Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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31738 Publications
Ion Beams in Materials Processing and Analysis
Schmidt, B.; Wetzig, K.;
The main purpose of this book is two-fold. On the one hand, it is meant as a compendium for the physical fundamentals of ion-solid interactions, which are important for the understanding of ion implantation, ion beam sputtering, ion channeling, ion-induced damage formation and ion-beam mixing, but also for the comprehension of ion beam synthesis, ion-induced phase transformation and nano-patterning. Therefore, the book addresses both scientists and research engineers. The principles of ion-solid interactions are not only of fundamental importance, but ion beam irradiation of solids is becoming an increasingly important technique for modifying surface and thin film properties. Therefore, this book is also intended to bridge the gap between fundamental phenomena and their technological applications in modern materials research, development and analysis. The book demonstrates the possibilities for optimisation of solid state properties related to modern functional materials such as doped semiconductors and metal based layers for micro- and nanoelectronics, to metal alloys, nanopatterned surfaces and to new ion beam synthesized materials. A thematic rounding of the book is realized by special ion beam applications in selected materials fields. To these belong the use of ion beam analysis in magnetoelectronic layers, in art and archeometry and also in life sciences. The present book is organized into several chapters covering the range from principal aspects and phenomena over actual technological and device concepts to contemporary challenges in materials science. It thereby mainly concentrates on the relevant fields of semiconductors, nanomaterials, metals and polymers, interfaces and thin layers.
  • Book (Authorship)
    Wien, Austria: Springer-Verlag, 2013
    418 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 17229 - Permalink


Synthesis, microstructure, and mechanical properties of YPd3B thin films
Takahashi, T.; Iskandar, R.; Munnik, F.; Music, D.; Mayer, J.; Schneider, J. M.;
Ternary Y-Pd-B thin films have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering from elemental targets to investigate the mechanical properties of the perovskite YPd3B phase. The as-deposited YPd2.73B1.18 film is identified as a single phase fcc-type structure with the measured lattice parameter of 0.415(5) nm. The film microstructure consists of dense columnar grains. The elastic modulus of the YPd2.73B1.18 film is determined to be 137 GPa by nanoindentation, which is in good agreement with ab initio calculations reported previously. The measurement of the critical shear stress for the onset of plasticity suggests that YPd3B can be classified as ductile material.
Keywords: Thin films; Transition metal alloys and compounds; Vapor deposition; Mechanical properties

Publ.-Id: 17228 - Permalink


Electron microscopic imaging of an ion beam mixed SiO2/Si interface correlated with photo- and cathodoluminescence
Fitting, H.-J.; Fitting-Kourkoutis, L.; Schmidt, B.; Liedke, B.; Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Zatsepin, A. F.;
Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of a thin 28 nm SiO2 layer on Si substrate implanted by Si+ ions with an energy of 12 keV are reported. The maximum concentration of implanted Si+ ions is located near the SiO2–Si interface region leading there to an ion beam mixed gradual SiOX (2>x>0) buffer region, which is even extended into the Si substrate by atomic collisions (knocking-off and knocking-on processes) during ion implantation. Thus, the width of this SiOX buffer layer amounts to about 30 nm extended from 10 to 40 nm depth. The SiOX profile is demonstrated by the above given electron microscopic and spectroscopic methods. Thermal annealing leads to partial phase separation from SiOX1 to SiOX2 with x2>x1 and silicon precipitates (partially nc-Si) changing the photo- (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra especially in the near IR-region, probably, due to the formation of Si nanoclusters and associated quantum confinement effects.
Keywords: cathodoluminescence, energy-filtered TEM, ion beam mixing, silicon suboxides

Publ.-Id: 17227 - Permalink


Update on the laser facility at HZDR
Kraft, S.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Ion instrumentation workshop, 07.-08.06.2012, Palaiseau, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 17226 - Permalink


Scintillator-based online detectors for laser-accelerated protons – Concepts and realizations at the DRACO lab
Metzkes, J.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Stiller, N.; Schramm, U.; Karsch, L.; Richter, C.; Pawelke, J.; Sobiella, M.;
Es werden zwei am HZDR entwickelte Online-Detektoren für laserbeschleunigte Protonen basiert auf Plastikszintillatoren vorgestellt.
Keywords: online detectors for laser-accelerated protons, plastic scintillators
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Instrumentation for Diagnostics and Control of Laser-Accelerated Proton (Ion) Beams: Second Workshop, 07.-08.06.2012, Paris, Frankreich
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    NAUUL 2013 - 2nd Workshop Operation of PW-class lasers, 13.-14.06.2013, Dornburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17225 - Permalink


The impact of climate transitions on the radionuclide transport through a sedimentary aquifer
Flügge, J.; Stockmann, M.; Schneider, A.; Noseck, U.;
In long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories in deep formations, geological time scales have to be considered. Possible future climatic changes are expected to alter the boundary conditions, the flow regime and the geochemical environment in the aquifers. The codes d³f (distributed density-driven flow) and r³t (radionuclides, reaction, retardation, and transport) are being developed to simulate contaminant transport in large heterogeneous areas over long periods in time, considering hydrogeochemical interactions and radioactive decay. A new methodology to use temporally and spatially variant sorption coefficients depending on the geochemical environment is being developed by introducing the transport of relevant components in solution and a pre-computed matrix of sorption coefficients with values being dependent on these components. In Germany, the Gorleben salt dome is being investigated as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository. A sea water inundation will lead to a decrease of the flow velocities and a horizontal salinity-dependent stratification of the groundwater, while permafrost formation in the upper aquifer and an inflow of glacial meltwater into the lower aquifer will lead to low salinities and high flow velocities in unfrozen zones. Transport simulations employing conventional sorption coefficients are the basis for future analyses employing the new methodology.
Keywords: Climate transitions, nuclear waste disposal, radionuclide transport, numerical modeling, smart Kd-concept, Northern Germany
  • Book chapter
    Jude Cobbing; Shafick Adams; Ingrid Dennis; Kornelius Riemann: Assessing and Managing Groundwater in Different Environments, Netherlands: CRC Press, 2013, 9781138001008, Kapitel 11

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Publ.-Id: 17224 - Permalink


Approaching physical limits of ZnO:Al film performance for application in photovoltaics
Cornelius, S.; Vinnichenko, M.; Munnik, F.; Heller, R.; Möller, W.;
ZnO:Al films which combine high optical transmittance in the visible, maximum carrier mobility (mu), moderate free electron densities (Ne) and high surface roughness are of special interest for application as transparent front electrode in thin film solar cells.
Present work focuses on systematic investigation of ZnO:Al films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering, a cost-efficient deposition method, using metal Zn-Al alloy targets with a wide range of Al target concentrations (c_Al). The observed dependence of the mobility on Ne is discussed in the framework of ionized impurity scattering and clustering as well as grain boundary limited transport which predicts a fundamental physical limit of mu. Precise control of growth parameters results in high quality polycrystalline and epitaxial ZnO:Al films exhibiting optimum mobility values (>45 and >55 cmK/Vs, respectively) approaching the upper limit set by ionized impurity scattering. A combination of ion beam analysis for Al quantification in the film with Hall effect measurements shows that above a critical Al concentration (~2.5 at.%) further Al enrichment in the films with increasing substrate temperature leads to deterioration of electrical properties. This approach also enables estimation of the fraction of electrically active Al in the ZnO matrix, which is rarely reported in a quantitative and systematic manner. It is shown that the Al donor activation in the ZnO:Al films does not exceed 40%.
Keywords: transparent conductive oxide, zinc oxide, dopant activation, ion beam analysis, mobility
  • Poster
    EMRS Spring Meeting 2012, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17223 - Permalink


Nature and origin of the protolith succession to the Paleoproterozoic Serra do Navio manganese deposit, Amapa Province, Brazil
Chisonga, B. C.; Gutzmer, J.; Beukes, N. J.; Huizenga, J. M.;
Until its closure in 1997, the Serra do Navio deposit, located in Amapá Province, Brazil, was one of the most important sources of high-grade manganese ore to the North American market. The high-grade manganese oxide ores were derived by lateritic weathering from metasedimentary manganese protoliths of the Serra do Navio Formation. The local geological context and nature of this protolith succession are not well understood, due to poor surface outcrop conditions, and intense deformation. However, based on similar age, regional tectonic setting and lithology the Paleoproterozoic volcanosedimentary succession that includes the Serra do Navio Formation is widely believed to be similar in origin and laterally equivalent to the Birimian Supergroup in West Africa. For the present investigation several diamond drill cores intersecting the protolith succession were studied. Detailed petrographic and whole rock geochemical studies permit distinction of two fundamental lithological groups comprising of a total of five lithotypes. Biotite schist and graphitic schist lithotypes are interpreted as former metapelites. A greywacke or pyroclastic protolith cannot be excluded for the biotite schist, whereas the graphitic schist certainly originated as a sulfide-rich carbonaceous mudstone. Rhodochrosite marble, Mn-calcite marble and Mn-silicate rock are grouped together as manganiferous carbonate rocks. Manganese lutite constitutes the most probable protolith for rhodochrosite marble, whereas Mn-calcite marble was derived from Mn-rich marl and Mn-silicate rock from variable mixtures of Mn-rich marl and chert.

The sedimentary succession at the Serra do Navio deposit is similar to that encountered at many other black shale and chert-hosted Mn carbonate deposits. A metallogenetic model is proposed, predicting deposition of manganese and closely associated chert in intra-arc basins, in environments that were bypassed by distal siliciclastic (carbonaceous mud) and proximal pyroclastic/siliciclastic detritus. Positive Ce anomalies and δ13CVPDB values of − 4.3 to − 9.4 per mill suggest that manganiferous carbonates derived during suboxic diagenesis from sedimentary Mn4+ oxyhydroxide precipitates. Metamorphic alteration of manganese carbonate–chert assemblages resulted in the formation of Mn-silicates, most importantly rhodonite and tephroite; porphyroblastic spessartine formed where Mn-carbonate reacted with aluminous clay minerals. Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions in spessartine porphyroblasts suggests that peak metamorphic conditions reached the upper greenschist facies (1–2 kbars and 400–500 °C). Retrograde metamorphism is marked by partial re-carbonation, expressed by the formation of small volumes of rhodochrosite, and Mn-calcite that are closely associated with quartz, chlorite and minor amounts of sulfides related to post-metamorphic veinlets. It is this metamorphosed succession that sourced the high-grade manganese oxide ores during prolonged lateritic weathering.
Keywords: Serra do Navio manganese deposit; Brazil; Lithogeochemistry; Metamorphic petrology; Fluid inclusion microthermometry; Metallogenesis

Publ.-Id: 17222 - Permalink


Manganese metallogenesis: Introduction to the special issue
Polgari, M.; Gutzmer, J.;
Research into the origin and distribution of manganese deposits has always occupied a small but important niche in economic geology. Of particular value for the progress achieved in manganese deposit research was a succession of programs funded by the International Geological Correlation Programmes (IGCP). Through six of these IGCP projects international research collaboration was effectively supported from 1975 until 2002 (Table 1). These programs enabled a large number of scientists and postgraduate students from various continents and countries to interact with one another. Manganese ore deposits worldwide were investigated during field workshops and results were presented at numerous international conferences.
Keywords: Manganese, metallogenesis

Publ.-Id: 17221 - Permalink


Master equation approach of classical noise in intersubband detectors
Delga, A.; Carras, M.; Trinité, V.; Guériaux, V.; Doyennette, L.; Nedelcu, A.; Schneider, H.; Berger, V.;
Electronic transport in intersubband detectors is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Within the framework of inter–Wannier-Stark level electron scattering, consistent dark current and low-frequency noise expressions are obtained through the resolution of the two first moments of a master equation for classical particles. In particular, the formulation of noise bridges over the vision of uncorrelated Johnson and shot contributions. Theoretical predictions are compared to measurements for five quantum well detectors, either photovoltaic or photoconductive, whose detection wavelength span from 8 μmto17 μm. Quantitative agreement with experiment is found for a broad range of biases and temperatures. Correlation effects are discussed and proven to either reduce or enhance the noise.
Keywords: quantum well infrared photodetector, intersubband transition, noise

Publ.-Id: 17220 - Permalink


REE redistribution during hydrothermal alteration of ores of the Kalahari Manganese Deposit
Chetty, D.; Gutzmer, J.;
The Kalahari Manganese Deposit (KMD) is the largest land-based manganese deposit, hosting approximately 80% of the world's known, mineable manganese resources. The deposit, located near Kuruman in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, is one of five erosional relics of the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2 Ga) Hotazel Formation, with sedimentary manganese ores occurring as up to 50 m thick beds interbedded with banded iron-formation (BIF) and hematite lutite.

The study focuses on the manganese ores of the Nchwaning–Gloria mining area of the northern KMD. In this area, pronounced mineralogical and major element alteration was imparted on the sedimentary manganese ores by a structurally-controlled hydrothermal fluid flow event. Most notable effects of hydrothermal alteration are the decomposition and leaching of Ca- and Mg-carbonate, and marked residual enrichment of manganese. On the basis of mineral assemblage, grade, texture and geochemical characteristics, three ore types were distinguished in the studied sample set, classified into least altered (LA), partially altered (PA) and advanced altered (AA) types. Advanced altered ores may be further classified into five different types, based on mineral assemblages that contain hausmannite and/or braunite as significant minerals. The rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of these fundamental ore types was studied in detail, to document REE mobility during hydrothermal alteration.

Total REE concentrations in LA ores were found to be very low (14–22 ppm) and remarkably uniform, within the range typically observed for BIF. Hydrothermal alteration results in residual enrichment and a much larger scatter in REE contents. A small Ce anomaly observed in the protolith remains similar in magnitude when observed in PAAS-normalised REE plots. The data define, however, a power trend in the (Ce/Ce*) vs (Pr/Pr*) diagram. Such behaviour is interpreted in terms of a conservative system that was predominantly protolith-buffered. Local remobilisation of REE during hydrothermal alteration is attributed to the dissolution of diagenetic apatite and redistribution of hydrothermal trace minerals, including neoformed apatite, monazite and cerianite.
Keywords: REE; Kalahari; Manganese; Hydrothermal alteration; Cerium anomaly

Publ.-Id: 17219 - Permalink


Timing of supergene enrichment of low-grade sedimentary manganese ores in the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa
Gutzmer, J.; Du Plooy, A. P.; Beukes, N. J.;
Low-grade carbonate-rich manganese ore of sedimentary origin in the giant Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa, is upgraded to high-grade todorokite–manganomelane manganese ore by supergene alteration below the unconformity at the base of the Cenozoic Kalahari Formation. Incremental laser-heating 40Ar/39Ar dating of samples from the supergene altered manganese ore suggest that chemical weathering processes below the Kalahari unconformity peaked at around 27.8 Ma, 10.1 Ma and 5.2 Ma ago. Older ages are dominant in the upper part of the weathering profile, while younger ages are characteristic of the deeper part of the profile. Younger ages partially overprint older ages in the upper part of the weathering profile and demonstrate the downward progression of the weathering front by as little as 10 cm per million years. The oldest age obtained in the weathering profile, namely 42 Ma, is considered a minimum estimate for the onset of the post African I cycle of weathering and erosion that followed the break up of Gondwanaland and formation of the Cretaceous to early Cenozoic African land surface. The youngest ages, recorded at around 5 Ma, in turn, correspond well to the Pliocene transition from humid to arid climatic conditions in Southern Africa.
Keywords: Ar geochronology; Rate of chemical weathering; Supergene alteration; Kalahari Manganese Field; South Africa

Publ.-Id: 17218 - Permalink


Fluorine-18-Radiolabeling and Radiopharmacological Characterization of a Benzodioxolylpyrimidine as a Radiotracer Targeting the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB4
Mamat, C.; Mosch, B.; Neuber, C.; Köckerling, M.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, J.;
Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and, therefore, are promising candidates for molecular imaging purposes, e.g. by positron emission tomography (PET). In this regard, radiochemical access to novel PET radiotracers derived from potent inhibitors targeting EphB4 kinase domain and bearing the benzodioxolylpyrimidine structural motif was developed. In order to obtain a fluorine-18-radiolabeled tracer, the respective tosylated precursor was prepared. Due to the implication of EphB4, particularly, in melanoma progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, EphB4 overexpressing human melanoma cells were used as an in vitro model for radiopharmacological evaluation of the radiotracer. Furthermore, NMRI nu/nu mice bearing both EphB4 overexpressing tumors and control tumors were used for radiopharmacological characterization by biodistribution studies ex vivo and dynamic small animal PET experiments in vivo.

Publ.-Id: 17217 - Permalink


DRESDYN - a new facility for MHD experiments with liquid sodium
Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Steglich, C.; Weier, T.; Wustmann, B.;
The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is intended as a platform both for large-scale experiments related to geo- and astrophysics as well as for experiments related to thermohydraulic and safety aspects of liquid metal batteries and liquid metal fast reactors. The most ambitious projects in the framework of DRESDYN are a homogeneous hydromagnetic dynamo driven solely by precession and a large Taylor--Couette type experiment for the combined investigation of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. In this paper, we give a short summary about the ongoing preparations and delineate the next steps for the realization of DRESDYN.
  • Magnetohydrodynamics 48(2012)1, 103-113

Publ.-Id: 17216 - Permalink


Comparison of different fluorine-treatments for improved high temperature oxidation resistance of TiAI-alloys
Donchev, A.; Schiitze, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Yankov, R.;
Intermetallic TiAI-alloys can replace the heavier Ni-based superalloys in several high temperature applications with regards to their mechanical properties, however they can not be used at temperatures above 800DC in oxidizing environments for longer times because of insufficient oxidation resistance. Despite an AI-content of about 45 at. % in technical alloys, no protective alumina layer is formed because the thermodynamic stabilities of titanium oxide and aluminum oxide are of the same order of magnitude. Therefore a mixed Ti02/Ah03-scale is formed which is fast growing so that the metal consumption rate is quite high. On the other hand the formation of a slow growing alumina layer is promoted by a fluorine treatment. This so called fluorine effect leads to the preferential intermediate formation of gaseous aluminium fluorides at elevated temperatures if the fluorine content at the surface stays within a defined concentration range. These fluorides are converted into solid Ah03 due to the high oxygen partial pressure of the high temperature service environment forming a protective pure Ah03 surface scale. In this paper results of high temperature oxidations tests of several technical TiAIalloys will be presented. Different F -treatments e.g. dipping or spaying which are easy to apply have been used and their results will be compared. The mass change data of the F –treated specimens are always lower than those of the untreated ones. Post experimental investigations such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveal the formation of a thin alumina layer on the F-treated samples after optimization of the process while a thick mixed scale is found on the untreated samples. The results will be discussed in view of an optimized procedure and the future use of TiAI-components in high temperature environments.
Keywords: TiAI-alloys, F-treatment, alumina protective layer
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2011 MRS Fall Meeting & Exhibit, 28.11.-02.12.2011, Boston, USA
    Materials Research Society Symp. Proc. Vol. 1295

Publ.-Id: 17214 - Permalink


Investigation of vortex dynamics in coupled trilayer systems
Banholzer, A.; Wintz, S.; Osten, J.; Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; Lenz, K.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Magnetic vortices are of great interest for storage media since quite some time. Different control methods are used to manipulate them [1]. We now use scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to image the magnetic configurations within the different layers of a trilayer system of a Co/Cu/FeNi disc. Inside the hard and soft magnetic layers with a thickness of 25 nm vortices are formed. They couple depending on the interlayer. The dominant coupling mechanisms here are the magneto-dipolar interaction and interlayer exchange coupling [2]. The setup allows to drive a current perpendicularly through the disc. The corresponding behaviors of the magnetization configurations with a DC-current, in a static magnetic field, as well as in an oscillating magnetic field, are investigated. The emerging movement of the core can be tuned with the amplitude and frequency of the field. The interactions of the two cores and their individually movements are studied. This implies the corresponding resistance changes within different configurations at different magnetic fields and currents as well as the shifting of the core.
[1] N. Locatelli et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 062501 (2011)
[2] S. Wintz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 232511 (2011)
Keywords: magnetic vortex, STXM
  • Poster
    JEMS 2012 - Joint European Magnetic Symposia, 09.-14.09.2012, Parma, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17213 - Permalink


Improvement of the resistance of titanium aluminides to environmental embrittlement
Masset, P.; Bleicher, F.; Bortolotto, L.; Geiger, G.; Kolitsch, A.; Langlade, C.; Paul, J.; Pelic, B.; Pyczak, F.; Rafaja, D.; Schumacher, P.; Schütze, M.; Wolf, G.; Yankov, R.;
Titanium aluminide alloys have recently been applied for first time as structural alloys in low-pressure turbine blades by an engine manufacturer. Indeed, they exhibit equivalent mechanical properties under service conditions as nickel-based superalloys but for half of their density. This enables an increase of the performances of the engine and/or a fuel consumption reduction. However, for engine applications requiring a higher thermal resistance, e.g. above 750°C, TiAl alloys possess an insufficient oxidation resistance and suffer from environmental embrittlement. In this interdisciplinary work, focus has been made from the surface preparation of alloys, development of coatings against environmental embrittlement up to the testing of mechanical properties after high temperature oxidation. The GE alloy (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb) was used for the investigations as it exhibits a relative high ductility at room temperature (εR ~ 1.5 %) and has been already extensively investigated. Surface engineering showed that the surface temperature during the machining of the alloy increases significantly leading to embrittlement and ductility loss. Therefore, post polishing steps were achieved to obtain suitable surface roughness for the coating process without local embrittlement. Aluminum enriched coatings (between 50 and 60 at.%) combined with alloying elements, i.e. Cr, Nb, Si, Y, to improve the oxidation behavior and the corrosion resistance were produced by metal oxide chemical vapour deposition (MO-CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and thermal spraying techniques (HVOF, APS). In addition, fluorine treatment (halogen effect [1]) either by plasma-immersion-ion-implantation (PI³) or by fluorine based polymer spraying was applied to the coating to enhance the growth of a dense and protective alumina layer on the top of the coating. The adhesion properties of thin coating (CVD, PVD) were investigated by applying repeated impacts of 2 to 15 mJ (Mercedes test [2]). All tests highlight the good impact resistance of the asdeposited coatings and no significant damage has been detected even after 105 impacts using a force of 800N.
After oxidation, the CVD deposited coatings exhibit very good behavior under repeated impacts. Thin (CVD, PVD) as well as thick (thermal sprayed) coatings were obtained and were tested for oxidation and corrosion resistance. CVD and PVD coatings exhibit thicknesses between 3 and 10 μm whereas the thickness of thermal sprayed coatings ranges between 150 and 300 μm (Fig. 1). Figure 1. SEM images of produced coatings. (a) MO-CVD, (b) PVD, (c) HVOF with ethene, (d) HVOF with kerosene, (e) HVOF with kerosene + Al addition in the powder, (f) APS. The produced coatings were tested for oxidation and corrosion. After pre-oxidation, the samples exhibit a better corrosion resistance in presence of salts (75-25 NaCl-NaSO4 mixture) at 850 °C after 350 h in air compared to literature data obtained at 650 °C [3]. The mechanical properties were investigated by means of 4-point bending and tensile tests on coated samples after 100 h oxidation at 900 °C in laboratory air. Results of mechanical testing are shown in Fig. 2. The CVD process combined with fluorine implantation (PI³) offers the best combination to remedy environmental embrittlement.
Using this process, after 100h of oxidation, it has been shown that 90% of the initial fracture strain and fracture stress can be maintained. For long term service (thousands of hours) coating thickness should be increased to offer an aluminium reservoir for the oxidation and to provide an efficient physical barrier to hot gas and corrosion agents. Figure 2. Fracture stress vs. fracture strain for the investigated coated samples.
Keywords: TiAl-alloy, fluorine implantation (PI³), metal oxide chemical vapour deposition, oxidation resistance
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Pacific Rim Meeting on Electrochemical and Solid-State Science (PRIME 2012), 07.-12.10.2012, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Publ.-Id: 17212 - Permalink


Efficient oxidation protection of Ti- and TiAl-alloys by fluorine treatments
Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.; Yankov, R. A.; Kolitsch, A.;
Ti-alloys suffer from high oxidation rates and oxygen uptake during exposure in oxidizing environments at elevated temperatures above approximately 600°C. TiAl-alloys have the same problem due to the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures above 850°C. The use of these alloys is hence limited. The fluorine effect is a very promising way to improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl-alloys. Defined amounts of fluorine in the surface zone of TiAl-components change the oxidation mechanism. A protective alumina layer is formed which prevents further oxidation and subsequently allows the use of this new alloy family in several high temperature applications. The Al-content of standard Ti-alloys is not enough to get the fluorine effect to operate but after Al-enrichment of the surface zone a subsequent fluorination leads to the same results. In this paper results of oxidation tests of untreated and treated Ti- and TiAl-alloys will be presented and their behavior compared.
Keywords: TiAl-alloys, oxidation resistance, Al-enrichment
  • Lecture (Conference)
    TMS Annual Meeting 2012, 11.-15.03.2012, Orlando, Florida, USA

Publ.-Id: 17211 - Permalink


Combination of a chemical vapor deposition coating and plasma immersion ion implantation of fluorine for oxidation protection and suppression of oxygen embrittlement in titanium aluminide alloys
Yankov, R. A.; Kolitsch, A.; von Borany, J.; Bortolotto, L.; Schütze, M.;
The ongoing gradual replacement of heavy nickel-based superalloys with lightweight titanium aluminide (TiAl) intermetallic alloys is a long-term development objective in demanding applications such as the manufacture of aerospace and automotive engine components. TiAl alloys, however, are prone to destructive oxidation and oxygen embrittlement when exposed to oxidizing gases at temperatures above 700°C. Therefore, the successful use of this class of advanced structural materials in components operating under conditions of environmental oxidation at elevated temperatures will ultimately depend on their oxidation resistance. We have developed a method of oxidation protection of TiAl alloys, which solves satisfactorily the above-mentioned problems. The method involves two steps, namely formation of an aluminum-rich coating by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) followed by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of fluorine to provide conditions necessary for activating the so-called halogen effect. The aim of combining a CVD coating and a fluorine PIII treatment is to prevent oxygen diffusion and dissolution into the Ti-rich α2-phase substrate material, which is an integral part of most of the technical alloys being used at present. Preliminary mechanical testing performed on an unprotected reference alloy of a composition of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb has shown drastic degradation in its mechanical properties after exposure in hot air at 900°C for 100 h, namely 23% loss in strength and 38% reduction in ductility. In contrast, the application of a CVD coating in conjunction with surface fluorination by PIII has been shown to enhance the environmental durability of the TiAl alloy after long-term oxidation at 900°C in that the alloy is capable of maintaining up to 90% of its initial mechanical properties (strength and ductility). We present here experimental results detailing both the CVD and the PIII processing steps.
Keywords: titanium aluminides, oxidation protection, fluorine plasma immersion ion implantation
  • Poster
    13th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 10.-14.09.2012, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17210 - Permalink


Fluorine-implanted titanium aluminide alloys for use in high-temperature oxidizing environments
Yankov, R.; von Borany, J.; Kolitsch, A.; Munnik, F.; Friedle, S.; Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.; Nießen, N.; Braun, R.;
Plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) of fluorine has been used to enhance the oxidation resistance of several commercial TiAl alloys (γ-MET, TNB and TNM) with the aim of expanding their high-temperature (750°-1050°C) structural potential for advanced aerospace, power generation and automotive applications. The mechanism that operates in the F-implanted TiAl alloys, enabling one to achieve oxidation protection up to 1050°C, is the so-called halogen effect.
Two types of F-containing precursor gases, namely a mixture of difluoromethane and argon (CH2F2+25% Ar), and a mixture of silicon tetrafluoride and argon (SiF4+25% Ar) have been employed for implanting F. A variety of analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), elastic recoil detection (ERD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and cross-sectional electron microscopy (XTEM) in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) have been used for material characterization. The degree of oxidation protection has been evaluated by testing F-implanted samples under conditions of both isothermal and thermocyclic oxidation in air employing thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The formation of a protective scale has been studied by metallography, EDXS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
For the CH2F2/Ar-based PI3 process, ERD analyses have revealed in the F-implanted γ-MET and TNB alloy samples anomalously broad, high-concentration (up to 70 at. %) F profiles of either Gaussian or plateau-like shape extending to much larger depths than those predicted by theory. It has been found that the broad F implant profiles are not associated with F diffusion, but rather result from a complex amorphization/phase transition process, which occurs via the implant zone/substrate interface progressing toward the bulk. As distinct from the implanted fluorine, the co-implanted carbon forms a shallow surface peak of a concentration of about 15 at. %, much in accordance with the theoretical predictions. Optimized PI3 of F into γ-MET and TNB alloys in this case leads to a dramatic improvement in their environmental durability due to the formation of a stable, adherent and highly protective α-Al2O3 scale on the alloy surface upon subsequent high- temperature oxidation. On the basis of the results obtained, components of complex geometry (turbine blades and turbochargers) made of TiAl alloys have been successfully implanted with F for times as short as 22 min, and a commercially viable PI3 technique has been developed.
Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time the possibility of fabricating yttria- stabilized-zirconia thermal barrier coatings (YSZ-TBCs) on PI3-treated γ-TiAl to improve turbine efficiency, thereby enabling turbines made of γ-TiAl to be used for longer times at higher service temperatures. TBCs have been deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) at 900° and 1000°C on γ-TiAl that had been pre-implanted with F and then subjected to oxidation. Excellent adhesion of the TBCs to the Al2O3 scale present on the alloy surface has been observed, with the coatings retaining adherence and the halogen effect still lasting under cyclic oxidation at 900°C in air. Another aspect of our research has been to investigate the halogen effect resulting from the PI3 of F in a new class of TiAl materials containing a β-phase, namely TNM-B1. The preliminary results have been positive, strongly indicating that further work is warranted.
The SiF4/Ar-based PI3 process is still being optimized. Under certain implantation conditions, adequate oxidation protection has been achieved in both γ-MET and TNB alloys for an implant time twice as short (11 min) compared with that used in the CH2F2/Ar process. This can be explained by the combined effect of F and Si. The latter element is believed to reduce the rate of oxygen diffusion into the incipient protective scale. A non-linear time dependence of the retained F dose has been observed, presumably due to enhanced ion etching and material removal for longer implant times. These phenomena are currently under study.
Keywords: TiAl alloys, PIII of F, oxydation protection, thermal barrier coatings
  • Poster
    19th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, 25.-29.06.2012, Valladolid, Spain

Publ.-Id: 17209 - Permalink


Efficient oxidation protection of Ti- and TiAl-alloys by F-treatments
Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.; Yankov, R.; Kolitsch, A.;
Ti-alloys suffer from high oxidation rates and oxygen uptake during exposure in oxidizing environments at temperatures above approximately 600°C. Technical TiAl-alloys have the same problem due to the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures above 750°C. The use of these lightweight alloys is hence limited. The fluorine effect is a very promising way to improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl-alloys. Defined amounts of fluorine in the surface zone of TiAl-components change the oxidation mechanism. A protective alumina layer is formed which prevents further oxidation and subsequently allows the use of this new alloy family in several high temperature applications. The Al content of standard Ti-alloys is not enough to get the fluorine effect to operate but after Al-enrichment of the surface zone a subsequent fluorination leads to the same results. In this paper results of oxidation tests of untreated and treated Ti- and TiAl-alloys will be presented and their behavior compared.
Keywords: Ti-alloys, fluorine effect, Al-enrichment, oxydation protection
  • Contribution to proceedings
    TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) Annual Meeting 2011, 27.02.-03.03.2011, San Diego, California, USA
    TMS 2011 Proceedings, CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 17208 - Permalink


Optimization of the fluorine effect for improving the oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys
Donchev, A.; Schütze, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Yankov, R.;
The oxidation resistance of TiAl-alloys can be improved drastically by treating the surface of the components with small amounts of fluorine. The oxidation mechanism is changed. Hence, the formation of a fast growing mixed oxide scale on untreated alloys is suppressed. Instead a thin protective alumina scale is formed on samples after fluorine treatment. The different methods only influence the surface region of the components so that the bulk properties are not affected. Recent results achieved with F-containing inorganic compounds showed that the fluorine effect can be improved even further. TiAl-specimens were treated only with fluorine and with F-containing compounds in several ways and their performance during high temperature oxidation tests in air was investigated. Results of isothermal and thermocyclic oxidation tests are presented. The results are discussed in terms of a later use of the fluorine effect for technical applications.
Keywords: TiAl, fluorine treatment, oxydation resistance

Publ.-Id: 17207 - Permalink


Sputter deposition of TiO2-based transparent conductive thin films
Neubert, M.; Vinnichenko, M.; Gebel, T.; Liepack, H.; Kolitsch, A.;
Transparent electrodes are widely used in photovoltaic cells which drives the need for novel cost-efficient transparent conductive materials. The epitaxially grown TiO2 films doped with Nb or Ta show electrical resistivity values comparable to those of the best In2O3:Sn and ZnO:Al films. However, for the most applications the growth of low electrical resistivity polycrystalline TiO2 films is required. In order to address this challenge, we studied the films formed on glass substrates without heating by DC magnetron sputtering of reduced TiO2:Ta ceramic targets followed by vacuum annealing. We present a systematic study of the effect of the process total pressure (Ar+O2) during the deposition on electrical and structural properties of the films after annealing. The optimum total pressure in combination with O2 fine tuning yielded the films with the best free electron mobility of 8 cm²/Vs. Our approach delivered films with an electrical resistivity in the range of 10-3  cm, optical transmittance above 80% for 400nm thick films and electrical activation of Ta dopants up to 80% that is substantially higher than that of Al in ZnO.
Keywords: TCO, transparent conductive oxides, TiO2, Ta, tantalum, polycrystalline, thin film
  • Poster
    E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 13.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17206 - Permalink


Characterisation of permanent magnetic quadrupoles for focussing proton beams
Melone, J. J.; Mccanny, T.; Schramm, U.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Spohr, M.; Cowan, T.; Mitchell, M. R.; Ledingham, K. W. D.; Burris-Mog, T.; Groetzschel, R.; Hanf, D.; Bussmann, M.; Wiggins, S. M.;
High intensity laser driven proton beams are at present receiving much attention. The reasons for this are many but high on the list is the potential to produce compact accelerators. However, two of the limitations of this technology is that unlike conventional nuclear RF accelerators lasers produce diverging beams with an exponential energy distribution. A number of different approaches have been attempted to monochromise these beams but it has become obvious that magnetic spectrometer technology developed over many years by accelerator physicists to transport and focus proton beams could play an important role for this purpose. This paper deals with the design and characterisation of a magnetic quadrupole system which is intended to focus and transport laser-accelerated proton beams.
Keywords: ion beam focusing

Publ.-Id: 17205 - Permalink


Section Reports: 2012 Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology - Part 5
Stieglitz, R.; Mull, T.; Höhne, T.; Rieger, U.; Buettner, K.;
The session Testing Plants was chaired by Thomas Höhne (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.). The first presentation from S. Schollenberger (Co-authors: K. Umminger, B. Schoen, all Areva NP GmbH) was about „PKL-Experiments on failure of RHRS under 3/4-loop operation for closed primary circuit – Phenomena and operational aspects“. At first, S. Schollenberger gave a few introducing remarks on the PKL test facility, he explicated that the PKL (German acronym for Primärkreislauf, primary circuit) is a scaled down replication (1:1 heights, volumes, power input and mass flows of safety and operational systems 1:145) of the nuclear steam supply system of a 1300 MW KWU type pressurized water reactor (PWR). It is operated at AREVA NP Germany to experimentally investigate the thermal hydraulic behavior of PWRs under accident conditions for design and beyond-design basis accidents (e.g. efficiency of accident management measures). He then stated the motivation for the adoption of the topic “failure of RHRS under cold shut-down states in the PKL experiments to be founded in the significant contribution to the integral core damage frequency (CDF) of 1.1∙10-5 p.a. and plant implied by failure of RHRS: broken down to 24 h, a day under shut-down conditions implies a much higher risk than a full load day. He further stressed, that in the long run, a stationary state (stationary boiling) with constant primary pressure and assured heat transport to secondary side (core cooling) becomes always established as long as at least 1 of 4 SGs is operable (MS/ FW available), even without intervention of the operating personnel. He then summarized, that additional coolant injections result in a deterioration of heat transport to secondary and give rise to the RCS pressure level. He concluded that additional coolant injections should therefore only be considered as a preparative measure for the immediate re-connection of the RHRS (operability assumed). S. Schollenbegrer added that heat transfer mechanisms with prospect of a continuous boron dilution in below SG outlet (due to condensate transport across the SGs) may be excluded for the operation of 2 active SGs (out of 4). S. Schollenberger then focused on the operational aspects, he presented recommendations for the reconnection of the RHRS (re-availability assumed): The PKL tests proved the deployment of a single LPSI/RHRS pump in flooding mode (simultaneous hot and cold side injection with maximum flow rate) to be an adequate preparative measure to re-establish operating conditions of the RHRS from boiling condition in the RCS (i.e. quick and enduring subcooling of core, downcomer and hot sides). If only one RHRS line is operational, the flooding (simultaneous hot/cold leg injection) of large amounts of ECC with the available line and the following re-start of RHRS operation after switchover in the same line may allow a safe reconnection of the RHRS.

J. Dumond (AREVA NP GmbH, Offenbach, co-authors: F. Maisberger, AREVA NP GmbH, A. Class, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe) presented the “Development and first experimental results of the KERENA Passive Outflow Reducer”. Increased safety and reduced costs are achieved in the boiling water reactor KERENA with a smart combination of active and passive safety systems. One of these passive systems is the Passive Outflow Reducer (POR). It is positioned in the reactor nozzle to passively limit without moving parts the loss of coolant (LOC) following the break of a large pipe connected to the reactor pressure vessel at a low elevation in one flow direction; while it minimizes the flow resistance in the other flow direction. An innovative design consisting of 37 parallel profiled channels where each channel is composed of two Venturi-nozzles was introduced. The development of this design with numerical tools was explained and the experimental validation in the LOC flow direction was described. The experiments were performed for single Venturi-nozzle and double Venturi-nozzle designs under realistic plant conditions. One profiled channel was tested at a time. Experimental results indicated that double-nozzle designs do reduce loss of coolant in comparison to single-nozzle designs (50% for the LOC considered here in the KERENA reactor) and that the innovative POR design meets KERENA requirements. Finally, computational fluid dynamic is developed to further optimize the geometry. In the summary, it was emphasized that this simple innovative passive fluidic diode without moving part is ready for similar applications.
Further Mr. M. Majed (Co-authors: S. Andersson, F. Waldemarsson, all Westinghouse Electric Sweden) showed the presentation „Westinghouse Critical Heat Flux Test Facility – ODEN“. The ODEN test facility is a replacement to (and improvement upon) the well known former Heat Transfer Research Facility (HTRF) of Columbia University in New York City. The ODEN loop shares the laboratory infrastructure (power supply, heat sink and control room) with the well-known FRIGG Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) test loop. The ODEN loop is designed to cover DNB (Departure of Nuclear Boiling) testing needs for all types of PWR lattices in 5x5 or 6x6 rectangular geometry or in hexagonal test sections. The loop installation was completed in 2006, shakedown testing in 2009, and qualification / benchmark testing versus HTRF data was completed in 2010. The ODEN critical heat flux test loop has been utilized recently to perform DNB measurements on Westinghouse fuel design for VVER 1000 type reactors. The test bundle configuration is a 19 rod hexagonal array. The fuel has been tested in an extensive thermal-hydraulic verification program with axially uniform test (typical cell) and two axially cosine tests (typical and thimble cells). The DNB measurements have been performed at low to high pressures (10 to 17 MPa), low to high mass flows, (0.8 to 7.8 kg/s) and include very high mass steam quality conditions, up to and exceeding 50 %. Mr. Majed closed his presentation with the statement that the ODEN loop has again showed the high DNB data quality, and excellent consistency and repeatability of the DNB data were achieved.
The last presentation was given by A. Onea (Co-authors: M. Lux, W. Hering, all Karlsruher Institut für Technologie – KIT) and about „Optimization of the cold trap design for the KASOLA sodium facility“. The authors envisaged the employment of the new sodium facility for research of transmutation, accelerator target development, as well as an innovative assignment of sodium for solar applications. It is reported that the sodium purification will be performed by cooling it below its saturation temperature in a cold trap that integrates in the upper part a Na-air heat exchanger and a Na-Na heat recuperator, while the bottom part integrates a wire mesh, where the main impurities NaH and Na2O can deposit on its “cold” surface. The talk was focused on the optimization and layout of the wire mesh and of the Na-air heat exchanger and Na-Na heat recuperator, for which two design proposals are compared, namely a simple design, in which the sodium exists through a straight vertical pipe that serves as a heat recuperator and an optimized design, in which the sodium exists through an optimized helical coil that serves also as a heat recuperator. The authors discussed the optimal wire mesh capacity for capturing of the impurities, their residence time distribution in the wire mesh, the pressure loss in the wire mesh and the planned operating range of the cold trap. The optimized design offers increased heat transfer surface for both the air cooling circuit and the recuperation side, while the disadvantages of this design are moderate increase in the pressure loss and an increased manufacturing cost. Analyses with ANSYS CFX 13 for the flow dynamics and heat transfer, using a conjugate heat transfer approach and modeling the wire mesh as a porous domain confirmed the expected results: in the optimized design the wire mesh is cooled at least 15°C more than in the simple design, at the same air cooling capacity and furthermore, quasi the entire heat of the sodium is recuperated, denoting a heat recuperation efficiency of ~99% for the entire range of the air flow rate. Due to the enhanced cooling capacity it is reported that the optimized design offers an increased temperature operation range for sodium, while the safe operation is still warranted and although the manufacturing costs are higher as for the simple design, the operating costs will be smaller due to the enhanced cooling.
Keywords: Jahrestagung Kerntechnik, Sektion 2, Technische SItzung
  • atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power 58(2013)1, 43-44

Publ.-Id: 17204 - Permalink


Dose Controlled Radiobiological Experiments with Ultra-short Pulse Laser Accelerated Proton Pulses
Schramm, U.; Beyreuther, E.; Cowan, T.; Metzkes, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Enghardt, W.; Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J.;
Over the last decade laser particle acceleration has made such progress that first applications in special fields can be envisioned. Prominent examples are radiation therapy with laser accelerated ion beams as well as the generation of pulsed X-ray sources. Here the demonstration of laser acceleration of proton pulses to maximum energies in the range of up to 20 MeV making use of the 100 TW table-top laser Draco installed at HZDR Dresden will be reported. Reproducible conditions over thousands of shots allowed for the first dose controlled irradiation of in vitro tumor cell samples, representing the first step towards radiobiological applications. A detailed description of experimental requirements as sufficiently high proton energies providing applicable doses of a few Gy within minutes, a beam transport and filtering system, an in-air irradiation site, a dedicated dosimetry system providing both online dose monitoring and a precise absolute dose information applied to the cell sample will be given.
Keywords: Laser ion acceleration, cancer therapy
  • Poster
    IPAC 2012, 21.-25.05.2012, New Orleans, LA, USA

Publ.-Id: 17203 - Permalink


Picosecond Narrow Bandwidth X-ray Pulses from a Laser-Thomson-Backscattering Source
Jochmann, A.; Cowan, T.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Sauerbrey, R.; Wagner, A.; Trotsenko, S.; Couperus, J. P.; Debus, A.; Irman, A.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schramm, U.; Ledingham, K.;
Intense, ultimately coherent, ultrashort hard X-ray pulses can serve as a novel tool for structural analysis of complex systems with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. With the simultaneous availability of a high power short-pulse laser system it provides unique opportunities for a number of subsequent research steps at the forefront of relativistic light-matter interactions. At HZDR we demonstrated the generation of such a light source (PHOENIX) by colliding picosecond electron bunches from the ELBE linear accelerator with counter-propagating femtosecond laser pulses from the 150 TW Draco Ti:Sapphire laser system. The generated narrowband X-rays are highly collimated and can be reliable adjusted from 5.5 to 23.5 keV by tuning the electron energy (24 MeV to 30 MeV) and the laser intensity. Ensuring the spatiotemporal overlap and suppressing the bremsstrahlung background we have achieved a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 300:1. Together with the use of an X-ray camera (resolution of 250 eV(FWHM)) to record the spectrum, we were able to resolve the angular-energy correlation and to study the influence of the beam emittance on the observed bandwidth.
Keywords: X-ray light sources, Thomson scattering
  • Poster
    IPAC 2012, 21.-25.05.2012, New Orleans, LA, USA

Publ.-Id: 17202 - Permalink


Extension and application of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for Block-type High Temperature Reactors
Baier, S.; Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.;
The reactor dynamics code DYN3D was developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to study steady state and transient behavior of Light Water Reactors. Concerning the neutronics part, the multigroup diffusion or SP3 transport equation based on nodal expansion methods is solved both for hexagonal and square fuel element geometry. To deal with Block-type High Temperature Reactor cores DYN3D was extended to a version DYN3D-HTR. A 3D heat conduction model was introduced to include 3D effects of heat transfer and heat conduction and the detailed structure of the fuel element. Results of coupled steady state and transient calculations with 12 energy groups are presented. Transient case studies are control rod insertion a change of the inlet coolant temperature and a change of the coolant gas mass flow rate. It is shown that DYN3D-HTR is an appropriate code system to simulate steady states and short time transients. Furthermore the necessity of the 3D heat conduction model is demonstrated.
Keywords: high temperature gas cooled reactor, heat conduction model, transient analysis, computer code, temperature reactivity feedback
  • Contribution to proceedings
    6th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology HTR2012, 28.10.-01.11.2012, Tokyo, Japan
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 271(2014), 431-436
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2013.12.013

Publ.-Id: 17201 - Permalink


Precise millisecond annealing for advanced material processing
Reichel, D.; Skorupa, W.;
Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) reduces the thermal budget on the bulk and thus hinders undesired thermal diffusion. For reliable process control, however, a temperature measurement concept is needed that is capable of facing the high radiation background of the flash lamps and the millisecond detection regime at the same time [1]. A new concept has been developed for precise in-situ temperature measurement during flash-lamp Millisecond Annealing. There has been taking advantage of FLA for various applications. Implantation and subsequent FLA were used to obtain III-V semiconductor quantum dots on silicon pillars [2]. The same procedure was applied to achieve superconductivity with conventional silicon technolog [3]. FLA was further used for advanced doping of “dirty-silicon” solar cells. The short annealing cycles allow for successful dopant activation while undesired metal impurities remain electrically inactive [4]. These examples show that in-situ process control is required to make sure the major advantage of Millisecond Annealing is not narrowed by unreliable temperature measurement. In this contribution, a method will be presented that satisfies this issue by in-situ distinction between thermal and flash lamp radiation.
Keywords: annealing, millisecond, flash lamps, temperature measurement
  • Contribution to proceedings
    EMRS Spring Meeting 2012, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France
    Advanced Silicon Materials Research for Electronic and Photovoltaic Applications III
  • Poster
    EMRS Spring Meeting 2012, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France
  • Physica Status Solidi (C) 9(2012)10-11, 2045-2049
    DOI: 10.1002/pssc.201200277

Publ.-Id: 17200 - Permalink


The Factor Cloud Computing in IT Risk Management
Penzina, V. J.; Konrad, U.; Yusupova, N. I.;
Der Artikel beschreibt eine Definition und den Prozess des IT Risiko-Managements mit dem besonderen Einfluss von Cloud-Computing, insbesondere die Identifikation von Schwachstellen, Steuermöglichkeiten und Maßnahmen.
Today Risk Management plays a crucial role in protecting information. Effective Risk Management is one of the most important parts of a security program in IT organizations.
This paper represents a definition of Risk Management, first steps of the process and the influence of cloud computing according to vulnerability identification and controls and measures analysis subprocesses.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    The 14th International Workshop on Computer Science and Information Technologies, CSIT’2012, 20.-26.09.2012, MSC Lirica, Norway
    Proceedings of the 14th International workshop on computer science and information technologies, CSIT’2012, Ufa – Hamburg – Norwegian Fjords, 2012

Publ.-Id: 17199 - Permalink


Development and implementation of a 3D heat conduction model for (very) High Temperature Reactors into the reactor dynamics code DYN3D
Baier, S.; Rohde, U.; Kliem, S.; Fridman, E.;
The reactor dynamics code DYN3D was extended to treat phenomena in Block-type High Temperature Reactors (HTR). Therefor, a new heat conduction model was implemented into the code to tackle 3D effects of heat conduction and heat transfer. The first part of the paper describes the details of the heat conduction model. In the second part results of coupled neutron-kinetics/thermal-hydraulics calculations of steady state and short-time transients in block-type HTRs are discussed.
Keywords: high temperature gas cooled reactor, heat conduction model, transient analysis, computer code, temperature reactivity feedback
  • Contribution to proceedings
    20th International conference on Nuclear Engineering - ICONE20, 30.07.-03.08.2012, Anaheim, USA
    Proceedings of ICONE20
  • Lecture (Conference)
    20th International conference on Nuclear Engineering - ICONE20, 30.07.-03.08.2012, Anaheim, USA

Publ.-Id: 17198 - Permalink


Investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of Co+ implanted rutile TiO2
Cheng, F.; Ding, B.; Pan, F.; Yao, S.; Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.;
Crystalline Co nanoparticles in rutile TiO2 were synthesized by 180 keV Co+ ion implantation at 623 K with the fluence of Φ = 4 × 1016 cm−2. The structural and magnetic properties of samples after thermal annealing at different temperatures were characterized by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The SR-XRD results reveal the formation of hcp Co nanoparticles in the as-implanted samples. With increasing annealing temperature, the transition of Co nanoparticles from hcp to fcc is observed. After annealing at 1073 K, the lattice damage is significantly repaired compared with the as-implanted one. The Co nanoparticles forming inside TiO2 are the major contribution of the measured ferromagnetism.
Keywords: Rutherford backscattering and channeling; X-ray diffraction; SQUID magnetometers; Magnetic nanoparticles; Ion implantation

Publ.-Id: 17197 - Permalink


CFD analysis on the NUPEC PWR Subchannel and Bundle Test (PSBT) - model calibration and influence of turbulence modelling
Krepper, E.; Rzehak, R.;
The presentation shows CFD calculations of the void distribution tests of the PSBT benchmark using ANSYS CFX-12.1. First, relevant aspects of the implemented wall boiling model are reviewed highlighting the uncertainties in several model parameters. It is then shown that the measured cross sectionally averaged values can be reproduced well with a single set of calibrated model parameters for different tests cases. For the reproduction of patterns of void distribution cross sections attention has to be focussed on the modelling of turbulence in the narrow channel. Only a turbulence model with the capability to resolve turbulent secondary flows is able to reproduce at least qualitatively the observed void distribution patterns. Furthermore the influence of bubble forces on the void distribution cross sections was shown.
Keywords: CFD, wall boiling, CFX, PSBT benchmark, rod bundle, two phase flow, turbulence, bubble forces
  • Lecture (Conference)
    AER WG C and D Meeting, 31.05.-01.06.2012, Paks, Ungarn

Publ.-Id: 17196 - Permalink


Numerical calculations for steam-water CCFL tests using the 1/3rd scale rectangular channel simulating a PWR hot leg
Kinoshita, I.; Murase, M.; Utanohara, Y.; Lucas, D.; Vallée, C.; Tomiyama, A.;
In reflux condensation, steam generated in the reactor core and water condensed in a steam generator (SG) form countercurrent flow in a hot leg, which consists of a horizontal pipe, an elbow and an inclined pipe. Both countercurrent air–water and steam–water tests were previously carried out at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) using the 1/3 scale rectangular channel simulating a PWR hot leg installed in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW facility. In this paper, in order to evaluate the effects of fluid properties, the steam–water CCFL (countercurrent flow limitation) tests at HZDR were simulated using the CFD software, FLUENT 6.3.26. The computational domain included the reactor vessel simulator, hot leg and SG inlet chamber in order to avoid uncertainties of boundary conditions at both ends of the hot leg. The VOF (volume of fluid) method and two-fluid (2F) model were used. In the 2F model, the combination of three correlations on the interfacial friction coefficients, which had been validated for the 1/15 and 1/5 scale tests at Kobe University, was used as a function of local void fractions. The CCFL characteristics predicted by the 2F and VOF agreed relatively well with the steam–water CCFL data at HZDR but overestimated the effects of fluid properties on CCFL. The VOF simulations were better able to reproduce the fluid properties than the 2F simulations.
Keywords: CCFL, PWR, hot leg, simulation, experiment

Publ.-Id: 17195 - Permalink


Nanoscale TiO2 particles: relationship between surface properties and toxicity measurements
Hurel, C.; Clement, L.; Jordan, N.; Weiß, S.; Marmier, N.;
Titanium oxides nanoparticles have been widely used in industrial applications such as cosmetics, food industries, environment, paints and surface coatings…Face to their growing use in various domains and the difficulties to separate them from the aqueous phase during wastewaters treatment due to their nanometric size, one can expect that the final host for these particles should be environmental compartments (soil, air and water).
Nanometric-sized particles are known to cause pulmonary damages and to be toxic for mammals (mice, rats). Nevertheless, few studies dealt with the toxic impact of nanoparticles with ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that the toxic effect was dependent (i) on the size of the particles and (ii) on the allotropic form of TiO2 (anatase or rutile). But a lack of information remains concerning the relationship between the surface properties of TiO2 nanoparticles (surface site density, surface charge) and the observed toxicity.
In this study we were interested in anatase (15 nm, 32 nm, 44 μm) and rutile (1 μm) commercial particles. Their toxic effect (acute or chronic) versus microcrustaceans, algae and plants was measured and compared to the particles size. Surface properties of each TiO2 particles were determined by acid-base titration, and electrokinetics measurements, in order to complete data concerning the relationship between nanoparticles toxicity, size and allotropic form.
Keywords: TiO2; nanoparticles; toxicity
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Interfaces Against Pollution, 11.-14.06.2012, Nancy, France

Publ.-Id: 17194 - Permalink


Focused Ion Beams - Status and New Trends
Bischoff, L.;
In the last decade focused ion beams (FIB) became an irrecoverable instrument in research and industry. Sample preparation, local ion implantation and ion analysis are the main application topics. Most of the systems are equipped with a gallium liquid metal ion source (LMIS). But, modern trends in nanotechnology require more extended properties like variable ion species, non-contaminating milling at higher rates or higher lateral resolution in the field of ion microscopy [1].
In this presentation the implementation of an alloy LMIS in a mass separated FIB system is introduced. Fabrication and characterization of such sources will be briefly shown and prospective applications like self-organized surface modification with focused heavy cluster ions on a germanium surface or local ion beam syntheses of CoSi2 nanostructures are demonstrated.
Furthermore the status and application of new source concepts including prototypes will be reviewed in particular high current gas sources (ECR, ICP) for effective high rate milling, ion trap sources providing highly charged ions or used for SIMS applications as well as gas field ion sources for high resolution ion microscopy in the sub-nm range. Additionally, the use of alloy liquid metal ion sources and its characterization for mass separated FIB systems and ToF-SIMS applications will be presented. New trends and possibilities in FIB employment will be discussed.
Keywords: FIB, LMIS, Mass sparation, alternative FIB Sources, SIMS
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ITG WORKSHOP: Vacuum Electronics 2012, 20.-21.08.2012, Bad Honnef, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17193 - Permalink


Modern Trends in FIB Development
Bischoff, L.;
In the last decade focused ion beams (FIB) became an irrecoverable instrument in research and industry. Sample preparation, local ion implantation and ion analysis are the main application topics. Most of the systems are equipped with a gallium liquid metal ion source (LMIS). But, modern trends in nanotechnology require more extended properties like variable ion species, non-contaminating milling at higher rates or higher lateral resolution in the field of ion microscopy.
In this presentation the application of alloy LMIS in a mass separated FIB system is introduced as well as new source concepts will be reviewed including high current gas sources for effective milling, ion trap sources for highly charged ions or SIMS applications and high resolution gas field ion sources for ion microscopy in the sub-nm range.
New trends and possibilities in FIB employment will be discussed.
Keywords: focused ion beams, liquid metal ion source, mass separated FIB system, new source concepts
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    7. FIB-Workshop Focused Ion Beams in Research, Science and Technology, 25.-27.06.2012, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17192 - Permalink


Cyclotron resonance spectroscopy
Drachenko, O.; Helm, M.;
We give an overview of the basic theory of cyclotron resonance, discuss some experimental aspects of cyclotron resonance spectroscopy in high, mostly pulsed magnetic fields, and finally discuss some recent cyclotron resonance experiments on various semiconductor materials.
Keywords: cyclotron resonance, high magnetic field, infrared
  • Book chapter
    Amalia Patane, Naci Balkan: Semiconductor Research, Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2012, 978-3-642-23350-0, 283-307

Publ.-Id: 17191 - Permalink


German SFR research and european sodium fast reactor project
Merk, B.;
In the first part an overview on the fast reactor related work at HZDR is given with the focus on liquid metal technology for sodium cooled fast reactors, on a method to created enhanced feedback effects in sodium cooled fast reactors, and on the development of DYN3D for fast reactor applications. A short insight into the german contributions to the IAEA EBR-II benchmark and on the SFR work at KIT is presented. The second part consists of an overview on the safety related work packages of the 7. Framework Program project ESFR.
Keywords: enhanced feedback effects, liquid metal technologies, DYN3D for fast reactors, ESFR
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Workshop on Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accidents in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors, 12.-13.06.2012, Tsuruga, Japan

Publ.-Id: 17190 - Permalink


First Experience at ELBE with the new 1.3 GHz CW RF-System based on 10kW Solid State Amplifiers
Büttig, H.; Arnold, A.; Büchner, A.; Justus, M.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Teichert, J.;
With the expansion of the radiation source ELBE, a centre for high power radiation sources is being built between 2009 and 2014 at the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf. One part of this program is to increase the beam current of the ELBE LINAC. In January 2012 each of the 10kW CW klystrons used to operate the superconducting cavities of ELBE since 2001 had been replaced by a pair of 10kW solid state amplifiers.The talk gives an overview on the new RF-system of ELBE and its performance.
Keywords: ELBE RF Solid State Power Amplifier 10 kW 1300MHz 10kW SSPA 1300MHz Superconducting Linac RF SSPA SSPA 10 kW
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CWRF2012,The Seventh CW and High Average Power RF Workshop, 07.-11.05.2012, Port Jefferson, NY, USA

Publ.-Id: 17189 - Permalink


Verminderung des Verblockungspotentials von Sumpfansaugsieben durch Korrosionsprodukte nach Kühlmittelverluststörfällen
Hoffmann, W.; Kryk, H.;
Bei einem postulierten Kühlmittelverluststörfall (Loss of Coolant Accident LOCA) eines Druckwasserreaktors (DWR) kann die thermische Isolation (Mineralwolle) durch das austretende Dampf-Kühlmittelgemisch zerstört werden und das freigesetzte Material durch Ablagerung auf den Sumpfansaugsieben einen Druckverlust verursachen, der die Notkühlung beeinträchtigt. Im weiteren Verlauf bewirkt das borsäurehaltige Primärkühlmittel eine Korrosion von feuerverzinktem Stahleinbauten im Containment (überwiegend Gitterroste), deren feste Produkte bei Anlagerung an den Mineralwolleablagerungen zu einen kritischen Anstieg des Differenzdrucks über den Sumpfansaugsieben bis hin zur Blockade und dem Ausfall der Notkühlung führen können.
In der Laborversuchsanlage (KorrVA) wurde die Korrosion verzinkter Materialproben unterschiedlicher Größe und Geometrie bei verschiedenen Anströmbedingungen des borsäurehaltigen Kühlmittels unter störfallähnlichen Bedingungen untersucht. Der in der Nachkühlphase durch die Fallhöhe des Leckstrahls verursachte Impact auf die Materialprobe wurde mittels Flachstrahldüse nachgebildet. Für diese generischen Untersuchungen wurden die Prozesse Faseablagerung auf einem Sieb von dem der Bildung und Einlagerung der Korrosionsprodukte getrennt, indem Kühlmittelstrom erst nach Ausbildung des Faserbetts auf die Korrosionsprobe gerichtet wurde.
Ausgehend von dem festgestellten Mechanismus einer strömungsinduzierten Korrosion des Zinks im Leckstrahl, die verbunden ist mit der Änderung wasserchemischer Parameter wie einem Anstieg des pH-Werts und der Bildung von gelöstem Zink, kann nach schneller Freilegung des Stahls im unmittelbaren Leckstrahlbereich als Korrosionsprodukt Rost entstehen und bis hin zu einer Verblockung des Faserbetts führen. Ausgehend von den Experimenten ergaben sich zwei grundsätzliche Möglichkeiten diese Gefahr zu vermindern, indem die Freilegung der blanken Stahloberfläche zeitlich zu verzögert oder möglichst verhindert wird. In zwei Versuchsreihen mit verzinkten Flachstahlproben wurde gezeigt, dass sowohl ein zusätzliches Angebot an im Kühlmedium getauchter Oberfläche als auch eine Anhebung des pH-Werts den Anstieg des Differenzdrucks und speziell die Ablagerung von Korrosionsprodukten des Eisens am Faserbett vermindern. Als bester Weg erwies sich die Anhebung des pH-Werts durch eine ausreichende Menge an Borax. Weil im Leckstrahl die Korrosionsbeanspruchung von Gitterrosten, bedingt durch deren Geometrie, sich von der einer Flachstahlprobe unterscheidet, wurden die Ergebnisse an reellen Proben verzinkter Gitterroste in der Versuchsanlage überprüft.
Keywords: LOCA, corrosion products, zinc, sump screen clogging
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2012, 22.-24.05.2012, Stuttgart, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2012, 22.-25.05.2012, Stuttgart, Deutschland
    CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 17188 - Permalink


Physics of spectral and geometric singularities on the WKB thresholds of Standard and Helical MRI
Kirillov, O.; Stefani, F.;
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) triggers turbulence and enables outward transport of angular momentum in hydrodynamically stable rotating shear flows, e.g., in accretion disks. What laws of differential rotation are susceptible to the destabilization by axial, azimuthal, or helical magnetic field? How the standard, helical and azimuthal versions of MRI are related to each other? The answer to these questions, which is vital for astrophysical and experimental applications, inevitably leads to the study of spectral and geometrical singularities on the instability threshold. These singularities provide a connection between seemingly discontinuous stability criteria and thus explain several paradoxes in the theory of MRI that were poorly understood since the 1950s. On the other hand, the singular geometry of the instability threshold is a powerful tool for parametric optimization that predicts, e.g., how close to the Kepler or solid body rotation profiles the instability threshold can be moved by varying the magnetic field configuration, velocity, and material properties of the liquid. Using the local WKB approximation we study the thresholds of standard and helical MRI for axi- and non-axisymmetric perturbations, their extrema and the links between them in the fully viscous and resistive setting. We discuss the connection between standard and helical MRI via a spectral exceptional point as well as the behavior of the helical MRI threshold both in the inductionless approximation when the magnetic Prandtl number (Pm) tends to zero and in case when it is small but finite. We demonstrate that the Liu limit for the Rossby number at the onset of HMRI slightly increases when Pm is not vanishing and find its ultimate value.
Keywords: Magnetorotational instability, WKB, azimuthal magnetic field, non-axisymmetric perturbations, Rossby number, Liu limit
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Rotational dynamics for planetary and stellar applications, 29.-30.05.2012, Marseille, France

Publ.-Id: 17187 - Permalink


Exceptional and diabolical points in stability questions
Kirillov, O.;
“I never satisfy myself until I can make a mechanical model of a thing” - guided by this motto of Lord Kelvin we would like to invite a reader to look at some modern concepts such as a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, exceptional points, the geometric phase, and PT -symmetry, through the prism of the classical mechanics and stability theory. Mathematical and historical parallels discussed in the paper evidence that positions occupied by the non-Hermitian physics and non-conservative mechanics are closer to each other than one might expect.
Keywords: Non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, exceptional point, stability, non-conservative system, modulational instability

Publ.-Id: 17186 - Permalink


Experimental Studies On Sub-Cooled Boiling In A 3x3 Rod Bundle
Barthel, F.; Franz, R.; Krepper, E.; Hampel, U.;
With the continuing interest in modeling of boiling heat transfer in complex geometries, such as rod bundles, dedicated experiments with advanced instrumentation are essential. Within a larger cooperative project on boiling flow and heat transfer in rod bundle geometries HZDR has developed and setup an experimental rod bundle facility where first experiments were conducted. The facility is a flow loop with a vertical rod bundle test section operated with a refrigerant coolant (RC318). The test section is 1078 mm long and equipped with an electrically heated 3 × 3 rod bundle. The heating pattern is constant along the height and heating is concentrated in the central rod with 98.5% of total heating power. Experiments can be conducted with variable liquid flow rates, heating power and sub-cooling. Single phase flow in the bundle was studied with DPIV measurements. For void fraction measurement we operate both a gamma ray densitometer as well as high-speed X-ray tomography. In this paper we present first experimental studies with both void measurement techniques.
Keywords: sub-cooled boiling, electron beam X-ray CT, rod bundle experiment
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CFD4NRS-4, 10.-12.09.2012, Daejeon, Korea
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CFD4NRS-4, 10.-12.09.2012, Daejeon, Korea
    Proceedings of the CFD for Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications (CFD4NRS-4) Workshop

Publ.-Id: 17185 - Permalink


First Experience at Elbe with the new 1.3 GHz CWRF-Power System equipped with 10 kW Solid State Amplifiers
Büttig, H.; Arnold, A.; Büchner, A.; Justus, M.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schurig, R.; Staats, G.; Teichert, J.;
With the expansion of the radiation source ELBE, a centre for high power radiation sources is being built until 2014 at the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf. One part of this program is to double the beam current of the ELBE LINAC. In January 2012 each of the 10 kW CW klystrons, used to operate the superconducting cavities of ELBE since 2001, had been replaced by a pair of 10 kW solid state amplifiers. The paper gives an overview on the activities around this project and the first experience with the new RF-system.
Keywords: ELBE RF 1.3 GHz Solid State Power Amplifier 10kW, 1.3 GHz SSPA LDMOS PA 10kW at 1300MHz ELBE RF Upgrade BRUKER SSPA 10kW at 1300MHz
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IPAC2012 - International Particle Accelerator Conference 2012, 20.-25.05.2012, New Orleans, USA
    Proceedings of IPAC2012, THPPC053: Joint Accelerator Conference Website (JACoW)., 978-3-95450-115-1, 3407

Publ.-Id: 17183 - Permalink


Modelling and esxperimental databases on poly-dispersed bubbly flows
Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Beyer, M.; Szalinski, L.;
In dispersed flows particle sizes play an important role on the evolution of the flow along the flow path. Flow situations where the dispersed phase is liquid or gas as e.g. in dispersed oil-water or in bubbly flows can frequently be found. Coalescence and breakup become important as soon as the dispersed phase volume fraction exceeds several percent. In the result a spectrum of bubble or drop sizes occurs. The momentum exchange between the continuous and dispersed phase strongly depend on the bubble respective drop size, i.e. the resulting velocity fields differ for particles with different sizes. In following the discussion is focused on poly-dispersed bubbly flows, but the phenomena are similar for dispersed oil-water flows in which oil or water may be the dispersed phase, respectively.

The momentum transfer between bubbles and the continuous liquid phase is usually considered by so-called bubble forces. The most important ones are drag, virtual mass, lift, turbulent dispersion and wall forces. All of them depend on the bubble size and the lateral lift force even may change its sign depending on the bubble size. This was found experimentally for single bubbles rising in a laminar linear shear flow [1] and confirmed by several DNS simulations. Lucas & Tomiyama showed that the change of the sign of the lift force predicted by the correlation obtained by Tomiyama et al. even holds turbulent poly-dispersed for air-water and steam flows with high gas volume fraction. In case of air-water flows at ambient conditions the critical bubble diameter for the change is 5.8 mm. In consequence for modeling poly-dispersed flows in a liquid shear flow, e.g. in a vertical tube a spatial separation of large and small bubbles occur and local bubble size distributions differ clearly from tube cross section averaged ones. For this reason the evolution of poly-dispersed flows is characterized by a complex interaction between local and bubble size effects.
To consider the different behavior of particles with different sizes the so-called Inhomogeneous MUSIG-Model was developed jointly by HZDR and ANSYS. It is implemented in the CFX-code and allows the representation of the dispersed phase by a (small) number of velocity groups (phases) and larger number of bubbles size classes (MUSIG groups).

For the validation of the model concept and appropriate closure models experimental data in high resolution in space and time are required. Vertical pipe flow is a suitable configuration to investigate such flows. Detailed data were obtained in several experiments at HZDR using the wire-mesh sensor technique. A high quality data base was established from experiments in a 8 m long pipe with an inner diameter of 195.3 mm. Measurements were done for 48 combinations of air and water superficial velocities varying from 0.04 m/s to 1.6 m/s for liquid and 0.0025 m/s to 3.2 m/s for air. Data were obtained for 12 different L/D in case of gas injection via 1 mm orifices in the pipe wall and for 6 different L/D in case of 4 mm orifices. From the raw data three-dimensional matrices of the instantaneous void fraction were obtained by calibration. These matrices were used for the calculation of time averaged data as: radial gas volume fraction profiles, bubble size distributions, radial volume fraction profiles decomposed according to the bubble size, interfacial area density and from a cross correlation between two sensors also the radial profiles of the gas velocity. All data are checked regarding their consistency. An estimation of errors was done by comparing the gas volume flow rates obtained from the measured radial profiles of void fraction and gas velocity with the setting values.

Within the same experimental setup also databases for condensing and evaporation steam-water flows were generated. They allow to validate the transferability of the models for different combinations of fluids. All these data bases are used in house and by different groups worldwide to develop, test and validate closure models for bubble forces and coalescence and break-up. At HZDR a standard model combining the closure models most suitable for wide range of flow conditions was developed. It will now be improved step by step.
Keywords: bubbly flow, model, CFD, poly-dispersed, pipe flow
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th Latin American Workshop Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry, 10.-11.07.2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Latin American Workshop Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry, 10.-11.07.2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien

Publ.-Id: 17182 - Permalink


Quantitative data from ultra-fast electron beam X-ray computer tomography measurements
Lucas, D.; Hoppe, D.; Banowski, M.; Hampel, U.; Barthel, F.; Sprewitz, U.; Beyer, M.;
The ultra-fast electron beam X-ray computer tomography was developed during last years at HZDR and turned out to be a suitable measuring technique to get new insights into two-phase flow structures. The aim of new experiments done at a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of about 54 mm and a length of 4 m (usable for experiments) was to obtain quantitative data suitable for CFD-code development and validation. The pipe was built up using Titanium. This allows a wall thickness of only 1.6 mm which is enough for steam-water experi¬ments which will be carried out at a pressure up to 6.5 MPa. To generate the X-rays an electron beam is focused on a circular two-step target. This electron beam is deflected very fast and moves over the target resulting in a fast moving X-ray source. The X-rays pass through the object to be investigated and are registered by an arc of detectors. A tomographic reconstruction algorithm provides images of the attenuation distribution in the cross section of the object which is interpreted as density distribution. This allows the determination of the gas- liquid interfacial structure inside the considered object. Measurements were done with a measuring frequency of 2500 images/s and measuring time was 10 s. Air-water and steam-water flows were investigated for different combinations of gas and liquid flow rates and different distances from the gas injection.
The tomographic reconstruction provides 2 3D matrices of gray-scale values since the two-step target allows measurement in two planes with an axial distance of about 11 mm. Cross-correlation algorithms are applied to obtain the information on local gas velocities. Due to noise and artifacts a binarisation of the data seems to be necessary. Using a simple threshold method may cause small bubble to go missing. For this reason another method basing on gradients was developed. The presentations discusses this method and the present status of this new measuring technology in respect to quality and uncertainties of the quantitative data obtained as e.g. local void fraction and bubbles sizes.
Keywords: two-phase, measuring technique, X-ray, tomogrphy, pipe flow, bubble
  • Lecture (Conference)
    50th European Two-Phase Flows Group Meeting 2012, 16.-18.05.2012, Udine, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17181 - Permalink


Geology and architecture of the Norra Kärr Zr-REE deposit, Southern Sweden
Atanasova, P.; Leijd, M.; Gutzmer, J.;
The Norra Kärr rare metal deposit in Southern Sweden represents one of the largest resources of rare earth elements (REE) in Europe. The deposit is hosted by a metamorphosed and deformed peralkaline nepheline syenite intrusion, which covers an area of 350m by 1100m. This intrusion is situated within a suite of Proterozoic gneisses and granites referred to as the Växjö Granite. The Växjö Granite belongs to the Trans-Scandinavian Igneous belt (1.85-1.65 Ga); the age of the peralkaline intrusion is rather poorly constrained at about 1545 ± 61 Ma (Blaxland 1977, recalculated by Welin 1980). Gross magmatic layering and orientation of early deformation fabrics suggest the intrusion was emplaced as a sill within the granitic basement (Rankin 2011). The granitoid rocks close to the contact to the peralkaline intrusion exhibit signs of fenitization (Adamson 1944, Eckermann 1968).

The Norra Kärr nepheline syenite and the surrounding basement have been deformed by weak to moderate N-S directed compression (Rankin 2011). This late-stage fold event has produced rhombic bulging and necking of the intrusion. The body is preserved within an overturned synformal hinge suggesting potential for other nepheline syenite bodies within the region. The intrusion has undergone not only modification of its shape by 3 phases of folding, but also possible transport of the body from its original emplacement locus by both N-S movement and E-vergent movement. In addition, the overprinting of the regional NNE-trending structural corridor by later episodes of extensional faulting also obscures the original geometry.

The Norra Kärr REE mineralization is notably enriched in the coveted heavy REE (HREE) and has been granted by the Geological Survey of Sweden a “national interest” status. The intrusion was first discovered by the Swedish Geological Survey in the earlier year of the 20th century and first described by A. E. Törnebohm in 1906. Since its discovery it has been explored – and on a small scale exploited - for nepheline, Zr and Hf. Since August 2009 Tasman Metals pursues an aggressive exploration program that focuses on rare metals mineralization, in particular HREE, in the intrusion. Currently, resources in the deposit are 41.6 Mt @ 0.57 % TREO with 51 % HREO/TREO and 1.7 % ZrO2 (indicated) and 16.5 Mt @ 0.64 % TREO with 49% HREO/TREO and 1.7 % Zr2O (inferred).

The lithotypes that comprise the intrusion are mostly identified by local names only; they share an agpaitic composition but their spatial and genetic relationship of the lithotypes remains unclear at present. The most common lithotype present is referred to as grennaite, best described as a fine to medium grained meta-syenite consisting of alkali feldspar, nepheline, aegirine, natrolite, eudialyte and catapleiite (Adamson 1944, Blaxland 1977). Less common lithotypes include lakarpite (arfvedsonite-albite nepheline meta-syenite), pulaskite (microcline-arfvedsonite-albite nepheline meta-syenite) and kaxtorpite (eckermannite-microcline-aegirine-pectolite nepheline meta-syenite). Exploration has revealed that much of the rare metal mineralization is associated with pegmatitic and migmatitic intervals within the complexly zoned intrusion, suggesting an important influence of (fluid-induced?) recrystallization and remobilization on the character and distribution of rare metal mineralization. Mineralogical studies have shown REE bearing minerals to include eudialyte group minerals and very minor mosandrite and cerite. The Zr-silicates catapleiite and eudialyte host the majority of the zirconium.
Keywords: REE, rare earth elements, zirconium, deposit, alkaline, rare metals
  • Poster
    Geochemistry of mineral deposits, 15.-20.07.2012, Andover, NH, United States

Publ.-Id: 17180 - Permalink


Numerical Simulation of Horizontal Two-Phase Flow Experiments Using an Morphology Detection Model
Höhne, T.; Darlianto, D.; Lucas, D.;
Eine geschichtete Zweiphasenströmung liegt z.B. im Heißstrang eines Kernreaktors bei einem Kühlmittelverluststörfall vor. Ein Problem der Simulation von Zweiphasenströmungen mit CFD-Codes besteht darin, dass lokal unterschiedliche Morphologien der Phasengrenzen auftreten können. Die disperse und die kontinuierliche Form der Gas- und Fluidphase werden in der Modellierung jeweils als separate Phasen behandelt. Die disperse Phase liegt in Form von Wassertröpfchen oder Gasblasen vor. An der Phasengrenze zwischen kontinuierlichen Phasen (d.h. in der Simulation wird die Phasengrenze aufgelöst) müssen andere Schließungsmodelle, z.B. für den Impulsaustausch, angewendet werden als an einer Grenze zwischen kontinuierlicher und disperser Phase. Bisher war das nicht möglich, da die Information über die jeweils vorliegende Strömungsmorpholgie im CFD-Code nicht vorlag. Deshalb wurde in enger Zusammenarbeit mit dem Codeentwickler ANSYS ein Modell zur besseren Beschreibung der wirkenden physikalischen Gesetze bei Zweiphasenströmungen in Abhängigkeit der Strömungsmorphologie (AIAD= Algebraic Interfacial Area Density Modell) entwickelt, erprobt und in den CFD-Code CFX implementiert. Validierungsrechnungen für das AIAD-Modell wurden für Experimente am Heißstrangmodell an TOPFLOW bzw. dem TOPFLOW_PTS Versuchsstand sowie für Schwallströmungen und dem stationären hydraulischen Sprung im horizontalen Strömungskanal HAWAC durchgeführt und zeigten durchweg gute Ergebnisse. Für die Zukunft ist eine verbesserte Beschreibung der Turbulenz an der Phasengrenzfläche geplant.
Keywords: TOPFLOW PTS HAWAC AIAD CFX
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ANSYS Conference & dem 30. CADFEM Users´ Meeting, 24.-26.10.2012, Kassel, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ANSYS Conference & dem 30. CADFEM Users´ Meeting, 24.-26.10.2012, Kassel, Deutschland
    CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 17179 - Permalink


Development and validation of a morphology detection algorithm (AIAD) for horizontal two phase flows
Höhne, T.;
In order to improve the understanding of counter-current two-phase flows and to validate new physical models, CFD simulations of 1/3rd scale model of the hot leg of a German Konvoi Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with rectangular cross section was performed. Selected counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) were calculated with ANSYS CFX 12.1 using the multi-fluid Euler-Euler modeling approach. The transient calculations were carried out using a gas/liquid inhomogeneous multiphase flow model coupled with a SST turbulence model for each phase.

In the simulation, the surface drag was approached by a new correlation inside the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model. The AIAD model allows the detection of the morphological form of the two phase flow and the corresponding switching via a blending function of each correlation from one object pair to another. As a result this model can distinguish between bubbles, droplets and the free surface using the local liquid phase volume fraction value.

A comparison with the high-speed video observations shows a good qualitative agreement. The results indicated that quantitative agreement of the CCFL characteristics between calculation and experimental data was obtained. To validate the model and to study scaling effects CFD simulations of the CCFL phenomenon in a full scale PWR hot leg of the UPTF test facility were performed. Also these results indicated a good agreement between the calculation and experimental data. The final goal is to provide an easy usable AIAD framework for all ANSYS CFX users, with the possibility of the implementation of their own correlations.
Keywords: AIAD CCFL CFX PWR UPTF ANSYS
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Latin American CFD Workshop Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry, 10.-11.07.2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th Latin American CFD Workshop Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry, 10.-11.07.2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien
    CD-ROM
  • Open Access LogoPetrobras Technical Bulletin (2016)

Publ.-Id: 17178 - Permalink


High energy CPA-free picosecond Yb:YAG amplifier
Loeser, M.; Siebold, M.; Roeser, F.; Schramm, U.;
We report on a CPA free picosecond MOPA system consisting of a fs Yb:KGW oscillator and 2 subsequent amplifiers using Yb:YAG active mirrors. A maximum pulse energy of 35mJ at 10Hz repetition rate was achieved.
Keywords: Lasers, diode-pumped Lasers Ytterbium Laser amplifiers
  • Poster
    Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), 29.01.-03.02.2012, San Diego, USA
  • Lecture (others)
    Disk Laser Workshop, 14.-15.05.2012, Stuttgart, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17177 - Permalink


High-energy laser amplifiers using ultra-broad emitting Yb-doped materials
Siebold, M.; Loeser, M.; Roeser, F.; Uecker, R.; Koerner, J.; Hein, J.; Hornung, M.; Keppler, S.; Kaluza, M.; Schramm, U.;
High-energy laser amplifiers using Yb-doped gain media often show reduced efficiencies especially when operating at ultra-short pulses. We summarize techniques to improve storage and extraction efficiencies of Yb-based laser amplifiers.
Keywords: Lasers, diode-pumped Lasers Ytterbium Laser amplifiers
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Advances in Optical Materials (AIOM), 01.-03.02.2012, San Diego, USA

Publ.-Id: 17176 - Permalink


New Aspects in Modelling Counter-Current Flow Phenomena Using a Morphology Detection Algorithm
Höhne, T.;
Counter current flow was successfully simulated in the Hot Leg Channel.
A new surface drag model inside the morphology detection algorithm AIAD was introduced, it further improves the physics.
The qualitative structure of the flow morphology is similar to the one observed in the experiment (slug flow regime).
The calculated quantitative CCFL characteristics & water levels inside the hot leg channel were in an agreement with the experiments.
CFD calculations of 1:1 scaled UPTF CCFL experiments show very promizing results.
The effect of turbulence parameters near the free surface has to be studied in future.
Validation of the AIAD model is going on – Official release of the AIAD framework in CFX is on the way.
Keywords: CCFL AIAD CFX Hot Leg Channel
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Multiphase Flow Conference and Short Course: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 13.-14.06.2012, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Multiphase Flow Conference and Short Course: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 13.-14.06.2012, Dresden, Deutschland
    CD-ROM

Publ.-Id: 17175 - Permalink


Development and validation of a morphology detection algorithm (AIAD)
Höhne, T.;
Counter current flow was successfully simulated in the Hot Leg Channel.
A new surface drag model inside the morphology detection algorithm AIAD was introduced, it further improves the physics.
The qualitative structure of the flow morphology is similar to the one observed in the experiment (slug flow regime).
The calculated quantitative CCFL characteristics & water levels inside the hot leg channel were in an agreement with the experiments.
CFD calculations of 1:1 scaled UPTF CCFL experiments show very promizing results .
The effect of turbulence parameters near the free surface has to be studied in future.
Validation of the AIAD model is going on – Official release of the AIAD framework in CFX is on the way.
Keywords: UPTF CCFL CFD Hot Leg Channel AIAD CFX
  • Lecture (Conference)
    AER Working Group C and G, 31.05.-01.06.2012, Paks, Ungarn

Publ.-Id: 17174 - Permalink


Ultrasonic flow measurements in a model of a Czochralski puller
Cramer, A.; Pal, J.; Gerbeth, G.;
An experimental study of the buoyancy-induced flow in a model of a Czochralski crystal growth system was conducted. Ultrasonic velocimetry was used to measure fluid velocities. To have similar thermal boundary conditions as in an industrial growth facility, a double-walled glass crucible flown through by a heating fluid was chosen to hold the fluid. Similarity of the heat transfer conditions was achieved by selecting a liquid metal as the fluid under investigation, which was the ternary alloy GaInSn having a Prandtl number of 0.021. Because of the double-walled crucible, measurements through the container wall are difficult if ever possible. Since the availability of relatively short ultrasonic transducers it is practicable to have the sensor immersed into the fluid. Measurements of the radial velocity component shortly below the melt surface across the entire diameter of the crucible at various azimuthal angles reveal the complex flow structure of natural convection in a Czochralski crucible. As it is not to be expected to grow high quality mono-crystalline crystals from such a non-axisymmetric flow, rotating magnetic fields (RMF) are often proposed to render the flow more axisymmetric. This paper also addresses the question what happens to the buoyancy-driven flow when such an RMF is applied.
Keywords: Czochralski crystal growth, Rayleigh-Benard convection, ultrasonic flow measurement, electromagnetic stirring

Publ.-Id: 17173 - Permalink


Numerical simulation and experimental verification of the DC magnetic field effect on the fluid flow in a continuous casting mould
Miao, X.; Timmel, K.; Lucas, D.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations with respect to the fluid flow in the continuous casting process under the influence of an external DC magnetic field. According to the concept of the electromagnetic brake (EMBR) the impact of a DC magnetic field on the outlet flow from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) has been studied up to Hartmann numbers of about 400. Numerical calculations were performed by means of the software package CFX with an implemented RANS-SST turbulence model. The non-isotropic nature of the MHD turbulence was taken into account by specific modifications of the turbulence model. The numerical results were validated by flow measurements carried out in a small-scale mockup using the eutectic alloy GaInSn. The comparison between our numerical calculations and the experimental results displays a very well agreement. The magnetic field causes a deflection of the jet and decreases its exit angle from the nozzle ports. An elongation of the jet cross section can be observed along the magnetic field direction. A significant return flow occurs in the adjacent regions of the jet. Specific vortices are formed with axes being aligned with the magnetic field direction, which is typical for quasi-two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic flows. Likewise, the results did not confirm the expectation that the use of the DC magnetic field induces a general reduction of the velocity fluctuations all over the mould region. Actually, under certain conditions the application of a horizontal magnetic field may cause intense, non-steady and non-isotropic flow structures. Another important result of our study is the feature that the electrical boundary conditions have a serious influence on the mould flow just as it is exposed to an external magnetic field.
Keywords: continuous casting, liquid metal model, electromagnetic brake, MHD-turbulence, RANS-SST turbulence model
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking 2012, 01.-03.10.2012, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking 2012, 01.-03.10.2012, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17172 - Permalink


Flow following sensor particles – validation and macro-mixing analysis in a stirred fermentation vessel with a highly viscous substrate
Reinecke, S.; Kryk, H.; Hampel, U.; Deutschmann, A.; Jobst, K.; Friedrich, E.;
A group of flow following sensor particles was validated under real flow conditions in a highly viscous substrate in a 1000 L model fermenter vessel, equipped with a pitched blade impeller, which was operated at two different axial positions in an intermittent mixing regime. The neutrally buoyant sensor particles track basic hydrodynamic and process parameters, namely hydrostatic pressure (giving the axial position), temperature and acceleration. The sensors are connected to a measurement electronics, which is enclosed in a robust capsule that can resist the harsh conditions in an industrial mixing process. The results show that the sensor particles still reflect the flow conditions in the vessel qualitatively. Moreover, the sensor particle data allow estimation of macro-mixing parameters, such as circulation time distributions and average circulation times.
Keywords: Flow Follower; Sensor Particle; Autonomous Sensor; Macro-Mixing; Circulation Time; Parameter Tracking; Bio-substrate; Biogas; Bioreactor

Publ.-Id: 17171 - Permalink


Intelligente Sensorpartikel zur Prozessdiagnose in Mischbehältern
Reinecke, S.; Kryk, H.; Hampel, U.;
Der Betrieb großer Anlagen und Behälter wird von dem Problem begleitet, dass darin ablaufende verfahrens- und energietechnische Prozesse aufgrund erschwerter oder unmöglicher messtechnischer Zugänglichkeit nicht genügend beschrieben und überwacht werden können. Die Installation von lokal installierten Sonden mit Kabelverbindungen ist in großen Behältern, wie Chemie- und Bioreaktoren, Fermentern oder Schüttgutbehältern, oft nicht realisierbar oder unerwünscht. Zudem sind bildgebende Messverfahren, wie Kameras oder Tomografiesysteme, auf Grund der trüben Medien und der Behälterabmessungen von mehreren Metern meist nicht anwendbar.
Der Einsatz intelligenter Strömungsfolger und autonomer Sensortechnologien ermöglicht die messtechnische Erfassung verteilter Parameter und gewinnt deshalb zunehmend an Bedeutung für Anwendungen in der Prozessindustrie [1].
Aus diesem Grund wurde am HZDR das Konzept autonomer Sensorpartikel entwickelt, welche als auftriebsneutrale Strömungsfolger in großen Behältern, wie Biogasfermentern, eingesetzt werden können und dabei kontinuierlich Prozessparameter erfassen, speichern und diese nach Rückgewinnung der Partikel aus dem Prozess einem computergestützten Analysesystem zur Verfügung stellen [2].
  • Poster
    15. Köthener Rührer-Kolloquium, 14.06.2012, Köthen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17170 - Permalink


Autonome Sensorik
Reinecke, S.; Hampel, U.;
Für eine effiziente Steuerung von Prozessen in verfahrenstechnischen Anlagen ist eine detaillierte räumliche und zeitliche Erfassung von Prozessparametern erforderlich, die jedoch mit herkömmlichen Messverfahren nicht realisiert werden kann. Als vollkommen neuen Lösungsansatz dazu wurde am HZDR ein autonomes Sensorpartikel entwickelt, welches als Strömungsfolger in großen Behältern, wie Biogasfermentern, eingesetzt werden könnte und somit kontinuierlich Prozessparameter erfasst, speichert und diese nach Wiedergewinnung des Partikels am Behälterauslass einem Analysesystem zur Verfügung stellt.
  • Industrielle Automation 1(2012)3, 43-43

Publ.-Id: 17169 - Permalink


Autonome Sensorik für große Prozessbehälter (AUTOSENS)
Reinecke, S.; Kryk, H.; Tschofen, M.;
Für eine effiziente Steuerung von Prozessen in verfahrenstechnischen Anlagen ist eine detaillierte räumliche und zeitliche Erfassung von Prozessparametern erforderlich, die jedoch mit herkömmlichen Messverfahren nicht realisiert werden kann. Als vollkommen neuen Lösungsansatz dazu wurde am HZDR ein autonomes Sensorpartikel entwickelt, welches als Strömungsfolger in großen Behältern, wie Biogasfermentern, eingesetzt werden könnte und somit kontinuierlich Prozessparameter erfasst, speichert und diese nach Wiedergewinnung des Partikels am Behälterauslass einem Analysesystem zur Verfügung stellt.

Publ.-Id: 17168 - Permalink


Grain refinement by electromagnetic stirring and the impact on the mechanical properties of alsi-alloys
Räbiger, D.; Krößig, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
This present study examines the directional solidification of AlSi7 alloys from a water cooled copper chill. A rotating magnetic field was used for melt agitation. Different magnetic field configurations were considered to demonstrate the impact of diverse flow conditions on the resulting microstructure and the mechanical properties. The solidified structure was evaluated in comparison to an unaffected solidified ingot. Measurements of the phase distribution, the grain size, the hardness and the tensile strength were performed. Our results reveal the potential of magnetic fields to control the grain size, the formation of segregation freckles and the mechanical properties. In particular, time–modulated rotating fields demonstrated their capability to homogenize both the grain size distribution and to improve the mechanical properties.
Keywords: rotating magnetic field; solidification; grain refinement; mechanical properties; AlSi alloys
  • Journal of Iron and Steel Research International 19(2012)Suppl. 1-1, 341-344
  • Poster
    7th International Conference on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, 22.-26.10.2012, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 17167 - Permalink


Flow control during solidification of AlSi-alloys by means of tailored ac magnetic fields
Zhang, Y.; Räbiger, D.; Vogt, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
This paper presents an experimental study which in a first stage is focused on obtaining quantitative information about the isothermal flow field exposed to various magnetic field configurations. Melt stirring has been realized by utilizing time-modulated AC magnetic fields in different variants. We consider time-modulated fields or combinations of traveling magnetic fields (TMF) and rotating magnetic fields (RMF). In a second step solidification experiments are carried out to verify the effect of a certain flow field on the solidification process. Our results demonstrate that the melt agitation using modulated magnetic fields offers a considerable potential for a well-aimed modification of casting properties by an effective control of the flow field.
Keywords: rotating magnetic field; travelling magnetic field; modulated fields; solidification; AlSi alloys
  • Journal of Iron and Steel Research International 19(2012)Suppl. 1-1, 574-577
  • Poster
    7th International Conference on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, 22.-26.10.2012, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 17166 - Permalink


Inertial waves occurring in a liquid metal column due to pulsed excitation by a rotating magnetic field
Räbiger, D.; Vogt, T.; Franke, S.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
We present an experimental study concerning the flow inside a liquid metal column exposed to a pulsed rotating magnetic field. This paper is aimed at highly resolved, quantitative velocity measurements in the eutectic GaInSn alloy. A novel ultrasound Doppler system was used two measure two-dimensional velocity fields of the secondary flow in the radial-meridional plane. It employs an array of 25 transducer elements allowing a fast electronic traversing with concurrently high spatial and temporal resolution. The measurements revealed transient flow regimes showing distinct inertial oscillations and coherent vortex structures. The results demonstrate that the arising flow structure depends sensitively on the frequency of the RMF pulses. A maximum intensity of a periodic meridional flow can be observed, if the corresponding pulse frequency fP relates to the eigenperiod of the respective inertial mode in a developed regime. The electromagnetic stirring method that uses a modulated RMF offers considerable potential to enhance the stirring efficiency and to optimize the properties of castings by a well-aimed flow control during solidification.
Keywords: rotating magnetic field; electromagnetic stirring, inertial waves; flow control
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th International Conference on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, 22.-26.10.2012, Beijing, China
  • Journal of Iron and Steel Research International 19(2012)Suppl. 1-1, 82-85

Publ.-Id: 17165 - Permalink


Visualization of the flow in a mold of continuous casting by contactless inductive flow tomography and mutual inductance tomography
Wondrak, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.; Peyton, A. J.; Terzija, N.; Yin, W.;
The flow structure in the mold of a continuous caster has a great influence on the quality of the produced steel. Conventional flow measurement techniques are prevented by the high temperature of the liquid steel. For a physical model of the continuous casting process using a low-melting point liquid metal, we present combined measurements of the flow in the mold by Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT), and of the conductivity distribution in the submerged entry nozzle by Mutual Inductance Tomography (MIT). In addition, we summarize experiments with a magnetic stirrer around the submerged entry nozzle and its effects on the flow in the mold. Some new developments towards a robust implementation of CIFT at a real caster, including the use of pickup coils and gradiometric probes, are also discussed.
Keywords: continuous casting, flow measurement, contactless inductive flow tomography
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking 2012, 01.-3.10.2012, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking 2012, 01.-3.10.2012, Dresden, Germany
  • Steel Research International 85(2014)8, 1266-1273
    DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300075

Publ.-Id: 17164 - Permalink


Flow pattern formation in a liquid metal column by pulsed excitation of a rotating magnetic field
Räbiger, D.; Vogt, T.; Franke, S.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
We present an experimental study concerning measurements of the flow inside a liquid metal column exposed to a pulsed rotating magnetic field. A novel ultrasound Doppler system was used to measure two-dimensional velocity fields of the secondary flow in the radial-meridional plane. It employs an array of 25 transducer elements allowing a fast electronic traversing with concurrently high spatial and temporal resolution. The measurements revealed transient flow regimes showing distinct inertial oscillations and coherent vortex structures.
Keywords: rotating magnetic field, inertial waves, liquid metal
  • Lecture (Conference)
    The 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 19.-24.08.2012, Beijing, China
  • Contribution to proceedings
    The 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 19.-24.08.2012, Beijing, China

Publ.-Id: 17163 - Permalink


Experimental Modelling of the Impact of a DC Magnetic Field on the Melt Flow in a Continuous Casting Mould
Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.; Röder, M.; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
This paper describes experimental investigations of flow structures and related transport processes in the continuous casting mould under the influence of an external DC magnetic field at laboratory scale. Experimental results will be presented here which have been obtained using a physical model (mini-LIMMCAST) operating with the low melting point alloy GaInSn. According to the concept of the electromagnetic brake the impact of a DC magnetic field on the outlet flow from the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN) has been studied up to Hartmann numbers of about 400. The Ultrasound-Doppler-Velocimetry (UDV) was applied for measurements of the flow pattern in the mould. Local conductivity anemometers were used to measure the turbulent quantities of the flow. The effect of the magnetic field on the flow structure turned out to be manifold and rather complex. The magnetic field causes a deflection of the jet, at which the respective exit angle from the nozzle ports becomes more flat. Thus, both the penetration depth of the discharging flow into the lower part of the mould and the impinging velocity of the jet onto the side wall are reduced. A significant return flow occurs in the adjacent regions of the jet. Specific vortices are formed with axes being aligned with the magnetic field direction. Such vortical structures are typical for quasi-two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flows. The flow measurements do not manifest a general braking effect which would be expected as an overall damping of the flow velocity and the related fluctuations all-over the mould volume. Variations of the wall conductivity showed a striking impact on the resulting flow structures.
Keywords: continuous casting, liquid metal model, electromagnetic brake, ultrasonic flow measurement, potential probes
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th International Conference on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM2012), 22.-26.10.2012, Peking, China
  • Journal of Iron and Steel Research International 19(2012)Suppl. 1-2, 862-865

Publ.-Id: 17162 - Permalink


Flow determination in a model of continuous casting by combining contactless inductive flow tomography and mutual inductance tomography
Wondrak, T.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Timmel, K.; Eckert, S.; Klotsche, K.; Peyton, A. J.; Yin, W.; Terzija, N.;
For a physical model of a continuous caster, we present results on the simultaneous measurements of the flow in the mould by the Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT), and of the conductivity distribution in the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) by Mutual Inductance Tomography (MIT) for a two phase flow setup. Depending on the gas flow rate, various flow regimes in the SEN and in the mould are identified, among them pressure oscillations in the gas feeding system, transitions between double and single vortex flows, and transient single port ejections.
In addition we give a summary of an experimental campaign with a magnetic stirrer around the SEN and its effects on the flow in the mould. As expected and desired, the swirling flow leads to a stronger upward fluid motion along the walls. At the same time, however, the oscillatory character of the flow becomes stronger.
The paper concludes with some new developments for CIFT towards a robust measurement of the very small induced magnetic field using pickup coils which allow the application of CIFT in environments with high DC magnetic fields and strong noise.
Keywords: liquid metal, contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT), electromagnetic inductance tomography (MIT), continuous casting
  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, 25.-28.3.2012, Cape Town, South Afrika
  • Contribution to proceedings
    6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, 25.-28.3.2012, Cape Town, South Afrika

Publ.-Id: 17161 - Permalink


Simulation von Diffusions-Adsorptionsprozessen in natürlichem Gesteinsmaterial mit COMSOL Multiphysics.
Schikora, J.;
Viele Länder innerhalb Europas, wie zum Beispiel Frankreich, Deutschland oder die Schweiz, produzieren einen (großen) Teil ihres Energiebedarfs über Kernkraft. Zwar hat Deutschland den Ausstieg aus der Atomenergie beschlossen, sodass perspektivisch
kein neuer radioaktiver Abfall aus Kraftwerken anfällt, trotzdem besteht auch danach die Notwendigkeit der Entsorgung von radioaktiven Stoffen aus der Industrie, Forschung und Medizin. Eine Option für die Entsorgung von radioaktiven Stoffen aus diesen Branchen sowie aus dem Betrieb und der Stilllegung von Kernkraftwerken ist die geologische Tiefenlagerung. Dafür geeignetes Wirtsgestein muss als Bestandteil des Multibarrierenkonzepts bestimmte Anforderungen erfüllen. Dieses Konzept soll den Einschluss der Kontaminanten über sehr lange Zeiträume garantieren, bis die Aktivität der Abfälle auf ein unbedenkliches Maß abgefallen ist. So sollte das gewählte Wirtsgestein eine möglichst geringe hydraulische Leitfähigkeit aufweisen. Der dominante Transportmechanismus ist dann die Diffusion und die Ausbreitung von Schadstoffen findet in solchen Gesteinen verlangsamt statt. Eine weitere Eigenschaft des Gesteins sollte seine Fähigkeit sein, den Transport von Kontaminanten durch Sorption zu retardieren.

Als potentielles Wirtsgestein für radioaktiven Abfall wird in der Schweiz der Opalinuston des Zürcher Weinlandes untersucht. Er weist die oben beschriebene Eigenschaft einer (sehr) geringen hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit (1·10-14 – 1·10-13 m/s) auf (Nagra, 2002). Es ist daher zu erwarten, dass der Transport von gelösten Substanzen innerhalb des Opalinuston durch Diffusion erfolgt. Des Weiteren bedingt der hohe Anteil an Tonmineralen in diesem Wirtsgestein eine gute Retardierung von Kontaminanten. Auch in Deutschland sind Tongesteine, wie der Opalinuston, Untersuchungsgegenstand im Zusammenhang mit der Lagerung von radioaktiven Abfällen und bei der Suche nach Alternativen zu Gorleben.

Der diffusive Transport spielt somit eine wichtige Rolle in Ausbreitungsrechnungen und damit in der Risikoabschätzung entsprechender untertägiger Deponien und Endlager. Für Langzeitsicherheitsanalysen werden neben einem guten Systemverständnis auch die Parameter der Transportgleichungen benötigt. Eine mögliche Vorgehensweise bei der Bestimmung von Transportparametern ist das Durchführen von Laborexperimenten. Die zugrundeliegenden Bilanzgleichungen lassen sich jedoch nicht in jedem Fall analytisch lösen. Es ist dadurch notwenig numerische Lösungsmethoden zu nutzen, zum Beispiel in Computersimulationen.

Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, den Transport chemisch-toxischer und radioaktiver Kontaminanten in geologischen Formationen durch Simulation der Diffusions-Adsorptionsprozesse in natürlichem Gesteinsmaterial zu untersuchen. Als Simulationsumgebung kommt dabei COMSOL Multiphysics zum Einsatz. Sie nutzt zur numerischen Lösung von partiellen Differentialgleichungen die Methode der finiten Elemente.
Hauptziele, die in der vorliegenden Arbeit mit Hilfe der Modellbildung und Simulation der Transportprozesse erreicht werden sollen, sind die Nachrechnung vorhandener Experimente zur Parameterschätzung sowie prognostische Rechnungen zur Optimierung von Diffusionsexperimenten. Es sollen des Weiteren die Möglichkeiten des Simulationstools COMSOL Multiphysics zur effektiven Auswertung von komplexen, dreidimensionalen und anisotropen Daten aus zeitabhängigen Transportuntersuchungen evaluiert werden. Im Einzelnen werden die folgenden Teilaufgaben gelöst:

● Einarbeitung in COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2/4.2a, das Ergänzungsmodul Chemical Reaction Engineering sowie das Optimierungsmodul auch mit dem Ziel des weiteren Ausbaus der Nutzerkompetenz am Institut für Ressourcenökologie (vormals Institut für Radiochemie).

● Auswahl geeigneter Interfaces aus dem COMSOL Basismodul und ggf. dem Chemical Engineering Module für die Nachrechnung vorhandener Datensätze.

● Es sind ausgewählte explizite Diffusions- und Diffusions-Adsorptionsexperimente zu simulieren. Die Parameterbestimmung ist durch Datenabgleich zu gewährleisten. Darüber hinaus ist eine Auswahl alternativer Modelle zu testen und zu vergleichen; beispielsweise hinsichtlich der jeweils zu Grunde liegenden Gleichungen, der Porosität oder der Raum-Zeit-Skala.

● Für ein geplantes Diffusionsexperiment ist mittels prognostischer Rechnungen eine Optimierung der variablen Parameter vorzunehmen.
  • Diploma thesis
    TU Dresden, Fakultät Maschinenwesen, Professur Verfahrensautomatisierung, 2012
    105 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 17160 - Permalink


A controlled immobilization of His-tagged estrogen receptor hERa: Comparison study between the kinetics and morphology
Cherkouk, C.; Rebohle, L.; Gerlach, T.; Kunze, G.; Lenk, J.; Ou, X.; Pietzsch, J.; Skorupa, W.;
A specific immobilization of macrobiomolecules on chip arrays is essential in order to increase the efficiency of biosensors as well as for the improvement of protein single studies. A comparison between a specific immobilization, like on nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) matrix, and a covalent immobilization, like on amino self-assembling monolayers (SAMs), was investigated by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Whereas the number of the covalently immobilized estrogen receptors hER is higher than those of the specifically immobilized receptors, the affinity constant KD, using β-Estradiol as an analyte, is much higher in the case of the specific immobilization. This fact has been demonstrated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The morphology of the covalent and specific immobilization of the His-tagged binding domain of the estrogen receptor (hERa-LBD-His10) confirms the SPR kinetics study.
Keywords: Estrogen receptor, Ni-NTA, His-tagged, SPR, AFM, SEM
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2012 SPRING MEETING, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17159 - Permalink


Impact of Soft Iron impellers in the Cadarache Dynamo experiment
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.;
Numerical simulations of the kinematic induction equation are performed on a model configuration of the Cadarache von-Karman-Sodium dynamo experiment. The effect of a localized axisymmetric distribution of relative permeability that represents soft iron material within a flow of a conducting fluid is investigated. We observe a purely toroidal axisymmetric mode localized in the impeller disks which becomes dominant for sufficiently large permeability. In this limit, the toroidal mode is close to the onset of dynamo action with a (negative) growth-rate that is rather independent of the magnetic Reynolds number. We qualitatively explain this effect by paramagnetic pumping at the fluid/disk interface and propose a simplified analytical model that quantitatively reproduces numerical results. The crucial role of the high permeability disks for the mode selection in the Cadarache dynamo experiment cannot be inferred from computations that use idealized pseudo-vacuum boundary conditions.
Keywords: dynamo
  • Lecture (Conference)
    23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM 2012), 19.-24.08.2012, Beijing, China
  • Contribution to proceedings
    23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM 2012), 19.-24.08.2012, Peking, China
    Abstract Book, 978-988-16022-3-7

Publ.-Id: 17158 - Permalink


Femtosecond level electron bunch diagnostic at quasi-cw SRF accelerators: test facility ELBE
Gensch, M.; Helm, M.; Kaya, C.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Mamidala, V.; Michel, P.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Seidel, W.; Staats, G.; Al-Shemmary, A.; Schlarb, H.; Stojanovic, N.; Geloni, G. A.;
Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator technology allows to accelerate electron bunches not only in considerably longer bunch trains than is possible by normal conducting accelerator technology, but also in principle enables a mode of operation that can circumvent any macropulse scheme and provides relativistic electron bunches with real repetition rates scaling from the kHz to GHz regime [1, 2, 3, 4]. In this proceedings we discuss different approaches foreseen for online electron bunch diagnostic at the new femtosecond electron beamline of the superconducting cw RF accelerator ELBE [11]. In medium term we believe the concepts tested at the femtosecond beamline at ELBE are off great importance for various energy recovvery linac accelerators (ERL) coming online in the next few years [2, 4] as well as facilities like the European X-FEL [5] and FLASH [6] when operated in long bunchtrain mode of operation.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IPAC2012, 20.-25.05.2012, New Orleans, USA
    Proceedings of IPAC2012

Publ.-Id: 17157 - Permalink


Sorption of U(VI) and Np(V) onto diorite from Äspö HRL
Schmeide, K.; Gürtler, S.; Müller, K.; Steudtner, R.; Joseph, C.; Bok, F.; Brendler, V.;
Sorption of the redox-sensitive actinides U and Np onto diorite obtained from Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL, Sweden) was studied by batch sorption experiments. The influence of various parameters, such as solid-to-liquid ratio (2 to 200 g/L), grain size (0.063 – 0.2 mm, 0.5 – 1 mm, 1 – 2 mm) and temperature (25 and 10°C), on the actinide sorption was studied under anoxic conditions (N2) applying a synthetic Äspö groundwater (pH 7.8, I = 0.178 M). The influence of grain size on actinide sorption was also investigated under aerobic conditions (pCO2 = 10−3.5 atm). Applying NaClO4 as background electrolyte, the actinide sorption onto diorite was studied as a function of ionic strength (I = 0.1 to 1 M, pH 7.8). Distribution coefficients, Kd values, were determined. Radionuclide speciation in solution was verified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Furthermore, the sorption of U and Np onto diorite was also studied by in situ time-resolved attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy to characterize the sorbed species.
Keywords: Diorite, uranium, neptunium, sorption, speciation, TRLFS, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    1st Workshop of the Project "Crystalline rock retention processes" (CROCK), 22.-24.05.2012, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Poster
    1st Workshop of the Project "Crystalline rock retention processes" (CROCK), 22.-24.05.2012, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Contribution to proceedings
    1st Workshop of the Project "Crystalline rock retention processes" (CROCK), 22.-24.05.2012, Stockholm, Sweden
    1st Workshop Proceedings of the Collaborative Project “Crystalline Rock Retention Processes” (7th EC FP CP CROCK), KIT Scientific Reports 7629, Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publishing, 169-180 (2012)
  • Lecture (others)
    Status-Seminar 2012 "Nuclear Safety Research – From Reactors to Disposal", 11.-12.12.2012, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17156 - Permalink


Laser proton accelerator for radiobiological studies
Zeil, K.; Beyreuther, E.; Karsch, L.; Kluge, T.; Laschinsky, L.; Kraft, S. D.; Oppelt, M.; Pawelke, J.; Richter, C.; Schürer, M.; Cowan, T.; Sauerbrey, R.; Schramm, U.;
  • Poster
    Oncoray Retreat, 07.-08.03.2012, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17155 - Permalink


Beam collimation with pulse power solenoids
Kroll, F.; Joost, M.; Burris-Mog, T.; Herrmanndörfer, T.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Wustmann, B.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.;
  • Poster
    Oncoray Retreat, 07.-08.03.2012, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17154 - Permalink


Laser Proton Acceleration from Reduced Mass Targets
Zeil, K.; Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S.; Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Schmidt, B.; Zier, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T.; Sauerbrey, R.;
We present recent studies on laser proton acceleration experiments using mass limited silicon targets. Small micro machined silicon foils with 2 µm thickness and 20x20 µm2 to 100x100µm2 size mounted on very tiny stalks were shot with ultra short laser pulses 30 fs of the new 150 TW DRACO Laser facility of the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf. The experiments were carried out using high contrast level 10-10. Proton spectra have been measured with magnetic spectrometers and radio chromic film stacks. The scaling of the maximum proton energy as function of the target size was investigated and strong influence of the stalk as well as the target edges was found.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SPIE Optics and Optoelectronics, 18.-21.04.2011, Prag, Tschechische Republik

Publ.-Id: 17153 - Permalink


Fluid flow driven self-generation of magnetic fields in laboratory experiments
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.;
Cosmic magnetic fields are ubiquitous phenomena that are intrinsically coupled to most astrophysical objects like planets, stars or galaxies. The origin of these fields involves the formation of electrical currents by means of a complex flow of a conducting fluid or plasma.This process, the so called dynamo effect, is necessarily three dimensional and non-linear which makes an analytical or numerical approach difficult.

Meanwhile, fluid flow driven generation of magnetic fields has also been obtained in laboratory experiments providing a complementary tool to astronomical observations or direct numerical simulations. However, whereas astrophysical dynamo action is comparably easy because of the large dimensions of the involved flows, its experimental realization requires considerable technical efforts. So far only three experiments have been able to demonstrate fluid flow driven self-excitation of magnetic fields.

I will briefly summarize the essential outcome of the seminal experiments conducted in Riga and in Karlsruhe which have demonstrated the principal possibility of the magnetic field generation process and its saturation. I will further discuss recent results of the French Von-Karman-Sodium dynamo that are still not completely understood, e.g. the dominance of the axisymmetric field or the exclusive occurrence of dynamo action when soft iron impellers are used to drive the flow.

Further progress in the experimental examination of dynamo action is expected from the future dynamo facility that is scheduled at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN), which is presently in the design phase, will comprise a number of large scale liquid sodium experiments devoted to problems of geo- and astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. A homogeneous dynamo, driven exclusively by precession, will represent the most ambitious compound of DRESDYN. Another experiment, a sodium filled Taylor-Couette cell, will allow the combined investigation of various versions of the magnetorotational instability and of the Tayler instability. For both experiments, recent results of preparatory studies are presented, and the scientific prospects for the final set-ups are delineated.
Keywords: dynamo
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Plasma Physics Symposium, 24.-25.05.2012, Bochum, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17152 - Permalink


Influence of the Lagrangian integral time scale estimation in the near wall region on particle deposition
Lecrivain, G.; Hampel, U.;
In a high temperature pebble-bed reactor core where thousands of pebbles are amassed, the friction between the outer graphite layer of the fuel elements triggers the formation of carbonaceous dust. This dust is eventually conveyed by the cooling carrier phase and deposits in the primary circuit of the high temperature reactor. The numerical prediction of carbonaceous dust transport and deposition in turbulent flows is a key safety issue. Most particle tracking procedures make use of the Lagrangian integral time scale to reproduce the turbulent dispersion of the discrete phase. In the present Lagrangian particle tracking procedure, the effect of the Lagrangian integral time scale near the wall is thoroughly investigated. It is found that, in the linear sublayer, a value of the normalised wall normal component of the Lagrangian integral time scale lower that 4 delivers accurate particle deposition velocities. The value worked out here near the wall region is in accordance with Lagrangian integral time scales derived from recent Direct Numerical Simulations.
Keywords: particle deposition, turbulent dispersion, CFD
  • Journal of Fluids Engineering - Transactions of the ASME 134(2012)7, 074502
    DOI: 10.1115/1.4006912

Publ.-Id: 17150 - Permalink


Cm(III) and Eu(III) speciation in human body fluids and cell culture media studied by luminescence spectroscopy
Heller, A.; Barkleit, A.; Sachs, S.; Bernhard, G.;
The speciation of curium and europium in urine, saliva and FaDu cell culture medium is studied with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.
The complexation study of Cm(III)/Eu(III) with inorganic and organic model substances like carbonate, phosphate, citrate and various proteins which is crucial for species identification in biofluids is presented.
Keywords: curium, europium, urine, saliva, cell culture medium, TRLFS
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4th Speciation Seminar, 29.-31.05.2012, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 17149 - Permalink


Autonome Sensorpartikel zur räumlichen Parametererfassung in großskaligen Behältern
Reinecke, S.; Pöpping, U.; Hampel, U.;
Zur Langzeiterfassung räumlich verteilter Parameter in Prozessbehältern wurde das Konzept autonomer Sensorpartikel entwickelt und getestet. Die Sensorpartikel sind auftriebsneutral und bewegen sich frei mit der vorherrschenden Strömung im Prozess. Die integrierte Messelektronik erfasst die Signale der internen Messfühler für die Temperatur, die Eintauchtiefe und die Beschleunigung in einem autonomen und energieeffizienten Messregime. Die Validierung des Messsystems erfolgte unter realen Strömungsbedingungen in einem Versuchsfermenter. Die aufgenommenen Messdaten und die daraus extrahierten Prozesskenndaten charakterisieren den Zustand des Prozesses und die vorherrschenden Strömungsbedingungen.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    16. GMA/ITG Fachtagung Sensoren und Messsysteme 2012, 22.-23.05.2012, Nürnberg, Deutschland
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2012 - Vorträge der 16. GMA/ITG Fachtagung, 978-3-9813484-0-8, 513-521
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16. GMA/ITG Fachtagung Sensoren und Messsysteme 2012, 22.-23.05.2012, Nürnberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17148 - Permalink


Modeling of SFR cores with Serpent-DYN3D codes sequence
Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.;
DYN3D reactor dynamics nodal diffusion code was originally developed for the analysis of Light Water Reactors. In this paper, we demonstrate feasibility of using DYN3D for modeling of fast spectrum reactors. Homogenized cross sections data library was generated using continuous energy Monte-Carlo code Serpent which provides significant modeling flexibility compared with traditional deterministic lattice transport codes and tolerable execution time. A representative sodium cooled fast reactor core was modeled with Serpent-DYN3D code sequence and the results were compared with those produced by ERANOS code and with 3D full core Monte Carlo solution. Very good agreement between the codes was observed for the core integral parameters and power distribution suggesting that DYN3D code with cross section library generated using Serpent can be reliably used for the analysis of fast reactors.
Keywords: Serpent, Monte Carlo, lattice physics, DYN3D, few-group cross-section generation, sodium cooled fast reactor

Publ.-Id: 17147 - Permalink


Modification of ZnO:Al properties: post-deposition millisecond thermal processing vs direct growth at elevated substrate temperature
Vinnichenko, M.; Hauschild, D.; Cornelius, S.; Krause, M.; Gago, R.; Mücklich, A.; Lissotschenko, V.; Kolitsch, A.;
ZnO:Al (AZO) is a promising cost-efficient transparent conducting material for a number of applications. Thermal processing at millisecond time scale (very rapid thermal processing, vRTP) is an attractive approach of AZO film properties improvement. Present study focuses on systematic comparison of the properties of the films processed by vRTP and directly grown at various substrate temperatures. The AZO films were deposited both by reactive pulsed and non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The vRTP was performed using innovative low-cost high power diode laser arrays with microoptically designed line-shaped beam profiles (dwell time of 1 ms). Only the films grown without substrate heating were subjected to the vRTP. Even at air ambience, the optimized laser processing of the AZO films results in a decrease of the film electrical resistivity from (1-2)x10^-3 to less than 5x10^-4 Ohm cm. This is accompanied by a substantial, in some cases almost two-fold, increase of the free electron mobility and density, and increase of the film transmittance in the visible. According to TEM, ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy and XANES, annealing of intra-grain oxygen-related point defects during vRTP has a main effect on the film electrical properties. Using deposition at elevated temperature, the AZO films with comparable electrical and optical properties were achieved only at Ts≥250°C.
Keywords: transparent conductive oxides, ZnO:Al, very rapid thermal processing
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    10th International Symposium on Ceramic Materials and Components for Energy and Environmental Applications (10th CMCEE), 21.-23.05.2012, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 17146 - Permalink


Plasmonic nano-Ag layers in TCO and Si nanosponge for photovoltaic applications
Vinnichenko, M.; Liedke, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Gulseren, O.; Friedrich, D.; Mücklich, A.; Schmidt, B.; Akguc, G. B.; Aydinli, A.;
Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential of increasing efficiency of thin film solar cells substantially due to plasmonic effects. Here, we consider two different approaches of Ag NPs embedding into: (i) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) at the rear side of thin-film PV cells to induce plasmonic scattering of red light at high angles (in-plane direction) in order to improve the light trapping in the absorber layer; and (ii) absorber layer to increase carrier generation due to plasmonic field enhancement.
For the approach (i), a thin Ag layer is sandwiched between two ZnO:Al films with all films grown by magnetron sputter deposition. Subsequently, by a thermal treatment or using high growth temperatures this Ag film is transformed into an Ag NP layer via spinodal dewetting. The formation of Ag NPs was investigated experimentally and by atomistic simulations. The electrical and optical properties of such composites were also studied.
For the approach (ii) Ag layer can be sandwiched between SiO layers grown by PVD and then thermally treated to form novel absorber material consisting of Si nanowire network in SiO2 and Ag NPs. Large-scale atomistic simulations predict formation of Ag/Si core-shell NPs isolated by SiO2. This prevents direct electrical contact of Ag NPs with percolated Si network, thus avoiding charge carriers losses. The experimental prove of this prediction is in progress.
Keywords: Transparent conductive oxides, plasmonic effects
  • Poster
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17145 - Permalink


Mechanisms of electrical and optical properties modification of ZnO:Al films induced by very rapid thermal processing
Vinnichenko, M.; Hauschild, D.; Cornelius, S.; Krause, M.; Gago, R.; Mücklich, A.; Neidhardt, J.; Lissotschenko, V.; Kolitsch, A.;
Thermal processing at millisecond range (very rapid thermal processing, vRTP) is an attractive approach of ZnO:Al film properties improvement compared to RTP or time-consuming isothermal annealing. This is of importance for development of cost-efficient transparent electrodes for thin film solar cells. The present study elucidates the effects of thermal processing on the film optical and electrical properties comparing vRTP treatment at ambient atmosphere using a laser source (~1 ms dwell time) with isothermal annealing in vacuum (1 hour, Ta≤550 °C). The films were grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering (MS) at lab scale and non-reactive MS using an industrial in-line system. The optimized laser processing and the isothermal annealing of the films grown at low temperatures (RT-100 °C) result in an increase of their transmittance in the visible, decrease of electrical resistivity from (1-2)x10^-3 to less than 5x10^-4 Ohm cm, substantial increase of free electron mobility, µe, and density, Ne. Laser annealing of the films grown under optimized conditions at 350 °C does not improve their properties, while isothermal annealing leads to an increase of µe values above 50 cm2V-1s-1. According to TEM, ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy and XANES, annealing of intra-grain oxygen-related point defects during vRTP has a main effect on the film electrical properties, while during isothermal annealing additional improvement of crystallinity needs to be taken into account.
Keywords: transparent conductive oxides, ZnO:Al, high-power diode laser annealing
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17144 - Permalink


Terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures with the free-electron laser
Helm, M.;
Free electron lasers (FEL) can deliver high-intensity narrow-band radiation in otherwise not easily accessible spectral ranges, such as the THz range.
After briefly introducing the FEL at HZDR, I will discuss a quantum optical experiment, where we use the FEL to drive the 1s-2p intra-excitonic transition in semiconductor quantum wells and observe the so-called Autler-Townes splitting, a manifestation of electronic states dressed by the radiation field [1]. Our results indicate that we enter a regime well beyond the rotating-wave and two-level approximations. As a second example I will discuss pump-probe experiments on multilayer graphene over a wide range of photon energies (10-250 meV), hereby unveiling the relevant electronic relaxation mechanisms [2]. Remarkably we observe a sign change of the probe signal, i.e. a crossover from induced bleaching to induced absorption, which is related to the interplay between inter- and intraband absorption.

[1] M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, M. Helm: „Observation of the intra-exciton Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 167401 (2010)

[2] S. Winnerl, M. Orlita, P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, M. Potemski, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, H. Schneider, M. Helm: "Carrier relaxation in epitaxial graphene photoexcited near the Dirac point", Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 237401 (2011)
Keywords: free-electron laser, semiconductor nanostructures, terahertz, graphene
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikkolloquium TU Chemnitz, 23.05.2012, Chemnitz, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikkolloquium Universität Konstanz, 26.06.2012, Konstanz, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physikkolloquium Universität Paderborn, 12.07.2012, Paderborn, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag Southeastern University, Nanjing, China, 18.09.2012, Nanjing, China

Publ.-Id: 17143 - Permalink


Novel 7α-alkoxy-17α-(4’-halophenylethynyl)estradiols as potential SPECT/PET imaging agents for estrogen receptor expressing tumors: synthesis and binding affinity evaluation
Neto, C.; Oliveira, M. C.; Gano Fernanda Marques, M. L.; Yasuda, T.; Thiemann, T.; Kniess, T.; Santos, I.;
To develop potential radiolabelled probes for SPECT/PET imaging estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, we have synthesized and characterized a series of novel 7α-alkoxy-17α-(4-iodophenylethynyl)estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diols and 7α-alkoxy-17α-(4-fluorophenylethynyl)estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diols.
The fluoro-substituted compounds showed a higher ER binding affinity than the corresponding iodo-compounds, where 7α-methoxy- and 17α-(4-fluorophenylethynyl)estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol showed the highest ER binding affinities (RBA=80.9 and 78.9%) among the halophenylethynyl compounds studied and should be further explored as potential PET biomarkers for imaging of ER expressing tumors.

Publ.-Id: 17142 - Permalink


A 2m x 0.5m prototype of a MRPC-based neutron detector with steel converter plates
Röder, M.; Aumann, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Cowan, T. E.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M.; Elekes, Z.; Kempe, M.; Maroussov, V.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Simon, H.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yakorev, D.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; for the R3B Collaboration;
A 2m long prototype detector for the detection of neutrons in an energy range from 200MeV to 1 GeV has been successfully realized. The working principle is based on steel converter plates followed by an MRPC structure to detect charged particles produced by hadronic interactions. In order to study time resolution and efficiency, a 2m x 0.5m large module has been built which comprises a 2 x 2 gap MRPC structure. An efficiency larger than 90% and a time resolution better than 100 ps have been measured for minimum ionizing electrons. This experiment has been done using the one-electron-per-bunch mode of the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE, Dresden. Another test has been done using 175MeV quasi-monochromatic neutrons at TSL in Uppsala. A test using tagged high-energy neutrons is scheduled at GSI. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out, both for the electron-beam tests and for the final application as a neutron detector. The present approach offers a cost-effective way for the time-of-flight detection of high energy neutrons.
Keywords: Detector - MRPC, neutron beam, electron beam, minimum ionizing electrons, Monte Carlo simulations
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XI workshop on Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors (RPC 2012), 05.-10.02.2012, Frascati (Rom), Italien
  • Open Access LogoProceedings of Science RPC(2012)

Publ.-Id: 17141 - Permalink


Three natural minerals - sanidine, pyrite and columbite - as potential geologic reference materials. Characterization of chemical homogeneity at a micrometer scale
Michalak, P. P.; Renno, A. D.; Munnik, F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Merchel, S.;
A supply risk assessment of strategic high-technology metals requires a thorough quality assurance of their concentration in ores. Because such metals are usually unevenly distributed at a micrometer scale within natural ore-minerals matrices, spatially-resolved methods must be employed in geometallurgic investigations. Unfortunately, obtaining reliable data with non-absolute micro-analytical methods requires the use of reference materials
(RMs) that fulfill the matrix-match criterion. While using natural minerals with optimum chemical composition as reference materials seems to satisfy the matrix criterion, assuring their chemical homogeneity at the sub-µg/g sampling masses usually fails. A solution is to produce synthetic minerals, doped with high-technology metals at trace concentrations, evenly distributed in homogenous chemically-optimal matrices.
Prior to the synthesis, three natural minerals - sanidine, pyrite and columbite - have been tested for lateral chemical and structural homogeneity. The assessment involved both microscopic (optical) and spectroscopic methods. The samples have been visually examined with a reflected light microscope and electron microscope (Back Scattered Emission imaging) exhibiting no optical heterogeneities. The chemical composition has been analyzed with three methods based on X-ray detection: EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analysis), PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and Sy-XRF (Synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray Fluorescence). EPMA analyses were carried out at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg using a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) and an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and a beam size of 2 µm2. PIXE data were obtained using a 3 MeV proton beam of about 5x5 µm2 from a 3 MV tandem accelerator at the HZDR in Dresden. Sy-XRF measurements were performed at the hard X-ray beamline “BAMline” at the BESSY synchrotron facility in Berlin. Samples were exposed in atmosphere to monochromatic X-rays of 20 keV focused with a compound refractive lens to 3x3 µm2.
Petrographically-sensible homogeneity testing procedure has been implemented into statistical analysis of the results accounting for both random and systematic heterogeneity patterns such as nugget and island type as well as periodic wave-type heterogeneities.
Quantitative (EPMA, PIXE) and qualitative (Sy-XRF) elemental spatial distribution maps have been obtained for major, minor and trace elements for each scan. Several trace elements were detected in each of the matrices: Ga, Ge, Rb, Sr, Ba in sanidine; Ni, Cu, As in pyrite and Zr, Sc, Y, W in columbite. All of them showed irregular distribution patterns, proving that selected mineral specimens are not suitable candidates for reference materials.
The proposed sequence of testes including microscopic and spectroscopic microanalytical techniques and standardized statistical procedures turn out to be adequate in quality assurance of minerals and will be used as a template in examining our synthetic material.
Keywords: EPMA, PIXE, Sy-XRF, reference materials
  • Poster
    European Mineralogical Conference 2012, 02.-06.09.2012, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17140 - Permalink


Interaction between europium and calcite: macroscopic and spectroscopic studies
Sabău, A.; Marmier, N.; Jordan, N.; Lomenech, C.; Barkleit, A.; Toulhoat, N.; Pipon, Y.; Moncoffre, N.; Brendler, V.; Giffaut, E.;
Interactions between cations and natural or synthetic calcite may include incorporation processes, resulting in the irreversibility of some sorption reactions. Understanding and quantification of poorly to non reversible trapping mechanisms can be considered as a significant improvement in the description of a geological barrier or a backfill material performance in the safety assessment. To investigate these irreversible processes, we have decided to work on the Eu-CO2-NaCl-CaCO3 system at pH 8.3, buffered by calcite under air and corresponding to the typical pH range of natural interstitial groundwaters. Europium was chosen as analogue for trivalent actinides and due to its fluorescence properties enabling its study by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Our study combines macroscopic batch investigations and the use of spectroscopic tools to comprehensively characterize this system.
At first, a material appropriate for sorption experiments had to be selected, based on characterization studies. From a variety of sources, we focused on a calcite from SOLVAY (SOCAL U1-R) with a particle size of 0.2 µm for TRLFS investigations, mainly due to its large BET specific surface area (18.4 m2/g). We also used a calcite from OMYA (BL 200), with a bigger particle size (56 µm) and a lower specific surface area (0.66 m2/g) for Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measurements, due to the specific requirements of this technique. Purity of the calcite samples and absence of polymorphic CaCO3 compounds (i.e. vaterite and aragonite) were confirmed by XRD, DRIFT or SEM.
The second step of the work was to investigate the irreversible Eu(III) uptake mechanisms onto calcite. Batch experiments, done under atmospheric conditions (pCO2 = 10−3.5), were performed under different element concentration (10−5, 10−4 and 10−3 M) and contact time (4 hours, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month), which are assumed to be the most important parameters controlling the transition between adsorption and incorporation into the solid. In addition, this allowed to monitor the potential changes in mechanisms with time. The concentrations of Eu and Ca left in the supernatant were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES, respectively.
Europium species formed in solution and at the solid/solution interface were identified by TRLFS. Reference blank (Eu3+ in solution and Eu3+ precipitated) spectra were compared with the sorbed samples. When elements such as europium are sorbed onto a mineral surface by inner-sphere complexation, some of the H2O molecules in the first coordination sphere are displaced. Such changes should impact the fluorescence lifetime of Eu species.
The spectrum presented in Fig. 1 corresponds to Eu-reacted calcite after a contact time of 1 month and an initial concentration of Eu of 10-4 M. Europium was found to be completely sorbed onto calcite, whose dissolution was negligible. Two lifetimes were identified. The lower value, so far not reported in the literature, can thus not unambiguously be attributed to a specific Eu species. However, the higher second lifetime is correlated with the complete loss of the europium hydration sphere, suggesting either a surface precipitate or an incorporation.
RBS measurements (Fig. 2) were carried out using the 4 MV Van De Graaff accelerator facility of IPNL with a 4 MeV incident alpha beam. They were performed at the same Eu concentration as the TRLFS results (Fig. 1), in order to obtain a high resolution signal. RBS results confirmed those obtained by TRLFS, by showing an accumulation of europium onto the calcite surface.
It can be concluded that TRLFS and RBS are appropriate and complementary techniques to study the Eu-CO2-NaCl-CaCO3 system. The results obtained so far indicate that there is either a surface precipitate following a first sorption step or that incorporation into the bulk crystal lattice already started. Both processes may occur simultaneously, further experiments shall reveal this.
Keywords: europium; calcite; TRLFS; RBS; sorption; incorporation
  • Poster
    Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement, 22.-25.10.2012, Montpellier, France

Publ.-Id: 17139 - Permalink


Magnetic shielding of implanted magnetic scaffolds and fixators
Uhlarz, M.;
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MAGISTER Month 36 Review Meeting, 16.-18.01.2012, Rom, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17138 - Permalink


Magnetic characterization of magnetosome growth in mesenchymial stem cells
Uhlarz, M.;
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MAGISTER Month 36 Review Meeting, 16.-18.01.2012, Rom, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17137 - Permalink


Effects of sterilizing gamma-ray irradiation on Fe-hydroxyapatite paste
Uhlarz, M.;
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MAGISTER Month 36 Review Meeting, 16.-18.01.2012, Rom, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17136 - Permalink


Magnetic characterization of scaffold materials, simulators and powders
Uhlarz, M.;
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MAGISTER Month 36 Review Meeting, 16.-18.01.2012, Rom, Italy

Publ.-Id: 17135 - Permalink


Thin film PV cell with Ag nanoparticle layers in TCO and Si nanosponge absorber
Liedke, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Gulseren, O.; Akguc, G. B.; Vinnichenko, M.;
The plasmonic action of Ag nanoparticles has the potential to increase the efficiency of thin film PV cells substantially. Here, two different actions will be considered: (i) Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in the Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) at the rear side of thin-film PV cells can induce plasmonic scattering of red light, which increases the light way and therefore the absorption in the absorber layer. (ii) Ag NPs embedded in the absorber layer increases carrier generation due to plasmonic light field enhancement.
For the plasmonic action (i), a thin Ag layer is sandwiched between ZnO:Al by sputter deposition. Subsequently, by a thermal treatment this Ag layer is decomposed via spinodal dewetting into an Ag NP layer. Structural, electrical and optical properties are investigated theoretically, by atomistic simulation and FDTD and boundary element calculations, and experimentally.
For the plasmonic action (ii) it has to be avoided that Ag NPs in the absorber layer become charge carrier killer. Usually this is impossible, but in our novel absorber consisting of a Si nanowire network (nanosponge) in SiO2, the Ag NPs can be located in SiO2 without contact to the electrically percolated Si network. Based on large-scale atomistic simulations it is predicted that such a nanocomposite can be synthesized by PVD deposition of SiO with a sandwiched thin Ag layer. It will be shown that subsequent thermal treatment results in nanosponge with Ag/Si core-shell NPs in SiO2.
Keywords: TCO, AZO, plasmonics, Ag nanoparticles, ZnO, kinetic Monte-Carlo, FDTD, boundary element method, light harvesting
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17134 - Permalink


EFTEM studies of Si nanowire networks in SiO2 for thin film PV cells
Liedke, B.; Mücklich, A.; Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Friedrich, D.; Keles, U.; Bulutay, C.;
Si based nanostructures became in the last years a promising material for the PV cells. The quantum confinement effect of Si nanostructures allows for band gap engineering by size manipulation which can be used for optimization sun light absorption.
Here, we consider SiOx layers deposited by magnetron sputtering. By subsequent rapid thermal processing, SiOx decays by spinodal decomposition into a network of Si nanowires (NWs) in SiO2.
To get images of the morphology of Si NWs in SiO2 it is not sufficient to use mass contrast or lattice plane imaging. The Si and SiO2 phases can only be distinguished by energy filtering of the transmitted electrons (EFTEM). Here, the relative energy shifts of the plasmonic valence band resonances of Si and SiO2 are used. HR-EFTEM techniques are applied to study morphology and crystallinity of the Si NW networks fabricated from different metastable SiOx. To facilitate understanding of the TEM images, details of decomposition are studied using kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) simulations. For the EFTEM images, density-density correlations are calculated to determine the structure size of NW network, which are then compared with the 3D morphologies provided by KMC. Combining EFTEM with KMC allows us to predict and control the average size of the NWs.
Former studies and our electronic structure calculations provide a guideline for band gap optimization of Si NW networks, thus paving the way to band gap engineering via control of the mean NW diameter.
Keywords: kinetic Monte-Carlo, TEM, EFTEM, Silicon nanowires, nanosponge, nanocrystals
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14.-18.05.2012, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 17133 - Permalink


Si-nanosponge embedded in SiO2 as a new absorber material for photovoltaics
Liedke, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Schmidt, B.; Friedrich, D.; Mücklich, A.; Kelling, J.; Hauschild, D.;
Silicon based nanostructures became within the last years most promising material for the PV market. Quantum confinement effect of nanostructured silicon allows for band gap engineering just by size manipulation to absorb the light in more efficient way.
Here, we consider SiOx layers fabricated by magnetron co-sputter deposition, which after thermal treatment decompose into a network of Si nanowires embedded in SiO2. The thermally activated spinodal decomposition is performed by rapid thermal processing within a few seconds and by very rapid thermal processing within several ms using diode laser. The morphology and crystallinity of the Si-nanosponge was measured by energy filtered TEM and Raman, respectively. The details of decomposition are studied using the atomistic kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) simulations at different concentrations defined by the x parameter. The spatiotemporal temperature profiles T(x, t) of the scanned laser has been calculated as a function of thickness and time by the heat transport equation. The obtained profiles are used in the KMC. The combined theoretical and experimental investigations support the band gap engineering of the Si-nanosponge absorber via a control of the quantum confinement.
Keywords: Silicon nanostructures, Nanocrystals, TEM, EFTEM, kinetic Monte-Carlo, RTP, vRTP, Raman, nanosponge
  • Lecture (Conference)
    76. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 25.-30.03.2012, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17132 - Permalink


Experiences with Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy using a multi-detector setup
Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Hartmann, A.; Wagner, A.; Haeberle, J.; Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Krille, A.; Muchow, M.;
First experiments and gained knowledge using and improving a multi-detector setup for Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy are presented.
Keywords: Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy, Positron Lifetime, Multi-Detector Setup
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Treffen deutscher Positronengruppen, 28.02.-01.03.2012, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17131 - Permalink


Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfälle: Wie tief muss man graben für eine Million Jahre Sicherheit?
Müller, K.;
Der Vortrag gibt eine Übersicht über die in Deutschland anfallenden radioaktiven Abfälle. Desweiteren werden die Anforderungen an die sichere Verwahrung dieser Abfälle, hinsichtlich hoher Temperaturen, Wirtsgesteinseigenschaften und die sehr langen Lagerungszeiträume beleuchtet.
  • Lecture (others)
    Tag des offenen Labors 2012, 12.05.2012, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften in Dresden, 06.07.2012, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 17130 - Permalink


Redox behavior of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) under various reducing conditions in 0.1 M NaCl solutions
Kobayashi, T.; Scheinost, A. C.; Fellhauer, D.; Gaona, X.; Altmaier, M.;
Redox behaviour of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) was investigated under inert Ar atmosphere in 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing different reducing agents in the pH range 2 to 13 at 22ºC. Under certain conditions, the 1•10−5 mol/dm3 (M) initial TcO4– was reduced to form a sparingly soluble Tc(IV) oxide solid phase. The results can be systematized according to Eh-pH conditions. It is found that an experimental borderline for the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), TcO4− + 3e− + 4H+  TcO2∙xH2O(coll, hyd) + (2−x)H2O is established, which is independent of the reducing chemical system. This experimental borderline is about 100 mV lower than the equilibrium line calculated from the reported standard redox potential of TcO2∙1.6H2O(s). This behaviour can be explained by the existence of more soluble solid phase modifications like small Tc(IV) oxide particles (TcO2・xH2O(coll,hyd)). The reaction kinetics correlate to the redox potentials measured in solution. Slow reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) was observed when the redox potential in the system was near the reduction borderline. Fast reduction was observed in the systems far from the borderline or containing Fe(II) solids, suggesting a specific surface mediated effect in the reduction process. EXAFS analysis on two magnetite samples indicate reduced Tc(IV) species which do not remain adsorbed at the reactive magnetite surface, but are incorporated in its structure.
Keywords: redox Tc EXAFS XANES magnetite

Publ.-Id: 17129 - Permalink


Latest results on fs-synchronization and RF at ELBE
Kuntzsch, M.;
Presentation of latest results of femtosecond Synchronization System, including commissioning of first prototype link stabilizer. Additional information on preliminary test of new ELBE master oscillator unit.
Keywords: Synchronization ELBE RF Jitter
  • Lecture (others)
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser Colloquium, 23.04.2012, Newport News, USA

Publ.-Id: 17128 - Permalink


Nitrogen interstitial diffusion induced decomposition in AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel
Martinavicius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Scheinost, A. C.; Danoix, R.; Danoix, F.; Stinville, J. C.; Talut, G.; Templier, C.; Liedke, M. O.; Gemming, S.; Möller, W.;
The nature of the near-surface γN phase produced by low-temperature (∼400 °C) plasma-assisted nitriding of an austenitic stainless steel 304L is studied. A combination of global probes (X-ray diffraction, nuclear reaction analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy) and local probes (field ion microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer, X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies) is employed to reveal the morphology, phase structure, atomic ordering and chemical state of the obtained γN phase. The results consistently reveal the heterogeneous nature of the nitrided layer consisting of nanometric CrN precipitates embedded in a Fe4N-like matrix. The size of the precipitates is found to be larger at the surface than at the nitrided layer–steel interface. The precipitates have irregular, sphere-like shapes. Moreover, X-ray spectroscopic investigation revealed three different intermetallic distances and different chemical environments for Fe, Cr and Ni, accompanied by a large static disorder. These findings suggest that the presence of the interstitial N destabilizes the homogeneous element distribution in 304L even at such low temperatures. This leads to the segregation into Cr-rich zones that are coherent with the Fe4N matrix. Possible atomistic decomposition mechanisms are discussed. Based on the heterogeneous nature of the γN phase revealed in 304L, an alternative view of its remarkable combination of properties such as large hardness, induced ferromagnetism and preserved corrosion resistance is considered.
Keywords: Stainless steel; Surface alloying; Interstitial diffusion; Decomposition; Precipitation

Publ.-Id: 17127 - Permalink


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