Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

"Online First" included
Without submitted and only approved publications
Only approved publications

34118 Publications

Influence of speciation during membrane treatment of uranium contaminated water

Hoyer, M.; Zabelt, D.; Steudtner, R.; Brendler, V.; Haseneder, R.; Repke, J.

Membrane treatment can be used to selectively remove chemical species from effluents. However, speciation depends on different chemical factors such as inorganic and organic reaction partners, tem-perature, and pH, complicating a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms. In this study the potential of membrane separation for selective uranium removal was assessed. Speciation for complex chemical conditions in two real water samples was determined independently by predictive speciation modelling, and direct measurement using cryo-TRLFS (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy). Different nanofiltration membranes and reverse osmosis membranes were characterized for their potential rejection, and pure water flux. The best performing membrane was then employed in cross-flow experiments and reached retentions over 99 % and U/Na-selectivities of 200. Uranium retentions showed a low dependency on feed uranium speciation. Continuing research is necessary for an exact determination of separation mechanisms for each membrane.

Keywords: Separation; Water treatment; uranium; speciation; spectroscopy; membranes; retention; selectivity; modelling

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20084
Publ.-Id: 20084


Assessment of accident management measures on early in-vessel station blackout sequence at VVER-1000 pressurized water reactors

Tusheva, P.; Schäfer, F.; Reinke, N.; Kamenov, A.; Mladenov, I.; Kamenov, K.; Kliem, S.

In the process of elaboration and evaluation of severe accident management guidelines, the assessment of the accident management measures and procedures plays an important role. This paper investigates the early in-vessel phase accident progression of a hypothetical station blackout scenario for a generic VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor. The study focuses on the following accident management measures: primary side depressurization with passive safety systems injection, secondary side depressurization with passive feeding from the feedwater system, and a combination of the both procedures. The analyses have been done with the mechanistic computer code ATHLET. The simulations give in-depth analyses of the reactor system behaviour, assessment of the time margins till heating up of the reactor core and insights into physical phenomena which can influence the passive feeding procedures for cooling of the reactor core. The simulation results show that such accident management measures can significantly prolong the time till core degradation. Maximum delay for core heat up can be achieved by sequentially realization of the secondary and primary side bleed and feed strategies. Due to reversed heat transfer in the steam generators or caused by the depressurization itself a part of the injected water is evaporated. Evaporation or flashing in the feedwater system can lead to an intermittent water injection, thus reducing the effectiveness of the feeding procedure.

Keywords: VVER-1000 reactor; severe accidents; station blackout; accident management measures; flashing

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20083
Publ.-Id: 20083


The Ion Beam Center at the HZDR, nanocomposite growth with ions, and cluster tool setting up

Krause, M.

The talk will first emphasize the role of the Ion Beam Center as large scale facility within our research center. Recent results of ion-assisted growth of carbon:metal nanocomposite thin films will be shown in the second part. In the third part of the talk the concept and the current state of the setting up of the cluster tool at the Ion Beam Center will be presented. Examples for possible in situ experiments are given. They include the layer exchange in carbon: nickel double layers, the growth mechanism of carbon on metals at different temperatures, the thermal stability and graphitization of carbon: metal films, and the graphitization of carbon implanted in metals.

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar at Abengoa Research, 12.02.2014, Seville, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20082
Publ.-Id: 20082


Medium effects in proton-induced K0 production at 3.5 GeV

Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbe, K.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.; Gaitanos, T.; Weil, J.

We present the analysis of the inclusive K0 production in p+p and p+Nb collisions measured with the HADES detector at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV. Data are compared to the GiBUU transport model. The data support the presence of a repulsive momentum-dependent kaon potential as predicted by the Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). For the kaon at rest and at normal nuclear density, the ChPT potential amounts to 35 MeV. A detailed tuning of the kaon production cross sections implemented in the model has been carried out to reproduce the experimental data measured in p+p collisions. The uncertainties in the parameters of the model were examined with respect to the sensitivity of experimental results from p+Nb collisions to the in-medium kaon potential.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20081
Publ.-Id: 20081


Associate K0 production in p+p collisions at 3.5 GeV: The role of Δ(1232)++

Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbe, K.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.

An exclusive analysis of the 4-body final states Λ+p+π+K0 and Σ0+p+π++K0 measured with HADES for p+p collisions at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV is presented. The analysis uses various phase space variables, such as missing mass and invariant mass distributions, in the four particle event selection (p, π+, π+, π-) to find cross sections of the different production channels, contributions of the intermediate resonances Δ++ and Σ(1385)+ and corresponding angular distributions. A dominant resonant production is seen, where the reaction Λ+Δ+++K0 has an about ten times higher cross section (29.45 ±0.08 +1.67-1.46 ±2.06 μb) than the analougous non-resonant reaction (2.57 ±0.02 +0.21-1.98 ±0.18 μb). A similiar result is obtained in the corresponding Σ0 channels with 9.26 ±0.05 +1.41-0.31 ±0.65 μb in the resonant and 1.35 ±0.02 +0.10-1.35 ±0.09 μb in the non-resonant
reactions.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20080
Publ.-Id: 20080


Ab-initio investigation of carbides and of CNT junctions at finite temperature and under stress.

Kelling, J.; Gemming, S.

With the presented work we lay the foundation for ab-initio studies of contacted carbon nanotubes with both metal and metal--carbide leads. We Focus on applying the frozen phonon method on top density-functional-theory calculations for electronic the system. Here we show our ab-initio results on the elastic and electronic properties of Al4C3 and the metastable Ni3C.

Furthermore we present an alternative non-perturbative approach to calculating the quantum conductance in CNT/molecular junctions at finite temperature. Strictly employing the Born--Oppenheimer approximation, we aim to calculate the influence of phonons on the conductance of such a system by averaging over a representative sample drawn from snapshots of thermal fluctuation of the lattice.

  • Poster
    NanoNet Workshop, 10.10.2013, Rossendorf, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20079
Publ.-Id: 20079


Millisecond-range liquid-phase processing of silicon-based hetero-nanostructures

Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.

The downscaling and stressor technology of Si based devices is extending the performance of the silicon channel to its limits. Further downsizing of CMOS devices below 16 nm will need to solve some of the practical limits caused by one of the integration issues, such as chip performance, cost of development and production, power dissipation, reliability, etc. One solution for the performance progress which can overcome the downsizing limit in silicon technology is the integration of different functional optoelectronic elements within one chip.
We have realized a compact, CMOS compatible and fully integrated solution for the integration of III-V compound semiconductors with silicon technology for optoelectronic applications. The III-V nanostructured semiconductors are synthesized in either silicon or SOI wafers using the combined ion implantation and millisecond flash lamp annealing (FLA) techniques [1]. The FLA appears to be the most suitable one for this purpose. The energy budget introduced to the sample during FLA is sufficient to recrystallize silicon amorphized during implantation and to form III-V nanocrystals (NCs). In this paper we will present research results of the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of III-V quantum dots (InAs, GaAs and InP) formed in silicon and on SOI wafers. The influence of the annealing conditions and the lattice mismatch between III-V semiconductors and silicon on the shape of the III-V quantum dots will be examined. The annealing is performed at temperatures by far exceeding the melting point of bulk compound semiconductors, which leads to the formation of III-V nanostructures due to liquid phase epitaxy and enhances the probability for the incorporation of silicon atoms into III-V NCs. Silicon atoms are commonly used as n-type dopants in most III-V semiconductors. Therefore, liquid phase processing leads to the formation of heavily n-type doped single crystalline III-V nanostructures on silicon. If we consider that the synthesized NCs are n-type, by using a p-type silicon substrate a heterojunction can be formed between the III-V NCs and p-type Si. Conventional selective etching has been used to form the n-III-V/p-Si heterojunction. Current-voltage measurements confirm the heterojunction diode formation between n-type III-V quantum dots and p-type Si. The main advantage of our method is its ability to be integrated into large-scale silicon technology, which also allows applying it to Si-based optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: liquid phase epitaxy; Flash Lamp Annealing; ion implantation; compound semiconductors; silicon

  • Book chapter
    Wolfgang Skorupa, Heidemarie Schmidt: Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions (Springer Series in Materials Science), Switzerland: Springer, 2014, 978-3-319-03130-9, 189-210
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-03131-6_11

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20078
Publ.-Id: 20078


Effect of solvent exchange on the stability of sterically functionalized magnetite nanoparticles in poly(methyl methacrylate)-solutions and resulting spray dried composites

Bremerstein, T.; Rudolph, M.; Peuker, U. A.

In this study highly filled nanoparticle-polymer-composites consisting of the polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) and magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via the solution and spray drying method. The synthesis process is carried out for two different solvents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, and the resulting suspensions and composites are compared to each other. The preparation of the composites consists of the following steps: First the magnetite nanoparticles are precipitated in an aqueous phase. In the next step the nanoparticles are coated with ricinoleic acid for stabilization and are transferred to the organic solvent dichloromethane. In a rotating evaporator the solvent dichloromethane is exchanged with ethyl acetate. Finally, the nanoparticles in the respective solvent and dissolved polymer are mixed and spray dried.
The stability of the nanoparticle suspensions is characterized using thermogravimetric and photometric analyses. The specific surface of spray dried composites is determined via BET measurements and the distribution of the nanoparticles is assessed with BSE-SEM imaging and laser diffraction.
The stability of the nanoparticles is independent of the examined solvents. Both solvents provide a homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in the composite at high filler concentrations.

Keywords: Polymer nanocomposites; Spray drying; Magnetite nanoparticles; Solvent; Ethyl acetate; Dichloromethane

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20077
Publ.-Id: 20077


High Conversion Th-U233 fuel for current generation of PWRs: Part II – 3D full core analysis

Baldova, D.; Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.

This study explores a possibility of designing a high conversion (HC) Th-U233 core for current generation of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Increasing the conversion ratio in existing PWRs can potentially improve the utilization of natural resources, through the exploitation of vast thorium reserves and reduction in natural uranium demand.
HC can be achieved through the use of heterogeneous seed-blanket (SB) Th-U233 fuel assembly design, where the supercritical seed works as a neutron supplier, while the subcritical blanket acts as U233 breeder. One of the main challenges associated with the heterogeneous SB fuel assembly designs is significant power imbalance between the seed and blanket regions caused by the high concentration of fissile material in the seed region and consequently requiring a substantial reduction in the core average power density.
The main objectives of the current work are: 1) to design a high conversion SB Th-U233 fuel assembly which is directly retrofittable into existing PWRs without introducing significant modifications into the core and plant design; 2) to estimate the reasonably achievable core power density level at which reactor safety is not compromised by performing 3D coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis of a typical PWR core fully loaded with HC Th-U233 SB fuel.
Part II of the paper reports on the steady-state whole core analysis of 100% Th-U233 fueled PWR. The results of this study demonstrate the principal feasibility of operating a self-sustainable Th-U233 PWR core at power density of 60 W/cc in three-batch annual fuel cycle without exceeding the main safety limits.

Keywords: High conversion; PWR; Th-U233 fuel; seed-blanket; DYN3D

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20076
Publ.-Id: 20076


High Conversion Th-U233 fuel for current generation of PWRs: Part I – assembly level analysis

Baldova, D.; Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.

This study explores a possibility of designing a high conversion (HC) Th-U233 core for current generation of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Increasing the conversion ratio in existing PWRs can potentially improve the utilization of natural resources, through the exploitation of vast thorium reserves and reduction in natural uranium demand.
HC can be achieved through the use of heterogeneous seed-blanket (SB) Th-U233 fuel assembly design where the supercritical seed works as a neutron supplier, while the subcritical blanket acts as U233 breeder. One of the main challenges associated with the heterogeneous SB fuel assembly designs is a significant power imbalance between the seed and blanket regions caused by the concentration of fissile material primarily in the seed zone and consequently requiring a substantial reduction in the core average power density.
The main objectives of the current work are: 1) to design a high conversion SB Th-U233 fuel assembly which is directly retrofittable into existing PWRs without introducing significant modifications into the core and plant design; 2) to estimate the reasonably achievable core power density level at which reactor safety is not compromised by performing 3D coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis of a typical PWR core fully loaded with HC Th-U233 SB fuel.
Part I of the paper presents the results of the assembly-level parametric study aiming at the selection of a number of SB fuel assembly configurations for the following whole-core analysis. The assembly configurations are selected according to their potential to satisfy the specified fuel cycle requirements and comply with the T-H safety limits.
The results of the 3D full core analysis are reported in Part II of the paper.

Keywords: High conversion; PWR; Th-U233 fuel; seed-blanket; DYN3D

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20075
Publ.-Id: 20075


Infrared spectroscopy on lipid–protein interactions: what crystals don't tell

Fahmy, K.

Membrane proteins fulfil vital functions in cellular signalling and ion exchange across cell membranes. Their function originates in well defined structural transitions of transmembrane and extramembraneous protein domains. The latter experience aqueous and hydrophobic solvation forces, respectively. We have used time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy coupled to static fluorescence measurements to study how this solvation balance at the membrane water interface affects membrane protein structure. Transmembrane peptides derived from rhodopsin, a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs), exhibit solvent-accessible stretches which couple protonation and hydration to local helical structure: protonation of a conserved cytosolic site in helix 3 (Glu-134) causes side chain partitioning at the water lipid interface [1]. Vice versa, the side chain charge affects structural transitions that are induced by transients (seconds) of interfacial water potential. These local processes depend on the hydrophobic context of the amino acid sequence. Opsin mutants containing amino acid replacements of the same carboxyl side chain also exhibit altered responses of their structure to water potential. The data indicate that the conserved carboxyl in helix 3 of GPCRs is a protonation-controlled hydration site that regulates the partial entry of water at the protein lipid interface, thereby contributing to the free enthalpy difference between active and inactive structures of the receptor.

Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; membrane protein; lipid

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    564. WE-Heraeus-Seminar: Physical Approaches to Membrane Proteins, 25.-28.05.2014, Bad Honnef, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20074
Publ.-Id: 20074


Experimental and Theoretical Approaches to Redox Innocence of Ligands in Uranyl Complexes: What is Formal Oxidation State of Uranium in Reductant of Uranyl(VI)?

Takao, K.; Tsushima, S.; Ogura, T.; Tsubomura, T.; Ikeda, Y.

Redox behavior of [UO2(gha)DMSO]−/0 couple (gha = glyoxal bis(2-hydroxanil)ate, DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) in DMSO solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical technique, as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. [UO2(gha)DMSO] was found to be formed via one-electron reduction of UO2(gha)DMSO without any successive reactions. The observed absorption spectrum of [UO2(gha)DMSO], however, has clearly different characteristics from those of uranyl(V) complexes reported so far. Detailed analysis of molecular orbitals and spin density of the redox couple showed that the gha2− ligand in UO2(gha)DMSO is reduced to gha●3− to give [UO2(gha)DMSO] and the formal oxidation state of U remains unchanged from +6. In contrast, the additional DFT calculations confirmed that the redox reaction certainly occurs at the U center in other uranyl(V/VI) redox couples we found previously. The non-innocence of the Schiff base ligand in the [UO2(gha)DMSO]−/0 is due to the lower energy level of LUMO in this ligand relative to those of U 5f orbitals. This is the first example of the non-innocent ligand system in the coordination chemistry of uranyl(VI).

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20073
Publ.-Id: 20073


Simulation of multilayer particle resuspension in an obstructed channel flow

Lecrivain, G.; Vitsas, A.; Boudouvis, A. G.; Hampel, U.

The present work deals with the multilayer resuspension of solid aerosol particles off a multilayer deposit exposed to a sudden gas flow increase. The heavy detachment of particles spans a wide range of industrial and non-industrial applications. It is used extensively in applications dealing with the resuspension of dust by wind, the resuspension of particles in ventilation ducts and the resuspension of radioactive graphite particles in high temperature reactors. A new numerical approach is suggested to simulate the particle resuspension off a multilayer deposit initially at rest in the cavity of horizontal obstructed turbulent channel flow. The present resuspension model is based on alternating iterations of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the gas flow and a Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the particle detachment. The combination of LES and DEM simulates the effect of a sudden increase in the turbulent gas flow on the topology of the granular interface, i.e. the surface separating the multilayer deposit from the turbulent gas phase. After tuning two parameters of a simple cluster re-entrainment criterion, results show good agreements with experimental data performed on-site. Both the shape and the wall roughness of the granular interface are predicted with a good level of accuracy. Findings from this study also confirm that the friction velocity is a major resuspension agent.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20071
Publ.-Id: 20071


Low-cost and large-area electronics, roll-to-roll processing and beyond

Wiesenhütter, K.; Skorupa, W.

In the following chapter, the authors conduct a literature survey of current advances in state-of-the-art low-cost, flexible electronics. A new emerging trend in the design of modern semiconductor devices dedicated to scaling-up, rather than reducing, their dimensions is presented. To realize volume manufacturing, alternative semiconductor materials with superior performance, fabricated by innovative processing methods, are essential. This review provides readers with a general overview of the material and technology evolution in the area of macroelectronics. Herein, the term macroelectronics (MEs) refers to electronic systems that can cover a large area of flexible media. In stark contrast to well-established micro- and nano-scale semiconductor devices, where property improvement is associated with downscaling the dimensions of the functional elements, in macroelectronic systems their overall size defines the ultimate performance (Sun and Rogers in Adv. Mater. 19:1897–1916, 2007). The major challenges of large-scale production are discussed. Particular Attention has been focused on describing advanced, short-term heat treatment approaches, which offer a range of advantages compared to conventional annealing methods. There is no doubt that large-area, flexible electronic systems constitute an important research topic for the semiconductor industry. The ability to fabricate highly efficient macroelectronics by inexpensive processes will have a significant impact on a range of diverse technology sectors. A new era “towards semiconductor volume manufacturing. . .” has begun.
The chapter is organized in three main sections. The candidate materials for flexible, large-area electronics (LAEs) are discussed in Sect. 14.1. Given the Limitation of this chapter, only selected groups of the semiconductors are presented. The target materials are Si-based inorganic thin-films and their intriguing, organic competitors. The general attributes of the materials suitable for macroelectronics are revised. The challenges associated with volume manufacturing with emphasis on the evolution of the heating technologies are demonstrated in Sect. 14.2. The final conclusions along with the authors’ considerations on the LAEs’ perspectives are given in Sect. 14.3.

Keywords: large-area semiconductor manufacturing; low-cost and flexible electronics; laser and flash lamp annealing; millisecond annealing; plastic foils; roll-to-roll processing; organic semiconductors

  • Book chapter
    Wolfgang Skorupa, Heidemarie Schmidt: Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions (Springer Series in Materials Science), Switzerland: Springer, 2014, 978-3-319-03130-9, 271-295
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-03131-6

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20067
Publ.-Id: 20067


Mapping of Hydrophobic Interactions for Investigating the Floatability of Mineral Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy

Rudolph, M.

The novel method of measuring the floatability of individual mineral phases on an ore cross section is presented. Combining atomic force microscopy with Raman spectroscopy can make use of hydrophobic effects to evaluate the hydrophobization of surfaces, a crucial microprocess of flotation. This paper presents comparative results of classic microflotation experiments and the new method looking at pure mineral samples of magnetite and quartz using simple anionic and cationic collectors. The mapping capabilities and identification of mineral phases with Raman spectroscopy is presented for a silicate type or from southern Sweden containing the mineral eudialyte rich in heavy rare earth elements. We show theoretically and experimentally the different possibilities to determine hydrophobic effects using force spectroscopy and the colloidal probe technique with a hydrophobic colloid attached to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope. This novel concept shall not only be a plain research tool but should help to simplify the investigation of the right flotation reagent and thus optimize flotation processes.

Keywords: AFM; Raman; Nanobubbles; Hydrophobic Interactions; Minerals

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference in Minerals Engineering 2014, 04.-05.02.2014, Lulea, Sverige

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20066
Publ.-Id: 20066


Reconstitution of the P-type ATPase CopA into Nanodiscs: a platform for molecular spectroscopy

Fischermeier, E.; Sayed, A.; Pospisil, P.; Hof, M.; Fahmy, K.

Reconstitution of membrane proteins in a native-like lipidic environment is crucial for the in vitro determination of their structural and functional properties. Nanoscale protein-bounded planar lipid bilayers, so-called Nanodiscs1, provide a versatile novel model membrane system into which membrane proteins can be incorporated in a monodisperse and active form being accessible from both sides of the membrane. They exhibit less scatter than liposomes and bicelles and are soluble in aqueous solution. We succeeded in the reconstitution of the evolutionary conserved P-type ATPase CopA from Legionella pneumophila into Nanodiscs, which is a key player in copper homeostasis throughout all kingdoms of life2. This provides us with an excellent platform for spectroscopic studies of the allosteric couplings that are associated with ATP-powered copper transport in this enzyme in fully controllable lipidic environments. Our current focus lies on the real-time observation of the allosteric coupling of the cytosolic nucleotide-binding domain to the intramembranous conserved copper-binding CPC-motif (cysteine‒prolin‒cysteine) in transmembrane helix 4. Moreover, the CopA‒Nanodisc system allows addressing specifically the influence of the lipid environment in the catalytic cycle. We are particularly interested in the role of water entry into the transmembrane region at specific catalytic intermediates. To this end, we use cysteine-reactive fluorophores as molecular probes for the physical environment of the copper-binding CPC-motif. Comparison between mutated versions of the CPC-motif enables a detailed view of structural transitions in the transmembrane part of the enzyme evoked by allosteric coupling. The biochemical platform represented by the Nanodiscs also opens new routes for the analysis of structural dynamics by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our presented data on the copper-binding site hydration can be interpreted in the context of conformational changes proposed from crystal structures of CopA3.


References
1. T.H. Bayburt, S.G. Sligar. FEBS Lett. 2010, 584, 1721–1727.
2. J.M. Argüello, E. Eren, M. González-Guerrero. Biometals, 2007, 20, 233–248.
3. M. Andersson, D. Mattle, O. Sitsel, T. Klymchuk, A.M. Nielsen, L.B. Møller, S.H. White, P. Nissen, P. Gourdon. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2013, 21, 43–50.

  • Poster
    Physics and Biological Systems 2014, 24.-27.07.2014, Gif-sur-Yvette, Frankreich

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20065
Publ.-Id: 20065


Actinyl(V/VI) complexes at water-mineral interfaces investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and complementary techniques.

Müller, K.; Foerstendorf, H.; Steudtner, R.; Rossberg, A.

For the long-term safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, neptunium and uranium are two of the most environmentally relevant components of nuclear waste to be considered. Hence, great attention is attracted to their geochemistry and migration behavior. Among the various geochemical processes, the migration of radioactive contaminants in the environment is strongly affected by molecular reactions in aqueous solution and at the solid-water interface, e.g. complexation with organic/inorganic ligands, sorption onto mineral phases, surface precipitation, and colloid formation. A detailed description of these interactions on a molecular level is required for a reliable modeling of the contaminants dissemination in the environment.
In the past decade, vibrational spectroscopy has been developed to a powerful tool for the study of dissolved complexes of heavy metal ions with a variety of inorganic and organic ligands and surface complexes on solid phases. In particular, a combined approach of in situ vibrational, time-resolved laser fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy potentially provides comprehensive molecular information. A survey of very recent spectroscopic results obtained from geochemical reactions of radionuclides, namely Np(V) and U(VI), is given.

  • Lecture (others)
    Institutskolloquium, 28.02.2014, Umea, Schweden

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20064
Publ.-Id: 20064


An attempt to simulate multilayer particle resuspension in a cavity

Lecrivain, G.; Vitsas, A.; Hampel, U.

The present work deals with particle re-entrainment from a multilayer deposit exposed to a sudden flow increase. An early model is suggested to simulate the multilayer remobilisation of solid aerosol particles. The work is decomposed in two parts: 1. an algorithm is first developed for the virtual reconstruction of the multilayer deposit given its porosity and 2. particle detachment off the deposit is coupled with computational fluid mechanics. Experimental observations have shown that the clustering effect plays an important role in multilayer resuspension. Particle aggregates, and not individual particles, tend to reenter the turbulent flow. A cluster identification procedure is therefore suggested to work out resuspendable particle clusters. The condition of cluster dislocation is based on a force-balance model. The cluster detachment off the multilayer deposit occurs whenever the aerodynamic force overcomes the adhesive force. The turbulent flow was computed with a large eddy simulation. The numerical results showed satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Findings from that study showed that the wall shear stress is a main resuspension agent. Results have a direct impact for the safety assessment of gas-cooled high temperature reactor, in which the remobilisation of radioactive graphite particles occurs.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Workshop on Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems, 20.-22.01.2014, Modena, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20063
Publ.-Id: 20063


Three-dimensional simulation of multilayer particle deposition in an obstructed channel flow

Lecrivain, G.; Barry, L.; Hampel, U.

A large variety of systems are subject to slow and lengthy processes of solid aerosol particle deposition in turbulent flows. As a result of a long exposure to deposition, a multilayer particle bed eventually forms over time. Notable examples are the formation of multilayer deposits in ventilation ducts, in nuclear reactors or on earth surfaces subject to atmospheric sedimentation. Simulations are of great importance to predict the multilayer deposition of solid aerosol particles. Theoretical models are quite limited since their complexity rapidly increases when the flow becomes turbulent and the surface geometry complex. The present study proposes a new three-dimensional approach to reproduce the growth of a multilayer deposit in a turbulent obstructed channel flow at Reynolds number Re = 10, 000. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Granular Dynamics are brought together to simulate four hours of real deposition. A detached eddy simulation is employed to predict particle deposition while self-organised criticality is employed to reproduce the slow growth of the multilayer deposit. The three dimensional shape of the multilayer deposit matches remarkably well the experimental data.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20062
Publ.-Id: 20062


Spear-anvil point-contact spectroscopy in pulsed magnetic fields

Arnold, F.; Yager, B.; Kampert, E.; Putzke, C.; Nyeki, J.; Saunders, J.

We describe a new design and experimental technique for point-contact spectroscopy in non-destructive pulsed magnetic fields up to 70 T. Point-contact spectroscopy uses a quasi-dc four-point measurement of the current and voltage across a spear-anvil point-contact. The contact resistance could be adjusted over three orders of magnitude by a built-in fine pitch threaded screw. The first measurements using this set-up were performed on both single-crystalline and exfoliated graphite samples in a 150ms, pulse length 70 T coil at 4.2K and reproduced the well known point-contact spectrum of graphite and showed evidence for a developing high field excitation above 35 T, the onset field of the charge-density wave instability in graphite.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20061
Publ.-Id: 20061


Pu interaction with bacterial isolates from Mont Terri Opalinus Clay

Moll, H.; Lütke, L.; Cherkouk, A.; Bernhard, G.

For the long-term safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g., clay) and how these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. The Opalinus clay layer of the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (Switzerland) is one potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal (1). It is well known that indigenous bacteria in such underground environments can affect the speciation and the mobility of actinides (2-4).
In this study, the unknown interaction between Pu and Sporomusa sp. MT-2.99 and Paenibacillus sp. MT-2.2 cells were explored in aqueous solution at pH 6. Both bacteria were isolated from Mont Terri Opalinus clay core samples. The time-dependent Pu concentrations measured in the supernatants were successfully fitted with bi-exponential decay functions. The time-dependent Pu oxidation state distributions were successfully fitted by using mono-exponential decay or growth functions.
To conclude, a moderate to strong impact of Sporomusa sp. and Paenibacillus sp. cells on the Pu speciation was observed. Differences in the Pu interaction process of both strains for instance depend on the presence or absence of an electron donor were detected and will be discussed in detail.

REFERENCES
1. M. Thury, P. Bossart, “The Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, a new international research project in a Mesozoic shale formation, in Switzerland” Eng. Geol., 52, 347-359 (1999).
2. J.R. Lloyd, G.M. Gadd, “The Geomicrobiology of Radionuclides” Geomicrobiol. J., 28, 383-386. (2011).
3. L. Lütke, H. Moll, V. Bachvarova, S. Selenska-Pobell, G. Bernhard, “The U(VI) speciation influenced by a novel Paenibacillus isolate from Mont Terri Opalinus clay” Dalton Trans., 42, 6979-6988 (2013).
4. M.P. Neu, G.A. Icopini, H. Boukhalfa, “Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria” Radiochim. Acta, 93, 705-714 (2005).

Keywords: plutonium; Mont Terri; Opalinus Clay; Sporomusa sp; Paenibacillus sp; solvent extractions

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Plutonium Futures - The Science 2014, 07.-12.09.2014, Las Vegas, USA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Plutonium Futures - The Science 2014, 07.-12.09.2014, Las Vegas, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20060
Publ.-Id: 20060


Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions

Skorupa, W.; Schmidt, H.; (Editors)

The thermal processing of materials ranges from few femtoseconds by Swift Heavy Ion Implantation to about one second using advanced Rapid Thermal Annealing. This book offers after an historical excursus selected contributions on fundamental and applied aspects of thermal processing of classical elemental semiconductors and other advanced materials including nanostructures with novel optoelectronic, magnetic, and superconducting properties. Special emphasis is given on the diffusion and segregation of impurity atoms during thermal treatment. A broad range of examples describes the solid phase and/or liquid phase processing of elemental and compound semiconductors, dielectric composites and organic materials.

Keywords: Activation of Dopants; Annealing by Swift Heavy Ions; Epitaxial Growth of Silicon; Explosive Crystallisation; Flash Lamp Annealing; Pulsed Laser Annealing; Radiation Thermometry; Sub-second Annealing; Thermal Processing of Materials; Thermal Spike-induced Nanostructuring

  • Book (Editorship)
    Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2014
    321 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-3-319-03130-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20059
Publ.-Id: 20059


Anisotropy of excitation and relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers in graphene

Mittendorff, M.; Winzer, T.; Malic, E.; Knorr, A.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W. A.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.

We present pump-probe experiments on graphene, which reveal a pronounced dependence of the pump-induced transmission on the angle between pump and probe polarization. It reflects a strong anisotropy of the pump-induced occupation of photogenerated carriers in momentum space. Within 150 fs after excitation an isotropic carrier distribution is established. The experiments are well described by microscopic modelling, which identify carrier-phonon scattering to be the main relaxation mechanism giving rise to an isotropic carrier distribution.

Keywords: graphene; carrier-dynamics; anisotropy; collinear scattering

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20058
Publ.-Id: 20058


Response of a microbial community, present in the borehole water of the in situ BN-experiment of Mont Terri, towards components leaching from the matrix of Bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste.

Moors, H.; Cherkouk, A.; Mysara, M.; Bleyen, N.; Boven, P.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Leys, N.

Clay formations (e.g. Opalinus Clay in Switzerland) are intended to serve as a host rock for the geological disposal of high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several European countries. Besides radionuclides, waste form like bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste, harbour large amounts of additional components (e.g. organics, NaNO3 and CaSO4) which could perturb the beneficial physico-chemical barrier properties of the clay. To study the fate of leaching nitrate and organics in a clay formation, an in situ experiment, called Bitumen-Nitrate-Clay interaction (BN) experiment, was installed in the Opalinus Clay. The BN experiment aims to clarify the biochemical and chemical processes that could potentially be introduced by this nitrate and organic plume within the host clay formation.
As an active microbial community can have a significant contribution on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the surrounding clay, microbial analyses were performed. Our microbial investigation indicates that the present microbial community responds, and at the same time contributes, to the changing properties of the clay rock. As soon as nitrate becomes available a shift towards nitrate reduction appears. If in parallel easily oxidizable organics are introduced, like acetate, the community composition does not alter that much but the nitrate reduction rate is increased.

  • Poster
    IGDTP-Geodisposal 2014, 24.-26.06.2014, Manchester, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20057
Publ.-Id: 20057


Strategische Rohstoffe - Risikovorsorge

Kausch, P.; Bertau, M.; Gutzmer, J.; Matschullat, J.; (Editors)

Inhalt:
Teil 1: Rohstoffwirtschaft
Teil 2: Primäre Rohstoffe
Teil 3: Sekundäre Rohstoffe und Recycling
Teil 4: Verarbeitung und Produkte

Keywords: Bergbau; Lagerstätten; Lithium; Recycling; Risikomanagement; Rohstoffstrategie; Seltene Erden; Supply chain; Verhüttung

  • Book (Editorship)
    Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2014
    300 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-3-642-39703-5

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20056
Publ.-Id: 20056


The origin of conductivity in ion-irradiated diamond-like carbon – Phase transformation and atomic ordering

Philipp, P.; Bischoff, L.; Treske, U.; Schmidt, B.; Fiedler, J.; Hübner, R.; Klein, F.; Koitzsch, A.; Mühl, T.

We present recent progress in the field of ion-implanted diamond-like carbon thin films. The phase transformation mechanism from an insulating sp3 matrix into a well-conducting sp2-rich graphite-like carbon phase by means of focused ion beam irradiation is investigated. The resistivity decrease is compared for the implantation of different ion species at 30 keV. It is shown that the sp3-to-sp2-conversion saturates at an Ga+ ion fluence of approximately 1 x 1015 cm-2. Nevertheless, further ion irradiation yields a continued drop of the film resistivity. Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that ion-induced ordering proceeds at high fluences above the sp3-to-sp2-conversion saturation. This ordering can be considered as a microstructural transformation into a more graphite-like arrangement. We show that the increase of atomic ordering correlates with the local energy density deposited during the ion impact and furthermore, the resistivity lowering correlates with the degree of graphitization. The ion-induced phase transformation of diamond-like carbon layers is thus proposed to comprise a rehybridization stage (sp3-to-sp2-conversion), driven by nuclear collisions, and a rearrangement stage (graphitic ordering) that is thermally driven by the ion impact.

Keywords: diamond-like carbon; phase transformation; atomic ordering; focused ion beam; nanostructures

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20054
Publ.-Id: 20054


The magnetic flywheel flow meter: Theoretical and experimental contributions

Buchenau, D.; Galindo, V.; Eckert, S.

The development of contactless flow meters is an important issue for monitoring and controlling of processes in different application fields, like metallurgy, liquid metal casting, or cooling systems for nuclear reactors and transmutation machines. Shercliff described in his book “The Theory of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement, Cambridge University Press, 1962” a simple and robust device for contact-less measurements of liquid metal flow rates which is known as magnetic flywheel. The sensor consists of several permanent magnets attached on a rotatable soft iron plate. This arrangement will be placed closely to the liquid metal flow to be measured, so that the field of the permanent magnets penetrates into the fluid volume. The flywheel will be accelerated by a Lorentz force arising from the interaction between the magnetic field and the moving liquid. Steady rotation rates of the flywheel can be taken as a measure for the mean flow rate inside the fluid channel. The present paper provides a detailed theoretical description of the sensor in order to gain a better insight into the functional principle of the magnetic flywheel. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by corresponding laboratory experiments. For that purpose, a laboratory model of such a flow meter was built and tested on a GaInSn-loop under various test conditions.

Keywords: Magnetic Flywheel; J. A. Shercliff; flow rate; liquid metal; rotation rate

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20053
Publ.-Id: 20053


Rare Earth Doped Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures: A Promising Material System or a Dead End of Optoelectronic Evolution?

Rebohle, L.; Berencén, Y.; Braun, M.; Garrido, B.; Hiller, D.; Liu, B.; Ramírez, J. M.; Sun, J. M.; Wutzler, R.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

The suitability of rare earth doped metal-oxide-semiconductor structures for optoelectronic applications is investigated. To do so, several Tb- and Er-doped devices with different designs and fabricated by different methods are compared among each other with respect to their electroluminescence (EL) properties. In detail, the investigated devices show EL power efficiencies between 2×10-4 and 2×10-3 which, taken individually for Tb and Er, have a linear dependence on the EL decay time for low and medium injection current densities. The excited fraction of Er ions is significantly higher than that of Tb ions and achieves a maximum value of 50% (with a maximum uncertainty factor of 2.25) under optimum conditions.

Keywords: Electroluminescence; rare earth; MOS structure; decay time

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    225th ECS Meeting, 11.-15.05.2014, Orlando, United States
  • Contribution to proceedings
    225th ECS Meeting, 11.-15.05.2014, Orlando, United States
    Nanoscale Luminescent Materials 3: Electrochemical Society (ECS), 978-1-60768-520-3, 175-185
    DOI: 10.1149/06105.0175ecst

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20052
Publ.-Id: 20052


Energetics, structure, and composition of nanoclusters in Oxide Dispersion Strenghtened Fe-Cr alloys

Posselt, M.; Murali, D.; Panigrahi, B. K.

Extensive first-principle calculations on embedded clusters containing few O, Y, Ti, and Cr atoms as well as vacancies are performed to obtain interaction parameters to be applied in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, within the framework of a rigid lattice model. A novel description using both pair and triple parameters is shown to be more precise than the commonly used pair parameterization. Simulated annealing provides comprehensive data on the energetics, structure and stoichiometry of nm-size clusters at . Additionally, Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations are carried out at high temperature in order to investigate the dependence of nanocluster composition on temperature. The absolute value of the binding energy per O atom unit increases with cluster size and approaches a constant for large clusters. The presence of Ti and/or vacancies increases the value of this quantity. In alloys without vacancies clusters show a planar structure, whereas the presence of vacancies leads to three-dimensional configurations. Cr is not part of the nanoclusters, except for alloys without Ti but with vacancies. In the latter case clusters consist of a core containing O, vacancies, as well as Y and a Cr shell, which was also observed experimentally. A good agreement between the existing experimental data on the ratios (Y+Ti):O, Y:Ti, (Y+Cr):O, and Y:Cr, and the simulation results is found. The comparison of experimental data with those obtained by simulations demonstrates that the assumption of nanoclusters consisting of nonstoichiometric oxides that are essentially coherent with the bcc lattice of the Fe-Cr matrix leads to reasonable results.

Keywords: Nanoclusters; ODS ferritic steel, Atomistic modeling; First-principle calculations; Monte Carlo techniques

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20051
Publ.-Id: 20051


Cost effectiveness of modified fractionation radiotherapy versus conventional radiotherapy for unresected non-small-cell lung cancer patients

Ramaekers, B. L.; Joore, M. A.; Lueza, B.; Bonastre, J.; Mauguen, A.; Pignon, J. P.; Le Pechoux, C.; de Ruysscher, D. K.; Grutters, J. P.; Arriagada, R.; Bae, K.; Ball, D.; Baumann, M.; Behrendt, K.; Belani, C. P.; Beresford, J.; Bishop, J.; Bonner, J. A.; Choy, H.; Dahlberg, S. E.; et al.; (MAR-LC Collaborative group)

Introduction: Modified fractionation radiotherapy (RT), delivering multiple fractions per day or shortening the overall treatment time, improves overall survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients compared with conventional fractionation RT (CRT). However, its cost effectiveness is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine and compare the cost effectiveness of different modified RT schemes and CRT in the curative treatment of unresected NSCLC patients. Methods: A probabilistic Markov model was developed based on individual patient data from the meta-analysis of radiotherapy in lung cancer (N = 2000). Dutch health care costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and net monetary benefits (NMBs) were compared between two accelerated schemes (very accelerated RT [VART] and moderately accelerated RT [MART]), two hyperfractionated schemes (using an identical (HRTI) or higher (HRTH) total treatment dose than CRT) and CRT. Results: All modified fractionations were more effective and costlier than CRT (1.12 QALYs, €24,360). VART and MART were most effective (1.30 and 1.32 QALYs) and cost €25,746 and €26,208, respectively. HRTI and HRTH yielded less QALYs than the accelerated schemes (1.27 and 1.14 QALYs), and cost €26,199 and €29,683, respectively. MART had the highest NMB (€79,322; 95% confidence interval [CI], €35,478-€133,648) and was the most cost-effective treatment followed by VART (€78,347; 95% CI, €64,635-€92,526). CRT had an NMB of €65,125 (95% CI, €54,663-€75,537). MART had the highest probability of being cost effective (43%), followed by VART (31%), HRTI (24%), HRTH (2%), and CRT (0%). Conclusion: Implementing accelerated RT is almost certainly more efficient than current practice CRT and should be recommended as standard RT for the curative treatment of unresected NSCLC patients not receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; Dose fractionation; Markov chain; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Radiotherapy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20050
Publ.-Id: 20050


Bioaccumulation of Uranium by Euglena mutabilis Cells

Arnold, T.; Lünsdorf, H.; Brockmann, S.

Bioaccumulation experiments, together with transmission electron microscopy together with electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM/EELS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to study the uranium uptake by metabolically active Euglena mutabilis cells and by dead biomass of Euglena mutabilis cells. For the experiments the Euglena cells were separated from the culture medium and placed in 1×10-5 M and 5×10-4 M uranyl solution (in Na2SO4 medium) at pH 3, respectively to relate to uranium contaminated acid mine drainage conditions and the uranium uptake was monitored over time. It was found that the immobilization by living Euglena cells is a slow but metabolically driven active process which takes up to 10 days, before it reaches equilibrium with the surrounding bulk solution. However, this active process leads to higher amounts of immobilized uranium in comparison to the fast immobilization of uranium by comparable amounts of dead biomass, which is completed within 20 to 25 minutes.
The immobilization of uranium by dead biomass is a different process. Here, uranium could only be observed in some instances on the Euglena pellicle by EF-TEM/EELS in concentrations close to the detection limit. This process was interpreted as a passive but very fast biosorption process in which uranium was eventually heterogeneously distributed as adsorbed species on accessible Euglena surfaces coordinated to carboxyl and also possibly to phosphate groups.
CLSM studies showed that uranium was transported into living Euglena cells. The respective fluorescence spectra obtained from the interior of the cell indicated a uranium phosphate or uranium carboxyl speciation. No such signals could be obtained for dead Euglena biomass, neither on E. mutabilis surfaces nor in the cells.
The above shown results showed that Euglena mutabilis cells do have the capacity to remove very mobile uranium(VI) species under AMD relevant conditions and could be a promising microorganisms for low-maintenance remediation strategies.

Keywords: Euglena mutabilis; uranium; bioaccumulation

  • Poster
    Goldschmidt2014, 08.-13.06.2014, Sacramento, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20049
Publ.-Id: 20049


Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide

Tan, Y.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Zhou, S.; Sun, S.; Chen, F.

We demonstrate the lasing performance in the Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide produced by the carbon ion irradiation, including the continuous-wave (cw) and graphene Q-switched configurations. The highest slope efficiency of 56% and the lowest threshold of 40 mW have been obtained for the cw waveguide laser. With graphene as a saturable absorber, the Q-switched laser produces stable pulses with 57 ns pulse duration and 77 nJ pulse energy, respectively. Under the variation of the pumping power, the repetition of the pulse laser could be modified from 1.5 MHz to 4.1 MHz.

Keywords: Q-switched; Rare-earth-doped materials; Waveguides; Ion irradiation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20048
Publ.-Id: 20048


Electromagnetic flow control in metallurgy, crystal growth and electrochemistry
The European Physical Journal Special Topics Vol. 220 (2013)

Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, K.; Odenbach, S.; (Editors)

  • Book (Editorship)
    Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013
    322 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20047
Publ.-Id: 20047


DRESDYN - A new platform for liquid metal thermohydraulic studies and measurement technique

Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.; Stefani, F.; Gundrum, T.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), 04.-07.03.2013, Paris, France
    IAEA-CN-199/288

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20046
Publ.-Id: 20046


Investigation of Irregular Motion Influence for Future 4D In-Beam PET Imaging

Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Fiedler, F.

Particle therapy PET (PT-PET) has been established for dose monitoring and particle range assessment in hadron therapy. Imaging is up to now restricted to static organs. However, by means of phantom irradiation it has been shown that a 4D maximum likelihood expectation maximization (4D MLEM) reconstruction method is able to compensate for blurring artefacts of regular motion in in-beam PET images. Nevertheless, respiratory curves often show inconsistent amplitude variation, frequency modulation and baseline drift during radiotherapy. Since the anatomical information is not updated by a CT scanner during treatment, transformation of data from each phase could only rely on the 4D CT obtained prior to irradiation, which might be incorrectly transformed. Based on that clinical situation, this study aims to investigate the effect of irregularity in motion on 4D PET image reconstruction.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICTR-PHE 2014, 10.-14.02.2014, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 110 Supl 1(2014), 194

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20045
Publ.-Id: 20045


The (non-) detectability of failures in motion mitigated ion beam delivery by means of in-beam PET

Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Bert, C.; Saito, N.; Priegnitz, M.; Parodi, K.; Fiedler, F.

The qualitative positron emission tomography for the dose monitoring in ion beam therapy (PT-PET) has been approved for static tumors under clinical conditions. The detection of dose deviations is based on a comparison between the measured and an anticipated β+-activity distribution. Also for intra-fractionally moving targets, the 4D simulation as well as the 4D reconstruction of in-beam PET data has been established. Within dedicated experiments the results of the comparison between measured and anticipated activities were investigated with regard to the detection of failures in the motion mitigated ion beam delivery.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICTR-PHE 2014, 10.-14.02.2014, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 110 Supl 1(2014), 190

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20044
Publ.-Id: 20044


Prediction of β+-activity distributions from PT-PET by means of a yield approach

Helmbrecht, S.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Fiedler, F.

Particle therapy PET (PT-PET) is a clinically approved method for the verification of ion beam therapy. The evaluation of the obtained images is based upon the comparison of the measurement and a prediction. A new approach for the simulation of the activity distribution using measured yields in reference materials has recently been published. This approach provides the possibility to take the elemental composition of the different tissues into account. In this work first results of simulation in real patient cases are presented.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICTR-PHE 2014, 10.-14.02.2014, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 110 Supl 1(2014), 85

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20043
Publ.-Id: 20043


Analysis of metabolic washout of positron emitters produced during carbon ion head and neck radiotherapy

Helmbrecht, S.; Enghardt, W.; Parodi, K.; Didinger, B.; Debus, J.; Kunath, D.; Priegnitz, M.; Fiedler, F.

Purpose: Particle Therapy Positron Emission Tomography (PT-PET) is a suitable method for verification of therapeutic dose delivery by measurements of irradiation-induced β+-activity. Due to metabolic processes in living tissue β+-emitters can be removed from the place of generation. This washout is a limiting factor for image quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a washout model obtained by animal experiments is applicable to patient data.
Methods: A model for the washout has been developed by Mizuno et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(15), 2269–2281 (2003)] and Tomitani et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(7), 875–889 (2003)]. It is based upon measurements in a rabbit in living and dead conditions. This model was modified and applied to PET data acquired during the experimental therapy project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany. Three components are expected: A fast one with a half life of 2 s, a medium one in the range of 2–3 min, and a slow component of the order of 2–3 h. Ten patients were selected randomly for investigation of the fast component. To analyze the other two components, 12 one-of-a-kind measurements from a single volunteer patient are available.
Results: A fast washout on the time scale of a few seconds was not observed in the patient data. The medium processes showed a mean half life of 155.7 ± 4.6 s. This is in the expected range. Fractions of the activity not influenced by the washout were found.
Conclusions: On the time scale of an in-beam or in-room measurement only the medium-time washout processes play a remarkable role. A slow component may be neglected if the measurements do not exceed 20 min after the end of the irradiation. The fast component is not observed due to the low relative blood filled volume in the brain.

Keywords: in-beam PET; PT PET; ion therapy; in-vivo dosimetry

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20042
Publ.-Id: 20042


Self-organized Nanopatterns on Silicon Surfaces by Ion-Beam-Sputtering with Metal Co-deposition

Gago-Fernandez, R.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Palomares, J.; Hübner, R.; Vazquez, L.

The capability of ion beam sputtering (IBS) to induce surface nanopatterns on different materials (metals, semiconductors or insulators) is well-known since the early 60’s [1]. The first description of such phenomenology was proposed by Bradley and Harper (BH) [2] invoking the interplay between surface relaxation mechanisms and the sputtering yield dependence on the local surface curvature. BH model and posterior generalizations [1] predict pattern formation for any ion incidence angle and successfully account for the observation of nanoripple or nanodot structures depending on the irradiation geometry (anisotropic or isotropic, respectively). However, the universality of the BH approach has been recently questioned by the disparity of (sometimes conflicting) results. This ambiguous scenario has been partially clarified after the awareness of the role played by compositional modifications during IBS for both monoelemental [3] and binary [4] semiconductors and, specially, for nanodot pattern formation. In these studies, silicon has become a sort of model system due to its technological relevance but also from the mono-elemental nature as well as extreme flatness. Thus, IBS of silicon surfaces yields (ripple) pattern formation only above an incidence angle threshold (~45° for low-energy Ar+ [5]) unless (metal) impurities prone to react with the target (forming silicides) are inadvertently or intentionally added during the irradiation [6,7]. Despite the a-priori undesirable presence of impurities, IBS with simultaneous co-deposition has emerged as a novel method to tune and modify the pattern morphology and characteristics [6-10]. In addition, the morphological pattern is correlated with a compositional one, offering new potential applications. However, assessing such compositional variations at the nanoscale is not straightforward and demands of advanced characterization tools. In this talk, the present status of metal co-deposition during low- (< 10 keV) and medium-energy (10-200 keV) IBS of silicon surfaces will be presented, making special emphasis on the efforts to elucidate correlated morphological and compositional issues.

[1] J. Muñoz-García, L. Vázquez, R. Cuerno, M. Castro, R. Gago, “Toward Functional Nanomaterials: Self-organized surface nanopatterning by IBS” pp.323-398 (Springer, 2009); [2] R.M. Bradley, J.M.E. Harper, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2390 (1988); [3] G. Ozaydin et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87,163104 (2005); [4] S. Le Roy et al. J. Appl. Phys. 106, 094308 (2009); [5] M. Castro, R. Gago et al. Phys. Rev. B 86, 214107 (2012) ; [6] J.A. Sánchez-García, R. Gago et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 224009 (2009); [7] H. Hofsäss et al. Appl. Phys. A 111, 653 (2013); [8] J.A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago et al. Nanotechnology 19, 355306 (2008); [9] K. Zhang et al. New J. Phys. 13, 013033 (2011); S. Macko et al. New J. Phys. 13, 073017 (2011); [10] A. Redondo-Cubero, R. Gago et al. Phys. Rev. B 86, 085436 (2012).

Keywords: Synthesis & Processing/Transformation/ion-beam processing; Composition & Microstructure/Chemical Element/Si; Composition & Microstructure/Features/morphology

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2014 MRS Spring Meeting, 21.-25.04.2014, San Francisco, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20041
Publ.-Id: 20041


Time-resolved electronic capture in n-type germanium doped with antimony

Deßmann, N.; Pavlov, S. G.; Shastin, V. N.; Zhukavin, R. K.; Tsyplenkov, V. V.; Winnerl, S.; Mittendorff, M.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.; Hübers, H.-W.

The low temperature (T = 5–40 K) capture of free electrons into hydrogenlike antimony centers in germanium has been studied by a time-resolving experiment using the free electron laser FELBE. The analysis of the pump-probe signal reveals a typical capture time of about 1.7 ns that decreases with pump energy to less than 1 ns while the number of ionized donors increases. The dependence on the pump-pulse energy is well described by an acoustic phonon-assisted capture process. In the cases when (i) a significant number of the electrons is in the conduction band (flux densities larger than 5 × 10^25 photons/(cm^2 s), (ii) the lattice temperature is above ∼20 K, or (iii) a static electric field above ∼2 V/cm is applied to the crystal, the pump-probe technique reveals an additional intraband relaxation process with a characteristic time of ∼100 ps, which is much shorter than that of the capture of free electrons into the antimony ground state.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20040
Publ.-Id: 20040


Effect of ionic strength on the mobility of radionuclides in the presence of natural organic matter: Testing the Linear Additive Model

Poetsch, M.; Claus, M.; Lippold, H.

Interaction with natural organic complexants such as humic substances can be decisive for the mobility of radiotoxic metals in case of release from an underground repository. Depending on the geochemical surroundings, their migration can be both enhanced and retarded. Models must be able to describe such complex systems by few parameters. According to the Linear Additive Model [1], total metal adsorption in the presence of humic matter is calculated by linking parameters for adsorption of both components and for their interaction with each other. The applicability of this approach is, however, not unanimously accepted.
Clay rock is discussed as a potential host formation for a final repository, mainly because of its high adsorption capacity. This barrier function may, however, be subverted by screening or competition effects due to high salt contents of pore waters. Complexation of radionuclides with humic-like clay organics may cause an additional mobilisation.
In this study, the influence of electrolyte concentration (up to 4 M) on interactions within the system Tb(III) / fulvic acid (FA) / Opalinus clay was investigated for the major electrolyte constituents of pore waters: Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. 160Tb was employed as a tracer analogue of trivalent actinides. FA (humic matter) was radiolabelled with 14C by an azo-coupling reaction. The sensitivity of radiotracer analysis allows experiments at low concentrations, in accordance with relevant scenarios. Complexation of Tb(III) with FA was investigated by means of ultrafiltration. For adsorption studies, clay suspensions were conditioned to a constant pH value of 5.0.
Effects of Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ proved to be very different. On the whole, interaction of Tb(III) with FA and clay is suppressed at increasing electrolyte contents, whereas interaction of FA with clay is promoted because electrostatic repulsion is screened. For this reason, mobilising effects of humic-like complexants are generally counteracted in saline systems; metals are solely mobilised due to common salt effects. For the bivalent electrolytes, these relationships can be quantitatively described by the Linear Additive Model.

[1] Zachara et al. (1994) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 553-566.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt Conference 2014, 08.-13.06.2014, Sacramento (CA), United States of America

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20039
Publ.-Id: 20039


Precision in prompt gamma-based range monitoring of proton pencil beams in heterogeneous media

Janssens, G.; Celani, A.; Clementel, E.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Enghardt, W.; Helmbrecht, S.; Perali, I.; Prieels, D.; Priegnitz, M.; Roellinghoff, F.; Smeets, J.; Stichelbaut, F.

No abstract available

  • Poster
    ICTR-PHE 2014, 10.-14.02.2014, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 110 Supl 1(2014), 94

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20038
Publ.-Id: 20038


Extraction properties of 25,27-bis(carbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arenes towards Sr2+: competitive extraction and extraction in a synthetic groundwater.

Haupt, S.; Schnorr, R.; Poetsch, M.; Mansel, A.; Handke, M.; Kersting, B.

The Sr2+ extraction properties of some 25,27-bis(carbonylmethoxy)calix[4]arenes, in which ester (-CH2CO2Et), keto (-CH2COCH3) and acid functionalities (-CH2CO2H) have been attached to the lower rim, are reported. Strontium ion extraction experiments were performed in a chloroform/water system, and the extraction performance analyzed by radiotracing using the short-lived radio nuclide 85Sr. Effects of pH value, ligand to metal ratio, temperature, extraction time and strontium species on the extraction behavior were examined. It was observed that the 25,27-bis(carboxymethoxy)calix[4]arene derivatives are potent extracting agents towards the strontium ion, showing remarkable extraction performance in competition with a series of organic and inorganic impurities and in a synthetic groundwater. The crystal structure of 25,27-bis(acetonyloxy)calix[4]arene is also reported.

Keywords: calix[4]arene; strontium; liquid-liquid extraction; groundwater

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20037
Publ.-Id: 20037


Magnetization and magnetoacoustics of single-crystalline ErFe5Al7 in high magnetic fields

Gorbunov, D. I.; Yasin, S.; Andreev, A. V.; Skourski, Y.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.

The magnetization and sound propagation in single-crystalline ErFe5Al7 (tetragonal crystal structure) have been studied in steady (up to 18 T) and pulsed magnetic fields (up to 60 T). The compound orders ferrimagnetically at a Curie temperature TC=201 K and has a compensation point at Tcomp=34 K. ErFe5Al7 displays a strong magnetic easy-plane anisotropy. A strong magnetic anisotropy is present as well within the basal plane; the [100] axis is the easy magnetization direction with a spontaneous magnetic moment Ms=1.3 µB/f.u. at 2 K. Field-induced magnetic transitions, two along the [100] axis and two along the [110] axis, have been found in the vicinity of T=Tcomp. Changes in the magnetic state at the transitions result in significant alterations of the spin–phonon coupling, which is manifested by sharp anomalies in the sound velocity and sound attenuation. Along the easy [100] axis the forced ferromagnetic state is reached in a field of about 50 T at 2 K, whereas along the [110] direction saturation is expected only above 60 T. A magnetic field-temperature phase diagram has been extracted up to 60 T. From the experimental data a value of nErFe=3.3 T/µB for the inter-sublattice Er–Fe exchange interaction has been obtained.

Keywords: Rare-earth intermetallics; Ferrimagnetism; Magnetic anisotropy; High magnetic field; Field-induced transition

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20036
Publ.-Id: 20036


Americium(III) and Europium(III) Complex Formation with Lactate at Elevated Temperatures Studied by Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

Barkleit, A.; Kretzschmar, J.; Tsushima, S.; Acker, M.

Thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of Am(III) and Eu(III) with lactate were determined with UV-vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in a temperature range between 25 and 70 °C. The reaction enthalpy decreased with increasing ionic strength. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed structural details of the Eu(III) lactate complex: a chelating coordination mode of the lactate with a monodentate binding carboxylate group and the hydroxyl group being deprotonated.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20034
Publ.-Id: 20034


Uptake of selenium oxyanions by hematite

Jordan, N.; Domaschke, S.; Foerstendorf, H.; Scheinost, A. C.; Franzen, C.; Zimmermann, V.; Weiss, S.; Heim, K.

Performance assessments of nuclear waste disposals evidenced 79Se (t1/2 ~ 3.27 × 105 years) to be one of the most important contributors to the overall dose in long-time safety assessments. The concentration, the bioavailability, the mobility, the distribution and the oxidation state of selenium in the environment are greatly influenced by the pH, nature of mineral sorbent and temperature. Hematite was studied because it is a ubiquitous iron oxide mineral present in the environment, thus often found in rocks and soils in the vicinity of underground repositories. This work combined batch and spectroscopic studies to characterize the interaction of Se(VI) and Se(IV) with hematite, which was so far not well understood.
At the macroscopic level, sorption of both oxyanions was found to decrease with increasing pH. An increase of the ionic strength (from 0.01 M to 0.1 M) decreased the sorption of Se(VI), while the Se(IV) uptake remained unchanged. Electrophoretic mobility measurements revealed that Se(IV) sorption shifted the isoelectric point (pHIEP) of hematite to lower pH values, while the pHIEP was not significantly modified upon Se(VI) uptake. At the molecular level, in situ ATR FT-IR and EXAFS measurements revealed the formation of inner-sphere complexes (IS) during Se(IV) sorption onto hematite. Concerning Se(VI), sorption proceeded predominantly via the formation of outer-sphere complexes, together with a small fraction of IS complexes.
High level and long-lived radioactive wastes are well-known to increase the temperature at the vicinity of the waste disposal site. Such a thermal effect raises the question how the retention of selenium is influenced at elevated temperatures. Therefore, information and insights about mechanisms working at higher temperatures (from 25 °C to 60 °C) are also provided.

Keywords: selenium; hematite; uptake; ATR FT-IR; EXAFS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt 2014, 08.-13.06.2014, Sacramento, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20032
Publ.-Id: 20032


Effect of high ionic strengths on U(VI) retention in montmorillonite

Fritsch, K.; Schmeide, K.

Argillaceous rock and clay minerals have properties that make them very valuable for nuclear waste storage. They are practically insoluble and have high sorption capacities. North German clay deposits feature pore waters of particularly high ionic strengths. In the depths that are relevant for nuclear waste repositories, the ionic strength of the pore water ranges from 1.8 mol/l to 3.3 mol/l. To be able to make an informed decision about the long term safety of nuclear waste disposal, the effect of high ionic strengths on radionuclide retention needs to be taken into account.
This work focuses on the uranium retention on montmorillonite in sodium and calcium chloride solutions of high ionic strengths. Montmorillonite serves as a model clay. It is the main component of some North German clay formations that conform to the criteria for deep-level nuclear waste disposals. Furthermore, it is a component of the backfill material that will be used in nuclear waste repositories. Sodium and calcium chloride are the main constituents of the pore waters found in North German argillaceous rock. The sorption experiments presented here were conducted in presence and absence of carbon dioxide.

Keywords: uranium sorption; argillaceous rock; clay; uranium; montmorillonite; high ionic strength

  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Radiochemical Conference, 11.-16.05.2014, Marianske Lazne, Česká republika
  • Poster
    17th Radiochemical Conference, 11.-16.05.2014, Mariánské Lázně, Česká republika

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20031
Publ.-Id: 20031


Performance of global and regional nested meteorological models

Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L.; Soret, A.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.

We discuss the performance of two global meteorological models in a difficult enclosed sea area and the possible improvements using two respectively nested high resolution local models. Each of the four sets of wind fields has been used to drive the same wave model. The performances are judged on the base of measured, buoys and satellites, wind and wave data. The analysis shows clearly the general benefits of a higher resolution. However, it also highlights the sensitivity of the nested models to apparently minor changes in the input information from the global models and their consequent possibility of larger errors, particularly in complex meteorological situations.

Keywords: Meteorological modelling; Wave modelling; Nested models; Model accuracy; Model sensitivity

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20030
Publ.-Id: 20030


Spin-lattice effects in selected antiferromagnetic materials

Zherlitsyn, S.; Yasin, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, A. A.; Andreev, A. V.; Tsurkan, V.

Spin-lattice effects play an important role in many magnetic materials. In this short review, we give some ex-amples of such effects studied in low-dimensional, frustrated as well as uranium-based antiferromagnets. Utiliz-ing ultrasound measurements at low temperatures and high magnetic fields provides valuable information on the spin-strain interactions. Specifically phase transformations and critical phenomena in magnetic systems with strong spin-lattice interactions are fruitful grounds for sound-velocity and sound-attenuation measurements.

Keywords: low-dimensional spin systems; frustrated chromium spinels; spin-strain interaction; uranium-based compounds

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20029
Publ.-Id: 20029


Combined effect of electron and lattice temperatures on the long intersubband relaxation times of Ge/Si_x Ge_1−x quantum wells

Virgilio, M.; Ortolani, M.; Teich, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Sabbagh, D.; Capellini, G.; de Seta, M.

In this paper, we have experimentally and numerically studied the nonradiative intersubband (ISB) relaxation in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum well (QW) systems. Relaxation times have been probed by means of pump-probe experiments. An energy balance model has been used to interpret the experimental differential transmission spectra and to assess the relevance in the nonradiative relaxation dynamics of both electron and lattice temperature as well as of the carrier density. The comparison between experimental data and theoretical simulation allowed us to calibrate the interaction parameters which describe the electron-optical phonon scattering in two-dimensional (2D) Ge systems. Characteristic relaxation times has been calculated and compared with those of GaAs QWs as a function of the 2D electron density, of the subband energy separation, and of the lattice and electronic temperature. We found that ISB relaxation times for the Ge/SiGe systems are generally shorter than that previously calculated when the electron distribution was neglected. Nonetheless, our main result is that the relaxation time in Ge/SiGe QW systems is longer than 10 ps, also for transition energies above the Ge optical phonon energy, up to 300 K. Furthermore, we obtained that the relaxation times are at least one order of magnitude longer than in GaAs-based systems.

Keywords: Ge/SiGe quantum well; intersubband relaxation times; FEL

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20028
Publ.-Id: 20028


BN project – contribution from HZDR/IRE

Cherkouk, A.; Radeva, G.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

First it will give a short overview about my expertise and background as well as the research topic I am working on at HZDR/IRE at the moment. Then I will present the results from our past contribution to the BN project. And finally I will give a short overview about what is planned for the next phase of the project from the HZDR/IRE.

  • Lecture (others)
    BN/Mont Terri meeting, 10.-12.02.2014, St. Ursanne, Schweiz

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20027
Publ.-Id: 20027


Knowledge Management as a tool to reduce Personal Market Risks

Stiller, D.; Joehnk, P.

Knowledge management is an instrument to ensure knowledge in organisations. The article defines the terms information and knowledge and the different kinds of knowledge. After a description why knowledge is important for organisations the term knowledge management and its objectives and tasks will be investigated. After that one of the first and famous models – the building block model from Probst et al. - will be explained.

Keywords: knowledge; knowledge management; implicit and explicit knowledge; strategic and operational knowledge management level; risk management

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Scientific Events – Economy & Business, 01.-05.09.2013, Burgas, Bulgaria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20026
Publ.-Id: 20026


Untersuchung des Lebenszyklus von TiO2- und Ag0-Nanopartikeln NanoTRACK

Franke, K.; Hildebrand, H.; Schymura, S.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3. Clustertreffen der BMBF-Fördermaßnahmen NanoCare und NanoNature, 14.-15.01.2013, Frankfurt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20025
Publ.-Id: 20025


Risk Management: Management of Commodity Price Risks

Stiller, D.; Joehnk, P.

The article discribes the current situation of commodity markets and the influence of the profit situation of industry companies and which contribution risk management can achieve to improve the economical situation of a company. One effective methode is to ensure commodity risks through financial instruments as a part of treasury management. The article describes the reasons and products of these method.

Keywords: commodity market; commodity risks; risk management; treasury management; financial instruments; forward transactions

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Doctoral Seminar, 20.-22.05.2012, Smolenice, Slovakei

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20024
Publ.-Id: 20024


Changing General Conditions in Energy Industry as a Challenge for the Management of Energy Supply Companies

Stiller, D.

The article deals with the general conditions in energy industrie as a basis for new management tasks of energy supply companies. First, the changing market situation as a reason for the regulation will be explained, followed by the development of directives and regulations in european law and their impact on the german energy law. Finally, the influence of regulation on the legal structure and the organization as well as the accounting of energy supply companies will be shown.

Keywords: energy supply company; energy law; competition on energy markets; natural monopoly; regulation; unbundling

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Doctoral Seminar, 15.-17.05.2011, Smolenice, Slovakei

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20023
Publ.-Id: 20023


Using XFELs for Probing of Complext Interaction Dynamics of Ultra-Intense Laers with Solid Matter

Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Gutt, C.; Huang, L.; Metzkes, J.; Schramm, U.; Bussmann, M.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    55th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, 11.-15.11.2013, Denver, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20022
Publ.-Id: 20022


Using XFELs to probe the interaction dynamics of ultra-intense laers with solid-density matter

Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Huang, L.; Gutt, C.; Pelka, A.; Bussmann, M.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    55th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, 11.-15.11.2013, Denver, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20021
Publ.-Id: 20021


Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields at European XFEL

Cowan, T.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    HIBEF Kickoff Workshop, 03.-05.06.2013, Hamburg, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    UK FEL Forum, 14.06.2013, London, Großbritannien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20020
Publ.-Id: 20020


DESY & HZDR: Common Activities, HGF Beamline at European XFEL

Cowan, T.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    18th Photon Science Committee Meeting, 29.-30.04.2013, Hamburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20019
Publ.-Id: 20019


Exploring Solid-Density HED Plasmas and Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions at the European XFEL

Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Gutt, C.; Bussmann, M.; Huang, L.; Schlenvoigt, H. P.; Schramm, U.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Conference on High Energy Density Sciences 2013 - HEDS2013, 24.-25.04.2013, Yokohama, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20018
Publ.-Id: 20018


Helmholtz International Beamline at XFEL

Cowan, T.

  • Lecture (others)
    ART Meeting XFEL-HED Instrument, 11.03.2013, Hamburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20017
Publ.-Id: 20017


Status of the Helmholtz Beamline Proposal

Cowan, T.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2013 European XFEL Users' Meeting and Satellite Meeting, 24.01.2013, Hamburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20016
Publ.-Id: 20016


Assessments of the oxidation resistance of technical TiAl-alloys under the influence of fluorine and depending on the high temperature exposure technique

Pflumm, R.; Schütze, M.; Donchev, A.; Yankov, R.; Kolitsch, A.

TiAl-intermetallics show great potential for applications in high temperature-components due to their low density and excellent high-temperature strength. Their major drawback is the oxidation resistance at temperatures above 750°C. It has been shown that one way to improve this resistance by several orders of magnitude is the fluorination of the surface zone of the material. This fluorine treatment occurs at low temperatures and influences only the surface region of the components, so that the bulk properties are not affected. The fluorination changes the oxidation mechanism during subsequent oxidation exposure at temperatures higher than 750°C in such a way that the formation of a thick mixed oxide scale is replaced by the growth of a thin protective alumina scale. No additional coatings are necessary for the full protection of the substrate against further oxidation. One efficient and simple technique for bring the fluorine onto the TiAl surface is by using different liquid phases. This work focuses on the influence of liquid phase composition on the lifetime of the protective alumina layer. Possible beneficial synergistic effects between F and Si on the oxide nucleation behaviour are discussed in comparison to alternative fluorination methods such as plasma immersion ion implantation. Furthermore, the influence of the high temperature exposure needed for the initiation of the change in the oxidation mechanism of TiAl-alloys (i.e. conventional furnace exposure versus short-time laser treatment) on the stability of the protective character of alumina is examined.

Keywords: Oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys; high temperature oxidation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference Intermetallics 2013, 30.09.-04.10.2013, Bad Staffelstein, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20015
Publ.-Id: 20015


Ion Implantation Based Surface Modification of TiAl Materials

Kolitsch, A.; Yankov, R.

Titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys are attractive lightweight materials for medium-temperature (500°-750°C) structural applications including components such as jet engine and industrial gas turbine blades, turbocharger rotors and automotive engine valves. However, envisaged service temperatures for future advanced applications will have to be in the range of 750° to 1000°C, over which these alloys suffer from both oxidation and oxygen embrittlement. Therefore, development of surface-engineering techniques for preventing high-temperature environmental damage is critical in exploiting the advantages of TiAl alloys to their fullest extent. Two efficient approaches to protecting candidate TiAl alloys from high-temperature (>750°C) environmental degradation have been developed at HZDR. The first technique involves a single step, namely treating TiAl alloy components directly by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of fluorine using a mixture of difluoromethane and argon (CH2F2 + 25% Ar) as the precursor gas. The oxidation performance of the fluorine-implanted alloys has been evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) over the temperature range of 750° to 1050°C under conditions of both isothermal and thermal cyclic oxidation in air, and for times as long as 6000 h. This type of surface modification has been shown to produce a stable, adherent and highly protective alumina scale. The second technique involves the fabrication of a durable protective coating in a two-step process, namely formation of a thin aluminum-rich TiAl layer (Ti-60Al) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) employing a mixture of inorganic precursors, followed by PIII of fluorine. Subsequent long-term oxidation exposures to air at 900°C of a GE 4822 alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb; alloy composition qualified for aerospace applications) have shown that the coating so developed is able to successfully prevent oxidation damage to the base material while maintaining up to 90% of its initial mechanical properties (strength and ductility).

Keywords: Ion Implantation; TiAl alloys; protective coatings; aerospace applications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Vacuum Congress (IVC’19), 09.-13.09.2013, Paris, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20014
Publ.-Id: 20014


Oxidation protection coatings for titanium, titanium-base alloys and titanium aluminides in high-temperature oxidizing environments

Yankov, R.; Kolitsch, A.; Johannes, V. B.; Donchev, A.; Bortolotto, L.; Masset, P.; Schütze, M.

Titanium and its alloys with aluminum have been widely used as engineering materials for a number of advanced technical applications, and particularly in aeronautics, because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and good oxidation resistance in the medium temperature range (up to 500°C for Ti and ~ 750°C for TiAl). However, environmental durability at higher temperatures is presently still a concern due to insufficient oxidation and embrittlement resistance. Therefore, oxidation protection coatings are needed to fulfill the high temperature structural potential of these materials.
This work consists of two parts. The first part deals with the development of an oxygen barrier coating to prevent oxidation of Ti and low-Al-content Ti-base alloys (< 10 at.% Al) at temperatures not exceeding 600°C. The surface modification process has involved magnetron co-sputtering of Ti and Al onto the base alloy material followed by vacuum annealing and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of fluorine to activate the so-called halogen effect. Oxidation exposure in air at 600°C for 100 h has shown that the coating is able to form a protective Al2O3-containing scale and, moreover, exhibits good substrate compatibility.
The second part of the work has focused on the development of an oxidation resistant coating for γ-TiAl alloys (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb). The fabrication process has involved formation of an Al-rich (50-60 at.%) TiAl overlayer by chemical vapor deposition followed by PIII of fluorine. Subsequent oxidation exposures of the coated γ-TiAl alloy to air at 900°C for 350 h have shown that the coating prevents effectively both oxidation and embrittlement to the baseline material while preserving 90% of its initial mechanical properties.

Keywords: Oxidation protection; coatings for titanium; titanium-base alloys; titanium aluminides; high-temperature oxidation

  • Poster
    EUROMAT2013 - European Congress and Exhibition on Advanced Materials and Processes, 08.-13.09.2013, Sevilla, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20013
Publ.-Id: 20013


Surface treatment for improved high temperature environmental stability of Ti-alloys

Donchev, A.; Galetz, M.; Schütze, M.; Yankov, R.; Kolitsch, A.

Titanium alloys are widely used as light weight structural materials at low temperatures. Due to their high affinity towards oxygen a protective TiO2-passive layer is formed. This layer is only protective at temperatures below about 500°C. With increasing temperature this layer gets deteriorated and hence oxygen inward diffusion is accelerated. This inward diffusion leads to an oxygen enriched subsurface zone which is brittle because Ti has quite high oxygen solubility. The enriched zone can cause failure of Ti-components under thermocyclic and/or mechanical load. To prevent this failure mode a two step process was developed. The first step was enrichment of Al in a narrow surface zone to form the intermetallic TiAl-phase with low oxygen solubility and a high Al-content. The second step consisted of fluorination. Unfluorinated -TiAl-alloys usually form a mixed non protective oxide scale but a protective alumina layer develops after addition of small amounts of fluorine into the surface zone. This so called fluorine effect works for TiAl-alloys with an Al-content above 40at.%. The alumina layer suppresses the oxygen inward diffusion and slows down the oxidation kinetics. The intermetallic TiAl subsurface prevents oxygen uptake into the metal and, thus, embrittlement. In this work results of high temperature exposure tests of untreated and treated technical Ti-alloys will be presented and compared. The results will be discussed considering a use of protected Ti-components in high temperature environments.

Keywords: Magnesium; aluminium; titanium; science and technology

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Euro LightMAT 2013 - International Congress and Exhibition on Light Materials – Aluminium, Magnesium, Titanium and their Alloys, 03.-05.09.2013, Bremen, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20012
Publ.-Id: 20012


Surface modification of protective coatings on titanium aluminides by plasma immersion ion implantation of fluorine to suppress environmental embrittlement at high temperatures

Yankov, R.; Bleicher, F.; Bortolotto, L.; Geiger, G.; Kolitsch, A.; Langlade, C.; Masset, P.; Paul, J.; Pelic, B.; Pyczak, F.; Rafaja, D.; Schumacher, P.; Schütze, M.; Wolf, G.

Due to their excellent density-specific properties, titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys have been identified as high-payoff materials for advanced aerospace and power generation applications in the medium-temperature (600°-750°C) range. They have recently been applied as structural materials for turbine blades in the low-pressure section of the GEnx jet engine. These alloys, however, are prone to both oxidation and embrittlement when exposed to oxidizing environments at temperatures above ~ 750°C. Under such conditions, TiAl alloys form a mixed (TiO2+Al2O3) non-protective oxide scale resulting from the difference in both the growth kinetics of the two oxides, and the chemical activity of the constituent elements, Ti and Al. Thus, for high-temperature (> 750°C) applications, an oxidation protection coating is needed to prevent environmental damage of the base alloy without degrading its initial mechanical properties.
The present work has focused on the development of coatings for the efficient oxidation protection of TiAl alloys at high temperatures. Aluminum-rich TiAl coatings (50 to 60 at.%Al) have been produced by either chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) or thermal spraying (HVOF, APS) techniques onto a GE alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) qualified for aerospace applications. The coating surface has then been modified by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of fluorine to promote the formation of a protective alumina-containing scale relying on the so-called halogen effect. For the PIII processing, either difluoromethane and argon (CH2F2/Ar) or silicon tetrafluoride and argon (SiF4/Ar) has been used as the F-containing precursor gas. The resulting F-implanted coatings have been exposed to oxidative/corrosive environments at 850°C for 350 h, and have shown a high degree of oxidation resistance. The mechanical properties of the coated samples have been examined by 4-point bend, tensile and fatigue testing after oxidation in laboratory air at 900°C for 100 h. Combining a CVD process with PIII of F (the CH2F2/Ar process) has been found to give the best results in terms of efficient environmental protection against oxidation and embrittlement. It has also been established that more than 90% of the initial mechanical properties of the substrate TiAl alloy can be retained after the application of such a protective coating.

Keywords: titanium aluminides; oxidation protection; coating; fluorine; plasma immersion ion implantation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Workshop on Plasma Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D 2013), 01.-05.07.2013, Poitiers, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20011
Publ.-Id: 20011


Surface engineering of gamma-titanium aluminide alloys for combined improvements in environmental durability at elevated temperatures

Yankov, R.; Kolitsch, A.; Johannes, V. B.; Masset, P.; Bortolotto, L.; Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.

γ-TiAl alloys are attractive materials for medium-temperature (500-750°C) aeronautical applications. Current technology progress, however, is driven by the trend towards new concepts requiring temperatures > 750°C at which γ-TiAl components fail to perform because of poor oxidation and embrittlement resistance. We have developed two approaches to protecting γ-TiAl alloys from high-T oxidation. The first one involves treating γ-TiAl alloys by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) of fluorine. This type of modification produces a highly protective Al2O3 scale upon oxidation in air at temperatures up to 1050°C. The second method is based on the fabrication of a protective coating in a two-step process, namely formation of an Al-rich TiAl overlay by chemical vapor deposition followed by PBII of F. Subsequent oxidation exposures to air at 900°C have shown that the coating prevents both oxidation and embrittlement to the base alloy while maintaining 90% of its initial mechanical properties.

Keywords: gamma-TiAl; oxidation protection; plasma based ion implantation; protective coating

  • Poster
    International Workshop on Gamma TiAl Alloy Technology (GAT 2013), 11.-14.06.2013, Toluese, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20010
Publ.-Id: 20010


Protonen mit Licht beschleunigen – Dosimetrische Charakterisierung laserbeschleunigter Protonen mittels Festkörperspurdetektoren im Rahmen von Zellexperimenten

Knaute, J.

Für eine neuartige Krebstherapie mit Protonen ist es wichtig zu wissen, welche Energie die Protonen haben. Für einen speziellen Detektor wurde eine automatische Auswertung entwickelt.

Keywords: laserbeschleunigter Protonen

  • Junge Wissenschaft 97(2013), 48-59

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20009
Publ.-Id: 20009


Theoretical investigation of the saturation correction for ionization chambers irradiated with pulsed beams of arbitrary pulse length
Theoretische Untersuchung der Sättigungskorrektion von Ionisationskammern in gepulsten Strahlungsfeldern bei beliebiger Pulsdauer

Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J.

In ionization chambers, not all released charge is collected due to the recombination of charge carriers. This effect is taken into account by the saturation correction factor kS. A physical description of the correction factor has been established for pulsed radiation. However, it is only accurate when the pulse length is short compared with the collection time of the ionization chamber. In this paper we develop a description of the saturation correction for radiation pulses of arbitrary length. For this, a system of partial differential equations is solved iteratively. The numerical solutions are verified experimentally for a Roos ionization chamber (PTW TM34001) exposed to a pulsed electron beam. The results of this iterative procedure describe the experimental data well. The calculations are also possible for beam structures which are experimentally hard to get and thereby contribute to a better understanding and correct description of the saturation correction at arbitrary pulse length. Among other things the pulse length dependent distributions of the charge carriers in the ionization chamber is calculated, inclusive of the transition to the conditions prevailing in the case of continuous irradiation. Furthermore is shown that the formula for kS established by Hochhäuser and Balk [1] is applicable even at arbitrary pulse length, if pulse duration dependent effective values are used for the parameters a and p. These effective values have been determined for the Roos chamber at pulse lengths up to 300μs

Keywords: ionization chamber

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20008
Publ.-Id: 20008


Realizing a laser-driven electron source applicable for radiobiological tumor irradiation

Nicolai, M.; Sävert, A.; Reuter, M.; Schnell, M.; Polz, J.; Jäckel, O.; Karsch, L.; Schürer, M.; Oppelt, M.; Pawelke, J.; Kaluza, M.

Laser-accelerated electron pulses have been used to irradiate human tumors grown on mice’s ears during radiobiological experiments. These experiments have been carried out with the JETI laser system at the Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics in Jena, Germany. To treat a total of more than 50 mice, a stable and reliable operation of the laser-electron accelerator with a dose rate exceeding 1 Gy/min was necessary. To achieve this, a sufficient number of electrons at energies in excess of 5 MeV had to be generated. The irradiation time for a single mouse was a few minutes. Furthermore, the particle pulses’ parameters needed to remain achievable for a time period of several weeks. Due to the online detection of the radiation dose, the unavoidable shot-to-shot fluctuations, currently still typical for laser-based particle accelerators, could be compensated. The results demonstrate that particle pulses generated with laser-based accelerators have the potential to be a future alternative for conventional particle accelerators used for the irradiation of tumors.

Keywords: laser-driven electron source; radiobiology

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20007
Publ.-Id: 20007


Influence of pulse length on collection efficiency of ionization chambers irradiated with pulsed beams.

Karsch, L.; Gotz, M.; Pawelke, J.

In ionization chambers not all released charge is collected due to recombination of charge carriers. A physical description of the correction factor has been established for pulsed beams for many decades. However, it is only accurate if the pulse length is short compared to the collection time of the ionization chamber. In this contribution a new, more generalized description of the Saturation correction (i.e. for arbitrary pulse lengths) is presented.
Experiments have been performed using a Roos ionization chamber (TM34001, PTW Freiburg, Germany) because this model is a planparallel chamber often used in clinics. The pulse length dependence was investigated at the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE. For the new theoretical description a system of partial differential equations is solved iteratively. The free parameters were adjusted for best agreement with the experiment.
The experiment shows, that the established description of saturation correction is only valid for pulses shorter than 10 μs. Furthermore, our new theoretical description allows the determination of Saturation correction in a wide range, e.g., for beam time structures which are experimentally difficult to realize and for longer pulse durations. Hereby the calculation results in a better understanding of the recombination process by giving insight into the dynamics of charge carrier distributions. In this way we can show that the established theoretical formalism is also valid at longer pulses, if the previoulsy used fixed parameters are reintroduced as pulse length dependent. For the Roos chamber the dependence of these parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: ionization chamber; pulsed beam

  • Open Access Logo Abstract in refereed journal
    Medical Physics International 1(2013)2, 401

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20006
Publ.-Id: 20006


Concept of a compact rotating gantry for laser acceleration based proton therapy

Karsch, L.; Bussmann, M.; Enghardt, W.; Kroll, F.; Masood, U.; Pawelke, J.

n ionization chambers not all released charge is collected due to recombination of charge carriers. A physical description of the correction factor has been established for pulsed beams for many decades. However, it is only accurate if the pulse length is short compared to the collection time of the ionization chamber. In this contribution a new, more generalized description of the Saturation correction (i.e. for arbitrary pulse lengths) is presented.
Experiments have been performed using a Roos ionization chamber (TM34001, PTW Freiburg, Germany) because this model is a planparallel chamber often used in clinics. The pulse length dependence was investigated at the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE. For the new theoretical description a system of partial differential equations is solved iteratively. The free parameters were adjusted for best agreement with the experiment.
The experiment shows, that the established description of saturation correction is only valid for pulses shorter than 10 μs. Furthermore, our new theoretical description allows the determination of Saturation correction in a wide range, e.g., for beam time structures which are experimentally difficult to realize and for longer pulse durations. Hereby the calculation results in a better understanding of the recombination process by giving insight into the dynamics of charge carrier distributions. In this way we can show that the established theoretical formalism is also valid at longer pulses, if the previoulsy used fixed parameters are reintroduced as pulse length dependent. For the Roos chamber the dependence of these parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: proton therapy; gantry; laser acceleration

  • Open Access Logo Abstract in refereed journal
    Medical Physics International 1(2013)2, 566

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20005
Publ.-Id: 20005


Platinum-group minerals (PGM) nuggets from alluvial-eluvial placer deposits in the concentrically zoned mafic-ultramafic Uktus complex (Central Urals, Russia)

Zaccarini, F.; Pushkarev, E.; Garuti, G.; Krause, J.; Dvornik, G.; Stanley, C.; Bindi, L.

We report the results of a detailed mineralogical investigation of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and copper-gold nuggets from the Uktus Ural-Alaskan type complex in the Central Urals (Russia). The studied nuggets were sampled in alluvial-eluvial deposits from three small valleys, with temporary water flows, cutting across the Uktus massif. The volume of the washed samples varies from 0.03 to 0.08 m3 and a few tens of PGM nuggets, ranging in size from about 100 m m to about 2 mm, were collected. According to their chemical composition, the most abundant PGM are native Ir-Os and alloys in the Pt-Fe-Cu-Ni system. The following less abundant PGM were also recognised: sulfarsenides of the irarsite-hollingworthite-platariste series, sulfides such as laurite, cuproiridsite, kashinite and the sulfantimonide tolovkite. One alloy corresponding to the formula Cu3Au2 was found, and proved to be Cu-rich tetraauricupride. The nuggets of Uktus have, in some cases, a polygonal shape. However, most of them have an irregular morphology and are characterised by a porous rim and zoning. The investigated nuggets occur as single-phase crystals or as polyphase grains, composed of different PGM. One nugget displays a very complex texture, being composed of a Pt-Fe alloy associated with osmium and Cu-rich tetraauricupride. These minerals are in contact with quartz that contains minute inclusions of hollingworthite and platarsite. The mineralogical similarity with the PGM inclusions in the Uktus chromitites indicates these rocks as a possible source for the PGM nuggets. The presence of faceted morphology in some nuggets suggests that they were mechanically liberated and transported for a relatively short distance from their lode deposits. The nuggets characterized by a rounded shape and occurring in association with quartz and Cu-rich tetraauricupride have probably been reworked in the placer environment. Therefore, in the Uktus placers deposits, two types of PGM nuggets can coexist: (i) primary with a magmatic origin, i.e., only mechanically liberated from their source rock, and (ii) secondary, i.e., reworked and grown in the placers. The mineralogical assemblage of the Uktus PGM nuggets, the fact that the Uktus PGM placers have never been mined and the recent exponential increase in demand for noble metals make the placer deposits associated with the Uktus complex potentially important for the economic recovery of these rare metals, at least on a small scale.

Keywords: PGM nuggets; Cu-Au alloy; Uktus massif; Urals

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20003
Publ.-Id: 20003


Optimization of depolarization losses and scaling of a high average power diode pumped laser amplifier using Yb3+ doped CaF2

Albach, D.; Loeser, M.; Röser, F.; Siebold, M.; Schramm, U.

We compare different optimization techniques for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser amplifiers currently developed at the PENELOPE project. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermally induced depolarization losses are the main limiting factors besides laser induced damage. Optimizing the laser gain medium geometry and the choice of the gain medium are the key factors for highly efficient laser amplifiers.

Keywords: amplifier; depolarization; depolarization compensation; CaF2; diode pumping

  • Poster
    The 2nd Advanced Lasers and Photon Sources (ALPS’13), 23.-25.04.2013, Yokohama, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20002
Publ.-Id: 20002


X-ray diffraction investigations under non ambient conditions at the Rossendorf Beamline ROBL

Baehtz, C.; Grenzer, J.; Roshchupkina, O.; Kidambi, P. R.; Bayer, B.; Wheaterup, R.; Hofmann, S.

The Rossendorf Beamline ROBL at the ESRF is operated since 1998 by the Institute of Resource Ecology and Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research of the HZDR. In 2011-2012 the optics of the beamline such as mirrors double crystal monochromator and diagnostic was modernized to meet future experimental demands. The Materials Research Station is focusing on in-situ investigations. These are in thin film synthesis by magnetron sputtering, in-operando measurements on lithium ion batteries, surface modification by ion implantation and high temperature investigations using reactive atmosphere like in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes.
Iron nano-crystals are a common catalyst in the CVD growth reaction of carbon nano tubes. These crystals were formed by dewetting of the corresponding iron thin film at raised temperatures. Under reaction condition different iron phases such as Fe3C, alpha-Fe and gamma-Fe were detected. Their concentrations are strongly varying before, after and during the CVD process. This leads to the conclusion that besides Fe3C also metallic iron is catalytically active [1].
In graphene CVD nickel and copper are commonly used as catalyst. High resolution diffraction data were collected at reaction temperature. The lattice parameter was calculated using Lebail fit, corrected due to small shifts in sample surface temperature by the thermal expansion determined before. The results show a lattice expansion of nickel under different CVD atmospheres, indicating an uptake of hydrogen and carbon on interstitials in the metallic Ni. The carbon uptake is only partially reversible, but additional hydrogen can be assimilated .

Keywords: Diffraction; synchrotron; graphene; CNT; CVD

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society (DGK) 2013, 19.-22.3.2013, Freiberg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-20001
Publ.-Id: 20001


Recent experimental results on Thomson Scattering

Jochmann, A.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Couperus, J. P.; Zarini, O.; Steiniger, K.; Pausch, R.; Bussmann, M.; Schlenvoigt, H. P.; Helbig, U.; Kraft, S. D.; Cowan, T. E.; Sauerbrey, R.; Schramm, U.; Lehnert, U.; Kuntzsch, M.; Wagner, A.; Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Michel, P.; Mccanny, T.; Ledingham, K. D.; Troitsenko, S.; Stöhlker, T.

Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator was performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for future high brightness hard X-ray and potential gamma-ray sources. We further present a novel Thomson scattering geometry in order to avoid the restrictions on the X-ray photon yield imposed by the Rayleigh limit. The suggested traveling-wave setup (TWTS) allows an overlap of electron and laser beams, even after propagating over distances in the centimeter to meter range. Experimental designs are discussed and optimized for different scattering angles.

Keywords: Thomson scattering; x-ray; Traveling-wave Thomson scattering; TWTS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Conference Frontiers in Diagnostic Technologies, 25.-27.11.2013, Frascati, Italien

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19999
Publ.-Id: 19999


Reproducibility of target coverage in stereotactic spot scanning proton lung irradiation under high frequency jet ventilation.

Santiago, A.; Jelen, U.; Ammazzalorso, F.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Fritz, P.; Mühlnickel, W.; Enghardt, W.; Baumann, M.; Wittig, A.

PURPOSE:
To investigate scanned-beam proton dose distribution reproducibility in the lung under high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV).
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
For 11 patients (12 lesions), treated with single-fraction photon stereotactic radiosurgery under HFJV, scanned-beam proton plans were prepared with the TRiP98 treatment planning system using 2, 3-4 and 5-7 beams. The planning objective was to deliver at least 95% of the prescription of 33 Gy (RBE) to 98% of the PTV. Plans were subsequently recomputed on localization CT scans. Additionally, for selected cases, the effects of range uncertainties were investigated.
RESULTS:
Median GTV V(98%) was 98.7% in the original 2-field plans and 93.7% in their recomputation (p=0.039). The respective values were 99.0% and 98.0% (p=0.039) for the 3-4-field plans and 100.0% and 99.6% (p=0.125) for the 5-7-field plans. CT calibration uncertainties of ±3.5% led to a GTV V(98%) reduction below 1.5 percentual points in most cases and reaching 3 percentual points for 2-field plans with beam undershoot.
CONCLUSIONS:
Through jet ventilation, reproducible tumor fixation for proton radiotherapy of lung lesions is achievable, ensuring excellent target coverage in most cases. In few cases, non-optimal patient setup reproducibility induced density changes across beam entrance channels, leading to dosimetric deterioration between planning and delivery.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19998
Publ.-Id: 19998


Niedermolekulares Heparin senkt Thromboserisiko bei chemotherapeutisch behandelten Tumorpatienten

Heller, S.; Krause, M.

there ist no abstract

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19996
Publ.-Id: 19996


Molecular radiation biology/oncology at its best: cutting edge research presented at the 13th International Wolfsberg Meeting on Molecular Radiation Biology/Oncology.

Baumann, M.; Bodis, S.; Dikomey, E.; van der Kogel, A.; Overgaard, J.; Rodemann, H.; Wouters, B.

there ist no abstract

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19995
Publ.-Id: 19995


Modification of staging and treatment of head and neck cancer by FDG-PET/CT prior to radiotherapy.

Abramyuk, A.; Appold, S.; Zöphel, K.; Baumann, M.; Abolmaali, N.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Reliable tumor staging is a fundamental pre-requisite for efficient tumor therapy and further prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare head and neck cancer (HNC) staging before and after FDG-PET/CT, evaluating the stage modifications for radiotherapy (RT) planning.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A total of 102 patients with untreated primary HNC, who underwent conventional staging and staging including FDG-PET/CT before RT, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Blinded pre-FDG-PET/CT and post-FDG-PET/CT staging data were compared. The impact on patient management was tested by comparing the intention before and after FDG-PET/CT.
RESULTS:
Significant modifications of T, N, and M stage as well as clinical stage were detected after inclusion of FDG-PET/CT data (p = 0.002, 0.0006, 0.001, 0.03, respectively). Overall, the implementation of FDG-PET/CT led to modification of RT intention decision in 14 patients.
CONCLUSIONS:
FDG-PET/CT demonstrates essential influence on tumor staging in HNC patients scheduled for irradiation. Implementation of FDG-PET/CT in imaging protocol improves selection of candidates for curative and palliative RT and allows further optimization of treatment management and therapy intention.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19994
Publ.-Id: 19994


Arbeiten zur MHD am HZDR mit Bezug zur Kristallzüchtung

Gerbeth, G.

Es wird eine Übersicht zur magnetischen Strömungsbeeinflussung in Kristallzüchtungsprozessen gegeben.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fraunhofer Forschungszentrum für Silizium.Photovoltaik (FhG-CSP), 13.12.2013, Halle, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19993
Publ.-Id: 19993


Magnetic stirring of melts

Gerbeth, G.

Basics and applications on magnetic stirring of melts are given

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Sommerschule des DFG-Graduiertenkollegs der TU Ilmenau, 01.10.2013, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19992
Publ.-Id: 19992


Arbeiten zur Flüssigmetall-Magnetohydrodynamik (MHD) am Institut für Fluiddynamik des HZDR - Grundlagen und Anwendungen

Gerbeth, G.

Es wird eine Übersicht zu MHD-Arbeiten am HZDR gegeben

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Klausur des SFB 799 der TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 04.09.2013, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19991
Publ.-Id: 19991


Concluding Remarks and Outlook on the Helmholtz-Alliance Liquid Metal Technologies (LIMTECH)

Gerbeth, G.

A summary of the SFB works is giben with an outlook on future cooperative activities.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Symposium on Electromagnetic Flow Control in Metallurgy, Crystal Growth and Electrochemistry, 25.-27.03.2013, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19990
Publ.-Id: 19990


Hydrogen Plasma Induced Modification of Photoluminescence from a-SiN(x):H Thin Films

Bommali, R.; Ghosh, S.; Prakash, G. V.; Gao, K.; Zhou, S.; Khan, S. A.; Srivastava, P.

Low temperature (250-350oC) hydrogen plasma annealing (HPA) treatments have been performed on amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) thin films having a range of compositions and subsequent modification of photoluminescence (PL) is investigated. The PL spectral shape and peak positions for the as deposited films could be tuned with composition and excitation energies. HPA induced modification of PL of these films is found to depend on the N/Si ratio (x). Upon HPA the PL spectra show an emergence of a red emission band for x≤1, whereas an overall increase of intensity without change in the spectral shape is observed for x>1. The emission observed in the Si rich films is attributed to nanoscale a-Si:H inclusions. The enhancement is maximum for off-stoichiometric films (x~1) and decreases as the compositions of a-Si (x=0) and a-Si3N4 (x=1.33) are approached, implying high density of non-radiative defects around x=1. The diffusion of hydrogen in these films is also analyzed by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) technique.

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19989
Publ.-Id: 19989


Design and construction for a moving temperature sensor inside a jet condensation experiment

Lahmer, O.

Keywords: temperature sensor; jet condensation; design

  • Study thesis
    ENSAME Valencienne Fr, 2013
    54 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19988
Publ.-Id: 19988


Survival of the best heads: The physical merits of lipid headgroup adaptation in anhydrobiosis

Abu Sharkh, S.; Erkut, C.; Kurzchalia, T.; Fahmy, K.

Anhydrobiotic organisms down-regulate their metabolism and preserve their cellular architecture at strongly reduced water potential to resume life after periods of desiccation. We have studied the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans which represents an anhydrobiotic state of this genetically fully described organism. After preconditioning, an adaptational 4 days period of reduced humidity, survival of harsh desiccation occurs and depends on the synthesis of the disaccharide trehalose [1]. Using the temperature-sensitive strain daf-2(e1370), which arrests in the dauer state when grown at 25 °C, we show by thin layer chromatography that the phospholipid composition is altered from high to low PC/PE content during preconditioning. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy of lyotropic phase transitions induced within seconds in extracted C.elegans phospholipids by short hydration pulses, reveals that the decreased PC content allows a larger coupling of headgroup hydration to acyl chain packing as compared to the PE-rich state. The compressibility modulus was derived from CH-stretching frequency changes and the effect of trehalose studied. The data suggest a dynamic interaction of trehalose with the lipids during fast hydration at low humidity (75-85 % relative humidity) such that hydration water is transiently directed to the sub-headgroup carbonyl region, rather than being stably entrapped by trehalose. In combination with film balance experiments we show that the headgroup remodelling during preconditioning specifically increases the interaction of trehalose with the phospholipids, leading to a "softer" PC-depleted membrane which responds with larger lateral expansion during fast hydration transients. We explain the advantage of a reduced PC/PE ratio for anydrobiosis by the different intrinsic hydration properties of the two headgroups [2-3] which allows a more flexible water-mediated H-bond-network to form in the presence of trehalose. As a consequence, phase transitions on the seconds time-scale can proceed under close to equilibrium conditions in membranes of preconditioned worms. These molecular processes result in the relief of osmotic strain during membrane rehydration, thereby preventing membrane rupture during the critical phase of typically instantaneous rehydration of the desiccated anhydrobiotic organism before resuming its normal metabolism.

Keywords: Fourier transform infrared; time-resolved; membrane; hydration

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Workshop "Molecular Membrane Biophysics", 03.-05.03.2014, Hünfeld, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19987
Publ.-Id: 19987


Hydrodynamische Untersuchung zum Einfluss von Flüssigviskosität und Feststoffanteil in Blasensäulen

Kahsnitz, D.

Keywords: bubble column; solid fraction; liquid viscosity

  • Study thesis
    TU Dresden, 2013
    70 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19986
Publ.-Id: 19986


Analysis and Applications of a Generalized Multi-Field Two-Fluid Approach for Treatment of Multi-Scale Interfacial Structures in High Void-Fraction Regimes

Montoya, G.; Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Hänsch, S.; Baglietto, E.

High void fraction multiphase-flow regimes are commonly encountered in the nuclear industry where safety analysis of nuclear power plants requires reliable predictions on steam-water flows in case of different accident scenarios. Within the boiling phenomena in pipes, a transition throughout different flow patterns from bubbly to churn to annular flow is expected to occur. Those flow regimes, characterized by very high void fractions, are represented by different scales in terms of their gas structures.

It is known that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been widely developed for single phase flows, but strongly limited in the case of multiphase flows. This is due to the high complexity on representing its gas-liquid interface. Furthermore, most of the recent advances in code development and validation for multiphase flow have been addressed specifically to bubbly flows. In the case of such low void fraction regimes, the widely known averaging Eulerian multi-fluid approach is commonly used to describe its scales characterized by interfacial structures smaller than the grid size. For flow situations with large-scale interfaces, like annular or horizontal stratified flows, interface tracking methods are commonly used. Since in the case of high void fraction regimes, such as churn-turbulent flow, dispersed flows and large interfaces occur simultaneously, a combination of these modeling approaches could be needed.

This paper presents the application of a recently developed concept for the treatment of multiphase flows where different scales in terms of interfacial structures can be found. This approach, known as Generalized TwO Phase flow or GENTOP, considers the definition of fully-resolved continuous gas phase where the continuous gas summarizes all gas structures which are large enough to be resolved within the computed mesh. The concept works as part of an extension of the bubble population balance approach known as the inhomogeneous MUltiple SIze Group (MUSIG), which allows the consideration of different bubble size groups, each with its own velocity field inside the dispersed phase. Within the polydispersed gas, bubble coalescence and breakup allow the transfer between different size structures, while the modeling of mass transfer between the polydispersed and continuous gas, allows considering transitions between different gas morphologies depending of the flow situations. Within the concept, different parametric studies have been made for co-current vertical gas-water pipe flow, and comparisons against experimental data for all the current calculations are shown. The experiments have been conducted in the TOPFLOW and the MT Loop facilities at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.

Keywords: CFD; GENTOP; MUSIG; multi-scale; multiphase-flow

  • Contribution to proceedings
    2014 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2014), 06.-09.04.2014, Charlotte, North Carolina-Westin, United States of America
    Proceedings of ICAPP 2014, Volume 3, 1639-1654
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2014 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2014), 06.-09.04.2014, Charlotte, North Carolina-Westin, United States of America
  • Poster
    2014 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2014), 06.-09.04.2014, Charlotte, North Carolina-Westin, United States of America

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19985
Publ.-Id: 19985


A Generalized Multi-Field Two-Fluid Approach for Treatment of Multi-Scale Interfacial Structures in High Void-Fraction Regimes

Montoya, G.; Baglietto, E.; Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.

High void fraction multiphase-flow regimes are commonly encountered in the nuclear industry where safety analysis of nuclear power plants requires reliable predictions on steam-water flows in case of different accident scenarios. Within the boiling phenomena in pipes, a transition throughout different flow patterns from bubbly to churn to annular flow is expected to occur. Those flow regimes, characterized by very high void fractions, are represented by different scales in terms of their gas structures.

A concept has been recently developed for the treatment of multiphase flows where different scales in terms of interfacial structures can be found. This approach, known as Generalized TwO Phase flow or GENTOP, considers the definition of a fully-resolved continuous gas phase where the continuous gas summarizes all gas structures which are large enough to be resolved within the computed mesh. The concept works as part of an extension of the bubble population balance approach known as the inhomogeneous MUSIG, which allows the consideration of different bubble size groups, each with its own velocity field. Within the polydispersed gas, bubble coalescence and breakup allow the transfer between different size structures, while the modeling of mass transfer between the polydispersed and continuous gas, allows considering transitions between different gas morphologies depending of the flow situations.

Keywords: CFD; GENTOP; MUSIG; multi-scale; multiphase-flow

  • Poster
    MIT Energy Night, 18.10.2013, Cambridge, United States of America

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19984
Publ.-Id: 19984


Comparative Analysis of High Void Fraction Regimes using an Averaging Euler-Euler Multi-Fluid Apporach and a Generalized Two-Phase Flow (GENTOP) Concept

Montoya, G.; Baglietto, E.; Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Hoehne, T.

Complex multiphase gas-liquid flows, including boiling, are usually encountered in safety related nuclear applications. For CFD purposes, modeling the transition from low to high void fraction regimes represents a non-trivial challenge due to the increasing complexity of its interface. For example, churn-turbulent and annular flows, which are typically encounter for these gas volume fraction ranges, are dominated by highly deformable bubbles. Multiphase CFD has been so far relying on an averaged Euler-Euler simulation approach to model a wide regime of two-phase applications. While this methodology has shown to date demonstrated reasonable results (Montoya et al., 2013), it is evidently highly dependable on the accuracy and validity of the mechanistic models for interfacial forces, which are necessary to recover information lost during the averaging process. Unfortunately existing closures, which have been derived from experimental as well as DNS data, are hardly applicable to high void fraction highly-deformable gas structures. An alternative approach for representing the physics behind the high void fraction phenomena, is to consider a multi-scale method. Based on the structure of the gas-liquid interfaces, different gaseous morphologies should be described by different CFD approaches, such as interface tracking methods for larger than the grid size interfacial-scales, or the averaged Euler-Euler approach for smaller than grid size scales, such as bubbly or droplet flow. A novel concept for considering flow regimes where both, dispersed and continuous interfacial structures could occur, has been developed in the past (Hänsch et al., 2012), and has been further advanced and validated for pipe flows under high void fraction regimes (Montoya et al., 2014) and other relevant cases, such as the dam-break with an obstacle (Hänsch et al., 2013). Still, various short-comings have been shown in this approach associated mostly to the descriptive models utilized to obtain the continuous gas morphology from within the averaged Eulerian simulations. This paper presents improvements on both concepts as well as direct comparison between the two approaches, based on newly obtained experimental data. Both models are based on the bubble populations balance approach known as the inhomogeneous MUltiple SIze Group or MUSIG (Krepper et al., 2008) in order to define an adequate number of bubble size groups with its own velocity fields. The numerical calculations have been performed with the commercially available ANSYS CFX 14.5 software, and the results have been validated using experimental data from the MT-Loop and TOPFLOW facilities from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Germany (Prasser et al., 2007).

Keywords: CFD modeling; high void fraction; multiphase flow; two-fluid model; GENTOP; CFD validation

  • Contribution to proceedings
    2014 22st International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE22), 07.-11.07.2014, Prague, Czech Republic
    Proceedings of ICONE22
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2014 22st International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE22), 07.-11.07.2014, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Poster
    2014 22st International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE22), 07.-11.07.2014, Prague, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19983
Publ.-Id: 19983


Verbesserte Behandlungschancen durch molekulares Targeting in der Radioonkologie

Cordes, N.; Gurtner, K.; Belka, C.

Hintergrund
Intensitätsmodulierte und biologisch geführte Hochpräzisionsbestrahlung bestimmt heute die moderne Radioonkologie. Wenig ausgeschöpft hingegen ist die Gabe zielgerichteter molekularer Medikamente zur Strahlensensibilisierung maligner solider Tumoren.
Ziel
Der aktuelle Stand neuer molekularer Behandlungsstrategien simultan zur Strahlentherapie soll aufgrund von präklinischen und klinischen Daten in diesem Beitrag diskutiert werden.
Material und Methoden
Recherche und Auswertung von Literatur und klinischen Studien.
Ergebnisse
Durch besseres Verständnis der Tumorbiologie konnten potenzielle Zielmoleküle für pharmakologischen Inhibitoren und Antikörpern identifiziert werden, von denen einige bereits präklinisch und klinisch evaluiert werden. Lokoregionäre Tumorkontrolle und Gesamtüberleben wurden z. B. durch die antikörpervermittelte Hemmung des epidermalen Wachstumsfaktorrezeptors (EGFR) in Kombination mit Strahlentherapie bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren verbessert. Aktuell zeichnet sich ab, dass Antikörper gegen den vaskulären endothelialen Wachstumsfaktor (VEGF) die Wirkung der Strahlentherapie bei Glioblastomen verbessern könnten.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19981
Publ.-Id: 19981


EGFR/JIP-4/JNK2 signaling attenuates cetuximab-mediated radiosensitization of squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Eke, I.; Schneider, L.; Förster, C.; Zips, D.; Kunz-Schughart, L.; Cordes, N.

EGF receptor (EGFR) promotes tumor growth as well as radio- and chemoresistance in various human malignancies including squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). In addition to deactivation of prosurvival signaling, cetuximab-mediated EGFR targeting might concomitantly induce self-attenuating signaling bypasses. Identification of such bypass mechanisms is key to improve the efficacy of targeted approaches. Here, we show great similarity of EGFR signaling and radiation survival in cetuximab-treated SCC cells grown in a more physiologic three-dimensional extracellular matrix and as tumor xenografts in contrast to conventional monolayer cell cultures. Using phosphoproteome arrays, we observed strong induction of JNK2 phosphorylation potentially resulting from cetuximab-inhibited EGFR through c-jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-4 (JIP-4), which was identified using an immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometric approach. Inhibition of this signaling bypass by JIP-4 or JNK2 knockdown or pharmacologic JNK2 inhibition enhanced cetuximab efficacy and tumor cell radiosensitivity. Our findings add new facets to EGFR signaling and indicate signaling bypass possibilities of cancer cells to improve their survival on cetuximab treatment. By deactivation of cetuximab-self-attenuating JNK2-dependent signaling, the cytotoxicity, and radiosensitizing potential of cetuximab can be augmented.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19980
Publ.-Id: 19980


Flüssig-fest Stoffübertragung in Festbettreaktoren

Hermann-Heber, R.

Keywords: solid bed reactors; mass transfer

  • Study thesis
    TU Dresden, 2013
    70 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19979
Publ.-Id: 19979


Fabrication and Characterization of Patterned Exchange-Coupled Trilayers

Langer, M.

In 1998 Demokritov et al. succeeded in altering the coupling of exchange coupled Fe/Cr/Fe-trilayers from ferro- to antiferromagntic for the first time by using ion irradiation. Since then, ion irradiation has been used as an advanced technique for magnetic patterning of antiferromagnetically coupled trilayers. In this work patterning by means of ion implantation was applied on exchangecoupled Co90Fe10-trilayers by using (Eirr = 80 keV) Co+-Ions. For that purpose a transition towards appropriate ferromagnetic properties was achieved with an ion-fluence of F = 5 · 1015 Co+=cm2. Stripe patterns fabricated by this techinique were investigated and compared to conventionally patterned (by means of reactive plasma etching) stripes. By using Kerr-microscopy domain structure and the shape of the magnetization reversal was studied. At the boundary of implanted elements edge curling walls were observed (field orientation perpendicular to the stripes) which did not occur in etched samples. Observed differences in the switching behavior could primarily be explained with changes of the magnetic material properties (e.g. anisotropy and saturation magnetization) due to the ion irradiation. Implanted 2 μm wide stripes showed a collective switching with quasi-domains during the magnetic reversal. In this process interactions of the transversal magnetization component with the adjacent non-irradiated antiferromagnetically coupled trilayers were observed. It was found that this transversal component governs the intensity of the collective switching behavior, via extensions of an intermediate domain wall which was simulated micromagnetically in this work. The results for the domain wall widths which were calculated for different anisotropy directions provide a comprehensive picture together with the Kerr-microscopy analysis.

  • Diploma thesis
    HZDR, TU Dresden, 2012
    90 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19978
Publ.-Id: 19978


Fabrication and characterization of patterned exchange-coupled trilayers

Langer, M.; Osten, J.; Neudert, A.; Körner, M.; Banholzer, A.; Mönch, I.; Mattheis, R.; Fassbender, J.; McCord, J.

Magnetic patterning by means of ion-implantation is an advanced technique to fabricate ferromagnetic micro-/nanostructures. In this case antiferromagnetically exchange coupled trilayers, consisting of two Co90Fe10 layers with a Ru interlayer, were used. The ion induced intermixing of the interlayer with its surrounding magnetic layers alters the coupling to a ferromagnetic one. Therefore Co ions with energies of 40-80 keV and a fluence of 5·1015 cm−2 were used. Hence, applying masks, ferromagnetically coupled micro-/nanometer sized elements (stripes, squares, circles etc.), embedded in a so-called artificial antiferromagnetic environment, have been fabricated. These structures were characterized by the use of Kerr-microscopy and MOKE-magnetometry to determine the mutual influence of the ferromagnetic elements with the antiferromagnetically coupled environment. Also their magnetic switching behavior was compared to etched single ferromagnetic structures. Domain pinning at the element boundaries was observed.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung 2012, 25.-30.03.2012, Berlin, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19977
Publ.-Id: 19977


Two-magnon scattering and mode-splitting in 1-dimensional quasi-magnonic crystals

Langer, M.; Gallardo, R.; Lenz, K.; Banholzer, A.; Grebing, J.; Körner, M.; Landeros, P.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.

The magnetic relaxation in quasi 1-dimensional periodic nanostructures (magnonic crystals) is investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). In thin ferromagnetic films, the magnetization dynamics are governed by intrinsic effects like Gilbert damping and spin-pumping but also by extrinsic effects like two-magnon scattering due to inevitable defect structures. By using nanoscale periodically modulated magnetic films we are able to artificially create and thus control those defect structures necessary to induce two-magnon scattering. The results are compared to available analytical theory [1].
The magnetic modulation was created by lithographically defined stripes and subsequent ion beam irradiation. The ion beam energy was chosen such that the ions create a magnetic perturbation at the surface. This slightly reduces the saturation magnetization in the irradiated stripes and hence the effective magnetic thickness. These stripe defects resemble a periodic dipolar scattering potential, which couples the uniform with the final-state magnons in the two-magnon scattering process.
Broadband ferromagnetic resonance is used to measure the resonance field Hres and linewidth ΔH for different field directions and frequencies. The frequency-dependent measurements with the external magnetic field aligned parallel to the stripes show only a single resonance mode and linear increase of ΔH. Therefore the magnetic relaxation is purely Gilbert-like. With the magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the periodic structure the frequency dependence exhibits a rich mode-splitting, which can be calculated analytically.

  • Poster
    IEEE Magnetics Society Summer School 2013, 10.06.2013, Assisi, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19976
Publ.-Id: 19976


Entwicklung einer logarithmischen Vorverstärkerschaltung für ein Röntgendetektorsystem

Thomas, P.

Keywords: logarithmic preamplifier; x-ray detector system

  • Diploma thesis
    HTW Dresden, 2013
    70 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19975
Publ.-Id: 19975


Effect of Ga+ irradiation in molecular-beam epitaxy grown Pt/Co/Pt thin films studied by magneto-optic spectroscopy

Jakubisova-Liskova, E.; Visnovsky, S.; Wawro, A.; Baczewski, L. T.; Mazalski, P.; Maziewski, A.; Liedke, M. O.; McCord, J.; Fassbender, J.

In-depth profile changes induced by Ga+ ion irradiation in Pt(5 nm)/Co(3.3 nm)/Pt(20 nm)/Mo(20 nm) sandwiches MBE grown on Al2O3 substrates are deduced from complex magneto optic polar Kerr effect (PMOKE) measurements at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The Ga+ irradiation stimulate a redistribution of Pt and Co and leads to broadening of alloyed regions at Pt Co and Co Pt interfaces, which is evaluated using PMOKE spectra. The effect of four Ga+ fluences D between zero and 6×1015 Ga+/cm2 was studied. The observed PMOKE azimuth rotation peak centered at 4.5 eV reaches the maximum of 0.42 degree at D=1×1015 Ga+/cm2 and becomes thus enhanced by a factor of 3.2 with respect to that in the non-irradiated sample. At D=6×1015 Ga+/cm2 the peak amplitude falls to 0.05 degree. To find the in-depth profile of Co concentration s in the sandwiches as a function of D, the PMOKE azimuth rotation and ellipticity spectra are compared with a multilayer model, where ideal flat interfaces are replaced by sequences of CosPt1-s layers. The dependence on D is compared with that evaluated by simulation of the structural effects of ion irradiation. At the highest D, the irradiation produces an almost complete erosion of the top Pt and Co accompanied by mixing at the Pt-Mo interface.

Keywords: MBE; ion irradiation; PMOKE; CoPt

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-19973
Publ.-Id: 19973


Pages: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216] [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263] [264] [265] [266] [267] [268] [269] [270] [271] [272] [273] [274] [275] [276] [277] [278] [279] [280] [281] [282] [283]