz- und Genehmigungsbedingungen und die methodische Ausrichtung der Labors in diesem radiochemischen Laborgebäude für den Umgang mit Radionukliden, insbesondere Actiniden vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Forschungen beschrieben. Sowohl für Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Radiopharmazie wie auch auf dem Gebiet der Grundlagen der Radiochemie und Radioökologie (z. B. für die Erforschung der Speziation und Migration von Radionukliden/Actiniden in Gebieten des ehemaligen Uranerzbergbaues, in radioaktiv kontaminierten Umgebungen resultierend aus Nuklearunfällen, im Nah- und Fernfeld potentieller nuklearer Endlager) sind radiochemische Laboratorien unabdingbar.
Im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf wurde ein radiochemisches Laborgebäude errichtet, in dem nach Paragr. 3 der Strahlenschutzverordnung mit einer Vielzahl radioaktiver Nuklide (170 Nuklide) in einer maximalen Aktivität für jedes Nuklid von 10E11Bq umgegangen werden kann. Das Laborgebäude hat 24 radiochemische Labors und 10 Service Raume. Die Labors sind mit einer Vielzahl von Abzügen, Laminarboxen und mit 22 Glove Boxen für den Umgang mit Gramm-Mengen von Actiniden ausgerüstet. Das gesamte Gebäude bildet einen Kontrollbereich und bietet Arbeitsplätze für 50 Mitarbeiter/innen. Moderne Analytische und spektroskopische Verfahren sind installiert, z. B. verschiedene Laserspektroskopische Verfahren, ICP-MS, FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, chromatographische und elektrochemische Verfahren und a,ß,y - Spektrometrie.

  • Atw 46(2001), p. 653-658

Publ.-Id: 4062

Strong visible electroluminescence from Ge- and Sn-implanted silicon dioxide layers

Rebohle, L.; Gebel, T.; von Borany, J.; Fröb, H.; Borchert, D.; Skorupa, W.

Silicon-based light emission is a key feature to make a real step into the world of integrated optical systems, laboratory-on-chip applications and high performance optical communication. One of the most promising approaches is ion implantation into thin SiO2 films. In this paper the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Sn-implanted SiO2 layers are investigated and compared with those of Ge-implanted SiO2 layers. Strong EL in the blue-violet spectral region with a power efficiency of 0.025 % is extracted from Sn-implanted oxide layers. Similar to the case of Ge, the main emission at 3.2 eV is attributed to a radiative T1®S0 transition of a Sn-related oxygen deficiency center, the EL intensity increases linearly over several orders of magnitude and the stability reaches comparable values. In contrast to the case of Ge, a low energy shoulder appears in the EL spectrum of Sn-implanted oxides. Finally, the suitability of Sn-implanted oxides for optoelectronic applications is discussed.

Keywords: Ge-implantation; Sn-implantation into SiO2; electroluminescence; Si based light emission

  • Material Science and Engineering C19 (2001) 373

Publ.-Id: 4059

Aufbau aromatischer Ringe mit Kohlenstoffisotopen

Mäding, P.; Zessin, J.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.

Strukturbestimmende Bestandteile biologisch aktiver Verbindungen sind häufig meta-bolisch stabile aromatische Fragmente, die für die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) von Interesse sein können. Dementsprechend wurden Markierungstechniken zur Einführung des kurzlebigen Radionuklids 11C (T1/2 = 20 min) in aromatische und hetero-aromatische Grundverbindungen entwickelt.

11C-kernmarkierte Benzolderivate

* Das Syntheseprinzip der synchronen Sechs-Elektronen-Cyclisierung von Hexatrien-Systemen [1] wird zur Darstellung von [11C]-Aromaten genutzt. In Anwesenheit einer Base lassen sich durch Umsetzung von Nitro-[11C]-methan mit Pentamethiniumsalzen 11C-kernmarkierte Nitrobenzole herstellen [2-4]. Diese Nitro-[1-11C]ben-zole können mit Na2S zu den entsprechenden [1-11C]Anilinen reduziert werden. Aus [1-11C]Anilin ist durch Diazotierung und Verkochen des gebildeten Diazoniumsalzes [1-11C]Phenol zu-gänglich [5]. Analoge Umsetzungen mit 13C wurden demonstriert.

* In Übertragung der bekannten Kondensation von Nitro-methan mit Pyryliumsalzen [6] konnten 4-Nitro-[4-11C]anisol sowie zwei 2,4,6-trisubstituierte Nitro-[1-11C]ben-zole syn-thetisiert werden[7]. Das Verfahren wurde methodisch auf Arbeiten mit 13C ausgeweitet.

11C-kernmarkierte N-Heteroaromaten

* Die Synthese von [11C]Pyridin und Cyano-[11C]pyridinen gelang durch Pyrolyse von N-[11C]Methylpyrrolen [8].
Das Indolgerüst wurde durch zwei verschiedene Synthesewege mit 11C markiert:

* [2-11C]Indol ist durch Kondensation von Nitro-[11C]-methan mit o-Nitrobenzaldehyd und nachfolgender Reduktion des gebildeten ß,2-Dinitro-[ß-11C]styrols zugänglich [9].

* Ein neuer11C-Baustein, das Triphenylarsonium-[11C]methylid, das in situ aus [11C]-Methyltriphenylarsoniumiodid unter Baseneinwirkung gebildet wird, lässt sich durch Reaktion mit o-Aminobenzoyl-Verbindungen direkt zu [2-11C]Indolen [10] kondensieren. Diese Umsetzung unterscheidet sich vom normalen Verlauf der Wittig-Reaktion [11].

[1] Ch. Jutz, Angew. Chem. 1972, 84, 299.
[2] J. Steinbach, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1995, 36, 33.
[3] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1997, 39, 585.
[4] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm.1998, 41, 647.
[5] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 2000, 43, 557.
[6] K. Dimroth, Angew. Chem. 1960, 72, 331.
[7] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 2000, 43, 565.
[8] J. Steinbach, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1995, 37, 613.
[9] J. Zessin, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 1998, 41, 669.
[10] J. Zessin, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 1999, 42, 725.
[11] P. Bravo, Tetrahedron Lett. 1970, 52, 4535.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft deutscher Chemiker, Würzburg, 23.-29.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4058

Distribution of 16alpha-[18F]fluoro-estradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate (FESDS) in rats, tumour-bearing mice and piglets

Brust, P.; Rodig, H.; Römer, J.; Kasch, H.; Bergmann, R.; Füchtner, F.; Zips, D.; Baumann, M.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.

Based on a high affinity to the enzyme estrone sulfatase (ES) 16alpha-[18F]fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate ([18F]FESDS) has been suggested as a potential PET tracer for imaging steroid-dependent breast tumours. The distribution of [18F]FESDS was studied in rats, tumour-bearing nude mice and piglets. In all species evidence for tracer binding to a second target, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), was obtained. ES and CA inhibitors significantly reduced the radiotracer uptake in various organs but not in tumours. It is concluded that [18F]FESDS binds to ES and CA in vivo but this binding is not strong enough to allow tumour imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)..

Keywords: estradiol; disulfamate; estrone sulfatase; carbonic anhydrase; positron emission tomography; tumour

  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes 57 (2002) 687-695

Publ.-Id: 4057

Depth Distribution and Intrinsic Stress in a-Si-:H Films Prepared from Hydrogen-Diluted Silane

Danesh, P.; Pantchev, B.; Grambole, D.; Schmidt, B.

The thickness dependencies and depth distributions of hydrogen and intrinsic mechanical stress are studied for a-Si:H films prepared with 10% silane in hydrogen. Nuclear reaction analysis has been used to establish the total concentration of the incorporated hydrogen. It has been shown that the hydrogen distribution in the films is uniform and does not depend on the film thickness. On contrary, the intrinsic stress depends on the film thickness and has a nonuniform depth distribution, as the stress increase linearly in the direction from the substrate/film interface to the film surface. The obtained results are discussed in view of the hydrogen-related processes and structural improvement of the silicon network during the film growth.

Keywords: a-Si:H layers; H depth profiling; intrinsic stress

  • Journal of Applied Physics 90 (2001) 3065-3068

Publ.-Id: 4052

Efficient blue light emission from silicon: The first integrated Si-based optocoupler

Rebohle, L.; von Borany, J.; Borchert, D.; Fröb, H.; Gebel, T.; Helm, M.; Möller, W.; Skorupa, W.

We present the first all-silicon integrated optocoupler, whose fabrication, using ion implantation into SiO2, is completely compatible with standard Si technology. It is based on Ge-implanted SiO2 layers as light emitter exhibiting bright blue-violet electroluminescence light with a record wall-plug efficiency of 0.5%. The electroluminescence is explained with a model in which electrons enter the SiO2 layer via tunnel injection and excite the luminescence centers by impact excitation or field ionization. A radiative T1-S0 transition of these luminescence centers is then causing the observed electroluminescence. Finally we show, that these optocoupling devices hold great promise for integrated optoelectronic applications, especially in the field of sensor and biotechnology.

Keywords: Si based optocoupler; Ge implanted SiO2; electroluminescence

  • Electrochem. and Solid State Letters, 4( 7) G57-G60 (2001)

Publ.-Id: 4051

The beneficial role of flash lamp annealing on the epitaxial growth of the 3C-SiC on Si

Panknin, D.; Stoemenos, J.; Eickhoff, M.; Heera, V.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.

For the realization of good quality 3C-SiC films epitaxially grown on Si the perfection of the film during the early stage of growth is substantial. In this paper the beneficial role of Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) for the elimination of the defects in the SiC film and the strain reduction at the SiC/Si interface is discussed. FLA is a highly transient process, having a flash duration of a few milliseconds. When the energy density is sufficient high, it melts the silicon at the SiC/Si interface increasing the temperature there well above the melting point of the silicon. The melted Si dissolves the 3C-SiC near the interface. Additionally, the uppermost part of the 3C-SiC film is annealed due to the heat dissipation during the flash duration and the solidification of the molten region. During the solidification of the C-rich Si melt SiC grows by liquid phase epitaxy at the annealed uppermost 3C-SiC film which act as a seed. This process results in a substantial improvement of the SiC film, eliminating also the cavities and the stress at the interface.

Keywords: 3C-SiC interface; Flash lamp annealing; TEM

  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 377-382

Publ.-Id: 4050

Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics; Annual Report 2000

Dönau, F.; Enghardt, W.; Grosse, E.; Kämpfer, B.; Schlett, M.; Schneidereit, C.; (Editors)

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-319 April 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 4049

Charge State Distributions of Heavy Ions after Scattering at Surface atoms

Klein, C.; Grötzschel, R.; Mäder, M.; Möller, W.

The charge-state distributions of Li, C, and F ions after a single collision with Au atoms deposited at a sub-monolayer coverage on Si were measured at energies below 500 keV/amu and compared to the equilibrium charge-state distributions. The influence of the surface on the charge state of the outgoing ions is demonstrated for Li ions at 3 MeV. It is found that the charge state distribution does not generally reach equilibrium after a single collision.

Keywords: Ion-atom collisions; Charge exchange; Charge State Distribution; High resolution RBS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Cairns, Australia, 15-20 July 2001, published as a special volume of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Cairns, Australia, 15-20 July 2001, published as a special volume of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B

Publ.-Id: 4048

TOPFLOW - eine neue Mehrzweckthermohydraulikversuchsanlage zur Untersuchung transienter Zweiphasenströmungen

Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Weiß, F.-P.; Hicken, E. F.

In dem Vortrag wird der Stand der Arbeiten zur Errichtung der Versuchsanlage TOPFLOW (Transient Two Phase Flow Test Facility) präsentiert. Hierbei werden u. a. das Design der Anlage, die geplanten Experimente, die Dokumentation, das Internetprotal sowie der Zeitplan im Detail vorgestellt.

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar des Lehrstuhls für Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 03.07.2001

Publ.-Id: 4047

Untersuchung von Zweiphasenströmungen in vertikalen Rohren

Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.

Im Rahmen des Seminars des Lehrstuhls Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme der Ruhr-Universität Bochum wurden ausgewählte experimentelle Untersuchungen von aufwaertsgerichteten Luft-Wasser Strömungen in vertikalen Rohren vorgestellt. Ein besonderes Kennzeichen dieser Untersuchungen ist der Einsatz von fortschrittlicher Zweiphasenmesstechnik, die am Institut für Sicherheitsforschung entwicklet wird.

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar des Lehrstuhls Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum 03.07.2001

Publ.-Id: 4046

OECD/CSNI ISP NR. 43 Rapid Boron Dilution Transient Tests For Code Verification Post Test Calculation With CFX-4

Gavrilas, M.; Höhne, T.

The need of the experimental support for validation of the computational tools to be applied to analyze the mixing of diluted slugs has been recognized in various countries. The test series for the International Standard Problem ISP-43 provides a platform for experiences to be applied to the simulation of a well-defined test series. Test A and B of the UM2x4 loop test facility were calculated with the CFD Code CFX-4.3. Sensitivity studies were made to analyze the used turbulence model and numerical errors. The results show good agreement with the experimental data for both tests.

Keywords: Boron Dilution; PWR; Coolant Mixing

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-325 Juli 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 4045

Application of CFX for modelling of natural convection and of subcooled boiling

Krepper, E.

The paper comprises a short overview about the work in the Institute of Safety Research on CFD-modelling of natural convection and on subcooled boiling

  • CFX-Update No.22, Autumn 2002, p. 27

Publ.-Id: 4044

Tailored magnetic fields in industrial crystal growth, levitation, and melt extraction

Gerbeth, G.

Industrial applications of magnetic field systems require tailored solutions
for the specific requirements of each technological process in order to keep
the effort, i.e. the magnetic field strength or the power consumption of the
control unit, as low as possible. In case of magnetic field control of
liquid metal processes this results often in combined systems of AC and DC
magnetic fields. The lecture presents examples for this approach.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Lecture at: Int. Seminar on "Electromagnetic Control of Liquid Metal Processes" Coventry, UK, June 27-29, 2001

Publ.-Id: 4043

Radiopharmazeutische Sonden für die medizinische Diagnostik

Johannsen, B.

Die verschiedenen heutzutage gebräuchlichen tomographischen Verfahren (CT, MRT, PET, SPECT) ergänzen sich vorzüglich in ihren Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. Informationen über die Struktur der Gewebe und Organe werden komplettiert durch Informationen zu deren Funktion und Biochemie. Letzteres ist die Domäne der Nuklearmedizin, die auf der Anwendung radioaktiver Substanzen beruht. Derartige radioaktive Substanzen fungieren in der Diagnostik als "molekulare Sonden" (Radiotracer), die in den Körper gebracht werden und in Form der nach außen dringenden Strahlung über ihre Verteilung, Reaktion mit Körperbestandteilen und Ausscheidung informieren. Radiotracermethoden machen so den Körper biochemisch transparent. Im Vortrag werden anhand von Beispielen radiopharmazeutische Arbeitsrichtungen vorgestellt. Kurzlebige Positronenstrahler, wie Kohlenstoff-11 und Fluor-18, ermöglichen die Entwicklung von molekularen Sonden für zahlreiche bio-chemische Prozesse. Neurologisch/psychiatrische und onkologische Fragestellungen sind derzeit dominierend in der klinischen Forschung mit Hilfe der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET). Der eine kostenintensive Infrastruktur erfordernden PET steht die Tomographie mit gammastrahlenden Isotopen (SPECT) gegenüber, insbesondere, wenn ein einfaches Generatorsystem die Erzeugung der kurzlebigen Radionuklide vor Ort in der Klinik ermöglicht und die anschließende Radiopharmakaherstellung problemlos erfolgen kann. Das Generatornuklid Technetium-99m ist das "Arbeitspferd" der nuklearmedizinischen Routinediagnostik. Als Übergangsmetall erfordert es eine koordinationschemische Arbeitsweise bei der Radiodiagnostikherstellung. Bei anspruchsvollen biochemischen Fragestellungen besteht die Herausforderung, den grundsätzlich unphysiologischen Verbindungen dieses Metalls eine solche Gestalt, Größe und Reaktivität zu verleihen, dass sie Biomoleküle ausreichend imitieren können.

  • Lecture (others)
    Wissenschaftliche Sitzung der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, Landesgruppe Bayern, Regensburg, 11.07.2001

Publ.-Id: 4042

Neptunium(IV) complexation by humic substances studied by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

Schmeide, K.; Reich, T.; Sachs, S.; Brendler, V.; Heise, K. H.; Bernhard, G.

We studied the coordination environment of neptunium(IV) in complexes with various natural and synthetic humic and fulvic acids at pH 1 by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The results were compared to those obtained for the interaction of neptunium(IV) with Bio-Rex70, a cation exchange resin having solely carboxylic groups as metal binding functional groups. In both neptunium humate complexes and neptunium Bio-Rex70 sorbates, Np4+ is surrounded by about 10 oxygen atoms at an average distance of 2.36 ± 0.02 Å. This verifies that the carboxylic groups are the main complexing sites of the humic substances responsible for binding neptunium(IV) in the acidic pH range. The data suggest a predominant monodentate coordination of the carboxylate groups to neptunium(IV) ions.

Keywords: Neptunium; Humic acid; Fulvic acid; Complexation; Structure; XANES; EXAFS

  • Radiochimica Acta 93(2005), 187-196

Publ.-Id: 4041

Anwendung eines Laserextensometers zur Ermittlung von Risswiderstandskurven

Böhmert, J.; Weiß, R.; Webersinke, W.

Risswiderstandskurven haben sich zur zähbruchmechanischen Charakterisierung des duktilen Verformungsverhaltens metallischer Werkstoffe bewährt. Eine geeignete Methode zur Ermittlung von Risswiderstandskurven ist die Compliance-Methode, bei der Risswachstum aus der Veränderung der Probennachgiebigkeit bei Zwischenentlastungen ermittelt wird. Voraussetzung für die Methode ist eine hochgenaue Mes-sung der Rissöffnung. Üblicherweise werden dazu mechanische Wegaufnehmer (Clip-on-Gage) verwendet. Die Messung mit einem Laserextensometer eröffnet neue Anwendungsfelder.
Für eine erste Erprobung werden Risswiderstandskurven an Proben aus hochzähen ferritischen Stählen mit Charpy-Geometrie und unter 3-Punkt-Biegebelastung gleichzeitig mit einem Laserextensometer und einem mechanischen Wegaufnehmer er-mittelt. Die erreichte Endrisslänge am Ende des Versuches wird optisch ausgemessen und mit der aus der Probennachgiebigkeit ermittelten verglichen.
Es gelingt mit dem Laserextensometer die Rissöffnung so empfindlich auszumessen, dass Risswiderstandskurven ermittelt werden können. Die Streuungen zwischen den einzelnen Messschritten sind dabei leicht größer, aber vergleichbar mit den Streuungen gemäß dem Standardverfahren.
Für hochzähen Stahl unterscheiden sich jedoch die mit beiden Wegmessern ermittelten Risswiderstandskurven signifikant. Der Unterschied ist nicht im Wegaufnehmer, sondern versuchsmethodisch begründet.
Die mit dem Laserextensometer bestimmten Endrisslängen liegen innerhalb der vom Standard zugelassenen Abweichung und sind überwiegend besser als die mit dem mechanischen Wegaufnehmer ermittelten.
Messungen bei Prüftemperaturen unter- oder oberhalb Raumtemperatur unter Ver-wendung einer Temperierkammer stellen hohe Anforderungen an die Stabilität des optischen Übertragungsweges und führen zu stärkeren Streuungen der Messergebnisse. An der Lösung dieses Problems muss weiter gearbeitet werden.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Vortrag auf 1. Anwendersymposium Laserextensometrie, Merseburg, Juni 2001, Tagungsband, S. 516-524
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Vortrag auf 1. Anwendersymposium Laserextensometrie, Merseburg, Juni 2001, Tagungsband, S. 516-524

Publ.-Id: 4038

Tailoring of dopant profiles in advanced nMOS transistors

Lebedev, A.; Posselt, M.; Feudel, T.; Variam, N.

The properties of advanced CMOS transistors are strongly influenced by the dopant distribution in the transition region between the source (drain) and the channel. The tailoring of this distribution is achieved by appropriate halo and extension implants and subsequent annealing. Process and device simulations are performed to investigate the influence of the corresponding process parameters. The boundary condition used throughout the simulations is to keep the threshold voltage VTsat for the nominal nMOS transistor (sub-70 nm gate length) at 0.2 V. The following process conditions are studied:

(i) B+ halo implant: energy below 10 keV, tilt 45 degree, rotation 4x90 degree, dose varied to achieve VTsat = 0.2 V
(ii) As+ extension implant: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 keV, tilt 0 degree, 1015 cm-2, and 2 keV, 1015 cm-2, tilt 20 degree, rotation 4x90 degree
(iii)RTA after both implants with special emphasis on soak and spike anneals (950...1100 degree C)
The model parameters employed in the simulation of the formation of the ultra-shallow extension profiles are calibrated using SIMS profiles of as-implanted and annealed samples, and sheet resistance data. The VTsat vs. LGate curve of the nMOS transistor is calculated. The dependence of the roll-off and roll-on behaviour on the process conditions considered is discussed.

Keywords: ion implantation; annealing; process and device simulation; TCAD; Si technology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    EMRS 2001 Spring Meeting, June 5-8, 2001, Strasbourg, France, Symposium B: Defect Engineering of Advanced Semiconductor Devices

Publ.-Id: 4031

TCAD calibration of USJ profiles for advanced deep sub-um CMOS processes

Zechner, C.; Matveev, D.; Erlebach, A.; Simeonov, S.; Menialenko, V.; Mickevicius, R.; Foad, M.; Al-Bayati, A.; Lebedev, A.; Posselt, M.

For advanced technologies there is a lack of experimental data and calibrated physical models which enable accurate simulation of CMOS technologies down to channel lengths of 100 nm and below. This work aims to develop predictive modeling of USJ profiles for state-of-the-art and next generation CMOS devices.
Profiles were created by As (0.2-10 keV), B (0.2-10 KeV) and BF2(1-25 keV) ion implantation and annealed at various times and temperatures including typical drain extension spike anneals. B and BF2 profiles are investigated with and without pre-amorphization by implantation of Si or Ge.
The calibration is based on SIMS and SRP profiles as well as XTEM pictures. The BC code Crystal-TRIM was calibrated for ultra-low energy implantation. Annealing is simulated within the pairdiffusion framework of the process simulator DIOS, including first order reaction equations for interstitials and dopant clustering and a new model for dose loss, where impurities are stored in a thin surface layer on top of the silicon.

Keywords: ion implantation; annealing; modeling; TCAD; Si technology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, June 5-8, 2001, Strasbourg, France, Symposium B: Defect Engineering of Advanced Semiconductor Devices
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 186 (2002) 303-308

Publ.-Id: 4020

A small and compact AMS facility for tritium depth profiling

Friedrich, M.; Pilz, W.; Glugla, M.; Bekris, N.; Kiisk, M.; Liechtenstein, V.

Depth profiling measurements of tritium at carbon samples have been performed during the past seven years at the AMS facility installed at the Rossendorf 3 MV tandetron. The samples have been cut from the inner wall of the fusion experiments ASDEX-upgrade/Garching and JET/Culham. The increasing amounts of tritium inside the samples from JET have been required a dedicated AMS facility to prevent any contamination of the versatile 3 MV tandetron. On base of an air-insulated 100 kV tandem accelerator equipped with a gas stripper a small dedicated AMS facility for tritium depth profiling was installed, tested and used for routinely measurements. After successful tests of diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils at this accelerator a small and compact SF6-insulated 100 kV tandem accelerator with a DLC-stripper has been installed at the AMS facility. Results measured with the different tandem accelerators are presented.

Keywords: Tritium; Fusion; Mass Spectrometry; Tandem Accelerator

  • Lecture (Conference)
    PRAMANA-journal of physics 59 (2002) 1053-1059
  • Contribution to external collection
    PRAMANA-journal of physics 59 (2002) 1053-1059

Publ.-Id: 4019

Formation of a single interface-near, delta-like Ge nanocluster band in thin SiO2 films using ion-beam synthesis

Klimenkov, M.; von Borany, J.; Matz, W.; Grötzschel, R.; Herrmann, F.

The possibility to create a delta-like, interface-near Ge nanocluster band in a 20 nm thin SiO2 layer by ion beam synthesis is demonstrated. The role of the post implantation annealing conditions for the formation of Ge nanoclusters in the centre of the layer, near the interface or in both regions is discussed. The presence of hydrogen in the annealing atmosphere accelerates the redistribution of Ge in SiO2. By applying a two-step annealing process, preannealing in hydrogen containing at low temperature followed by a rapid thermal annealing at high temperature, the controlled fabrication of a single delta-like, interface-near Ge nanocluster band was achieved. In some clusters <100> lattice planes of Ge were observed. From this and similar contrast situation for amorphous clusters it is concluded that the inerface near clusters consist of elementary germanium.

Keywords: nanocluster; transmission electron microscopy; Rutherford Backscattering; ion implantation; ion beam synthesis

  • Journal of Applied Physics Vol. 91 No. 12 (2002) 10062-10067

Publ.-Id: 4017

Bloch Oszillationen und ihre Kopplung an optische Phononen

Dekorsy, T.

Die zeitaufgelöste optische Spektroskopie mit Femtosekunden Laserpulsen ermöglicht die Untersuchung der Dynamik von Elektronen und Phononen und deren Wechselwirkung in Halbleitern in Echtzeit. Ein besonderes Objekt des Interesses sind Bloch Oszillationen, die ein Faszinosum der Festkörperphysik darstellen. Bereits in frühen Arbeiten von Bloch und Zener wurde die Vorhersage gemacht, dass ein Elektron in einem periodischen Potential eines Festkörpers unter dem Einfluß eines statischen elektrischen Feldes oszilliert, wobei die Oszillationsfrequenz linear vom elektrischen Feld abhängt. In Abwesenheit von Streuprozessen hätte dies die Konsequenz, dass kein elektrischer Strom fließen würde. Anfang der 90er Jahre gelang es, künstliche Kristallgitter - sogenannte Halbleiter-Übergitter - mit hinreichender Qualität herzustellen, in denen Bloch Oszillationen in optischen Experimenten mit sub-Pikosekunden Zeitauflösung beobachtet werden konnten. Diese Halbleiter Übergitter sind ein Modellsystem für die Untersuchung kohärenter Wellenpakete und deren Dephasierung in Halbleiter Heterostrukturen. Von besonderem Interesse ist hierbei die Wechselwirkung der oszillierenden Elektronen mit optischen Phononen. Diese konnte kürzlich unter resonanten Bedingungen, d.h. bei Abstimmung der Bloch Frequenz auf die optische Phononfrequenz, untersucht werden, was Aufschluß über einen neuen Mechanismus zur Anregung kohärenter optischer Phononen gab.

Keywords: Bloch Oszillationen; Femtosekunden Spektroskopie; Übergitter; kohärente Phononen

  • Physikalische Blätter 57 (2001) Nr. 7/8, 67-73

Publ.-Id: 4014

Inorganic Colloids in Mine waters

Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Moll, H.; Hüttig, G.

Inorganic colloids in mine waters are mainly produced by the formation of oxyhydroxides and oxyhydroxy sulfates of iron(III) and aluminum due to the oxidation of Fe2+ and the hydrolysis of Fe3+ and Al3+. They are of relevance as they are able to influence heavy metal transport (emphasis is laid on the behavior of uranium here). Two extremely different types of mine waters can be observed:

(i) Type "acidic pore water"
These waters possess high salt concentrations and are very acidic (pH 1 to 3). Ultrafine particles of <5 nm are the main colloidal component. The colloid concentration reaches the range of >1 g/L. The particles consist mainly of H-jarosite and schwertmannite. As and Pb show a high tendency to adsorb onto these particles.

(ii) Type "bulk water"
This type of waters mainly refers to the flowing mine waters like adit waters which possess a near-neutral pH. Typical colloid contents of such waters are about 1 mg/L, typical particle sizes are 100 to 300 nm. The particles consist of Fe(III) and Al oxyhydroxides. Their electrostatic stabilization is weak, i. e. they show a larger tendency to coagulate. Contaminants such as As, Pb, Cu, Th, U(IV) and Po are bound onto these particles. Uranium(VI) adsorption is often suppressed due to the formation of uranyl carbonato complexes in mine waters.

An interesting colloid chemistry is observed during the transition of type (i) waters to type (ii) waters (flooding of abandoned ore mines). Huge amounts of iron(III) particles with a size of 100 to 300 nm are formed under such conditions. The adsorption rises drastically when the pH reaches the near-neutral region. Uranyl adsorption to the iron(III) particles is neither suppressed by high acidity nor by uranyl carbonate complexation in the pH region 4 to 6. Therefore, most of the uranium(VI) is colloid-borne in waters of the transition type.

Keywords: colloids; mine waters; flooding; uranium

  • Lecture (Conference)
    GSA Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America, Boston, Massachusetts, November 5-8, 2001

Publ.-Id: 4012

Microstructural Investigations on Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

Ulbricht, A.; Böhmert, J.; Strunz, P.; Dewhurst, C.; Mathon, M.-H.

The effect of radiation embrittlement has high safety significance for Russian VVER reactor pressure vessel steels. Heats of base and weld metal of the as-received state, irradiated state and post-irradiation annealed state were investigated by SANS to get insights about the microstructural features caused by fast neutron irradiation. The SANS intensities increase in the momentum transfer range between 0.8 and 3 nm-1 for all material compositions in the irradiated state. The size distribution function of the irradiation-induced defect clusters has a pronounced maximum at 1 nm in radius. Their content varies between 0.1 and 0.7 vol.% dependent on material composition and increases with the neutron fluence. The comparison of nuclear and magnetic scattering indicates that the defects differ in their composition. Thermal annealing reduces volume fraction of irradiation defect cluster.

Keywords: PACS: 61.12.-q

  • Applied Physics A 74, Suppl. 1, 2002, pp. 1128-1130

Publ.-Id: 4008

Defect engineering and prevention of impurity gettering at Rp/2 in ion implanted silicon

Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Kaschny, J. R.; Eichhorn, F.; Hutter, H.

Cu is especially suitable to decorate defects in silicon. The Cu decoration technique has been
applied for the detection of point defect clusters in the RP/2 region of Si+ ion implanted silicon. The results of
this technique are compared with the results obtained by other analysis techniques. Nanocavities at RP/2
could be observed only in cross section transmission electron microscopy specimen prepared by cleavage
technique. These nanocavities are probably the dominant gettering centres for Cu at RP/2. Small interstitial
clusters may exist there as well. The conditions for the formation and for the annealing of the gettering layer
at RP/2 have been determined. Impurity gettering at RP/2 can be prevented by a sequence of additional Si+
implantations to balance implantation-induced excess vacancies which are the origin of the nanocavities.

Keywords: Silicon; Defects; Gettering

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ECS Symposium DECON 2001, 13./14. 9. 2001 Nürnberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 4007

The Radiochemistry Station for X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments at ROBL

Funke, H.; Reich, T.; Bernhard, G.; Matz, W.

The radiochemistry experimental station at ROBL has been designed to perform environmentally relevant experiments on radionuclides, in particular actinides, using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The technical concepts and the layout of this experimental station, where radioactive solids and liquids with activities of up to 185 MBq can be studied, are presented. The radiological safety of experimenters, equipment, and of the environment are ensured by the specially developed radiochemistry safety system.

  • Contribution to HZDR-Annual report
    II. Internationale DELSY-Workshop, JINR Dubna, 2.-6.4.2001

Publ.-Id: 4006

A splice program to connect two different EXAFS spectra of the same sample

Funke, H.; Böttger, H.; Reich, T.; Hennig, C.; Rossberg, A.

A computer program is presented that is able to connect (to "splice") two EXAFS spectra of the same sample if they have an overlapping energy region. This tool will be useful in many situations when it is impossible to measure a spectrum over the desired energy range in a single scan.
Technical details of the SPLICE program are described to overcome the difficulties concerning the adjustment of different EXAFS spectra containing information about the same sample at different energies. The SPLICE program was tested at the U LIII edge using EXAFS spectra of an uranyl arsenate sample measured up to k of 22 Å -1 at a temperature of 15 K.

  • Contribution to HZDR-Annual report
    2nd Eurokonferenz Actinide-XAS-2000, Grenoble Sept. 2000

Publ.-Id: 4005

Formation of iron oxyhydroxide particles during the dissolution of chlorite: Effect on uranium sorption

Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Arnold, T.; Zänker, H.; Hüttig, G.; Brandt, F.; Bosbach, D.; Bernhard, G.

The abandoned uranium mines in the Western Erzgebirge in Germany are mostly related to the rock phyllite. Currently, many of these mines are being flooded. The flood water, which contains concentration of uranium penetrates through cracks and fissures of the phyllite and leads to a dissolution of several minerals. One of the major components in the phyllite is an iron-rich chlorite [1], which dominates the sorption behaviour for heavy metals.
During the dissolution of the chlorite a reaction causes the loss of octahedral layer cations, primarily Fe. Ferrous iron is released in the aqueous solution, where it is oxidized rapidly to ferric iron. Hydrolysis of ferric iron leads to Fe-oxyhydroxide, which precipitates from the solution as due to the low solubility of iron in the pH region higher 4 [2]. By scanning electron microscopy, these precipitates of Fe-oxyhydroxide are detected as small spherical particles of ferrihydrite that are preferentially situated as immobile coatings on the most reactive edge surfaces of the chlorite crystals. During the dissolution of chlorite a mobile component of ferrihydrite is formed, too. These are colloids, which are found under similar geochemical conditions. The mobile colloids are aqueous species that do not adsorb to rock surfaces. The adsorption of contaminants, for example uranium onto the colloidal particles of ferrihydrite influences and enhances the rate of contaminant transport. In previous investigations the uptake of uranium on ferrihydrite reaches almost 95-100 % in a pH range from 5.0 to 7.5 [1]. Conclusively, the formation of secondarily formed ferrihydrite as mobile colloids and as immobile coatings during the dissolution of chlorite in the rock phyllite is an important process which has to be considered in risk management.
[1] Arnold, T. et al. (1998): Chemical Geology 151,
[2] Zänker, H. et al. (2000): Aquatic Geochemistry

  • Poster
    79. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, Potsdam, 9.9.-13.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4004

Das Rigaer Dynamoexperiment: Wie man ein Magnetfeld aufrührt

Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gailitis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.

Das Erdmagnetfeld ensteht durch Strömungen im flüssigen äußeren Erdkern, welche durch Auftriebskräfte und die Rotation der Erde angetrieben werden. Trotz der Fortschritte, die insbesondere im letzten Jahrzehnt bei der numerischen Behandlung des gekoppelten Systems von Induktionsgleichung und Navier-Stokes-Gleichung gemacht worden sind, ist eine realistische Berechnung der Vorgänge im Erdinneren in absehbarer Zukunft nicht möglich. Flüssigmetallexperimente liefern einen komplementären Zugang zum Verständnis homogener Dynamos. Im Vortrag werden die Ergebnisse der jüngsten Rigaer Dynamoexperimente vorgestellt und mit den numerischen Prognosen verglichen.

  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag im "Geophysikalischen Institutsseminar" der Uni Göttingen, 19. Juni 2001

Publ.-Id: 4003

Wie man ein Magnetfeld aufrührt: Zu den Ergebnissen des Rigaer Dynamoexperiments

Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gailitis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.

Als Quelle kosmischer Magnetfelder wird heute einhellig der homogene Dynamoeffekt in elektrisch leitfähigen Fluiden angesehen. Im Gegensatz zu der inzwischen weit entwickelten Theorie und Numerik dieses Effektes war die experimentelle Untersuchung bis vor kurzem nicht möglich gewesen. Am 11.11.1999 wurde an der Rigaer Natriumanlage erstmalig der homogene Dynamoeffekt in einem Flüssigmetall-Experiment nachgewiesen. Weitere Messungen im Juli 2000 haben die Vorhersagen der kinematischen Dynamotheorie gut bestätigt und eine umfangreiche Datenbasis für das Regime der nichtlinearen Rückwirkung geliefert.

  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag im Seminar "Nichtlinearität und Unordnung in komplexen Systemen" der Uni Magdeburg, 18. Juni 2001

Publ.-Id: 4002

Quantum fluctuations in rotating nuclei

Almehed, D.

This thesis is focused on quantum fluctuations in rotating nuclei and on the effect they have on observables such as relative energy and angular momentum. The study of the nucleus under extreme conditions has been one of the main sources of information about nuclear structure over the last decades. Nuclei at high angular momenta are studied by means of modern gamma-detector arrays. Among the phenomena studied in such experiments are the phase transition from superfluid to normal phase, orientation changes in rotating nuclei, shape changes in rotating nuclei, super deformation etc.

The most powerful method to calculate nuclear properties is the mean field approach known as Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. Within this method the two-body interaction is replaced by a selfconsistent one-body potential which is calculated in an iterative way.

The nuclear mean field breaks a series of symmetries present in any realistic two-body Hamiltonian. One motivation to include effects that go beyond the mean field is to restore these symmetries. Two methods of restoring symmetries are used in this thesis, namely, the projection method and the random phase approximation (RPA).

An advanced quantum mechanical description of a nuclei should take into account quantum fluctuations around the mean field minimum. The quantal fluctuations do not only lead to a series of collective excitations like vibrations and rotations but also add correlations to the mean field ground state. The correlation energy gained by these quantum fluctuations is, in general, state dependent and is important when describing observables like the moment of inertia, the ordering and relative energies between states.

Keywords: Nuclear strcture; Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov; Random Phase Approximation; Projection; Tilted Axis Cranking

  • Other report
    Dissertation TU Dresden

Publ.-Id: 4001

Annual report 2000 Institute of Safety Research

Weiß, F.-P.; Rindelhardt, U.; (Editors)

The report gives an overview on the activities of the Institute of Safety Research in 2000.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-316 April 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 4000

High dose nitrogen and carbon shallow implantation in Si by plasma immersion ion implantation

Ueda, M.; Reuther, H.; Günzel, R.; Beloto, A. F.; Abramof, E.; Berni, L. A.

PIII was used to dope Si (001) wafers with nitrogen and carbon at high doses, relying on two PIII systems: one at the FZR and the other at INPE.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 175-177 (2001) 715-720

Publ.-Id: 3999

Reciprocal space mapping of silicon implanted with nitrogen by plasma immersion ion implantation

Abramof, E.; Beloto, A. F.; Ueda, M.; Günzel, R.; Reuther, H.

Nitrogen was implanted in (001) silicon wafers using 12 kV pulses in a glow-discharge PIII system and at 35 keV in an ECR PIII facility.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 175-177 (2001) 229-234

Publ.-Id: 3998

Porous silicon implanted with nitrogen by plasma immersion ion implantation

Beloto, A. F.; Ueda, M.; Abramof, E.; Senna, J. R.; Leite, N. F.; Da Silva, M. D.; Reuther, H.

Porous silicon samples were prepared on (100) monocrystalline silicon wafers and implanted with nitrogen by PIII and analyzed by AES and reflectance measurements.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 175-177 (2001) 224-228

Publ.-Id: 3997

Effect of annealing on the interface structure of cross-beam pulsed laser deposited Co/Cu multilayers

Prokert, F.; Noetzel, J.; Schell, N.; Wieser, E.; Gorbunov, A.

Co/Cu multilayers were prepared by cross-beam pulsed laser deposition and characterised by high-angle X-ray diffraction as well as specular and off-specular reflection before and after annealing (500 °C, 2h). Using synchrotron radiation at the K-edge energy of Co and Cu to enhance the scattering contrast, the study shows that annealing does not enlarge the interface roughness but strongly influences the interface morphology. In the fractal model of self-affine structures the latter is expressed by the drastic reduction of the extremely large lateral roughness correlation length parameter from about 4 µm in the as-deposited state to about 20 nm after annealing. High-angle X-ray diffraction indicates that the reduction of lateral roughness correlation length is caused by grain coarsening due to growth of crystallites and grain boundaries. Thermal treatment enhances the separation of Co and Cu at the interface, i.e. the initially very jagged (roughness exponent between 0.15 and 0.3) structure is smoothed (roughness exponent between 0.6 and 0.7).

Keywords: Interfaces; Multilayers; Laser ablation; X-ray diffraction

  • Thin Solid Films 416 (2002) 114-121

Publ.-Id: 3992

Elastic constants of tetrahedal amorphous carbon films: the effect of intrinsic stresses

Belov, A.; Jäger, H.-U.

Atomic calculations, based on empirical potentials and the method of homogeneous deformation, are presented for the elastic properties of as-deposited amorphous carbon at 0 K. Several structural models of amorphous carbon generated by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation of ion-beam deposition were studied. The models yield intrinsic compressive stresses of approximately 10 GPa. Here, we examine the dependence of the second-order elastic constants of amorphous carbon on the intrinsic stress, as well as on hydrostatic pressure. Different sets of elastic constants describing the behaviour of a solid under stress are considered. The nonlinear effects are shown to become appreciable at a pressure of 10 GPa, whereas the difference between the elastic constants in the equations of motion and the Lagrangian elastic constants is not large.

Keywords: Molecular dynamics; tetrahedral amorphous carbon; intrinsic stress; elastic constants

  • Surface and Coatings Technology 151-152 (2002) 128-132

Publ.-Id: 3991

Crystal growth melt flow control by means of magnetic fields

Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.; von Ammon, W.; Tomzig, E.; Virbulis, J.

Contactless melt flow control is important in many crystal growth technologies. Typically, steady magnetic fields are used to damp convective flow. On the other hand active flow driving forces like in a rotating magnetic field can be of stabilizing character, too. We present numerical results for the combined action of steady and alternating magnetic fields for the silicon Czochralski crystal growth process. The melt flow is determined by various flow driving sources: besides the thermal convection and rotation of crystal and crucible, there are also the influence of driving and/or damping electromagnetic forces and the thermocapillary-driven flow at the free deformable melt surface.

Keywords: crystal growth; magnetic fields; flow control

  • Energy Conversion and Management 43 (2002) 309-316

Publ.-Id: 3990

Mapping of carbonic anhydrase and estrone sulfatase in rat brain using 16-Alpha-[18F]Fluoroestradiol-3,17-Beta-disulphamate ([18F]FESDS)

Rodig, H.; Brust, P.; Römer, J.; Kasch, H.; Bergmann, R.; Füchtner, F.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.

16-Alpha-[18F]Fluoroestradiol-3,17-Beta-disulphamate ([18F]FESDS) has recently been discovered to display affinity to carbonic anhydrase (CA) and estrone sulfatase (ES), enzymes which are expressed in the CNS and suggested to play a regulatory role in various brain diseases. In this study the radioligand was used to provide quantitative data on the regional distribution of these enzymes in the rat brain. The expression of CA I, CA II and ES has been studied in rat brain regions with RT-PCR. CA II and ES but not CA I has been detected in all regions. About 80-90 % of the total binding of [18F]FESDS to brain slices represents binding to CA (displaceable with acetazolamide). Binding of [18F]FESDS to ES was studied with selective inhibition of CA using acetazolamide. Bmax values of between 0.3 pmol/mg (pons) and 11.5 pmol/mg (striatum) were obtained in various brain regions. The Kd and Bmax values of ES binding were used as constants to calculate Kd and Bmax of CA binding from inhibition studies with FESDS. Bmax values of between 6.2 pmol/mg protein (striatum) and 14.6 pmol/mg (cerebellum) were obtained. The Kd-values varied between 33 nM and 166 nM, which is similar to the Kd of [18F]FESDS binding to purified human CA-II (54 nM). The affinity of FESDS to ES is lower by about factor 5. Furthermore, the enzymatic activity of ES in six rat brain regions was determined and found to be correlated to the corresponding [18F]FESDS binding. It is concluded, that [18F]FESDS can be used for mapping of CA and ES in vitro. The in vivo use of the radioligand may be limited because of its bipolar binding profile.

  • Poster
    International Brain '01, Taipei/Taiwan, 9.6.-13.6. 2001
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21(Suppl.1) (2001) S552

Publ.-Id: 3989

Synthesis , biological and autoradiographic evaluation of a novel Tc-99m radioligand derived from WAY 100635 with high-affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor and the alpha1-adrenergic receptor

Heimbold, I.; Drews, A.; Kretzschmar, M.; Varnäs, K.; Hall, H.; Halldin, C.; Syhre, R.; Kraus, W.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Brust, P.; Johannsen, B.

This paper reports synthesis, biological evaluation, in vitro and ex vivo autoradiography of the first Tc-99m ligand with subnanomolar affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor and a remarkably high affinity for the alpha1-adrenergicreceptor. The neutral "3+1" mixed-ligand complex combines 4-(6-mercaptohexyl)-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine as monodentate and 3-(N-methyl)azapentane-1,5-dithiol as tridentate unit with oxotechnetium(V). The analogous rhenium complex was synthesized for complete structural characterization and used in receptor binding assays. In competition experiments both complexes display subnanomolar affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor (IC50 0.24 nM for Re, 0.13 nM for Tc) but also very high affinities for the alpha1-adrenergic receptor (IC50 0.05 nM for Re, 0.03 nM for Tc). Biodistribution studies show a brain uptake in rat of 0.22 % ID five minutes post injection. In vitro autoradiographic studies in rat brain and postmortem human brain indicate the accumulation of the Tc-99m complex in brain areas which are rich in 5-HT1A receptors or in alpha1-adrenergic receptors. This in vitro enrichment can be blocked respectively by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or by prazosin hydrochloride, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies in rats show a slight accumulation of the Tc-99m complex in 5-HT1A receptor-rich areas of the brain which could not be blocked, as well as in regions rich in alpha1-adrenergic receptors, which could be blocked by prazosin hydrochloride.

Keywords: Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor; Tc-99m receptor ligand; WAY 100635 analogue; Ligand synthesis; In vitro and ex vivo autoradiography; Receptor binding assay

  • Nuclear Medicine and Biology 29 (2002) 375-387

Publ.-Id: 3987

Calculation of intrinsic stresses in amorphous carbon films grown by molecular dynamics simulation: from atomic to macroscopic scale

Belov, A.; Jäger, H.-U.

We present a method to calculate macroscopic bulk stresses in tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films grown by a realistic atomic scale simulation of ion-beam deposition. Similar to real as-deposited films, the simulated films have a high content of sp3 bonded atoms and large intrinsic compressive stresses. Deriving atomic stresses from an interatomic potential and averaging them over slices inside the film, we show that average stresses in the inner film region converge to realistic values (~10 GPa) as the thickness of the slices exceeds 1 nm. The analysis of stress variation with depth reveals that in amorphous films deposited with low energy (20-30 eV) ions the highest compressive stress is attained in the region of steady-state growth, while in films grown with 80 eV ions it reaches a maximum in an intermediate layer adjacent to the crystalline substrate. The transition from graphitic carbon to ta-C is found to occur at a threshold stress of about 13 GPa

Keywords: Molecular dynamics; tetrahedral amorphous carbon; intrinsic stress

  • Computational Materials Science 24 (2002) 154-158

Publ.-Id: 3986

Evolution of ion implantation caused vacancy-type defects in 6H-SiC probed by Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy

Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

6H-SiC n-type wafers were implanted with Al+ and N+ ions in two steps: first Al+ double implantation (100 keV, 5x1016 cm-2 and 160 keV, 1.3x1017 cm-2 ) followed by N+ double implantation (65 keV, 5x1016 cm-2 , 120 keV, 1.3x1017 cm-2 ). The implantation was carried out at a substrate temperature of 800 0C in order to avoid amorphisation. In this way a buried SiC1-x(AlN)x layer could be created. Variable-energy positron Doppler broadening measurements were performed at room temperature using a computer-controlled magnetic transport beam system in order to characterize the vacancy-type defects created by ion implantation. Depth profiles could be evaluated from the measured Doppler broadening profiles. The defect distribution and the defect size after the complete co-implantation are discussed and the contribution of the different implantation steps to the evolution of this defect structure is shown.

This research is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under
Grant No. Br 1250/13-1 and Br 1250/13-2.

Keywords: 6H-SiC; N and Al co-implantation; vacancy-type defects; slow positron spectroscopy

  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 247
  • Poster
    European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, France, June 5-8, 2001

Publ.-Id: 3972

Complex formation of uranium(IV) with phosphate and arsenate studied by spectroscopic methods

Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Brendler, V.; Fanghänel, T.

Uranium is one of the main potential contaminants in East Germany's former mining areas. Under reducing conditions uranium(IV) is stable and can be complexed by phosphate and arsenate at low pH. Due to their low water solubility no thermodynamic complex formation constants are available for the uranium(IV)-phosphate and arsenate complexes.. For example, the solubility product /1/ of U(HPO4)2·4H2O limits the uranium(IV) concentration in 1 M perchloric acid to less than 1.2 x 10-4 M. Moreover there is a general lack of information on the aqueous chemistry and thermodynamics of tetravalent actinides.
We studied the formation of these complexes at uranium concentrations between 2 x 10-6 M and 1 x 10-4 M by Laser-Induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy in acid media. To determine the complex formation constant we measured and analyzed the spectra from 600 nm to 690 nm. The spectra were corrected for the absorption of the solvent water. The solvated uranium(IV) shows a very intensive absorption band with a maximum at 650 nm and a smaller maximum at 672 nm. We found a shoulder at 630 nm deconvoluting the absorption spectrum.
The spectrum changes with increasing phosphate and arsenate concentration. Two isosbestic points were determined at 661 nm and 670 nm in the phosphate system. In the arsenate system three isosbestic point were found to be at 628 nm, 660 nm and 667 nm.
From measurements with variable ionic strength, ligand and proton concentration the complexation reaction according to
U4+ + H3LO4 <=> UH2LO43+ + H+ (L = P, As)
was quantified
The stoichiometry of the formed phosphate and arsenate complexes was confirmed by slope analysis. The formation constant at infinite dilution in the phosphate system was found to be log b0 = 3.52 ± 0.18 using the SIT extrapolation. For the arsenate system we found the complex formation constant to be log b0 = 2.13 ± 0.32.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Actinides, 4.-8. November 2001, Hayama, Japan

Publ.-Id: 3969

Combination of EXAFS and powder diffraction for solving heavy-atom structures

Hennig, C.; Reich, T.; Schell, N.; Reck, G.; Kraus, W.

Poster -
Combination of EXAFS and powder diffraction for solving heavy-atom structures

  • Poster
    Aussois Science Days Seminar, 9.-11.05.2001, Aussois, France

Publ.-Id: 3968

Ion beam processing for Si/C-rich thermally grown SiO2 layers: photoluminescence and microstructure

Rebohle, L.; Gebel, T.; Fröb, H.; Reuther, H.; Skorupa, W.

In this paper the luminescence properties of thin thermally grown SiO2 layers implanted with silicon and carbon ions are explored. The doses and energies were chosen in such a way that the resulting peak concentration of excess Si and C amounts to 5...10 % in a depth region of 60 to 180 nm below the surface. The microstructure was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Amorphous nanostructures with a size between 2 and 3.5 nm were found in depth region between 80 and 150 nm below the oxide surface. Strong photoluminescence around 2.1 and 2.7 eV has been observed after excitation at 4.77 eV. SiyC1-yOx complexes with x<2 are assumed to cause the observed PL in the blue spectral region.

Keywords: silicon carbide; ion implantation; photoluminescence; Auger electron spectroscopy

  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 156

Publ.-Id: 3967

Project-Group ESRF-Beamline (ROBL-CRG), Bi-Annual Report 1999/2000

Matz, W.

The second report from the Project-Group ESRF-Beamline of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf covers the period from July 1999 until December 2000. The ROssendorf BeamLine (ROBL) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France performed quite well during this time. In the beamtime used by the FZR and collaborating institutes 44 scheduled experiments were performed, while in the ESRF scheduled beamtime 12 experiments. Additionally, a distinct amount of beamtime was devoted to in-house research of the FZR and methodical experiments.
Since February 2000 ROBL is part of the European Commission’s programme ”Access to Research Infrastructure” which supports user groups from member and associated states of the EU during experiments at ROBL. In the year 2000 ROBL hosted 6 groups for experiments.

The report is organised in three main parts. The first part contains extended contributions on results obtained at ROBL. The second part gives an overview about the scheduled experiments, publications, guests having visited ROBL with support of the EC, and some other information. Finally, the third part collects the experimental reports of the user groups received.

Keywords: ROBL; synchrotron radiation; EU large scale facility; annual report

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-322 Juni 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 3966

Transport of reacting solutes through the unsaturated zone

Kuechler, R.; Noack, K.

Unsaturated flows within subsurface regions control many large-scale hydrological
and environmental processes. This contribution presents and discusses the results of numerical calculations dealing with the flow of water, the chemical reaction at the water-mineral interface and the transport of chemical species caused by such flows. The reason for the water flow through the soil is solely the rainfall.
The water motion is calculated for two different soil classes and for a typical annual precipitation. The transport of chemical species is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the homogeneous chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The source terms of these partial differential equations are given by rate laws of chemical weathering. Rainfall and chemical weathering are therefore the reason of the transport of reactive multispecies in this model.

  • Transport in Porous Media 49 (2002) 361-375

Publ.-Id: 3965

Prevention of impurity gettering in the RP/2 region of ion implanted silicon by defect engineering

Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Kaschny, J.; Skorupa, W.; Hutter, H.

Si+ ion implantation into Si under inclined incidence angle was applied to demonstrate that Cu gettering in the region around half of the projected ion range, RP/2, of ion-implanted Si is controlled by the same mechanism working for excess vacancy generation. The obtained results directly relate the appearance of the RP/2 gettering effect to radiation-induced excess vacancies. Excess vacancies were found to be origin for the dominating gettering sites of Cu at RP/2. Moreover, it was shown that the undesired impurity trapping at RP/2 can be prevented by means of additional Si+ implantation into the vacancy-rich region of ion-implanted Si to balance the excess of vacancies. The parameters were determined for the additional Si+ implantation to remove Cu gettering at RP/2. If the threshold fluence necessary to remove the Cu gettering at RP/2 is exceeded, the excess vacancies are overcompensated and new interstitial-type dislocation loops form.

Keywords: Ion implantation; defects; gettering; Si; Cu

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 186 (2002) 298-302
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, June 5-8, 2001

Publ.-Id: 3964

Entwicklung einer Niederenergie-Implantationskammer mit einem neuartigen Bremslinsensystem

Teichert, J.; von Borany, J.

In diesem Report wird eine Niederenergie-Implantationskammer (NEI-Kammer) beschrieben, die im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf entwickelt und aufgebaut wurde. Die Kammer ermöglicht es, die Implantation von Ionen bei niedrigen Energien (< 30 keV) mit einer Implantationsanlage für mittlere Energien durchzuführen. In der Kammer werden der Ionenstrahl, den der Implanter liefert, auf die erwünschte niedrige Energie abgebremst. Dazu wird ein elektrostatisches Bremslinsensystem eingesetzt, das auf einem neuartigen Prinzip basiert. Das System besteht aus einer Sammellinse und einer Zerstreuungslinse, wobei die Öffnungsfehler beider Linsen entgegengesetzte Vorzeichen besitzen und sich gegenseitig kompensieren. Dadurch ist es möglich, Wafer gebräuchlicher Größe bei geringer Energie mit hoher Dosishomogenität zu implantieren. Die NEI-Kammer ist insbesondere für Forschungseinrichtungen eine vorteilhafte Lösung, da sie eine wesentlich kostengünstigere und flexiblere Alternative zur Anschaffung einer Niederenergie-Implantationsanlage darstellt.

Keywords: ion implantation; low-energy implantation; implanter; decel lens system; electrostatic lens; deceleration; dose uniformity

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-323 Mai 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 3963

P-type doping of SiC by high dose Al implantation - problems and progress

Heera, V.; Panknin, D.; Skorupa, W.

The development of optimized processes for p-type doping of SiC by ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a remaining challenge to SiC-device technology. Al is a promising acceptor in SiC. Compared to B it has a shallower acceptor level and a stronger tendency to occupy atomic sites in the Si sublattice which makes it more suitable for the production of heavily doped, low resistivity layers. However, also in the case of Al very high acceptor concentrations (>1019 cm-3) are necessary to obtain SiC layers with low resistivities (<1 cm). The physical consequences of such high impurity concentrations in SiC for the annealing of implantation damage and the electrical activation will be discussed. A survey of the results of several implantation and annealing schemes is presented.

Keywords: SiC; P-type doping; Al implantation; resistivity; annealing

  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 307-316


Publ.-Id: 3962

Spreading resistance measurements on nanocrystalline SiC produced by ion beam induced crystallization

Madhusoodanan, K. N.; Heera, V.; Panknin, D.; Skorupa, W.

Ion beam induced crystallization (IBIC) of preamorphized surface layers on 6H-SiC has been stimulated by high dose Al implantation (0.3 - 3 E17 cm-2) at elevated temperatures (300 -500°C). Randomly oriented 3C-SiC nanocrystals withn diameters between 2 and 25 nm are formed depending on the implantation parameters as proved by XRD and XTEM. Spreading resistance measurements have been performed at bevelled as-implanted and annealed (1500°C, 10 min) samples in order to study the electrical behaviour of the Al acceptors in the nanocrystalline layer. Reference experiments have been carried out on single crystalline 6H- SiC crystals implanted at the similar conditions. It has been found that in the as-implanted state Al doped fine granular SiC has much lower spreading resistance than the corresponding single crystalline SiC. Only minor differences have been observed between the nano- and single crystalline samples after annealing.

Keywords: 6H-SiC; Ion implantation; amorphisation; recrystallisation; spreading resistance

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2001 SPRING MEETING, Strasbourg (France), June 5-8, 2001
  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 209-213


Publ.-Id: 3960

Writing Cobalt FIB implantation into 6H:SiC

Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.

Focused ion beam implantation of cobalt at 35 keV into 6H:SiC is used to investigate a possible ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 micro-structures. The pattern were studied using SEM and EDX measurements. The resistivity of the implanted test-structures was determined as a function of dose, implantation and annealing temperature. For room temperature irradiated samples after a 1150°C annealing resistivities of about 100 µScm could be achieved and a diode like behaviour influenced by parasitic resistors between structure and bulk was found.

Keywords: Focused ion beam; cobalt implantation; SiC; annealing; resistivity; diode

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 5-8 June 2001, Strasbourg, France,
  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 336 - 339

Publ.-Id: 3959

Focused Ion Beam Sputtering Investigations on SiC

Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.; Heera, V.

The focused ion beam is a very useful tool to sputter holes with well defined dimensions which can be easily analysed by surface profiling measurements. Applying this the sputte-ring yields of 6H:SiC were -measured for 35 and 70 keV Si, Co, Ge, Nd and Au ions from a mass separated focused ion beam. Additionally, the sputtering yield was determin-ed as a function of the angle of incidence and the target temperature for gold ions. The swelling due to ion implantation will be discussed.

Keywords: Focused ion beam; sputtering; SiC; swelling; millling rate

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 5-8 June 2001, Strasbourg, France,
  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 372 - 376

Publ.-Id: 3958

Quantitative analysis of deuterium in a-C:D layers, a Round Robin experiment

Behrisch, R.; Mayer, M.; Jacob, W.; Assmann, W.; Dollinger, G.; Bergmayer, A.; Kreissig, U.; Friedrich, M.; Sun, G.-Y.; Hildebrandt, D.; Akbi, M.; Schneider, W.; Schleußner, D.; Knapp, W.; Edelmann, C.

The absolute amount of deuterium in amorphous deuterated carbon (a-C:D) layers has been measured by six laboratories with different techniques, such as MeV ion beam analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and thermal desorption spectrometry (TSD). The a-C:D layers have been deposited from a CD4 glow discharge plasma onto carbon and silicon substrates. The results for the absolute numbers obtained with the different analysing techniques show a scatter of up to about 35% around the average value. The deviations are larger than the errors stated by the experimentalists and indicate possible systematic uncertainties in some of the experiments.

Keywords: Mass spectrometry; Deuterium

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 281 (2000) 42-56

Publ.-Id: 3957

Accelerator mass spectrometry at the Rossendorf tandem accelerators

Friedrich, M.; Bürger, W.; Grötzschel, R.; Henke, D.; Sun, G.-Y.; Turuc, S.; Hebert, D.; Rothe, T.; Stolz, W.

A short description of the Rossendorf AMS system is given and first experimental results are presented. The planned applications are listed.

Keywords: Mass spectrometry; Radiodating; Electrostatic accelerators

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 92 (1994) 58-60

Publ.-Id: 3956

Status and research report at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

Penzhorn, R.-D.; Bekris, N.; Coad, P.; Dörr, L.; Friedrich, M.; Glugla, M.; Haigh, A.; Lässer, R.; Peacock, A.

The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has mainly designed for the conduction of technological experiments relevant to fusion under simulation of the conditions actually expected in the various tritium processing systems. Presently ongoing experimental and design work is almost exclusively oriented towards the needs of JET and ITER-H-FEAT. Basic research, while increasing in importance, plays predominatly a complementary role. This paper presents the most recent progress and developments related to the technological and applied experiments at the TLK.

Keywords: Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK); Infrastructure systems; Calorimeters

  • Fusion Engineering and Design 49-50 (2000) 753-767

Publ.-Id: 3950

Unterstützung der ukrainischen Aufsichtsbehörde beim Aufbau einer modernen KKW-Überwachung

Beyer, M.; Carl, H.

Das Mitte der 90er Jahre im KKW Saporoshje als Pilotprojekt für den 5. Block eingerichtete Fernüberwachungssystem wurde auf alle Blöcke der KKW Saporoshje und Rovno (Ukraine) erweitert und mittels moderner Kommunikationstechnik an das Informations- und Krisenzentrum der ukrainischen Aufsichtsbehörde in Kiew angeschlossen. Nach entsprechender Weiterentwicklung der Software für die Informationsverarbeitung, -übertragung und -bewertung können von diesen KKW-Blöcken sicherheitsrelevante betriebliche und radiologische Messwerte kontinuierlich erfasst, vor Ort in Form von Tabellen, Grafiken und Schemata online dargestellt sowie nach Kiew übertragen und dort visualisiert und bewertet werden.

Keywords: Kernkraftwerk; Ukraine; Fernüberwachung

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2001, Dresden, 15.-17. Mai 2001, Tagungsbericht, S. 463-466
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2001, Dresden, 15.-17. Mai 2001, Tagungsbericht, S. 463-466

Publ.-Id: 3949

Aufbau und Funktionsweise eines Fernüberwachungssystems für technologische Parameter ukrainischer Kernkraftwerke (in Russisch)

Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Chernousov, V.

Es wird ein System zur Überwachung technologischer Parameter für Blöcke ukrainischer Kernkraftwerke beschrieben. Die Autoren erläutern die theoretischen Grundlagen der Fernüberwachung sowie Aufbau und Wirkungsweise des Systems. Nachfolgend wird seine Einordnung in die ukrainischen kerntechnischen Aufsichtsbehörden dargelegt. Die Bestandteile der speziell für diese Anwendung entwickelten Software werden anhand von Beispielen erklärt und die Implementierung auf die Hardware beschrieben. Erste Erprobungsergebnisse und Vorschläge zur Erweiterung des Systems beenden den Artikel.

Keywords: Kernkraftwerk; Fernueberwachung; Ukraine; Aufsichtsbehoerde

  • Kybernetische Systeme und Anlagen, Informationstechnologie

Publ.-Id: 3948

Velocity measurements in liquid sodium by means of Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry

Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

A successful application of the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) in liquid sodium flows is described.
To get sufficient Doppler signals different problems had to be solved: the transmission of the ultrasonic
beam through the channel wall made of stainless steel, the acousting coupling between transducer and
channel wall and the wetting of the inner surface of the wall by the liquid metal, respectively.
A sodium flow in a square duct exposed to a transverse magnetic field is investigated. According to the
existing knowledge about MHD channel flows we found the velocity profiles modified to a M-shape due to
the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

Keywords: flow measurement technique; ultrasound Doppler technique; fluid velocity; opaque fluids; liquid metal; MHD channel flow

  • Experiments in Fluids 32(2002)5, 542-546

Publ.-Id: 3946

Self-Organization of Nanostructures With Ion Beams

Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; von Borany, J.; Müller, T.; Bernas, H.

Self-organized nanostructures produced by far-from-equilibrium processing of semiconductor materials with ion beams can be applied in microelectronics (e.g. nanocluster memories), optoelectronics (luminescence from Si nanocrystals) and photonics (plasmonic devices using Au nanoclusters). Our recent experimental, theoretical and computer simulation work, which aimed at optimization and improved fundamental understanding of these processes, will be reviewed.
Two different regimes of self-organization will be distinguished: (i) Relaxation regime: Ion implantation of impurity atoms may produce extremely supersaturated solid solutions. During subsequent annealing this far-from-equilibrium state relaxes towards equilibrium by phase separation (nucleation, growth) and minimization of interface energy (Ostwald ripening, coalescence). Self-organization phenomena (e.g. pattern formation during spinodal decomposition, Rayleigh or pearling instability during interface minimization) are observed. (ii) Driven system: Interfaces or compounds like SiO2 can be driven into a steady state far from equilibrium by ion irradiation. The steady state is established by a competition between collisional mixing, diffusion and re-formation of the compound. The application of resulting effects like nanocluster d-layer formation and ''inverse'' Ostwald ripening for devices will be discussed.

Keywords: Ion beam synthesis; Ostwald ripening; nanocluster; far-from-equilibrium; inverse Ostwald ripening; Rayleigh instability

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 5-8 June 2001, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 3944

Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Annual Report 2000

Johannsen, B.; Seifert, S.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-312 Januar 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 3933

Investigating interatomic solid state potentials using Crystal-GRID: a study of applicability; Dissertation

Hauschild, T.


Keywords: Crystal-GRID; interatomic solid state potentials; gamma spectroscopy; molecular dynamics; maximum likelihood estimation

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-321 Mai 2001
    ISSN: 1437-322X


Publ.-Id: 3932

Das Sorptionsverhalten von U(VI) am Granit von Eibenstock (Erzgebirge) und seinen mineralogischen Komponenten

Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Arnold, T.; Bernhard, G.

Die Migration von Uranspezies durch geologische Formationen wird durch die mineralogische Zusam-mensetzung der Gesteine sowie durch die che-mischen Eigenschaften der wässrigen Lösung bestimmt. In Abhängigkeit von den chemisch-physikalischen Bedingungen wird Uran an den Mineralen sorbiert. Um diese Bedingungen näher einzugrenzen, wurden Batchexperimente im Labor durchgeführt, die die natürlichen Bedingungen simulieren. Als Gesteinsprobe wurde der Granit von Eibenstock ausgewählt, der als geologische Formation einen großen Bereich der ehemaligen Uranbergbauregion im westlichen Erzgebirge bestimmt. Die mineralogischen Bestandteile des Eibenstocker Granits sind Quarz (45 %), Orthoklas (35 %), Albit (7,5 %), Biotit (7,5 %) sowie Muskowit (4 %). Für die Batchexperimente wurden 0,5 g der Granitprobe (63-200 µm Körnung) sowie 0,5 g der einzelnen Mineralkomponenten des Granits mit jeweils 40 ml 0,1 M NaClO4-Lösung der Verwitterung über mehrere Wochen ausgesetzt. Im Anschluß an die Stabilisierung der eingestellten pH-Werte erfolgte die Zugabe einer 1.10-6 M UO2(ClO4)-Lösung. Nach einer Sorptionsdauer von 2,5 Tagen wurde der Urangehalt in den Lösungen massenspektrometrisch bestimmt.
Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine hohe Sorption von U(VI) am Granit in einem pH-Bereich von 5 bis 7 mit einer maximalen Sorption von 94,62 % bei einem pH von 6.57. Bei einem pH < 5 sowie > 7 nimmt die Sorption stark ab. Unterhalb pH 4, bzw. oberhalb pH 8.5 ist die Sorption < 1 %. Im Vergleich zu anderen Gesteinen des Erzgebirges ist die U(VI)-Sorption am Granit deutlich auf einen kleinen pH-Bereich beschränkt [1]. Die Sorption an den Mineralkomponenten des Granits zeigt eine ähnliche Tendenz, wobei die Schichtsilikate Muskowit und Biotit durch ihre im Vergleich zu den Feldspäten höhere Sorption dominieren [2].


[1] Krawczyk-Bärsch, E. (2000): Final Report DFG (Ni 210/5-1).
[2] Arnold, T. et al. (1998): Chemical Geology 151, 129-141.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Vortrag / 79. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, Potsdam, 9.9.-13.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 3931

Implantation induced defects in silicon detected by Cu decoration technique

Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Kaschny, J.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.; Hutter, H.

Cu is especially suitable to decorate defects in silicon. The Cu decoration technique has been applied for the detection of point defect clusters in the RP/2 region of Si+ ion implanted silicon. The results of this technique are compared with the results obtained by other analysis techniques. Nanocavities at RP/2 could be observed only in cross section transmission electron microscopy specimen prepared by cleavage technique. These nanocavities are probably the dominant gettering centres for Cu at RP/2. Small interstitial clusters may exist there as well. The conditions for the formation and for the annealing of the gettering layer at RP/2 have been determined. Impurity gettering at RP/2 can be prevented by a sequence of additional Si+ implantations to balance implantation-induced excess vacancies which are the origin of the nanocavities.

Keywords: Ion implantation; defects; silicon; Cu; impurity gettering; Rp/2 defects; TEM specimen preparation

  • Journal of the Electrochemical Society 29 (2001) 133
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Symp. on Crystalline Defects and Contamination DECON 2001, Nürnberg Sept. 13-14, 2001

Publ.-Id: 3927

Energy resolution and energy-light response of CsI (Tl) scintillators for charged particle detection

Wagner, A.; Tan, W. P.; Chalut, K.; Charity, R. J.; Davin, B.; Larochelle, Y.; Lennek, M. D.; Lui, T. X.; Liu, X. D.; Lynch, W. G.; Ramos, A. M.; Shomin, R.; Sobotka, L. G.; de Souza, R. T.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Xu, H. S.

This article describes the crystal selection and quality control utilized to develop and calibrate a high resolution array of CsI(TI) scintillator crystals for the detection of energetic charged particles. Alpha sources are used to test the light output variation due to thallium doping gradients. Selection of crystals with better than 1% non-uniformity in light output is accomplished using this method. Tests with 240 MeV alpha beam reveal that local light output variations within each of the tested CsI(TI) crystals limit the resolution to about 0.5%. Charge and mass dependences in the energy - light output relationship are determined by calibrating with energetic projectile fragmentation beams.

Keywords: Charged particle spectroscopy; Cs (Tl) scintillation detectors; Non-uniformity of light output; Energy}light response

  • Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A 456 (2001) 290-299

Publ.-Id: 3924

The merits of particle induced X-ray emission in revealing painting techniques

Neelmeijer, C.; Mäder, M.

Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the external proton beam has proved ideal to study the individual techniques used for creating art objects. In particular, PIXE is tailored for examining paintings because of the low level of background produced by organic components like binders and paper backings. Thus, even traces of pigments as deposited by pens on cardboard can be identified by this method. The combination of PIXE with external Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) allows non-destructive gain of knowledge on near-surface and thin film arrangements of paint materials. Thicker but less complex layers of oil paintings can be identified by special procedures of depth resolved PIXE investigation. In this case, RBS provides additional information on organic coverings like madder lake or varnishes.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 189 (2002) 293

Publ.-Id: 3923

Windenergie - heute und morgen

Rindelhardt, U.

Die Nutzung der seit Jahrhunderten bekannten Windkraft zur Erzeugung von
Strom hat im letzten Jahrzehnt eine dynamische Entwicklung erfahren. Basierend
vor allem auf den erreichten Fortschritten in der Technologie der Windenergie-
anlagen (WEA) und den damit verbundenen erheblichen Kostensenkungen steht
die Windenergienutzung heute an der Schwelle zur Wirtschaftlichkeit. Diese ent-
scheidende Voraussetzung hat besonders in Deutschland zur zunehmenden, in
einigen Gebieten sogar massenhaften Nutzung der Windenergie geführt. Die
wichtigsten technischen Entwicklungen der WEA im letzten Jahrzehnt werden
im Beitrag vorgestellt.
Gefördert wurde diese Entwicklung durch verschiedene größere Vorhaben des
Bundes und einzelner Länder. Hervorzuheben sind hier das 250-MW-Programm
sowie das Stromeinspeisegesetz. In den 90er Jahren bestanden somit stabile
Rahmenbedingungen für die Entwicklung der Windenergie. Die installierte WEA-
Leistung in Deutschland stieg von weniger als 30 MW im Jahr 1989 auf etwa
6000 MW zum Jahresende 2000. Im Jahr 2001 wird in Deutschland eine
Strommenge durch WEA erzeugt werden, die etwa 50% der aus Wasserkraft-
werken erzeugten Strommenge oder der Stromerzeugung des größten deutschen
Kernkraftwerkes entspricht.
Nach anfänglicher Zurückhaltung der meisten Energieversorgungsunternehmen
(EVU) erwägen derzeit auch diese ein Engagement in der Windkraftnutzung.
Dennoch werden sich die in den letzten Jahren erreichten Zuwachsraten mittel-
fristig nicht aufrechterhalten lassen. Ein absehbarer Leistungszuwachs bei den
Einzelanlagen auf bis zu 3 MW führt zwar zu einer Entlastung bei den benötigten
Standorten, die aus objektiven und subjektiven Gründen folgende Begrenzung
der nutzbaren Standorte limitiert jedoch insgesamt die Ausschöpfung der vor-
handenen Potenziale. Ein wesentliches begrenzendes Element ist bereits heute
der vermeintliche Widerspruch zwischen dem durch den Einsatz von WEA beför-
derten Umweltschutz (CO2-Problem) und dem Naturschutz in vielen Gebieten
(Landschaftsschutz), der auf der zuständigen kommunale Ebene kaum aufgelöst
werden kann.
Dennoch rechnet der Autor mit einer Verdoppelung der durch WEA erzeugten
Strommenge bis zum Jahr 2010 durch Neuinstallation bzw. Ersatz alter WEA auf
der Landfläche Deutschlands. Dies würde – bei unverändertem Stromverbrauch
– einem Anteil der Windkraft am Stromverbrauch von etwa 5 % entsprechen.
Etwa die gleiche Strommenge könnte um das Jahr 2015 durch offshore-WEA in
der Nord- und Ostsee erzeugt werden, so dass künftig mit einem „Windstroman-
teil“ von 10% in Deutschland gerechnet werden kann.

Keywords: Windenergie; WEA; Stromerzeugung

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6. Symposium "Energie und Energieversorgungssysteme der Zukunft", Lauta, 18. Mai 2001, Tagungsband Beitrag 12
  • Contribution to proceedings
    6. Symposium "Energie und Energieversorgungssysteme der Zukunft", Lauta, 18. Mai 2001, Tagungsband Beitrag 12

Publ.-Id: 3922

Effect of a superimposed DC magnetic field on the melt flow in an induction furnace experimental model

Bojarevics, A.; Gelfgat, Y.; Gerbeth, G.; Cramer, A.

The unsteady flow field has been studied experimentally in a cold metal
model of an existing 10 kHz induction furnace for the inter-metallic fibre
extraction process in presence of a DC magnetic field. It has been shown
that a vertical DC magnetic field normal to the free liquid metal surface
efficiently decreases turbulence in the melt volume and suppresses surface
deformations. Whereas the turbulence and free surface deformations were not
suppressed by a DC field parallel to the free surface.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Lecture at: International Scientific Colloquium "Modelling for Saving Resources" Riga, May 17-18, 2001

Publ.-Id: 3921

In-beam PET measurements of beta+ radioactivity induced by proton beams

Parodi, K.; Enghardt, W.; Haberer, T.

Our first in-beam PET measurements of the beta+activation induced by proton irradiation are presented.
Monoenergetic proton beams in the energy and intensity range suited for the treatment of deep-seated tumours were delivered by the synchrotron of the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) at Darmstadt. They were stopped in PMMA blocks placed in the centre of the field of view of the positron camera that is installed in the heavy ion tumour treatment facility at GSI.
The beta+ activity signal was found to be three times larger than that produced by carbon ions at the same range and applied physical dose. The reconstructed spatial beta+ activity distributions were analysed and compared with the production of positron emitters predicted by a calculation based on experimental cross-sections and on the proton flux given by the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The shape of the depth-activity-profiles was well reproduced by the model and the correlation with the proton
range and the depth-dose-distributions was carefully investigated. Despite the nontrivial range determination from the beta+ activity distribution in the proton case, our experimental investigation supports the feasibility of an in-situ proton therapy monitoring by means of in-beam PET, as already clinically implemented for the monitoring of carbon ion therapy at GSI Darmstadt.

  • Physics in Medicine and Biology 47 (2002) 21

Publ.-Id: 3920

Investigations of Natural Circulation Instabilities in VVER-type Reactors at LOCA Conditions

Schäfer, F.

An important component of nuclear safety research is the analysis of abnormal transients and accident scenarios in nuclear power plants. In the presented work the ATHLET code was used for thermohydraulic calculations of small and intermediate break loss of coolant accident experiments, which were performed at the Hungarian test facility PMK-2. In the experiments different kinds of natural circulation instabilities could be observed. Such instabilities play an important role in the behaviour of the primary circuit, because the instabilities can disturb the heat removal from the reactor core. The aim of the presented calculations is to investigate whether the code is capable of modelling natural circulation phenomena in VVER-440-type reactors. It could be shown, that ATHLET can calculate the accident behaviour in good agreement with the experimental data. All significant phenomena, such as hot and cold leg loop seal clearing, stagnation of the natural circulation and especially the natural circulation instabilities are calculated very well. Calculations for a VVER-reactor show that the instabilities can also appear in a real plant.

Keywords: thermal-hydraulics; flow instabilities; code validation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Symposium on Safety and Reliability Systems of PWRs/VVER, 2001 May 14-17, Brno, Czech Republic, p. 94-100
  • Contribution to proceedings
    4th International Symposium on Safety and Reliability Systems of PWRs/VVER, 2001 May 14-17, Brno, Czech Republic, p. 94-100

Publ.-Id: 3917

Kühlmittelvermischung in Druckwasserreaktoren

Höhne, T.

Die systematische Weiterentwicklung der gekoppelten neutronenkinetischen und thermohydraulischen Codes (DYN3D-ATHLET) erfordert den Einsatz von dreidimensionalen Vermischungsmodellen.

CFX-4-Nachrechnungen experimenteller Daten der Vermischungsanlage ROCOM ergeben im hochturblenten Bereich eine gute Übereinstimmung mit den Messdaten.

- Vierschleifenbetrieb:

- Sektorformation am Kerneintritt
- zeitliche Schwankungen der Konzentrationsprofile an den Sektorgrenzen

- Anlaufen der Kühlmittelzirkulation:

- Unterschiedliche Vermischungsbilder je nach Durchsatz und Anfahrvorgang
- Eintritt des Pfropfens in den Kern in den Randzonen der gegenüberliegenden Seite

Keywords: DWR; Borverdünnung; CFD

  • Poster
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 15.-17. Mai 2001, Dresden

Publ.-Id: 3916

Modellierung des Kernkraftwerks Stade Vorarbeiten für Rechnung mit dem Programm RALOC Mod4.0AG Teil2: Rekombinatoren, Eingabedatensatz, Rechnungen

Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Schaffrath, A.

In dem vorliegenden Bericht wird die Erstellung eines Containmenteingabedatensatzes für das Kernkraftwerk Stade (KKW Stade) für das von der Gesellschaft Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) entwickelte Programmsystem RALOC (Radiolyse und lokalen Konzentrationen (der Gase, z. B. Wasserstoff) im Containment beschrieben und der Aufbau des Eingabedatensatzes, erste Rechnungen zum Nachweis der Lauffähigkeit, der Einbau der Rekombinatoren in den Datensatz sowie erste Testläufe dokumentiert. In einem ersten Bericht sind im Detail die verwendete Nodalisierung, d.h. die Unterteilung des Contaniments in Zonen, Verbindungen und Strukturen beschrieben

  • Other report
    FWS 01-2, Februar 2001

Publ.-Id: 3915

Erprobung passiver Komponenten für den SWR 1000 - Ergebnisse von Experimenten an den Versuchsanlagen PANDA und NOKO

Hicken, E. F.; Dreier, J.; Meseth, J.; Schaffrath, A.

Zur Validierung der thermohydraulischen Wirksamkeit der im SWR 1000 verwendeten passiven Sicherheitssysteme zur Nachwärmeabfuhr aus dem Reaktordruck-sowie dem Sicherheitsbehälter bei Störfällen wurden in den Versuchsanlagen PANDA (PSI / Schweiz) und NOKO (Forschungszentrum Jülich / Deutschland) umfangreiche Versuchsserien durchgeführt. Das Experimentalprogramm beinhaltete im Detail Versuche zum Notkondensator (zwei verschiedene Bündel), zum Passiven Flutsystem sowie dem Gebäudekondensator, der sowohl in NOKO (als Einzeleffektversuch) als auch in PANDA (als Systemversuch) getestet wurde. Zusätzlich wurden in NOKO noch mehrere Bauformen Passiver Impulsgeber erprobt. Allen Versuchen war gemein, dass die zu untersuchenden Systeme in Originalabmessungen sowie -materialien nachgebildet und unter adäquaten thermohydraulischen Randbedingungen getestet wurden. Die Versuchsergebnisse bestätigen ausnahmslos die Funktionalität und Effektivität der passiven Sicherheitssysteme.
Die Wärmeabfuhr in den Not- und Gebäudekondensatoren wurde mit den weltweit zur Sicherheitsanalyse von Reaktoren etablierten 1D-Thermohydraulikprogrammsystemen nachgerechnet. Die Ergebnisse der mit den unterschiedlichen Codes berechneten, integral durch Notkondensatoren abgeführten Energie stimmen sowohl untereinander als auch mit den Experimenten gut überein.
Bei den Gebäudekondensatoren konnten ebenfalls die globalen Werte mit den gebräuchlichen 1D-Containmentprogrammsystemen berechnet werden. Aufgrund der lokalen Anordnung der Gebäudekondensatoren stellen sich im Sicherheitsbehälter jedoch mit diesen 1D-Codes nicht beschreib- und somit modellierbare dreidimensionale Strömungs- und Temperaturfeldern (speziell Stratifizierungen) ein. Diese konnten zwar durch moderne Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Codes punktuell wiedergegeben werden, zur Nachrechnung vollständiger Störfallsequenzen sind jedoch weitere Codeverbesserungen sowie schnellere Computer notwendig.

Keywords: NOKO; PANDA; SWR1000; Passive Komponenten

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2001, 15.-17. Mai 2001, Dresden, Berichtsheft der Fachsitzung "Grossversuche zur verbesserten Sicherheitsbewertung von LWR", S. 137-167
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2001, 15.-17. Mai 2001, Dresden, Berichtsheft der Fachsitzung "Grossversuche zur verbesserten Sicherheitsbewertung von LWR", S. 137-167

Publ.-Id: 3914

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