Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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35810 Publications

Dynamic vortex-antivortex interaction in a single cross-tie wall

Kuepper, K.; Buess, M.; Raabe, J.; Quitmann, C.; Fassbender, J.

A fascinating property of micromagnetism comes from the possibility to control the domain and vortex configuration through the sample shape and size. For instance, in a rectangular platelet a configuration containing a stable combination of two vortices and an antivortex can be created. Such a single cross-tie wall can be understood as being a coupled micromagnetic system with three static solitons. Here we report on its magnetization dynamics including the vortex-antivortex interactions [1]. The spectrum of eigenmodes is investigated as well as the effect of different vortex core orientations. These are important for the magnetization dynamics since they determine the sense of rotation for the gyrotropic motion. Since three cores are present in total 23 = 8 configurations are possible. On the left side of the figure micromagnetic simulations of the vortex (left, right) and antivortex displacements upon field pulse excitation are shown for the first 16 ns. It is clearly observed that different types of configurations lead to completely different dynamic behaviors. The origin is the dynamic coupling of the cores which is mediated by the exchange coupling through the adjacent domain walls. This coupling is significant and introduces unexpected effects, such as the quenching of gyrotropic motion for the antivortex in certain core configurations. Another consequence is the absence of simple eigen modes describing the vortex gyration. The experimental investigation of the vortex core dynamics by means of time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy using x-ray magnetic dichroism as a contrast mechanism allows to determine the actual core configuration although the lateral core size is below the spatial resolution of the microscope. This is done by comparing the experimentally determined core displacements with the micromagnetically simulated ones as shown on the right side of the figure.

Keywords: magnetism; magnetization dynamics; PEEM; vortex; antivortex; interaction

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Symposium on Metallic Multilayers, 15.-19.10.2007, Perth, Australia
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag an der Université Paris Sud, 30.11.2007, Orsay, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10433
Publ.-Id: 10433


Ion mass dependence of the irradiation induced local creation of ferromagnetism in Fe60Al40 alloys

Fassbender, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Möller, W.; Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Nogues, J.

Ion irradiation of Fe60Al40 alloys results in the phase transformation from the paramagnetic, chemically ordered B2-phase to the ferromagnetic, chemically disordered A2-phase. The magnetic phase transformation is related to the number of displacements per atom (dpa) during the irradiation. For heavy ions (Ar+, Kr+, Xe+) a universal curve is observed with a steep increase in the fraction of ferromagnetic phase reaching saturation, i. e., a complete phase transformation, at about 0.5 dpa. However, already less than 0.05 dpa are sufficient to create significant ferromagnetism without a change of surface topography. If light ions are used (He+, Ne+) a pronounced deviation from the universal curve is observed. This is attributed to bulk vacancy diffusion from dilute collision cascades, which leads to a partial recovery of the thermodynamically favored B2-phase. In any case the initial paramagnetic state can be restored by annealing the samples to 800 K. In addition, the potential to create local ferromagnetic areas embedded in a paramagnetic matrix is demonstrated.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; phase transformation; intermetallic alloys

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10432
Publ.-Id: 10432


Creation of sub-100 nm ferromagnetic dots by selective irradiation of a paramagnetic intermetallic alloy

Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.

Sub-50 nm ferromagnetic dots embedded in a non-magnetic matrix have been controllably generated by selective, low fluence, ion irradiation of paramagnetic Fe60Al40 (atomic %) intermetallic sheets. The process is demonstrated by sequential focused ion beam irradiation and by broad beam irradiation through lithographically defined masks. Due to the low fluences required, this method does not induce any corrugation of the surface. The dots exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape of the structures, with the smallest ones (<50 nm) having square hysteresis loops with coercivities in excess of µ0HC = 50 mT. This presents a promising novel type of patterned recording media free from tribological and exchange coupling effects.

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; phase transformation; intermetallic alloy; patterning; FIB

  • Small 5(2009), 229
    DOI: DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800783
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG 2008), 04.-08.05.2008, Madrid, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10431
Publ.-Id: 10431


Transition metal doping of semiconductors by ion beams - diluted vs. granular magnetism

Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.; Reuther, H.; Helm, M.; Brauer, W.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.; Denlinger, J. D.; Zeitz, W.-D.; Imielski, P.

Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are based on common semiconducting material like GaAs, Si, Ge, GaN or ZnO doped with a few percent of a transition or rare earth metal. While early work has been performed mainly by polish groups in the 1970ies and 80ies, DMS have attracted worldwide scientific attention during the last 7 years due to their application potential in spintronics. This was triggered by the discovery of ferromagnetic GaMnAs and the theoretical prediction of room temperature ferromagnetism for ZnO:Mn and GaN:Mn by T. Dietl and H. Ohno [1]. One of the main obstacles while creating a DMS is secondary phase formation. Since solubility limits are rather low, non-equilibrium doping techniques like low temperature film growth are commonly used. On the other hand, ion implantation offers superb possibilities for low temperature doping but is always connected with lattice damage of the target material. Combining ion implantation with another non-equilibrium technique, i.e. rapid thermal annealing, leads to a diluted state while the crystallinity of the target material is restored. This has been shown for Si:Mn [2].
Recently, we investigated the secondary phase formation for Fe,Co and Ni as well as Gd, Tb implanted in ZnO single crystals. We found, that at elevated temperatures tiny superparamagnetic nanoparticles are formed in all transition metal (TM) doped samples. These phases can hardly be identified using lab X-ray diffraction (XRD), e.g. in the case of Fe. Only application of high resolution methods like synchrotron XRD, susceptometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy allows their identification [3]. On the other hand, low temperature implantation leads to ferromagnetic properties not originating from conventional superparamagnetism. The applicability of both the granular as well as the diluted magnetic materials will be discussed.

Reference
[1] T. Dietl, et al., Science 287, 1019 (2000).
[2] M. Bolduc, et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 033302 (2005).
[3] K. Potzger, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 052508 (2006).

Keywords: DMS; ion implantation; ZnO

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Eastmag 2007, 23.-26.8.2007, Kazan, Russia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10430
Publ.-Id: 10430


Micro-/nano-scale magnetic patterning of paramagnetic FeAl intermetallic alloys

Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Concustell, A.; Rao, K. V.; Deevi, S. C.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.

Atomically ordered Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloys are paramagnetic at room temperature, while disordered Fe60Al40 becomes ferromagnetic. This effect can be used to generate arrays of ferromagnetic dots embedded in a paramagnetic matrix. This can be accomplished by two different routes: (i) selective mechanical deformation by means of nanoindentation and (ii) local irradiation procedures, either through lithographed masks or using focused ion beam. Concerning route (i), two types of geometries were designed: periodic arrays of triangular dots (resulting from the pyramidal shape of the Berkovich indenter) and arrays of straight lines produced by scratch [1]. Route (ii) has the advantage over nanoindentation that due to the low doses used it does not induce any roughening of the surface, avoiding tribological problems. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of a magneto-optical Kerr effect setup, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. Furthermore, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures (i.e., around 900 K), the magnetic properties are lost due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. Hence, these methods may lead to a novel type of patterned recording media free from exchange coupling effects. Moreover, they can be easily extrapolated to a variety of other systems, such as CoZr, CoAl, CoGa, CoV, NiSn, FeGe, FePt3, FeV or even austenitic stainless steel.

[1] J. Sort, A. Concustell, E. Menéndez, S. Suriñach, K.V. Rao, S.C. Deevi, M.D. Baró and J. Nogués. Periodic arrays of micrometer and sub-micrometer magnetic structures prepared by nanoindentation of a nonmagnetic intermetallic compound. Adv. Mater. 18, 1717-1720 (2006).

Keywords: magnetism; ion irradiation; intermetallic alloy; FIB

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Winter School "Women in Nano", 07.-09.02.2007, Kranjska Gora, Slovenia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10429
Publ.-Id: 10429


Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a stirred reactor

Hristov, H. V.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.; Kryk, H.

Experimental and numerical studies of a gas-liquid two-phase flow were applied to a non-baffled laboratory-scale stirred tank reactor, mechanically agitated by a gas-inducing turbine. The dispersion of air as gas phase into isopropanol as liquid phase at room temperature under different stirrer speeds was investigated. The X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements were taken at five different stirrer speeds starting from 1000 rpm at which the gas inducement occurs for the given operating conditions. The considerable difficulties in acquiring the phase distribution due to beam hardening and radiation scattering effects were overcome by developing a suitable measurement setup as well as by calibration and software correction methods to achieve high accuracy. The computational fluid dynamics analyses of the stirred tank reactor were performed in 3D with CFX 10.0 numerical software.

Keywords: CFD; X-Ray tomography; stirred vessel; two-phase flow; gas-inducing impeller

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    Paper No PS6_8
  • Poster
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10428
Publ.-Id: 10428


Germination pathway of long-time storable biocer layers with immobilized bacterial endospores

Matys, S.; Raff, J.; Soltmann, U.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Böttcher, H.; Pompe, W.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    XIVth International Sol-Gel Conference, 02.-07.09.2007, Montpellier, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10427
Publ.-Id: 10427


The GDT-based fusion neutron source as driver of minor actinide burners

Noack, K.

From today´s point of view, the so called Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) seem to have a good chance for playing an important role in a long-term utilization of fission reactor technology. The special task which could be solved by means of these facilities is the incineration of minor actinides, which represent the component of nuclear waste causing the greatest concern. Current concepts of such ADS use an intense spallation neutron source for driving the sub-critical fission system in which the minor actinides are to be burned. The Budker Institute Novosibirsk (Russia) is developing a project of a 14 MeV fusion neutron source, which is primarily destined as irradiation facility for fusion material research. The potential of this neutron source as driver of a minor actinides burner was studied and compared with the spallation driven burner. The lecture presents the main results of the study.

Keywords: nuclear waste; transmutation; minor actinides; driven sub-critical system; fusion neutron source

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutsseminar, 24.08.2007, Uppsala, Sweden

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10426
Publ.-Id: 10426


Focused ion beam induced synthesis of a porous antimony nanowire network

Schöndorfer, C.; Lugstein, A.; Hyun, Y.-J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Bischoff, L.; Nellen, P. M.; Callegari, V.; Pongratz, P.

We present a focused ion beam-based approach for the synthesis of an nanofiber network.
The nanofibers, with a homogeneous distribution of diameters of about 25 nm and lengths up to several microns, are synthesized in a self-assembling process without any additional material source at room temperature. It is possible to recrystallize the as-grown amorphous nanofibers by moderate rapid thermal annealing at 473 K. These results have been verified by means of scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. As this approach is not limited solely to the material discussed here, other substrates (e.g., GaSb and Ge ) and ion sources should extend this method to other materials, which offers a great potential for future nanoscale devices and applications.

Keywords: focused ion beam; antimony; nanofiber network; nanoscale devices

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10425
Publ.-Id: 10425


Do we know eventually p(e)?

Kämpfer, B.; Bluhm, M.; Schade, H.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.

A quasi-particle model is employed to derive from available lattice QCD calculations an equation of state useable in hydrodynamical simulations of the expansion stage of strongly interacting matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Various lattice results give an astonishing agreement of the pressure as a function of energy density at large energy densities supposed the pseudo-critical temperature is in the range $170 \pm 15$ MeV, while in the transition region the equation of state is not yet well constrained. Therefore, one can construct a family of equations of state by bridging the uncertain region from the uniquely given high-energy density region part to a hadronic equation of state by suitable interpolation together with the extrapolation to non-zero baryon density by means of the quasi-particle model. We present a series of tests of the model, discuss the chiral extrapolation and the role of Landau damping. We also briefly sketch the path of cosmic matter in the early universe in the phase diagram.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement - 4th International Workshop, 09.-13.07.2007, Darmstadt, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10424
Publ.-Id: 10424


Planar array sensor for high-speed component distribution imaging in fluid flow applications

Da Silva, M. J.; Sühnel, T.; Schleicher, E.; Vaibar, R.; Lucas, D.; Hampel, U.

A novel planar array sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements is presented which may be applied to visualize surface fluid distributions. The sensor is manufactured using printed-circuit board fabrication technology and comprises of 64 x 64 interdigital sensing structures. An associated electronics measures the electrical conductivity of the fluid over each individual sensing structure in a multiplexed manner by applying a bipolar excitation voltage and by measuring the electrical current flowing from a driver electrode to a sensing electrode. After interrogating all sensing structures, a two-dimensional image of the conductivity distribution over a surface is obtained which in turn represents fluid distributions over sensor’s surface. The employed electronics can acquire up to 2500 frames per second thus being able to monitor fast transient phenomena. The system has been evaluated regarding measurement accuracy and depth sensitivity. Furthermore, the application of the sensor in the investigation of two different flow applications is presented.

Keywords: planar sensor; interdigital electrode; flow imaging; multiphase flow; multicomponent flow; phase distribution

  • Open Access Logo Sensors 7(2007), 2430-2445

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10423
Publ.-Id: 10423


Structural and magnetic properties of non-stoichiometric Fe2Zr

Mattern, N.; Zhang, W. X.; Roth, S.; Reuther, H.; Baehtz, C.; Richter, M.

The lattice parameters and magnetic properties of the C15 Laves phase Fe2Zr vary systematically within the homogeneity range of the compound from 66.7 at.% to 74.5 at.% Fe. In the non-stoichiometric compounds Zr is partly substituted by the excess Fe. Themagnetic moment per iron atom increases with the Fe content. Electronic structure calculations show an enhanced magnetic moment of the excess Fe at the Zr site, which explains well the composition dependence.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10422
Publ.-Id: 10422


Ultra fast limited-angle type X-ray tomography

Bieberle, M.; Fischer, F.; Schleicher, E.; Koch, D.; Aktay, K. S. D. C.; Menz, H.-J.; Mayer, H.-G.; Hampel, U.

We present an ultra-fast electron beam X-ray computed tomography technique usable for imaging of fast processes, such as multi phase flows or moving parts in technical or biological objects. The setup consists of an electron beam unit with fast deflection capability and an ultra fast multi-element X-ray detector and achieves 10,000 frames per second image rate. Since full sampling of the Radon space requires an angular overlap of source path and detector which strongly decreases axial resolution we devised a limited-angle type tomography. As a demonstration we visualised the movement of particles and gas bubbles rising in a stagnant liquid.

Keywords: electron beam X-ray tomography; computed tomography; flow measurement

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10421
Publ.-Id: 10421


Sensoren zur Strömungsdiagnostik im industriellen und umwelttechnischen Einsatz

Schleicher, E.; Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.

In vielen Bereichen der Industrie bestimmen Mehrphasenströmungen die Effizienz und Sicherheit von technischen Verfahren und Prozessen. Ob in Chemiereaktoren, bei der Erdölförderung und -verarbeitung, in Wasseraufbereitungsanlagen, Biogasanlagen, Kraftwerkskühlkreisläufen oder bei Strömungsmaschinen wie Pumpen und Turbokupplungen komplexe mehrphasige Strömungsformen von Stoffgemischen sind im industriellen Umfeld immer schwierig messtechnisch zu erfassen. Im Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf wurden Sensoren entwickelt, die mehrphasige Strömungen mit sehr hoher räumlicher und zeitlicher Auflösung vermessen. Erstmalig können damit komplexe Strömungen in beliebigen Stoffgemischen sichtbar gemacht werden.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10420
Publ.-Id: 10420


Nitrogen plasma ion implantation in silicon using short pulse high voltage glow discharges

Tan, I. H.; Ueda, M.; Rossi, J. O.; Diaz, B.; Abramof, E.; Reuther, H.

A high voltage (HV) pulse generator based on Blumlein technology was used to implant nitrogen ions into silicon substrates by immersion in a plasma generated by the HV pulse itself. Working pressures, applied HVs and treatment times were varied. Elemental depth profiles determined by Auger electron spectroscopy showed deeper penetration for higher voltages and broader profiles for increased treatment times indicating higher diffusion, as expected. Penetration depths, however, were about half of the values calculated by the SRIM code, probably due to the short duration of the HV pulse. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction ω/2θ scans measured around the (0 0 4) Si Bragg reflection of implanted samples had shoulders in the lower ω side, indicating a lattice expansion in the direction normal to the surface. Dynamical diffraction theory of Takagi–Taupin was used to fit the measured spectra, thus finding the strain profiles in the implanted samples. Both maximum strain values and integrated strains increased for samples implanted with higher voltages and treatment times and were almost independent of pressure.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10419
Publ.-Id: 10419


Structural Characterization of U(VI) Surface Complexes on Kaolinite in the Presence of Humic Acid Using EXAFS Spectroscopy

Krepelova, A.; Reich, T.; Sachs, S.; Drebert, J.; Bernhard, G.

To determine the influence of humic acid (HA), pH, and presence of atmospheric CO2 on the sorption of U(VI) onto kaolinite, the structure of the surface complexes was studied by U LIII edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The best fits to the experimental EXAFS data were obtained by including two uranium coordination shells with two axial and five equatorial oxygen atoms at 1.77 ± 0.02 and 2.34 ± 0.02 Å, respectively, and two coordination shells with one Al/Si atom each at 3.1 and 3.3 Å. As in case of the binary system U(VI)-kaolinite, uranium forms inner-sphere surface complexes by edge-sharing with aluminum octahedra and/or silicon tetrahedra. HA and atmospheric CO2 as well as pH had no influence on the EXAFS structural parameters in the pH range of 5 – 8. In spite of the presence of HA, U(VI) prefers to sorb directly onto kaolinite and not to HA that is bound to the clay surface. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of kaolinite particles that had been exposed to HA suspensions showed that significant parts of the kaolinite surface are not covered by HA.

Keywords: uranium(VI); kaolinite; humic acid; sorption; EXAFS; XPS; surface complexes

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10418
Publ.-Id: 10418


Photoproduction of phi meson off the deuteron near threshold

Titov, A.; Kämpfer, B.

We discuss coherent and incoherent phi meson photoproduction off the deuteron at low energy and small momentum transfer with the aim to check whether the recent experimental data need for their interpretation an inclusion of exotic channels. Our analysis of the differential cross section and spin-density matrix elements shows that new data on the gamma D phi X reaction at E_gamma 2~GeV may be understood on the basis of conventional dynamics. However, a certain ambiguity of the deviation between the model predictions and the LEPS data on gamma p phi p reaction still remains. For a firm conclusion about a possible manifestation of exotic channels one has to improve the resolution of the data with providing additional information on channels with spin- and double-spin flip transitions being sensitive to the properties of the photoproduction amplitude in gamma p and gamma D reactions which may be used as an additional independent test of the phi meson photoproduction mechanism.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10417
Publ.-Id: 10417


Hemocompatibility of titanium-based coatings prepared by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

Tsyganov, I. A.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.; Reuther, H.; Mashina, A. I.; Rustichelli, F.

Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID) has been proved to be an effective approach to enhance surface properties of various types of materials. In this work structure, phase composition, microhardness and surface properties, such as wettability and surface energy of layers of the ternary system Ti-N-O produced by MePIIID were investigated. To study the correlation between structure of coating and hemocompatibility the thrombocyte adhesion as well as the fibrinogen adsorption on the surface were measured. The blood compatibility of Ti oxide can be improved by the addition of nitrogen into the layer. The thrombocyte adhesion and fibrinogen adsorption were lower for TiNxOy than for TiO2. This correlates with a lower hydrophobicity and higher polar component of the surface energy for TiNxOy. The best hemocompatibility as well as the maximal microhardness have been found for the coating TiN0.4O1.6.

Keywords: Titanium oxynitride; Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII); Filtered arc; Phase formation; Hemocompatibility

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 257(2007), 122-127

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10416
Publ.-Id: 10416


Fragmentation Reactions of Singly and Doubly Protonated Thiourea- and Sugar-substituted Cyclams and their Transition Metal Complexes

Felder, T.; Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Schalley, C. A.

Cyclam macrocycles tetrasubstituted with amino-, thiourea-, and sugar-terminated side chains are ionized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as singly or doubly protonated species or as transition-metal complexes. Their fragmentation behavior is examined in a Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer by collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Typically, fragmentation occurs within the side chains through a number of different 1,2-elimination reactions irrespective of the absence or presence of a transition metal ion such as Co2+, Ni2+, or Zn2+. A remarkable exception is Cu2+ which induces ring cleavage reactions. This is traced back to an electron transfer from the cyclam nitrogen atoms to the Cu2+ ion. The electron transfer creates a cation-radical within the macrocycle which induces typical fragmentation reactions such as -cleavages that lead to fragmentation within the macrocycle. This interpretation is in line with fragmentation experiments on unsubstituted cyclam and its complexes

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10415
Publ.-Id: 10415


Copper(II)-mediated self-assembling of hydrophilic oxybathophenanthroline dendrons

Stephan, H.; Juran, S.; Geipel, G.; Hahn, U.; Werner, N.; Vögtle, F.

Derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline and their metal complexes are of considerable interest in bioinorganic chemistry, biology and medicine.1 In this nexus, dendritic modification gain in importance as they open the way for tailoring nano dimension, and solubility or complexation behaviour.2 We described hydrophobic oxybathophenanthroline ligands with attached Frechet-type dendrons capable of forming stable copper(II) complexes in organic media.3 Currently, effort is also to be devoted to the synthesis of hydrophilic 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands LG1 – LG3 containing short methoxypolyethoxy (‘PEG’) groups on the surface. Radiotracer experiments using 64Cu and time-resolved laser-induced spectroscopy point to a spontaneous formation of stable 1:2 complexes (metal:ligand) with copper(II) in aqueous solution.

  • Poster
    Templates in Chemistry and Beyond, 13.-14.09.2007, Bonn, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10414
Publ.-Id: 10414


Synthese und Charakterisierung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit Zucker- und Peptidgruppen

Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.

Ziel ist die Herstellung mehrfunktionaler Liganden mit peripheren Biomolekülen sowie einem metallbindenden Zentrum. Als Kernbaustein wird Cyclam ausgewählt, das zur stabilen Bindung von diagnostisch und therapeutisch relevanten Radiometallnukliden, wie 64/67Cu, 99mTc und 188Re, geeignet ist. Die Anknüpfung von Biomolekülen, wie Zucker oder Peptide, an die Oberfläche des Ligandgerüstes soll die Einstellung definierter Löslichkeits- und selektiver Bindungseigenschaften erlauben.

  • Lecture (others)
    15. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 27.-29.09.2007, Morschach, Switzerland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10413
Publ.-Id: 10413


Carbohydration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam): synthesis and binding properties toward concanavalin A

Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.; Kirchner, R.; Seidel, J.

Two novel glycocluster ligands with cyclam core bearing thiourea-linked D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose at the periphery have been synthesized. The interaction with concanavalin A has been studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry for characterizing protein-ligand interactions. The sugar-containing multivalent ligands showed higher association affinity compared to the sugar monomers which is attributed to an entropy driven glycoside clustering effect.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10412
Publ.-Id: 10412


Towards bioinspired dendritic ligands for imaging and therapeutic purposes

Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.

Metalloradiopharmaceuticals of the metallic radionuclides 64/67Cu, 99mTc, 186/188Re and 90Y are often used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.1 Ligand multimers derived from radionuclide chelating macrocycles are attractive candidates for applications in oncologic diagnostics and endoradiotherapy. In this perspective, cyclam and its derivatives form very stable complexes in particular with transition and rare earth metal ions as the radionuclides mentioned above.2 Recently, we could show that a star-like cyclam ligand appended with four PEG-arms rapidly forms stable copper(II) complexes.3

Currently, we are focusing our attention on the development of dendritic ligands having both enhanced complex stability and improved bio-availability. Branched ligands possessing biomolecules such as sugar and peptide moieties may show both unique cell uptake behaviour and specific ligand-receptor interaction. In this nexus, we built up ligands I and II with a cyclam core. D-glucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose and the hexapeptide (Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu-OH) have been chosen as biomolecules.

The interaction of the sugar-containing ligands I with concanavalin A has been studied using isothermal titration microcalorimetry in order to characterize protein-ligand interaction. The results clearly indicate a cluster glycoside effect.

The preparation of asymmetric branched ligands possessing peptide moieties is currently in progress. Using this synthetic concept, it appears possible to adjust the solubility properties, the binding behaviour, and the biodistribution of these bioinspired ligands. The corresponding radiocopper complexes would allow the non-invasive in vivo imaging and therapeutic application.

1 X. Liang and P. Sadler, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2004, 33, 246.
2 R. M. Izatt, K. Pawlak, J. S. Bradshaw and R. L. Bruening, Chem. Rev., 1991, 91, 1721.
3 H. Stephan, G. Geipel, D. Appelhans, G. Bernhard, D. Tabuani, H. Komber and B. Voit, Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 3209.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th International Dendrimer Symposium, 28.08.-01.09.2007, Toulouse, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10411
Publ.-Id: 10411


Expeditious synthesis of steroids containing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain as potential glucocorticoid receptor imaging agents

Wüst, F.; Carlson, K. E.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.

In our effort to develop imaging agents for brain glucocorticoid receptors, we have prepared several novel glucocorticoids possessing a 2-methylsulfanyl-acetyl side chain. The synthesis was accomplished via a Mitsunobu reaction with thiobenzoic acid starting from cortisol, prednisolone, dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide to give the corresponding S-thiobenzoates in 75-82% yield. Subsequent saponification and reaction with methyl iodide afforded C-21 methylthioethers in 68-82% yield. All compounds were tested in an in vitro glucocorticoid receptor binding assay. Triamcinolone acetonide-based compound 12 showed promising binding affinity of 144% relative to dexamethasone (100%).
Compound 12 was selected for radiolabeling with the short-lived positron emitter carbon-11. The radiolabeling was carried out starting from S-thiobenzoate 8 and in situ formation of the corresponding sodium thiolate, which was further reacted with [11C]methyl iodide. The obtained radiochemical yield was 20-30%. The specific activity was determined to be 20-40 GBq/µmol at the end-of-synthesis, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 98%.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10410
Publ.-Id: 10410


Dielectron production in 12C+12C collisions at 2 A GeV with HADES

Markert, J.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Boehmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Froehlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krizek, F.; Kruecken, R.; Kuehn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marin, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Moriniere, E.; Mousa, J.; Muentz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palk! A, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Cavalcanti, T. P.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Stroebele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.

We report on a measurement of electron pair production in 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 2 GeV per nucleon with the HADES spectrometer. The measured pair production probabilities span over five orders of magnitude from the pi0-Dalitz to the rho/omega invariant-mass region. Dalitz decays of pi0 and account for all the yield up to 0.15 GeV/c2, but for only about 50% above this mass. The excess yield is in agreement with the former DLS result if one assumes that it scales with beam energy like pion production. A preliminary analysis of 12C+12C collisions at an incident energy of 1 A GeV, measured with the HADES detector, supports this scenario.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10408
Publ.-Id: 10408


Tomography applied to multiphase flow measurement

Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.

The presentation gives an overview over tomographic and imaging techniques applied to multiphase flow diagnostic, including wire-mesh sensors, gamma and X-ray tomography. Industrial and scientific applications are being discussed.

Keywords: process tomography; multiphase flow; flow imaging

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proceedings of Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop on Emerging Sensing Technologies for E&P, 07.-09.08.2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10407
Publ.-Id: 10407


Novel wire-mesh sensor modalities for the investigation of single phase and multiphase flows

Da Silva, M. J.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

The experimental investigation of flow phenomena plays an important role in many fields of research as well as in industrial applications. Wire-mesh sensors allow the study of flows with high spatial and temporal resolution. This type of sensor was introduced about ten years ago and since then it has been employed to investigate a number of single phase and two-phase flow phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the principles of operation and the obtaining of physical flow parameters from the electrical measured signals of wire-mesh sensors. Besides describing the state of the art of wire-mesh sensor technology, the latest development of a temperature wire-mesh sensor is depicted in detail.

Keywords: Wire-mesh sensors; multiphase flow; conductivity measurement; capacitance measurement; temperature measurement

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany
    VDI-Berichte 2011, Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag, 978-3-18-092011-5, 625-634
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Sensoren und Messsysteme 2008, 11.-12.03.2008, Ludwigsburg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10406
Publ.-Id: 10406


Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkörperoberflächen

Kost, D.

Motiviert durch die in der Literatur bisher unvollständige Beschreibung der Relaxation hochgeladener Ionen vor Festkörperoberflächen, besonders in Bezug auf den Eintrag potenzieller Energie in Oberflächen und der Aufstellung einer vollständigen Energiebilanz, werden in dieser Arbeit komplement äre Studien präsentiert, die sowohl die Ermittlung des Anteils der deponierten potenziellen Energie als auch die Ermittlung der emittierten potenziellen Energie ermöglichen. Zum Einen wird
zur Bestimmung des eingetragenen Anteils der potenziellen Energie eine kalorimetrische Messanordnung verwendet, zum Anderen gelingt die Bestimmung der emittierten potenziellen Energie mittels doppeldifferenzieller Elektronenspektroskopie. Für vertiefende Studien werden Materialien unterschiedlicher elektronischer Strukturen (Cu, n-Si, p-Si und SiO2) verwendet. Im Falle der Kalorimetrie wird festgestellt, dass die eingetragene potenzielle Energie linear mit der inneren potenziellen Energie der Ionen wächst. Dabei bleibt das Verhältnis zwischen der eingetragenen potenziellen Energie und der inneren potenziellen Energie nahezu konstant bei etwa (80±10)%. Der Vergleich von Cu, n-Si und p-Si zeigt im Rahmen der Messfehler keine signifikanten Unterschiede in diesem Verhältnis. Es liegen jedoch deutlich unter jenem von SiO2. Die Elektronenspektroskopie liefert ein dazu komplementäres Ergebnis. Für Cu und Si konnte ebenfalls eine lineare Abhängigkeit zwischen emittierter Energie und innerer potenzieller Energie festgestellt werden. Das Verhältnis wurde hierfür bis zum Ladungszustand bis Ar7+ zu etwa (10±5)% unabhängig vom Ladungszustand bestimmt. Im Gegensatz dazu liefert SiO2 eine nahezu verschwindende Elektronenausbeute. Für Ar8+ und Ar9+ steigt die Elektronenausbeute wegen der Beiträge der LMM-Augerelektronen f¨ur alle untersuchten Materialien leicht an. Der Anteil der emittierten Energie eines Ar9+-Ions wird f¨ur Cu und Si zu etwa 20% und f¨ur SiO2 zu etwa 10% angegeben. Diese Ergebnisse sind in guter Übereinstimmung mit den Kalorimetrieexperimenten und erfüllen die Energiebilanz.
Zusätzlich werden die experimentellen Ergebnisse mit einer Computersimulation modelliert, welche auf dem erweiterten dynamischen klassischen Barrierenmodell basiert. Aus diesen Rechnungen kann zudem jener Anteil der deponierten potenziellen Energie erhalten werden, welcher durch Bildladungsbeschleunigung vor der Oberfläche in kinetische Energie umgewandelt wurde.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-479 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10405
Publ.-Id: 10405


Efficient melt stirring using pulse sequences of a rotating magnetic field: II – Application during solidification of Al-Si alloys

Willers, B.; Eckert, S.; Nikrityuk, P. A.; Räbiger, D.; Dong, J.; Eckert, K.; Gerbeth, G.

The present study considers the solidification of an Al-7wt%Si alloy under the influence of electromagnetic melt stirring using a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The effect of a continuously applied RMF is compared with an RMF pulse sequence of alternating direction (RMF-PSAD). The resulting flow structure in a cylindrical liquid metal column has been measured by isothermal experiments using the ternary alloy GaInSn. The solidification experiments performed with the Al-7wt%Si alloy confirm our numerical predictions concerning the temperature field during solidification and the distribution of primary crystals and eutectic phase in the solidified samples. The application of the RMF-PSAD regime at suitable frequencies of the reversals of the magnetic field direction fP delivers an equiaxed microstructure without macrosegregation.

Keywords: solidification; fluid flow; electromagnetic stirring; macrosegregation

  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 39(2008)2, 304-316

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10404
Publ.-Id: 10404


Structural changes in flash lamp annealed amorphous Si layers probed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy

Anwand, W.; Xiong, S. Z.; Wu, C. Y.; Gebel, T.; Schumann, T.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

At the present time, great efforts are undertaken in order to improve the properties of photovoltaic elements. In case of Si-based solar cells the interest is focussed on a higher electrical efficiency connected with a more effective technology and with economies of scale. One of the possible methods for the realisation of this ambitious goal represents the Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) technology. FLA allows a fast heating up of solid surfaces with a single light flash between some hundred microseconds and some milliseconds. Thereby, the achievable final temperature of the surface layer could be higher than the melting point depending on the intensity of the light flash. This method was applied to the modification of thin amorphous Si layers on SiO2 and glass. Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) was used for the characterisation of the microstructure before and after FLA. Changes in the structure down to a depth of some micrometers below the surface observed with SPIS will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing; slow positron implantation spectroscopy; amorphous Si

  • Open Access Logo Acta Physica Polonica A 113(2008)5, 1273-1278
  • Lecture (Conference)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10403
Publ.-Id: 10403


Piezoresistive and self-actuated 128-cantilever arrays for nanotechnology applications

Rangelow, I. W.; Ivanov, T.; Ivanova, K.; Volland, B. E.; Grabiec, P.; Sarov, Y.; Persaud, A.; Gotszalk, T.; Zawierucha, P.; Zielony, M.; Dontzov, D.; Schmidt, B.; Zier, M.; Nikolov, N.; Kostic, I.; Engl, W.; Sulzbach, T.; Mielczarski, J.; Kolb, S.; Latimier, D. P.; Pedreau, R.; Djakov, V.; Huq, S. E.; Edinger, K.; Fortagne, O.; Almansa, A.; Blom, H. O.

A major limitation for future nanotechnology, particularly for bottom-up manufacturing is the non-availability of 2-dimensional massively parallel probe arrays. Scanning proximity probes are uniquely powerful tools for analysis, manipulation and bottom-up synthesis: they are capable of addressing and engineering surfaces at the atomic level and are the key to unlocking the full potential of Nanotechnology. Generic massively parallel intelligent cantilever-probe platforms is demonstrated through a number of existing and ground-breaking techniques. A packaged VLSI NEMS-chip (Very Large Scale Integrated Nano Electro Mechanical System) incorporating 128 proximal probes, fully addressable with control and readout interconnects and advanced software will be presented.

Keywords: nanotechnology; AFM probe arrays

  • Microelectronic Engineering 84(2007)5-8, 1260-1264

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10401
Publ.-Id: 10401


AER working group D on VVER safety analysis – report of the 2007 meeting

Kliem, S.

The AER working group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its 16th meeting in Paris, France during the period 08-09 May 2007. The meeting was hosted by the CEA France. It followed the final workshop on the OECD/DOE/CEA VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark held at 07 May. Altogether 11 participants attend the meeting of the working group D, 7 from AER member organizations and 4 guests from non-member organizations. The co-ordinator of the working group, Mr. S. Kliem, served as chairman of the meeting.
The meeting started with a general information exchange about the recent activities in the participating organizations. The given presentations and the discussions can be attributed to the following topics:
• Code development and benchmarking for reactor dynamics applications
• Safety analysis methodology and results
• Future activities
New solutions for three different benchmarks were presented and discussed. These are the Second AER Dynamic Benchmark on control rod ejection at hot zero power (S. Kliem, FZD), the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark (E. Syrjälahti, VTT) and the stationary AER-FCM101 Benchmark considering a VVER-1000 reactor (C. Parisi, UniPisa).
A. Kereszturi (AEKI) presented a statistical evaluation of the possibility to observe a fuel assembly misloading event. The second presentation of E. Syrjälahti was dedicated to the description how best-estimate coupled code calculations at VTT are supported by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. K. Velkov (GRS) presented preliminary results of BIPR8KN/ATHLET calculations with a very detailed resolution of the calculation grid on the assessment of coolant mixing inside VVER-1000 assembly heads. Coolant mixing experiments at three different mixing test facilities, modeling different reactor types, were presented and compared by S. Kliem. A calculation study using the coupled code system KORSAR/GP on the consequences of the injection of a slug of unborated water into the reactor core was described by G. Ponomarenko (Gidropress).
A list of the participants and a list of the handouts provided at the meeting are attached to the report. The handouts can be obtained in electronic form from the chairman.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine
    Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Budapest, 9789633726358, 573-579
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 24.-29.09.2007, Yalta, Ukraine

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10400
Publ.-Id: 10400


Defect study in ZnO related structures - a multi-spectroscopic approach

Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Gu, Q. L.; Dai, X. M.; Xu, S. J.; Zhu, C. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Tam, K. H.; Djurisic, A. B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L. W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H. C.

ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using amulti-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H2O2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 58-62

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10399
Publ.-Id: 10399


Progress of the intense positron beam project EPOS

Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.; Jungmann, M.; Krille, A.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.

EPOS (the ELBE POsitron Source) is a running project to build an intense, bunched positron beam for materials research. It makes use of the bunched electron beam of the ELBE radiation source (Electron Linac with high Brilliance and low Emittance) at the Research Centre Dresden-Rossendorf (40 MeV, 1 mA). ELBE has unique timing properties, the bunch length is <5 ps and the repetition time is 77 ns. In contrast to other Linacsmade for Free Electron Lasers (e.g., TTF at DESY, Hamburg), ELBE can be operated in full cw-mode, i.e., with an uninterrupted sequence of bunches. The article continues an earlier publication. It concentrates on details of the timing system and describes issues of radiation protection.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    37th Polish Seminar on Positron Annihilation, 03.-07.09.2007, Ladek Zdroj, Poland
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 22-24

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10398
Publ.-Id: 10398


Radiation damage in zirconia investigated by positively charged particles

Grynszpan, R. I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Malaquin, L.; Saudé, S.; Vickridge, I.; Briand, E.

Positrons, positive muons and deuterons were used – when applicable – to probe the production and thermal stability of defects at room temperature either by electron irradiation or He-ion implantation in zirconia stabilized by yttria in the cubic phase. change in the positron lifetime or in the muon spin relaxation occurs after electron irradiation, indicating a positron saturation trapping the annealed state, owing to the presence of structural defects inherent to phase stabilization. In contrast, after helium implantation, even at low fluence (~10^14 cm^-2), slow positron implantation spectroscopy reveals the presence of a new type of defect (being trapping effective than the native ones), whereas neither positronium nor muonium are detected. The diffusion of helium was followed after 3He-ion implantation and subsequent annealing using the 3He(d,p)4He nuclear reaction. A two-Gaussian distribution fit indicates
a part of the helium atoms is trapped at the projection range location, most likely in gas bubbles, while the other part diffuses gasses after heat treatment already at around 1/5 of the melting temperature. In spite of differences in depths and concentrations by the present techniques, a fairly good correlation is observed between the various results.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261(2007), 888-891

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10397
Publ.-Id: 10397


Phase Transition and Internal Stresses in Tungsten Coatings

Benayoun, S.; Grynszpan, R. I.; Hantzpergue, J. J.; Anwand, W.; Eichhorn, F.; Brauer, G.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10396
Publ.-Id: 10396


Defect studies of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

The present work reports on microstructure investigations of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films by means of slow positron implantation spectroscopy combined with in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. It is found that the virgin films contain a high density of vacancy-like open volume defects at grain boundaries which trap positrons. These defects represent trapping sites also for hydrogen. With increasing hydrogen concentration the transformation from the a- into the b-phase (GdH2) takes place in the film. Accumulation of hydrogen at grain boundaries causes a decrease of positron localization at defects. The transformation into the b-phase is completed at xH ≈ 1.6 H/Gd. Contrary to bulk Gd specimens, the g-phase (GdH3) is not formed in the nanocrystalline Gd films.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 251-253

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10395
Publ.-Id: 10395


Construction and timing system of the EPOS beam system

Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Brauer, G.

  • Poster
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10393
Publ.-Id: 10393


Hydrogen-induced buckling of Pd films studied by positron annihilation

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Danis, S.; Dobron, P.; Chmelik, F.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Nikitin, E.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

Hydrogen loading of thin films introduces very high compressive stresses which grow in magnitude with increasing hydrogen concentration. When the hydrogen-induced stresses exceed a certain critical inplane stress value, the loaded film starts to detach from the substrate. This results in the formation of buckles of various morphologies in the film layer. Defect studies of a hydrogen loaded Pd film which undergoes a buckling process are presented, using slow positron implantation spectroscopy, in situ acoustic emission, and direct observations of the film structure by transmission electron and optical microscopies. It is found that buckling of the filmoccurs at hydrogen concentrations xH ≥ 0.1 and causes a significant increase of the dislocation density in the film.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces (SLOPOS-11), 09.-13.07.2007, Orleans, France
  • Applied Surface Science 255(2008), 241-244

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10392
Publ.-Id: 10392


New red luminescence defects in nitrogen-implanted ZnO crystals

Dai, X. M.; Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Xu, S. J.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10390
Publ.-Id: 10390


Electrical characterization of deep levels in N+-implanted ZnO single crystal

Gu, Q. L.; Ling, C. C.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.

  • Poster
    4th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2007), 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10389
Publ.-Id: 10389


Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

Stehr, D.

This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2pz confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. Intersubband absorption experiments, which can be nearly perfectly reproduced by the theory, corroborate this interpretation, showing that at low temperatures in the low doping density regime all optical transitions originate from impurity transitions. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data.
The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 μm and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. These measurements allow a separate specification of the cooling times after a strong excitation, exhibiting time constants from 230 ps to 3 ps for different excitation densities and miniband widths. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements.
Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. From the data we can directly extract the density and temperature dependence of the intersubband dephasing time between the two lowest subbands, ranging from 50 up to 400 fs. This all optical approach gives us the ability to tune the carrier concentration over an extremely wide range which is not accessible in a doped quantum well sample. By varying the carrier density, many-body effects such as the depolarization and their influence on the spectral position as well as on the lineshape on the intersubband dephasing are studied. Also the difference of excitonic and free-carrier type excitation is discussed, and indication of an excitonic intersubband transition is found.

Keywords: ultrafast spectroscopy; infared spectroscopy; impurity transitions; semiconductor heterostructures; quantum well; superlattice

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-477 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10388
Publ.-Id: 10388


Picosecond electron dynamics in doped superlattices studied by two-color infrared pump-probe spectroscopy

Stehr, D.; Wagner, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Andrews, A. M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.

Recently we reported on single-color pump-probe measurements in doped superlattices (SLs) where we could observe a fast interminiband relaxation (1-2 ps) and much slower components due to subsequent cooling of the electron gas [1]. Pumping and probing at the same wavelength always results in a mixture of these two processes. However, strongly coupled SLs exhibit a broad absorption range so that excitation at a specific k-value in the mini-Brillouin zone influences the electron distribution over the entire zone (see inset of Fig. 1). In order to separate the inter- from the intra-miniband contributions we have performed two-color pump-probe experiments allowing to monitor exclusively the dynamics within the lower miniband. Infrared pulses from the free-electron laser FELBE were used as pump, and broadband THz pulses, generated by phase-matched optical rectification of 10 fs near-infrared pulses, as the probe. The relaxation behavior was studied for three GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As SLs having nearly he same doping concentration but different widths of the lower miniband, i.e., 10, 22, and 45 meV. To study the cooling behavior at T=5 K, the FEL pulses were tuned to the high-energy transition at the zone center, while the probe pulse was set to the zone-edge transition. After excitation to the second miniband, the electrons thermalize and relax back to the ground miniband, efficiently heating the electron gas. According to the linear absorption spectrum, this heating leads to induced absorption at the probe energy. For the SL structures with miniband widths below the optical phonon energy we measured cooling times of 40-50 ps for pump intensities higher than 20 MW/cm². For smaller pump intensities the time constants rose up to 200 ps (see Fig. 1). The sample with the miniband width of 45 meV showed a much shorter cooling time of 3.5 ps. This can be explained by the enhanced relaxation via the emission of LO phonons. We will also report room-temperature measurements, where the initially strong absorption is reduced by relaxation towards the zone center which has been depleted by the pump pulse.
References:
[1] D. Stehr et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151108 (2006).

  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, 22.-27.07.2007, Tokyo, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10387
Publ.-Id: 10387


Nuclear dipole strength in the tail of the giant dipole resonance

Grosse, E.

Nuclear dipole strength in the tail of the giant dipole resonance

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop on Photon Strength Functions and Related Topics, 17.06.2007, Praha, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10386
Publ.-Id: 10386


An analytical solution for a one dimensional time dependent neutron transport problem with external source

Merk, B.

An analytical solution for the startup of an external source in a homogeneous subcritical reactor problem is developed. The problem is described through an approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation, the Telegrapher's or time dependent P1 equation. The analytical solution to the problem is expressed in terms of a Green's function.

Keywords: Telegrapher's equation; Neutron Transport; Space-Time Dependent Transport

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10385
Publ.-Id: 10385


Ground state capture in 14N(p,gamma)15O studied above the 259 keV resonance at LUNA

Trautvetter, H. P.; Confortola, F.; Costantini, H.; Formicola, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Lozza, V.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Vezzu, S.; Vomiero, A.

We report on a new measurement of 14N(p,gamma)15O for the ground state capture transition at E_p = 360, 380 and 400 keV, using the 400 kV LUNA accelerator. The true coincidence summing effect the major source of error in the ground state capture determination has been significantly reduced by using a Clover-type gamma detector.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10384
Publ.-Id: 10384


The influence of metal coated carbon black particles on the mechanical and magnetic properties of natural rubber composites

Piest, J. A.; Ürögiova, E.; Heinrich, G.; Probst, N.; Grivei, E.; Pronin, A.; Wosnitza, J.

Elastomer materials filled with magnetically and/or electrically susceptible particles promise to have different functionality than conventional elastomers, and therefore, could likely be applied in state-of-the-art control technologies [1]. Of particular interest are elastomers filled with metal coated carbon black (MCCB), which filler fulfils its reinforcing function to the rubber meanwhile changing the elastomer´s electro-magnetic properties. Thus, the rheological and viscoelastic properties of rubber can be changed and controlled by subjecting the compound to a magnetic field.

  • Poster
    Symposium Polymermischungen 2007, 12. Problemseminar, Gefüllte und verstärkte Polymerblends Nanoblends, 28.-29.03.2007, Bad Lauchstädt, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10383
Publ.-Id: 10383


Comparison of the LUNA 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be activation results with earlier measurements and model calculations

Gyürky, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Confortola, F.; Costantini, H.; Formicola, A.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Lozza, V.; Marta, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.

Recently, the LUNA collaboration has carried out a high precision measurement on the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction cross section with both activation and on-line ? -detection methods at unprecedented low energies. In this paper the results obtained with the activation method are summarized. The results are compared with previous activation experiments and the zero energy extrapolated astrophysical S factor is determined using different theoretical models.

Keywords: Big-bang nucleosynthesis; solar neutrinos; lithium problem

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10382
Publ.-Id: 10382


Big-bang nucleosynthesis studied experimentally at LUNA / Gran Sasso

Bemmerer, D.

The nuclear physics input from the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section is a major uncertainty in the fluxes of 7Be and 8B neutrinos from the Sun predicted by solar models and in the 7Li abundance obtained in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations. In the seminar I will report on a new precision experiment on this reaction performed by the LUNA collaboration.

Using a windowless gas target, the high beam intensity of the LUNA2 accelerator, and the Gran Sasso low background gamma-counting facilities, the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be cross section has been determined by the activation method [1] and by in-beam gamma spectrometry [2] at 90 -- 170 keV center-of-mass energy with a total uncertainty as low as 4%. The new LUNA data can be used in big-bang nucleosynthesis calculations and to constrain the extrapolation of the 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be astrophysical S-factor to solar energies.

The talk will end with an outlook on the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li experiment planned for the next year at LUNA.

[1] D. Bemmerer et al. (LUNA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 122502 (2006)
[2] F. Confortola et al. (LUNA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 75, 065803 (2007)

Keywords: Big bang nucleosynthesis; solar neutrinos; lithium-6; lithium-7; lithium problem; gran sasso

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physics Seminar, 16.07.2007, Padova, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10381
Publ.-Id: 10381


Photoactivation of 92Mo and investigation of the short-lived isomer in 91Mo with the new pneumatic delivery system at ELBE

Erhard, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Crespo, P.; Fauth, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

The photodisintegration cross section of the nucleus 92Mo is important for p-process nucleosynthesis. The superconducting electron accelerator ELBE at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf provides the possibility to investigate photodisintegration with bremsstrahlung using the photoactivation technique. The reaction 92Mo(gamma,p)91Nb was studied using the decay of 91mNb with a 60.9 d half-life at ELBE [1]. Now the reaction 92Mo(gamma,n)91Mo has been probed using the new pneumatic delivery system to determine the activity of 91mMo (half-life: 65 s). Since the isomer 91mMo decays also into 91mNb it was necessary to measure this process to separate the (gamma,n) from (gamma,p) contributions.
[1] M. Erhard, C. Nair et al., PoS (NIC-IX) 056 (2006)

Keywords: photodisintegration; p-process; nucleosynthesis; bremsstrahlung; photoactivation; pneumatic delivery

  • Poster
    Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III (NPA3), 29.03.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10380
Publ.-Id: 10380


The inhomogeneous MUSIG model for the simulation of polydispersed flows

Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Frank, T.; Prasser, H.-M.; Zwart, P.

A generalized inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) Model based on the Eulerian modeling framework was developed in close cooperation of ANSYS-CFX and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and implemented into the CFD code CFX. The model enables the subdivision of the dispersed phase into a number of size groups regarding the mass balance as well as regarding the momentum balance.

In this work, the special case of polydispersed bubbly flow is considered. By simulating such flows, the mass exchanged between bubble size classes by bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, as well as the momentum transfer between the bubbles and the surrounding liquid due to bubble size dependent interfacial forces have to be considered. Particularly the lift force has been proven to play an important role in establishing a certain bubble size distribution dependent flow regime.

In a previous study (Krepper et al. 2005) the application of such effects were considered and justified and a general outline of such a model concept was given. In this paper the model and its validation for several vertical pipe flow situations is presented. The experimental data were obtained from the TOPFLOW test facility at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). The wire-mesh technology measuring local gas volume fractions, bubble size distributions and velocities of gas and liquid phases was employed.

The inhomogeneous MUSIG model approach was shown as capable of describing bubbly flows with higher gas content. Particularly the separation phenomenon of small and large bubbles is well described. This separation have been proven as a key phenomenon in the establishment of the corresponding flow regime. Weaknesses in this approach can be attributed to the characterization of bubble coalescence and bubble fragmentation, which must be further investigated.

Keywords: bubbly flow; CFD; non-drag forces; bubble breakup; bubble coalescence; population balance; validation

  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 238(2008), 1690-1702

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10378
Publ.-Id: 10378


Environmental Soil Chemistry with Synchrotron Methods

Scheinost, A.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar-Vortrag am Institut fuer Oekologie der TU Berlin, 24.04.2007, Berlin, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10376
Publ.-Id: 10376


The Structure of Trimeric Uranyl Hydroxo Complexes in Aqueous Solution

Tsushima, S.; Rossberg, A.; Hennig, C.; Moll, H.; Scheinost, A.

The solubility and the speciation of uranium(VI) in water at neutral pH with mM total uranium concentrations (Utot) is dominated by polymeric hydroxo species (e.g., (UO2)2(OH)22+ and (UO2)3(OH)5+). Thermodynamic data of various polymeric species had been reviewed and were published as OECD/NEA database [1]. However, direct structural information of polymeric uranyl hydroxo species are scarce. Here EXAFS in combination with quantum chemical calculations can serve as a powerful tool to explore the structure of polymeric uranyl hydroxo species in order to correlate thermodynamic speciation [1] with structural information from EXAFS. For instance, this method can provide both U-U distances and U-U coordination numbers, and can be a direct proof of the presence of dimeric and trimeric complexes. (UO2)3(OH)5+ and (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ are stoichiometric equivalent but they significantly differ in the U-U distance and can be distinguished by EXAFS. In this work, the structures of uranyl trimeric hydroxo complexes in aqueous solution have been studied by the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations and were compared with EXAFS structural information and thermodynamic speciation.
We studied the structure of trimeric uranyl(VI) hydroxo species including (UO2)3(OH)5+ and (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ by DFT calculations, and obtained that the U-U distances vary between 3.83 and 4.30 Å. Among them, two species were found to be energetically favorable. One is (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ having oxo bridging in the center with an average U-U distance of 3.83 Å. The other is (UO2)3(OH)5+ with no bridging oxygen in the center and an average U-U distance of 4.30 Å. A previous EXAFS and 17O-NMR study on the trimeric uranyl hydroxo complex by Moll et al.[2] reports the U-U distance of 3.80 Å and coincides well with the structure of (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ obtained by DFT calculations. The EXAFS/DFT results are also discussed together with thermodynamic speciation of uranyl(VI) under the given condition (pH, Utot, I, etc.) and with Raman spectroscopic data of various polymeric hydroxo species obtained by Nguyen-Trung et al. [3]. Not only the structural information, but also the kinetics of the proton transfer in (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ to yield (UO2)3(OH)5+ was studied.
[1] Guillaumont, R.; Fanghänel, T.; Fuger, J.; Grenthe, I.; Neck,V.; Palmer, D.A.; Rand, M.H. Update on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium; Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc.: New York, 2003; Vol. 5.
[2] Moll, H.; Reich, T.; Szabo, Z. Radiochim. Acta 2000, 88, 411.
[3] Nguyen-Trung, C.; Palmer, D.A.; Begun, G.M.; Peiffert, C.; Mesmer, R.E. J.Sol.Chem. 2000, 29, 101.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Migration 2007, 26.-31.08.2007, München, Germany
    11th Conference on the Chemistry and Migration Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere, 196-197
  • Poster
    Migration 2007, 26.-31.08.2007, München, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10375
Publ.-Id: 10375


EXAFS studies of Zn/Al and Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxides

Funke, H.; Chukalina, M.; Scheinost, A.; Voegelin, A.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    ESRF Users' Meeting 2007, 07.-09.02.2007, Grenoble, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10374
Publ.-Id: 10374


EXAFS Investigation of U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV)Sulfato Complexes in Aqueous Solution

Hennig, C.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Moll, H.; Tsushima, S.; Scheinost, C.

The structures of aqueous U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) sulfato complexes were investigated by LIII edge EXAFS spectroscopy in solutions with total sulfate concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 3 M. U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) sulfate samples comprises both, sulfate in monodentate and bidentate co-ordination. In equimolar [SO4 2-]total/U(VI) solutions, the species distribution is dominated by monodentate sulfate co-ordination with a U-Smon distance of 3.57±0.02 Å. With increasing [SO4 2-]total/U(VI) ratio, bidentate co-ordination becomes dominant with a U-Sbid distance of 3.11±0.02 Å. In general, in all systems the bidentate co-ordination becomes dominant with increasing sulfate co-ordination. An exclusively bidentate co-ordination was observed only for U(VI) with high total sulfate concentration. The aqueous Th(IV) sulfate comprises both, monodentate and bidentate co-ordination with Th-S distances of 3.14±0.02 and 3.81±0.02 Å, respectively. A similar co-ordination is obtained for U(IV) sulfato complexes at pH 1 with U-S distances of 3.08±0.02 Å and 3.67±0.02 Å. These parameters were used to identify the structure of some corresponding thermodynamic species. The EXAFS data suffer from double-electron resonances that will be discussed in a second contribution.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Actinide-XAS 2006, 18.-20.09.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Speciation Techniques and Facilities for Radioactive Materials at Synchrotron Light Sources: OECD, 978-92-64-99006-7, 33

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10373
Publ.-Id: 10373


Selenite reduction by nano-crystalline green rust, magnetite, siderite and mackinawite: EXAFS identification of Se species

Scheinost, A.; Charlet, L.

Selenium oxoanions are abiotically reduced on Fe(II/III) hydroxide (green rust) and Fe(0) metal surfaces to Se oxidation states of 0, -I or –II with relatively slow reaction kinetics [1, 2]. The unequivocal phase characterization by EXAFS spectroscopy, which is a key for the determination/prediction of Se solubility, was hindered by incomplete reduction, insufficient spectral data ranges and the similarity in short-range structures of the potential mineral phases. In a recent study [3], however, we were able to clearly identify the reduction product of selenite co-sorbed with Fe2+ to montmorillonite as nano-particulate, trigonal Se(0) by collecting low-noise EXAFS spectra at 15 K (Rossendorf Beamline at ESRF, Grenoble, France) and by employing advanced data analysis methods [4, 5]. Here, we present data on the reduction of selenite by green rust, magnetite, siderite and mackinawite. In the presence of green rust, selenite was completely reduced to trigonal Se(0) within one day, which was further converted to ferroselite (orthorombic FeSe2) within one month. The associated Fe(II) oxidation and magnetite formation quantified by Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed us to establish the following reaction scheme: 32 [FeII 12FeIII 5(OH)34 Cl-5 H2O](s) + 38 SeIVO3 2- ⇔ 19 [FeIISe-I 2](s) + 175 [FeIIFeIII 2O4](s) + 160 Cl- + 502 H2O + 84 H+ Similar to green rust, mackinawite and magnetite reduced all selenite within one day, whereas reduction by siderite was incomplete. Depending on type of mineral and Se-to-mineral ratio, trigonal Se(0), ferroselite or achavalite (hexagonal FeSe) formed. The observed differences in reaction end products and reduction kinetics may significantly affect Se bioavailability and Se migration.
References
[1] Myneni, S. C. B., Tokunaga, T. K., and Brown, G. E.
(1997) Science 278, 1106-1109.
[2] Scheidegger, A. M., Grolimund, D., Cui, D., et al. (2003)
J Phys. IV 104, 417-420.
[3] Charlet, L., Scheinost, A. C., Tournassat, C., et al. (2007)
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, in review.
[4] Scheinost, A. C., Rossberg, A., Vantelon, D., et al. (2006)
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 3299-3312.
[5] Rossberg, A., Reich, T., and Bernhard, G. (2003) Anal.
Bioanal. Chem. 376, 631-638.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt Conference 2007, 19.-24.08.2007, Köln, Germany
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71(2007)15, A886-A886

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10372
Publ.-Id: 10372


Synchrotron Research in Environmental Chemistry: Linking Space, Time, Redox and Biota

Scheinost, A.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    Kolloquium, 13.06.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10371
Publ.-Id: 10371


THz physics at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf: From scalable photoconductive THz antennas to near-field microscopy of ferroelectrics using a free-electron laser

Helm, M.

THz physics at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf: From scalable photoconductive THz antennas to near-field microscopy of ferroelectrics using a free-electron laser

Keywords: terahertz emitter; near-field microscopy; free-electron laser; ferroelectrics

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar am Physics Department der Kyoto University, Japan, 30.07.2007, Kyoto, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10370
Publ.-Id: 10370


Stoichiometry and structure of uranyl (VI) hydroxo dimer and trimer complexes in aqueous solution

Tsushima, S.; Rossberg, A.; Ikeda, A.; Müller, K.; Scheinost, A. C.

The structures of uranyl(VI) hydroxo dimer and trimer in aqueous solution were studied by EXAFS, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy and also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that (UO2)2(OH)22+ have two bridging hydrxo groups with the U-U distance of 3.88 Å which had a good agreement with EXAFS measurement. For hydroxo trimer complex, DFT calculations show that (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+ with oxo bridging in the center is energetically favored above its stoichiometric equivalent (UO2)3(OH)5+. This idea was confirmed by the EXAFS measurements where a shorter U-U distance of 3.83 Å was observed and the presence of oxo bridging in the center was confirmed. Several stable intermediates which lie several tens of kJ/mol above the stable energy minimum, (UO2)3(O)(OH)3+, were identified and their structures, energies, and intramolecular proton transfer reaction are discussed.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10368
Publ.-Id: 10368


Energy distribution measurements with a BiGa liquid metal alloy ion source

Ganetsos, T.; Bischoff, L.; Pilz, W.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Kotsos, B.; Laskaris, N.

The liquid metal ion source, is now the basis of focused ion beams systems that use a variety of heavy metal ions (with currents of 1pA – 30nA) which can be focused into diameters smaller than 10nm with current densities of several A/cm2. The predominate use of these systems has been in various aspects of IC fabrication. Implantation is an essential process for the fabrication of electronic devices and integrated circuits. One of the most important parameters in the operation of focused ion beam (FIB) columns is the energy spread of the ion beam, normally expressed as the full width at half the maximum height of the energy distribution (FWHM). When it was demonstrated that failure analysis and integrated circuit modification could be done with focused ion beams utilizing liquid metal ion sources, the resulting technological “push” for high performance caused the rapid development of new ion beam instrumentation. Among other applications, FIBs are now used for research lithography, direct implantation (using alloy metal ion sources with ion species including As, B, Bi, Ga, Ge, Au and Be), lithographic mask repair and a wide variety of micromachining uses.
An interesting element for materials investigation and modification is bismuth, which offers a broad spectrum of applications. Silicon doped with bismuth is an interesting choice because the ionization energy of Bi in Si is much larger than that of other group-V elements. Turning now to the present work we investigated a BiGa LMIS. We present the energy spread (ΔΕ) of the main ions of the beam drawn from the BiGa source as a function of source current (i). In conclusion, even though the deviation from the 2/3 power law of the low – current portion of the ΔΕ versus I curves has been explained in terms of instabilities at the emitter that set in at a particular level of current.

Keywords: liquid metal ion source; alloy; energy spread

  • Lecture (Conference)
    XXIII IUPAP International Conference on Statistical Physics, 09.-13.07.2007, Genova, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10367
Publ.-Id: 10367


Simultaneous Formation of Two Ripple Modes on Ion Sputtered Silicon

Keller, A.; Rossbach, S.; Facsko, S.; Möller, W.

It is well known that oblique low and medium energy (typically 0.1 – 100 keV) ion erosion of solid surfaces can lead to the formation of periodic ripple patterns with wavelength ranging from 10 to 1000 nm. The ripples produced in this way are oriented either parallel or normal to the projection of the ion beam and their wavelength scales with ion energy. These structures were found on a large variety of materials, such as semiconductors, metals, and insulating surfaces. The formation and early evolution of the ripple patterns can be qualitatively reproduced by a linear continuum equation derived by Bradley and Harper. However, at longer times nonlinear terms have to be taken into account, leading to nonlinear models based on the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation.
In this work we report on the simultaneous formation of two perpendicular ripple modes on amorphized Si(100) during high fluence sputtering at sub-keV energies. The evolution of both modes was studied for two different energies and over a wide range of fluence. Coarsening of both ripple modes was found. The wavelengths of the two modes are of the order of a few ten and several hundred nanometers, respectively, and show similar time dependence. To gain better understanding of the evolution of the surface morphology, the results are compared to simulations of the damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, finding good qualitative agreement.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Workshop on SEMIconductor NANOstructures 2007, 13.-16.06.2007, Bad Honnef, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10366
Publ.-Id: 10366


Two phase flow 1D turbulence model for poly disperse upward flow in a vertical pipe

Al Issa, S.

For an adequate simulation of poly-disperse bubbly flows the consideration of the bubble size distribution is required, since the interaction between the liquid and the gas bubbles sensitively depends on the bubble size. In the frame of multi-fluid models this can be done by dividing the gas phase into a number of bubble classes. To test sub-models suitable for implementation into CFD codes a simplified test solver suitable for vertical pipe flow was developed and successfully applied in the last years. It considers a number of bubble classes, but resolves volume fractions of the single bubbles classes, velocities and turbulence parameter only in radial direction. Progress was achieved especially for the models reflecting the momentum transfer between gas and liquid phases (models on bubble forces). The situation is still unsatisfying regarding the simulation of bubble coalescence and break-up. One of the reasons may come from shortcoming in the calculation of turbulence parameters. Local bubble coalescence and break-up rates strongly depend on local turbulence parameter, namely and i. Bubble induced turbulence is presently considered in most CFD codes as well as in the Test-Solver by an additional term for the turbulent viscosity to obtain more accurate velocity calculations. In order to improve the local values of turbulence parameter it is necessary to include source term into the equations of the turbulence model itself. For the case of the Turbulence model such source term can be found in Literature. A simplified turbulence model was implemented in the test solver. In this work this simple model was replaced by two-phase model along with a source term out of the literature. The model was numerically solved and successfully implemented into the Test-Solver. The new calculated results were validated against old simple model calculations as well as against experimental data from MTLoop (DN50) and TOPFLOW (DN200). New calculations with model and source term bring clear improvements upon old ones and resolves significant discrepancies appeared in old calculations in DN200 data. A comparison with CFX 5.7 calculations for some points in DN50 is presented as well. The comparison shows the need for implementation of the source term in CFD calculations.

Keywords: poly-disperse Bubbly upward Flow Turbulence model CFD

  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    FZD\FWS\2007\09
    65 Seiten
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10365
Publ.-Id: 10365


On the influence of spatial discretization in cell- and lattice calculations with HELIOS 1.9

Merk, B.; Koch, R.

Cell- and lattice calculations are the fundament for all deterministic static and transient 3D full core calculations. The spatial discretization used for the cell- and lattice calculations influences the results for these transport solutions significantly. The arising differences in the neutron flux distribution due to different spatial discretization are demonstrated. These differences in the flux distribution cause significant changes in the kinf value. An evaluation of the kinf value for the case of infinitely fine discretization is made. The influence of the discretization on the calculation of homogenized few group cross sections which are forwarded to the 3D full core calculations is investigated. Strategies for improving the discretization are developed and their influence on the calculation time is evaluated.

Keywords: Spatial Discretization; Neutron Transport; HELIOS; Collision Probabilities; Flat-Flux-Approximation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10364
Publ.-Id: 10364


d-α correlation functions and collective motion in Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV

Verde, G.; Danielewicz, P.; Lynch, W. G.; Chan, C. F.; Gelbke, C. K.; Kwong, L. K.; Liu, T. X.; Liu, X. D.; Seymour, D.; Shomin, R.; Tan, W. P.; Tsang, M. B.; Wagner, A.; Xu, H. S.; Brown, D. A.; Davin, B.; Larochelle, Y.; de Souza, R. T.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Yanez, R.

The interplay of the effects of geometry and collective motion on d–α correlation functions is investigated for central Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV. The data cannot be explained without collective motion, which could be partly along the beam axis. A semi-quantitative description of the data can be obtained using a Monte Carlo model, where thermal emission is superimposed on collective motion. Both the emission volume and the competition between the thermal and collective motion influence significantly the shape of the correlation function, motivating new strategies for extending intensity interferometry studies to massive particles.

Keywords: collective motion d–α correlation Xe Au 50 MeV thermal emission volume intensity interferometry

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10363
Publ.-Id: 10363


Influence of Humic Acid on the Sorption of Uranium(VI) and Americium(III) onto Kaolinite

Krepelova, A.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-475 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10362
Publ.-Id: 10362


Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low Pressure Conditions - PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

Paladino, D.; Huggenberger, M.; Schäfer, F.

Natural-circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations.
The PANDA large scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural-circulation loops in a range with increased attention.
This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “Natural circulation and stability performance of Boiling Water Reactors”. It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

Keywords: Natural Circulation; BWR; Stability; PANDA; ATHLET

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10360
Publ.-Id: 10360


Photon strength distributions in stable even-even molybdenum isotopes

Wagner, A.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Nankov, N.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.

Electromagnetic dipole-strength distributions up to the particle separation energies are studied for the stable even-even nuclides 92,94,96,98,100 Mo in photon scattering experiments at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The influence of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states has been corrected by a simulation of gamma cascades using a statistical model.
After corrections for branching ratios of ground-state transitions, the photon-scattering cross-sections smoothly connect to data obtained from (gamma,n)-reactions. With the newly determined electromagnetic dipole response of nuclei well below the particle separation energies the parametrisation of the isovector giant-dipole resonance is done with improved precision.

  • Journal of Physics G 35(2008)1, 014035
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III, 26.-31.03.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10359
Publ.-Id: 10359


Therapy monitoring with PET techniques

Pawelke, J.; Bortfeld, T.; Fiedler, F.; Kluge, T.; Möckel, D.; Parodi, K.; Pönisch, F.; Shakirin, G.; Enghardt, W.

The technique of positron emission tomography is the only known method to monitor the dose delivery precision of ion beam radiotherapy three-dimensionally, in-vivo and non-invasively. The different approaches of PET therapy monitoring and their clinical impact are described. In addition, the feasibility of extending the method of in-beam PET for hard photon beams is discussed.

Keywords: ion therapy; off-line PET; in-beam PET

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine (IBIBAM), 26.-29.09.2007, Heidelberg, Germany, Köln: TÜV Media GmbH, 978-3-8249-1071-7, 97-105
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine (IBIBAM), 26.-29.09.2007, Heidelberg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10358
Publ.-Id: 10358


Uranium Ammunition in Soil

Baumann, N.; Arnold, T.; Read, D.

Natural uranium contains the isotope U-238 of 99.3% and the isotope U-235 of 0.7 %. U-235 has to be enriched for using uranium as nuclear fuel. Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product in that enriching process. It is accumulated in considerable amounts in this process all over the world. Due to its high density (19.1 g/cm3) DU is used as counterweights in ships and airplanes in the civil industry. In addition, DU is utilised for military purposes both in cladding for armoured vehicles and projectiles.
Such projectiles were used by NATO troops in the wars of Iraq, Serbia, and Bosnia. At impact the projectile becomes pulverized and transferred as finely dispersed powder into soil and may cause long-term ecological problems especially in agriculturally used areas. Consequently, the public was alarmed and discussions concerning possible health risks for civil population and soldiers who came into contact with DU arose.

  • Contribution to external collection
    L.J. De Kok, E. Schnug: Loads and fate of Fertilizer-derived Uranium, AH Leiden: Backhuys Publishers BV, 2009, 978-90-5782-193-6, 73-77
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Protecting Water Bodies from Negative Impacts of Agriculture Loads and Fate of Feriliser Derived Uranium, 04.-06.06.2007, Braunschweig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10357
Publ.-Id: 10357


Electromagnetic flow control in weakly conducting fluids

Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.; Shatrov, V.; Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.

Electromagnetic, i.e. Lorentz forces can be used to control the flow of conducting fluids. This holds true even if the electrical conductivity is only weak, as in the case of electrolytes like sea-water.

The applications of streamwise, wall parallel Lorentz forces to generic flow configurations will be exemplified with experimental data from flat plate boundary layers and separated flows around cylinders and hydrofoils. These results demonstrate the ability of stationary Lorentz forces to change the velocity profile in boundary layers and thereby to improve their stability properties, as well as to completely suppress separation. Time dependent Lorentz forces are used to mitigate the lift loss and drag increase of hydrofoils caused by flow separation. In this case, the versatility of Lorentz force actuators allows for detailed experimental investigations especially of the effects of excitation frequency and wave form.

Finally, the impact of the low conductivity on the energy balance of Lorentz force actuators is discussed.

Keywords: flow control; lorentz force; proper orthogonal decomposition

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    6th International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics (ICIAM 07), 16.-20.07.2007, Zürich, Switzerland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10356
Publ.-Id: 10356


Diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation on superimposed deformed composite of quartzite and dunite

Walther, K.; Frischbutter, A.; Scheffzük, C.; Kenkmann, T.; Eichhorn, F.

A composite specimen (cylinder) consisting one half each of dunite and quartzite was superimposed (shock) deformed (16-34 GPa). Intracrystalline residual strain was determined from diffraction pattern, obtained using synchrotron radiation at beamline ROBL (ESRF Grenoble). Considerable differences in residual microstrain were determined as the interface is approached. Moreover, the tendencies in size evolution of scattering crystallites were evaluated by diffraction peak shape analysis. The superimposed deformation produced a new microsize structure in dunite, but was only modifying the macrostructure in quartzite, which already exists before the superimposed deformation. Otherwise, the size of scattering crystallites (related to foliation) of quartzite was reduced about six times more than that of dunite (in relation to the newly formed structure).

Keywords: residual strain; texture; superimposed deformation; dunite; quartzite; synchrotron diffraction

  • Zeitschrift für geologische Wissenschaften 35(2007)1/2, 17-26

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10355
Publ.-Id: 10355


Structural and spectroscopic studies of the complex [BuMeIm]2[UCl6] in the solid state and in hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid [BuMeIm][Tf2N]

Nikitenko, S. I.; Hennig, C.; Grigoriev, M. S.; Le Naour, C.; Cannes, C.; Trubert, D.; Bossé, E.; Berton, C.; Moisy, P.

The complex [BuMeIm]2[UCl6] was characterized in the solid state and in a solution of [BuMeIm][Tf2N] room temperature ionic liquid using single-crystal XRD, EXAFS, visible absorption spectroscopy and NMR techniques.The structure of solid [BuMeIm]2[UCl6] contains two crystallographically independent formula units (U(1) and U(2)).The U–Cl distances in UCl6 2 anions range from 2.576(6) to 2.638(4) A ˚ , the average values being 2.621(6) and 2.601(8) A ˚ for U(1) and U(2), respectively.The BuMeIm+ cations have four different conformations of C4H9 chains.The shortest distances between the centres of the five-member rings of the BuMeIm+ cations and U atoms of [UCl6]2 anions are in the range 5.53–4.90 A ˚ .Single-crystal XRD data reveal the existence of a hydrogen bond between the most acidic H atom of the imidazolium ring (C2) and the chloride anion of the UCl6 2 octahedron, with the shortest distance Cl H(C2) equal to 2.57 A ˚ .Quantitative EXAFS measurements indicate that the octahedral complex UCl6 2(RU–Cl = 2.632(2) A ˚ ) is the predominant chemical form of U(IV) in [BuMeIm][Tf2N] solution.Visible absorption spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy confirm the existence of hydrogen bonding between theUCl6 2 anion and the acidic proton of the BuMeIm+ cation in RTIL solution, similar to that in the solid state.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids; EXAFS; XRD; NMR; Uran(IV)

  • Polyhedron 26(2007), 3136-3142

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10353
Publ.-Id: 10353


Tomographie von Mehrphasenströmungen

Hampel, U.

Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über die Anwendung der Computertomographie in verfahrenstechnischen und strömungsdiagnostishcen Problemstellungen. Behandelt werden insbesondere die Röntgen- und Gammastrahlentomographie.

Keywords: multiphase flow; X-ray tomography; gamma ray tomography; process tomography

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Sommerschule des Graduiertenkollegs PoreNet, 18.7.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10352
Publ.-Id: 10352


Application of mass-separated focused ion beams in nano-technology

Bischoff, L.

During the last decades, the focused ion beam (FIB) became a very useful and versatile tool in microelectronics industry, as well as in the field of basic and applied research and derived an exceedingly importance with the development of the nano-technology. For special purposes like writing ion implantation for doping or ion beam synthesis (IBS) in the µm- as well as in the nm-range without any lithographic steps ion species other than gallium become more and more relevant. Therefore mass separated FIB systems equipped with alloy liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) play an increasing role.
So a Co-FIB obtained from a Co36Nd64 alloy LMIS was applied for the IBS at elevated sample temperatures and subsequent annealing for the fabrication CoSi2 nano-structures down to 20 nm on Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. The combination of FIB implantation (top-down approach) and self organization processes (bottom-up approach) during IBS can provide a spatial reduction of the locally implanted structures. A further investigated process is the defect induced formation of CoSi2 nanoparticles and nanowires using other ions than cobalt in the FIB (Au, Nd, Si, Ga), focused down to a spot diameter less than 30 nm at room temperature, and a Co deposited film on the rare side of the wafer. In this case crystalline CoSi2 nanowires of 10 – 30 nm diameter and a length up to some ten micrometer always aligned along the (110) orientations have been observed. These structures were studied using SEM/EDX and AFM analysis as well as by electrical characterization after contacting with W-pads, fabricated by FIB MO-CVD.
Other processes for the fabrication of nanstructures, like templating, 3D ion milling and the combination of FIB implantation and wet chemical anisotropic etching will be presented and discussed.
The high resolution mass separated Rossendorf FIB system, equipped with the CANION 31Mplus column (Orsay Physics) was applied with different (alloy) liquid metal ion sources (CoNd, AuSi, Ga) to demonstrate a emerging possibilities of nanostructure fabrication.

Keywords: mass-separated focused ion beams; alloy liquid metal ion source; nano-technology

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    18th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, 23.-28.09.2007, Hyderabad, India
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266(2008)8, 1846-1851

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10351
Publ.-Id: 10351


Species distribution and coordination of uranyl chloro complexes in acetonitrile

Hennig, C.; Servaes, K.; Nockemann, P.; van Hecke, K.; van Meervelt, L.; Wouters, J.; Görller-Walrand, C.; van Deun, R.

The complex formation of the uranyl ion, UO22+, with chloride ions in acetonitrile has been investigated by principal component analysis of UV-vis absorption and U L3–edge EXAFS spectra. As a function of increasing [Cl]/[UO22+] ratio the species [UO2(H2O)5]2+, [UO2Cl(H2O)2(MeCN)2]+, [UO2Cl2(H2O)(MeCN)2], [UO2Cl3(MeCN)2] and [UO2Cl4]2 have been observed. The determined distances in the first coordination sphere are: U-Oax = 1.77 Å, UOH2O = 2.43 Å, UNMeCN = 2.53 Å and UCl = 2.68 Å. From the intermediate solution with the [Cl]/[UO22+] ratio of 2 a crystalline precipitate has been obtained. The crystal structure of this compound, [(UO2)4(2-Cl)4(3-O)2(H2O)2(CH3CN)4]•(CH3CN), has been determined.

Keywords: UO22+ chloro complexes; UV-vis; EXAFS; XRD

  • Inorganic Chemistry 47(2008)8, 2987-2993

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10350
Publ.-Id: 10350


A Novel Hydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis Catalyst Using Palladized Biomass of Gram Negative and Gram Positive Bacteria

Creamer, N. J.; Mikheenko, I. P.; Deplanche, K.; Yong, P.; Wood, J.; Pollmann, K.; Macaskie, L. E.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

Palladized biomass of typical Gram negative bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Escherichia coli) is well documented as a potentially useful catalyst for reduction of metallic species such as Cr(VI). This bionanocatalyst can be sourced from Pd-waste and scrap leachates via biocrystallization. A major industrial application of precious metal catalysts is in hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis reactions whereby, respectively, H is added across unsaturated bonds and halogen substituents can be removed from aromatic rings. Gram positive bacteria have not been evaluated previously as potential supported Pd-bionanocatalysts. We compare the activity of ‘Bio-Pd(0)’ supported on the fundamentally different Gram negative (Desulfovibrio) and Gram positive (Bacillus) bacterial surfaces, and evaluate the activity of the two types of ‘Bio-Pd(0)‘ in a standard reference reaction, the hydrogenation of itaconic acid, against a commercially available catalyst (5% Pd on carbon). The results show that the bionanocatalysts have a similar activity to the commercial material and biomanufacturing from waste sources may be an economic alternative to conventional processing for catalyst production as precious metal prices continue to rise.

  • Advanced Materials Research 20-21(2007), 603-606

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10349
Publ.-Id: 10349


Ion Beam Synthesis of Nanoclusters and Nanowires

Bischoff, L.

During the last decades, the focused ion beam (FIB) became a very useful and versatile tool in microelectronics industry, as well as in the field of basic and applied research and derived an exceedingly importance with the development of the nano-technology. For special purposes like writing ion implantation for doping or ion beam synthesis (IBS) in the µm- as well as in the nm-range without any lithographic steps ion species other than gallium become more and more relevant. Therefore mass separated FIB systems equipped with alloy liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) play an increasing role.
A Co-FIB obtained from a Co36Nd64 alloy LMIS was applied for the IBS at elevated sample temperatures and subsequent annealing for the fabrication CoSi2 nano-structures down to 20 nm on Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. The combination of FIB implantation (top-down approach) and self organization processes during IBS (bottom-up approach) can provide a spatial reduction of the FIB implanted structures. A second investigated process is the defect induced formation of CoSi2 nanoparticles and nanowires using other ions than cobalt in the FIB, focused down to a spot diameter less than 30 nm at room temperature. The source for Co atoms for the NW growth was a 10 nm thin Co film evaporated onto the rear side of the wafer. The FIB irradiation of Nd, Ga, Si and Au ions and doses of 1015-1017 cm-2 creates a broad spectrum of defects in the substrate. Subsequent annealing leads amongst others to the formation of rod-like extended {311}-defects, which act as a prime source of transient enhanced diffusion of impurities in silicon. Also these defects can dissolve and form other rod-like defects always aligned to the (110) direction with a diameter of 10 – 20 nm and a length of some hundred nm. The heat treatment (1000°C, 30 min, N2) leads to a gettering of cobalt atoms in these defects followed by a CoSi2 formation through Ostwald ripening which stabilizes the origin of the defect rods. The obtained crystalline CoSi2 nanowires showed a diameter of 10 – 30 nm and a length up to some ten micrometer always aligned along the (110) orientations independent of the FIB writing direction with respect to the wafer orientation. These structures were studied by SEM/EDX and AFM analysis as well as by electrical characterization after contacting with W-pads, fabricated by FIB MO-CVD [1].
Furthermore, the high resolution mass separated Rossendorf FIB system, equipped with a CANION 31Mplus column (Orsay Physics) and a Ga liquid metal ion source (LMIS) as well as with different alloy LMIS (CoNd, AuSi, etc.) was used to fabricate other nanostructures.

[1] C. Akhmadaliev, B. Schmidt and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 223129

Keywords: ion beam synthesis (IBS); focused ion beam (FIB) CoSi2

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Symposium on Vacuum based Science and Technology, 05.-07.09.07, Greifswald, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10348
Publ.-Id: 10348


Microbial response to U(VI) and nitrate treatments of uranium mining waste pile samples

Selenska-Pobell, S.

Response of microbial community of a depleted uranium waste to treatments with U(VI) and/or nitrate was studied by using molecular methods. The applied 16S rRNA- and narG-gene retrievals, demonstrated that the samples harbour a large number of hidden species inducible by nitrate, some of which are also capable to tolerate U. The changes in bacterial community depended on the salt solutions used and on the aeration condition. The archaeal populations, in contrast, were shifted to one particular group, independently on the art of the treatments. After longer incubations with U(VI) the initial structure of the bacterial community started to recover, indicating that the added U was no longer bio-available.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Winter-Spring 2007 seminar series, 31.01.-02.02.2007, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10347
Publ.-Id: 10347


Nickel catalysed sixfold ring clustering and graphitisation in C:Ni nanocomposites: A Raman analysis

Krause, M.; Abrasonis, G.; Kolitsch, A.; Mücklich, A.; Kreissig, U.; Möller, W.

The structural phases of C:Ni nanocomposite thin films prepared by ion beam co-sputtering at temperatures 25°C =< T =< 500°C were characterized by NIR Raman spectroscopy. Ni was found to cata-lyse sixfold ring clustering and graphitisation of carbon in C:Ni nanocomposites.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10346
Publ.-Id: 10346


Native and oxidized low density lipoprotein modulate adrenal steroidogenesis via extracellular signal-regulated kinase

Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Poster
    76th Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society, 10.-13.06.2007, Helsinki, Finland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Atherosclerosis 8(2007)Suppl. 1, S40-S41

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10345
Publ.-Id: 10345


Experimental results on the magnetorotational instability in helical magnetic fields

Stefani, F.; Gundrum, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Rüdiger, G.; Szklarski, J.; Hollerbach, R.

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is believed to play a crucial role in the formation of stars and black holes. By destabilizing otherwise stable Keplerian flows, the MRI enables outward transport of angular momentum in accretion discs which is a necessity for the growth of the central objects. Usually, MRI is investigated under the assumption of an externally applied axial magnetic field. However, the effort to investigate the MRI in a liquid metal experiment can be dramatically reduced if the purely axial magnetic field is replaced by a helical magnetic field. We summarize the results of a various Taylor-Couette experiments with the liquid metallic alloy GaInSn under the influence of helical magnetic fields that show typical features of MRI at Reynolds numbers of the order 1000 and Hartmann nubers of the order 10.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    49th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, 12.-16.11.2007, Orlando, USA
  • Open Access Logo Abstract in refereed journal
    Bulletin of the American Physical Society 52(2007)16, 139-139

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10344
Publ.-Id: 10344


Plasma immersion ion implantation of nitrogen on austenitic stainless steel at variable energy for enhanced corrosion resistance

Ram Mohan Rao, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, S. K.; K. Richter, E.; Moeller, W.; Manna, I.

Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of nitrogen on AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel has been investigated at four different negative implantation biases (5, 10, 15, 20 kV) and two different pulse-on-times (5 and 10 mu s) for developing a nitrogen/nitride-rich corrosion resistive layer. Post implanted specimens were examined by X-ray diffraction, and subjected to potentiodynamic polarization tests in 1 wt.% NaCl solution. PIII at - 15 kV shows significant and optimum improvement in corrosion resistance.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10343
Publ.-Id: 10343


Labeling of Fatty Acid Ligands with the Strong Electrophilic Metal Fragment [99mTc(N)(PNP)]2+ (PNP = Diphosphane Ligand)

Cazzola, E.; Benini, E.; Pasquali, M.; Mirtschink, P.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Uccelli, L.; Boschi, A.; Bolzati, C.; Duatti, A.

The electrophilic metal fragment [99mTc(N)(PNP)]2+ (PNP = diphosphane ligand) has been employed for the labeling of fatty acid chains of different lengths. To provide a site-specific group for the attachment of the metallic moiety, the fatty acid derivatives were functionalized by appending a bis-mercapto or, alternatively, a dithiocarbamato π-donor chelating systems to one terminus of the carbon chain to yield both dianionic and monoanionic bifunctional li-gands (L). The resulting complexes, [99mTc(N)(PNP)(L)]0/+, exhibited the usual asymmetrical structure in which a Tc≡N group was surrounded by two different bidentate chelating ligands. Dianionic ligands gave rise to neutral complexes, while monoanionic ligands afforded mono-cationic species. Biodistribution studies were carried out in rats. An isolated perfused rat heart model was employed to assess whether the new labeled fatty acids still were recognized as substrates for β-oxidation. Results showed that only monocationic complexes accumulated in myocardium to a significant extent. Conversely, neutral complexes were not efficiently re-tained into the heart region and rapidly washed out. In isolated perfused rat heart experiments, monocationic complexes exhibited a behavior similar to that of the monocationic flow tracers 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-DBODC with almost identical extraction values, a result that could be attributed to the presence of the monopositive charge. Instead, a slightly lower myocardial ex-traction was found for neutral complexes. Comparison of the observed kinetic behavior of neutral complexes in the isolated perfused rat heart model with that of the myocardial meta-bolic tracer [123I]IPPA revealed that the introduction of the metallic moiety partially hamper recognition of the labeled fatty acids by cardiac enzymes and, consequently, their behavior did not completely reflect myocardial metabolism.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10342
Publ.-Id: 10342


Correlation between defect-related electroluminescence and charge trapping in Gd-implanted SiO2 layers

Prucnal, S.; Sun, J.; Nazarov, A.; Tjagulskii, I.; Osiyuk, I.; Fedaruk, R.; Skorupa, W.

When amorphous silica is bombarded with energetic ions, various types of defects are created as a consequence of ion-solid interaction (oxygen deficient centers (ODC), non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), E'-centers, etc.). Luminescent peaks from oxygen deficiency centers at 2.7 eV, non-bridging oxygen hole centers at 1.9 eV and defect centers with emission at 2.07 eV were observed by changing the concentration of implanted Gd3+ ions. Charge trapping in Gd-implanted SiO2 layers was induced using constant current electron injection to study the electroluminescence intensity with dependence on the applied voltage change. The process of electron trap generation during high field carrier injection results in an increase of the electroluminescence from non-bridging oxygen hole centers. Direct correlation between electron trapping and the quenching of the electroluminescence at 2.07 eV and 2.7 eV was observed with variation of the implanted Gd concentration.

Keywords: Electroluminescence; Gadolinium; charge trapping; SiO2

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10340
Publ.-Id: 10340


An alloy liquid metal ion source for lithium

Bischoff, L.; Akhmadaliev, C.

The presented alloy liquid metal ion source enables a long term stable emission of Li ions. By using a Ga35Bi60Li5 alloy the difficulties in handling chemically very active lithium as a source material could be overcome. The mass spectrum and the energy spread of the certain ion species are presented and discussed. For lithium a FWHM of the energy distribution of about 2 eV at an emission current of about 1 µA was found as it is predicted by the theory due to the m1/3 dependence of the energy spread on mass of the projectile ion.

Keywords: alloy LMIS; Li ions; mass spectra; energy spread

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10339
Publ.-Id: 10339


Temperature-dependent changes in structural and magnetic properties of heavy ion irradiated nanoscale Co/Pt multilayers

Som, T.; Ghosh, S.; Mäder, M.; Groetzschel, R.; Roy, S.; Paramanik, D.; Gupta, A.

We report the changes in 100 keV Kr ion-irradiated nanoscale Co/Pt multilayers at different temperatures and fluences.We observe irradiation-induced changes in their structural and magnetic properties. Ion beam-induced mixing across the interfaces leads to the formation of a CoPt ordered/disordered phase. Alarge increase in the coercivity is also observed when the irradiation is performed at room temperature. Such an enhancement in the coercivity is attributed to defect clustering and CoPt ordered/disordered phase formation. The mechanism of phase formation is explained in light of the heat of formation rule.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10338
Publ.-Id: 10338


Implementation of a strainer model for calculating the pressure drop across beds of compressible, fibrous materials

Grahn, A.; Krepper, E.; Alt, S.; Kästner, W.

Mineral wool insulation debris, which is generated during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), has the potential to undermine the long-term recirculation capability of the emergency core coolant system (ECCS) in a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, ECCS pumps are faced with an increasing pressure drop while insulation debris accumulates at the pump suction strainers. The presented study aims at modelling the pressure drop of flows across growing cakes of compressible, fibrous materials and at the implementation of the model into a general-purpose 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Computed pressure drops are compared with experimentally found values. The ability of the CFD implementation to simulate 3D flows with a non-uniformly distributed particle phase is exemplified using a step-like channel geometry with a horizontally embedded strainer plate.

Keywords: pressure drop; strainer blockage; fibrous filter cakes; compressible filter cakes; reactor safety; Loss-of-Coolant-Accident; CFD; simulation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10337
Publ.-Id: 10337


Flux dependence of cluster formation in neutron irradiated weld material

Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Hein, H.; Kammel, M.

The effect of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is an unresolved issue. Small-angle neutron scattering was measured for a neutron-irradiated RPV weld material containing 0.22 wt% impurity Cu. The experiment was focused on the influence of neutron flux on the formation of irradiation-induced clusters at fixed fluence. The aim was to separate and tentatively interpret the effect of flux on the characteristics of the cluster size distribution. We have observed a pronounced effect of neutron flux on cluster size, whereas the total volume fraction of irradiation-induced clusters is insensitive to the level of flux. The result is compatible with a rate theory model according to which the range of applied fluxes covers the transition range from a flux-independent regime to a regime of cluster growth slowing down with increasing flux. The results are confronted with measured irradiation-induced changes of mechanical properties.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10336
Publ.-Id: 10336


Myocardial uptake and biodistribution of newly designed technetium-labelled fatty acid analogues

Heintz, A. C.; Jung, C. M.; Stehr, S. N.; Mirtschink, P.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Spies, H.; Wunderlich, G.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.

In an effort to develop 99mTc-labelled fatty acids (FAs) for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging, several 99mTc analogues according to the ‘3+1’ and the ‘4+1’-mixed ligand approach were synthesized and myocardial extraction was evaluated in non-working isolated guinea pig hearts. Biodistribution patterns in guinea pigs were determined exemplarily of one FA analogue.

  • Nuclear Medicine Communications 28(2007)8, 637-647

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10335
Publ.-Id: 10335


Production of highly charged ions for ion-surface interaction studies

Zschornack, G.; Grossmann, F.; Heller, R.; Kentsch, U.; Kreller, M.; Landgraf, S.; Ovsyannikov, V.P.; Schmidt, M.; Ullmann, F.

We give an overview of the production of highly charged ions in the room-temperature Dresden EBIT and its successors, the Dresden EBIS and Dresden EBIS-A, and their application in different areas. Due to their compact design they are favored for the study and use of the interaction of ions with surfaces. In particular, interaction processes with highly charged ions are of special interest due to their properties, such as the high yield of secondary particles, which open up new techniques in surface structuring and materials analysis. Single ion hits are found to create hillock-like structures on the nanoscale which is shown for a HOPG surface irradiated by argon ions. Since the ion beams that are extracted from the Dresden EBIT and EBIS devices are characterized by a small beam emittance other applications come into focus, such as in FIB technology where there is a great demand for beams of noble gases. First results of the production of a helium ion beam in the Nano-FIB at ! LPN/CNRS employing a Dresden EBIT are presented. Furthermore molecular fragments can be produced, shown by means of a spectrum of propane fragments, which not only are of interest in life sciences.

Keywords: highly charged ions; Dresden EBIT; nanostructures; helium FIB; molecular fragments

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 258(2007)1, 205-208

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10334
Publ.-Id: 10334


Quality assurance in thermodynamic databases for performance assessment studies in waste disposal

Voigt, W.; Brendler, V.; Marsh, K.; Rarey, R.; Wanner, H.; Gaune-Escard, M.; Cloke, P.; Vercouter, T.; Bastrakov, E.; Hagemann, S.

Performance assessment studies in underground disposal of radioactive or toxic waste need to consider all reactive interactions between waste and its surroundings. Thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction path calculations represent an important tool for this purpose. The reliability of the results depends first of all on the quality of the thermodynamic database used for the calculations. Several quality criteria of thermodynamic databases are discussed in connection with the characteristics of current database projects [Nuclear Energy Agency Thermochemical Database (NEA-TDB), Yucca Mountain database, Dortmund Databank (DDB), Common Thermodynamic Database (CTD), FreeGS, and Thermodynamic Reference Database (THEREDA)] including the situation for molten salts. The future role of the IUPAC standard for thermophysical and thermochemical data storage is emphasized.
Keywords: thermodynamic databases; radioactive waste disposal; geochemical databases; ThermoML; performance assessment studies.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10333
Publ.-Id: 10333


Scientific-technical cooperation between FZR and Russia in the field of NPP safety research

Höhne, T.; Konheiser, J.; Kozmenkov, K.; Noack, K.; Schäfer, F.; Schleicher, U.; Rindelhardt, U.; Rohde, U.; Ulbricht, A.; Weiß, F.-P.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-468 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10332
Publ.-Id: 10332


Bi-Annual Report 2005/06 - Radiation Source ELBE

Lehnert, U.; (Editor)

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-473 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10331
Publ.-Id: 10331


Magnetic excitations and the field-induced condensation of magnons in the large-D spin-1 chain system DTN

Zvyagin, S.

NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN) is a quantum spin-1 chain system with strong easy-pane anisotropy and a new material for studying the magnon condensation in magnetic fields. In this talk, I will present tunablefrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in DTN in fields up to 25 T. First, I am going to show how the high-field ESR can be used for describing the temperature-field phase diagram and the low-temperature magnetization data in the field-induced ordered phase of DTN. Second, I will report on the first conclusive observation of the two-magnon bound states, which is a unique feature of the high-field spin-polarized phase of spin-1 large-D Heisenberg chains. Third, based on the analysis of the ESR data, I am going to discuss the relevance of the underlying physics in DTN to the field-induced Bose-Einstein Condensation phenomenon in quantum antiferromagnets. Finally, I will briefly talk about recent developments of the high-field ESR Program at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Invited talk at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 29.06.2007, Tallahassee, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10330
Publ.-Id: 10330


Magnetization and specific heat of TbFe3(BO3)4: Experiment and crystal-field calculations

Popova, E. A.; Volkov, D. V.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Demidov, A. A.; Kolmakova, N. P.; Gudim, I. A.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Tristan, N.; Skourski, Y.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.; Klingeler, R.

We have studied the thermodynamic properties of single-crystalline TbFe3(BO3)4. Magnetization measurements have been carried out as a function of magnetic field (up to 50 T) and temperature up to 350 K with the magnetic field both parallel and perpendicular to the trigonal c axis of the crystal. The specific heat has been measured in the temperature range 2–300 K with a magnetic field up to 9 T applied parallel to the c axis. The data indicate a structural phase transition at 192 K and antiferromagnetic spin ordering at TN≈40 K. A Schottky anomaly is present in the specific-heat data around 20 K, arising due to two low-lying energy levels of the Tb3+ ions being split by f-d coupling. Below TN, magnetic fields parallel to the c axis drive a spin-flop phase transition, which is associated with a large magnetization jump. The highly anisotropic character of the magnetic susceptibility is ascribed mainly to the Ising-like behavior of the Tb3+ ions in the trigonal crystal field. We describe our results in the framework of a unified approach which is based on mean-field approximation and crystal-field calculations.

  • Physical Review B 75(2007), 224413

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10329
Publ.-Id: 10329


Dipole-strength distributions up to the Giant-Dipole Resonance deduced from photon scattering

Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Benouaret, N.; Beyer, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Kosev, K.; Klug, J.; Nair, C.; Nankov, N.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.

Dipole-strength distributions up to the neutron-separation energies of the even-mass Mo isotopes from {92}Mo to {100}Mo and of the N=50isotones {88}Sr, {89}Y, {90}Zr have been investigated in photon-scattering experiments using the bremsstrahlung facility at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. A measurement using polarised bremsstrahlung impinging on {88}Sr revealed that all resolved transitions with energies greater than 6 MeV in this nuclide except for one are E1 transitions. The intensity distributions obtained from the measured spectra after a correction for detector response and a subtraction of atomic background in the target contain a continuum part in addition to the resolved peaks. It turns out that the dipole strength in the resolved peaks amounts to about 30\% of the total dipole strength while the continuum contains about 70\%. In order to estimate the distribution of inelastic transitions and to correct the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios simulations of gamma-ray cascades were performed. The photoabsorption cross sections obtained in this way connect smoothly to (\gamma,n) cross sections and give novel information about the strength on the low-energy tails of the Giant Dipole Resonances below the neutron-separation energies. The experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of a Quasiparticle-Random-Phase Approximation in a deformed basis. The calculations describe the experimentally observed increase of the dipole strengths with increasing neutron number of the Mo isotopes as a consequence of increasing nuclear deformation.

Keywords: Photon scattering; Photoabsorption cross section; Quasiparticle-Random-Phase Approximation

  • Contribution to proceedings
    9th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics - Changing Facets of Nuclear Structure -, 20.-24.05.2007, Vico Equense, Italy
    Changing facets of nuclear structure: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., 978-981-277-902-1

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10328
Publ.-Id: 10328


Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Methodik zur Analyse unterstellter Borverdünnungsstörfälle im Nachkühlbetrieb

Kliem, S.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine Methodik zur Analyse von Borverdünnungsstörfallen im Nachkühlbetrieb von Druckwasserreaktoren vorgestellt und angewandt.
Eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für eine realistische Analyse ist dabei die adäquate Modellierung der Vermischung des in den kalten Strang eingespeisten deborierten Pfropfens mit dem hochborierten Umgebungswasser.
Für das früher entwickelte Vermischungsmodell SAPR wurden an der Versuchsanlage ROCOM Übertragungs¬funktionen für die Vermischung im RDB bei kleinen Geschwindigkeiten ermittelt. Diese Übertragungsfunktionen, die in das bestehende Modell eingebaut und erfolgreich validiert wurden, decken alle möglichen Strömungszustände hinsichtlich der Anzahl der aktiven Nachkühlschleifen ab.
Mit Hilfe des gekoppelten neutronenkinetisch/thermohydraulischen Programms DYN3D/ATHLET wurde in Kombination mit diesem Vermischungsmodell ein unterstellter Borverdünnungsstörfall bei Einspeisung deborierten Kühlmittels im Nachkühlbetrieb unter Verwendung einer generischen Kernbeladung analysiert.
Die aus einer Kombination von stationären und transienten Rechnungen bestehende Methodik wurde auf das Strömungsregime mit einer arbeitenden Nachkühlpumpe angewandt. Zuerst wurde eine Parameterstudie mit stationären DYN3D-Rechnungen durchgeführt. Im deren Ergebnis wurde gezeigt, dass bei realistischer Berücksichtigung der Kühlmittelvermischung im RDB borfreie Kühlmittelmengen unter 8 m3 keine Rekritikalität des abgeschalteten Reaktors verursachen. Diese Aussage gilt für die verwendete Kernbeladung.
Für borfreie Kühlmittelmengen von 8 m3 bis zum Maximalwert von 15 m3 wurden transiente Analysen durchgeführt. Dazu wurde zwei Kernmodelle für das gekoppelte Programm DYN3D/ATHLET, eins bestehend aus 193 Kühlkanälen (1:1 Modellierung) und eins mit einer reduzierten Anzahl der Kühlkanäle (41) erstellt. Die mit dem SAPR-Modell berechneten Zeitkurven der Borkonzentration am Kerneintritt wurden als Randbedingungen an das untere Plenum angeschlossen. Aus Rechenzeitgründen wurde die Hauptzahl der Analysen mit dem reduziertem Modell durchgeführt. Ergänzend wurde für das maximale Pfropfenvolumen eine Rechnung mit dem detaillierten Modell durchgeführt.
Letzter Variationsparameter war die Anzahl der aktiven Schleifen im Nachkühlbetrieb. Hierbei wurden ausgewählte Schritte der Analyse für die veränderten hydraulischen Randbedingungen wiederholt. Es ergab sich, dass der 2- und 3-Schleifenbetrieb die höchsten statischen Reaktivitätseinträge aufweist. Die höchste Leistung nach der Rekritikalität sowie die höchsten Werte der Brennstoff- und Hüllrohrtemperatur werden im 4-Schleifenbetrieb berechnet, während im 1-Schleifenbetrieb der geringste Abstand zur Siedekrise und die höchste Stabbelastung ausgewiesen wurden.
Für diesen Zustand wurde eine Heißkanalanalyse durchgeführt. Obwohl in dieser Analyse über einen gewissen Zeitraum das Auftreten der Siedekrise berechnet wird, kam es in keiner der durchgeführten Rechnungen zu Erhöhungen der Brennstoffzentral- bzw. der Hüllrohrtemperatur über zulässige Grenzwerte.

  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    FZD\FWS\2007\08
    82 Seiten
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10327
Publ.-Id: 10327


Strongly type-II superconductivity at high magnetic fields: Breakdown of thermodynamic scaling

Maniv, T.; Zhuravlev, V.; Wosnitza, J.; Ignatchik, O.; Bergk, B.

The Bragg-chain model of the two-dimensional (2D) vortex state at high magnetic field is extended to an array of coupled superconducting (SC) layers. Application to YNi2B2C and MgB2 yields good quantitative agreement with high-field magnetization measurements, indicating that the smeared transitions observed in these materials are, at least in great part, due to SC fluctuations. The analysis indicates, however, that the thermodynamic properties of these materials, as well as of other strongly type-II superconductors, at low magnetic fields near the SC transition, are not connected to those at high magnetic fields (and low T) with a single scaling function, since the SC energy gap near T-c0 significantly underestimates the amplitude of the SC order parameter at high magnetic fields.

  • Open Access Logo Chinese Journal of Physics 45(2007)2-II, 244-255

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10326
Publ.-Id: 10326


Dipole-strength in N=50 nuclei studied in photon-scattering experiments at ELBE

Schwengner, R.

Dipole strength in N=50 nuclei studied in photon-scattering experiments at ELBE

Keywords: Photon scattering; photon-strength functions; Giant Dipole Resonance; Pygmy Dipole Resonance; Quasiparticle-Random-Phase-Approximation

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Workshop on Photon Strength Functions and Related Topics, 17.-20.06.2007, Praha, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10325
Publ.-Id: 10325


Surface modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by PIII at high temperatures: Effects of plasma potential

Silva, M. M.; Ueda, M.; Pichon, L.; Reuther, H.; Lepienski, C. M.

The present work is aimed to analyzing the influence of the plasma potential in the efficiency of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process with nitrogen, at high temperatures (550 degrees C and 800
degrees C), applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy to increase its wear resistance. Treatments with plasma potentials (PP) at 420 V and 90 V were carried out. In the first case, in accordance with AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) analysis, nitrogen rich layers of 100 nm and 150 nm of thickness had been obtained, for total treatment times of 60 min and 120 min, respectively. For the treatments with lower PP of 90 V, the treated layers thicknesses have been measured by GDOS (Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy) and their values are 1 mu m and 1.5 mu m for treatments of 120 min and 240 min, respectively. The hardness values were determined for the samples treated with high PP by nanoindentation technique and a significant increase was observed for this treatment,
reaching 11 GPa (60 m! in) and 19 GPa (120 min), which can be compared to 3.5-4.0 GPa obtained for the untreated samples. Pin-on-disk wear tests show that wear resistance increases after all these treatments. The friction coefficient as well as the wear rates are measured with a tribometer.

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 257(2007), 722-726

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10324
Publ.-Id: 10324


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