Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

"Online First" included
Without submitted and only approved publications
Only approved publications

31828 Publications
Schwingungsmodellierung von WWER-Reaktoren zur Untersuchung von Störfallszenarien
Werner, M.; Altstadt, E.; Perov, S.;
In einem gemeinsamen Vorhaben mit dem Diagnosezentrum für russische Kernkraftwerke (DIAPROM Moskau) wurde ein Beitrag zur verbesserten Beurteilung der mechanischen Integrität von Reaktoren der russischen WWER-Baureihen, insbesondere zur empfindlichen Früherkennung und Lokalisation mechanischer Schädigungen an Reaktorkomponenten mit Hilfe schwingungsdiagnostischer Methoden geleistet. Zu diesem Zweck wurde für den WWER-440 und WWER-1000 das mechanische Schwingungsverhalten aller Primärkreiskomponenten mit finiten Elementen (FE) modelliert. Dafür wurde das Programmpaket ANSYS® genutzt.
Der Einfluss des strömenden Kühlmittels auf die schwingenden mechanischen Strukturen ist im Rahmen der Fluid-Struktur-Interaktion (FSI) berücksichtigt worden. Die Berechnungsmodelle wurden mit Ergebnissen experimenteller Schwingungsuntersuchungen justiert. Zum Teil konnte auf aktuelle Messungen zurückgegriffen werden. Die Modelle können als weitgehend verifiziert gelten. Diese wurden in der Hauptsache genutzt, um zu klären, wie sich unterstellte mechanische Defekte von Reaktoreinbauten auf die Schwingungen der Gesamtanlage auswirken. Diese Schadenssimulation ist besonders geeignet, empfindliche Messpositionen für die on-line Überwachung zu finden und physikalisch fundierte Grenzwerte zu definieren.
Die entwickelten Modelle sind grundsätzlich auch geeignet, um Lastabschätzung für die Reaktorkomponenten bei Einwirkung von außen (Explosion, Erdbeben) vorzunehmen.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    27. MPA-Seminar, Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit in der Energietechnik, Band 1 und 2, Stuttgart, 4 .- 5. 10. 2001, Artikel 9
  • Contribution to proceedings
    27. MPA-Seminar, Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit in der Energietechnik, Band 1 und 2, Stuttgart, 4 .- 5. 10. 2001, Artikel 9

Publ.-Id: 4176 - Permalink

Memory properties of Si+ implanted gate oxides: From MOS capacitors to nvSRAM
von Borany, J.; Gebel, T.; Stegemann, K.-H.; Thees, H.-J.; Wittmaack, M.;
Charge storage properties of 20-30 nm gate oxides implanted with Si+ ions are investigated using MOS capacitors, single transistor structures and a non-volatile memory. The observed programming window can reach several volts for programming with electric fields of about 4-7 MV/cm. The structures exhibit good retention (250°C, 280h) and the endurance (>106 w/e-cycles) considerably exceeds the typical values of present EEPROM technologies. The capability of Si implanted SiO2 films as gate dielectrics for a real non-volatile memory is demonstrated for the first time by a 256k - nvSRAM showing a programming window of larger than 1 volt.
Keywords: ion implantation, nanoclusters, non-volatile memory
  • Solid State Electronics 46 (2002) 1729-1737

Publ.-Id: 4175 - Permalink

Radiobiological hypoxia, oxygen tension, interstitial fluid pressure and relative viable tumour area in two human squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice during fractionated radiotherapy.
Baumann, M.; Appold, S.; Zimmer, J.; Scharf, M.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Dubben, H. H.; Enghardt, W.; Schreiber, A.; Eicheler, W.; Petersen, C.;
no abstract
Keywords: Radiobiological Hypoxia, Oxygen Tension, Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas
  • Acta Oncologica, Vol. 40, No. 4 (2001) 519-528

Publ.-Id: 4174 - Permalink

Fast wire-mesh sensors for gas-liquid flows and decomposition of gas fraction profiles according to bubble size classes
Prasser, H.-M.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.;
The wire-mesh sensor developed by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf produces measuring sequences of instantaneous gas fraction distributions in a cross section at a rate of up to 10 000 frames per second and a spatial resolution of about 2-3 mm. This sensor was applied to an upwards air-liquid flow in a vertical channel. After a brief introduction of the functioning of the sensor, the paper presents results obtained at a rate of 1200 frames per second, which were used to study the evolution of bubble size distributions and radial gas fraction profiles along the pipe, starting at a relative distance of L/D=0.6 above the gas injection and ending at L/D=60. The developed bubble identification algorithm allows to select bubbles of a given range of the effective diameter and to calculate partial gas fraction profiles for this diameter range. In this way, the different behaviour of small and large bubbles in respect to the action of the lift force was observed in a mixture of small and large bubbles. Furthermore, the paper presents results of a flow visualisation at the rate of 10 000 frames per second, showing details of the flow structure in the region of transition to annular flow.
Keywords: two-phase flow, gas-liquid flow, bubble size, bubbly flow, wire-mesh sensor, void fraction measurement
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Thessalonoki, Greece, 24-28 September 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 1135 - 1140.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Thessalonoki, Greece, 24-28 September 2001, Vol. 2, pp. 1135 - 1140.

Publ.-Id: 4173 - Permalink

Methods for studies on bubbly flow characteristics applying an electrode-mesh tomograph
Richter, S.; Aritomi, M.; Prasser, H.-M.; Hampel, R.;
For studies on the characteristics of bubble flow in a rectangular channel (20x100mm) an electrode-mesh tomograph has been applied. The measuring principle is based on local conductivity measurement. The applied sensor scans the local void fraction distribution in 2 parallel planes, separated 1.5mm in flow direction, with a resolution of 6.1x2.2mm and an overall sampling rate of 1200Hz (all 256 points). Algorithms for the calculation of the local instantaneous void fraction distribution and the true gas velocity are presented. Based on these values the approximate shape of bubbles has been reconstructed and the gas volume flow through the sensor evaluated. The superficial gas velocity as well as the local distribution of the gas volume flux was
calculated. Finally, bubble diameter spectra have been obtained and the statistical behavior of the bubble rising velocity in its dependency from bubble diameter in a turbulent flow of high void fraction has been investigated. An extensive sensitivity study illustrating the applicability and accuracy is presented, based on experimental observations as well as theoretical considerations. The evaluated results are compared with high-speed video observations of the flow field as well as data comparing the reconstructed volume flow with measurements by a laminar flow meter. Good agreement can be stated.
Keywords: two-phase flow, void fraction measurement, wire-mesh sensor, bubbly flow
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Vortrag und Beitrag zu Sammelwerken (Proc., etc.): 4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, New Orleans, Lousiana, USA - May 27 to June 1, 2001. Proc. CD-ROM, paper 848.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Vortrag und Beitrag zu Sammelwerken (Proc., etc.): 4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, New Orleans, Lousiana, USA - May 27 to June 1, 2001. Proc. CD-ROM, paper 848.

Publ.-Id: 4171 - Permalink

Dynamo experiments at the Riga sodium facility
Gailitis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.; Dement'Ev, S.; Cifersons, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Christen, M.; Will, G.;
We summarize the history and the results of the first successful hydromagnetic dynamo experiment which was prepared and run at the Institute of Physics in Riga, Latvia.
  • Magnetohydrodynamics, Vol. 38, No. 1/2 (2002), pp. 5-14

Publ.-Id: 4170 - Permalink

Subband physics in semiconductor quantum structures and the Rossendorf FEL programme
Helm, M.;
The electronic confinement in semiconductor quantum wells gives rise to the formation of electronic subbands within the conduction or valence band. Due to the same curvature of initial and final subband, intersubband optical transitions (within one band) exhibit a quasi-zero-dimensional joint density of states and therefore resemble atomic transitions in some way. The typical energy spacing from 10 to a few 100 meV corresponds to the far- and mid infrared spectral range. Thus, for the study of nonlinear or time resolved phenomena in these structures, IR free-electron lasers are among the most – or the only – suitable light sources.

As an example, I will review some experiments on the energy relaxation of electrons in wide GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, performed with FELIX.

Transitions between minibands in strongly coupled superlattices exhibit a one-dimensional joint density of states, and I will show how the dispersion along the growth axis can be employed to study the electron distribution function.

Finally I will present the status of the ELBE project at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf near Dresden. This project comprises a superconducting electron accelerator, providing the electron beam for two undulators. The latter form the heart of the FELs, which are planned to operate from 5 to 25 microns and 20 to 100 (or 150) microns, respectively. First lasing is expected for early 2002.

Keywords: semiconductor
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Mini-symposium on "Applications of Free Electron Lasers" (17.-20.9.2001), Grasmere, UK

Publ.-Id: 4169 - Permalink

Infrared spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum structures and the ion-beam and free-electron-laser facilities at Rossendorf
Helm, M.;
First I will give a brief overview of my institution, the Research Center Rossendorf near Dresden. Though much smaller than LBNL, its activities also cover a wide range from Nuclear Physics over Materials Science to Radiochemistry and Biomedical Research. The Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research accommodates a large ion beam center (with ions from eV to MeV available), other local groups have been involved in the construction of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE, which will, apart from other applications, be the basis of an infrared free-electron laser (FEL). This FEL, whose first lasing is expected in early 2002, will be used for semiconductor spectroscopy as well as for studies on biological samples.

In the second part of my talk I will stroll around two of the main playgrounds for infrared spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum structures: the physics of intersubband transitions in quantum wells, which have brought us novel infrared lasers and detectors, and the physics of Bloch oscillations in superlattices, which are supposed to bring us a tunable THz source at some point. Finally I will present some infrared experiments concerning the electron distribution function in superlattices, performed with a step-scan FTIR with sub-microsecond time resolution, and will be touching on the issue of appropriate narrow- and broad-band infrared and THz sources.
Keywords: semiconductor, infrared
  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag am Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (6.9.2001)

Publ.-Id: 4168 - Permalink

Structural and micromechanical properties of ion-beam mixed tungsten-on-steel system
Jagielski, J.; Piatkowska, A.; Matz, W.; Richter, E.; Gawlik, G.; Turos, A.;
Structural and micromechanical properties of ion-beam mixed tungsten layers were studied. 45 nm thick W layers deposited on HSS substrates were Kr-ion-beam mixed at temperatures ranging from RT up to 450°C. The samples mixed at RT are amorphous. Increase of the process temperature results in the formation of crystalline layers. Amorphous layer are characterized by low friction coefficient and relatively low hardness. Crystallization of layers results in the increase of their hardness and friction coefficient. Wear rates of ion-beam mixed layers are always lower when compared with untreated steel substrates. The results are discussed in the frames of the model assuming the presence of thin, soft layer on hard substrate.
Keywords: ion-beam mixing, amorphous metals, friction, hardness, wear, x-ray diffraction
  • Vacuum 63 (2001) 671-677

Publ.-Id: 4167 - Permalink

Hardness in Ag/Ni, Au/Ni and Cu/Ni multilayers
Schweitz, K. O.; Chevallier, J.; Bottiger, J.; Matz, W.; Schell, N.;
By use of nanoidentation, the hardness was measured in dc-magnetron sputterd Ag/Ni, Au/Ni and Cu/Ni multilayers as a function of the modulation period. In a limited modulation period range, the expression k*lambda**(-n) where k and n are fitting parameters and lambda is the modulation period, was fitted to the curves of hardness versus modulation period for the three types of multilayer. The exponent n of Ag/Ni was found to deviate by a factor of three from the n value of Au/Ni, which is surprising since no significant difference exists between the lattice parameters, shear moduli, morphologies and microstructures of the two systems. The results are discussed considering theoretical models and published experimental data.
Keywords: multilayers, hardness, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation, ROBL
  • Philosophical Magazine A, 81 (2001) No. 8, 2021-2032

Publ.-Id: 4166 - Permalink

Comparison of the Results of the 6. Dynamic AER Benchmark - Main Steam Line Break in a NPP with VVER-440
Kliem, S.; Seidel, A.;
The sixth dynamic AER benchmark is used for the continuation of a systematic validation of coupled 3D neutron kinetic/thermohydraulic system codes. In this benchmark, a hypothetical double ended break of one main steam line (asymmetric MSLB) at full power in a VVER-440 plant is investigated. The main thermohydraulic features are the consideration of incomplete coolant mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel and an asymmetric operation of the feed water system. For the tuning of the different nuclear cross section data used by the participants, an isothermal recriticality temperature was defined.

Solutions were received from VTT Energy Espoo (HEXTRAN/SMABRE), Kurchatov Institute Moscow (BIPR8/ATHLET), KFKI AEKI Budapest (KIKO3D/ATHLET), NRI Rez (RELAP-3D) and Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (DYN3D/ATHLET). This paper gives an overview on the behaviour of the main thermohydraulic and neutron kinetic parameters in the provided solutions. In all calculations, the overcooling after leak opening leads to a power rise and the activation of the reactor scram. The continuing overcooling after reactor scram results in a second power rise in all calculations. This power rise is eventually stopped by the injected highly-borated water from the high pressure injection system. Differences in the gradient of overcooling and different moderator temperature coefficients (MTC) in the used nuclear data are responsible for a spreading of the time of scram activation over several seconds in the various calculations. Differences in the thermohydraulic behaviour of the secondary side (modeling of the steamgenerator and the critical flow) together with the mentioned different MTC cause significant differences in the value of the second power peak.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    11. AER Symposium on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Csopak, Hungary, September, 24-28, 2001, Proceedings pp. 295-329
  • Contribution to proceedings
    11. AER Symposium on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Csopak, Hungary, September, 24-28, 2001, Proceedings pp. 295-329

Publ.-Id: 4165 - Permalink

The Saturation Regime of the Riga Dynamo Experiment: Observational Facts and their Interpretation
Gailitis, A.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.;
In the Riga dynamo experiment, a helical flow with a velocity up to 15 m/s is produced by a motor driven propeller. This flow is free enough to be modified by the Lorentz forces in a non-trivial manner.
In addition to the increase of the necessary motor power due to the axial components of the Lorentz force, we observed a significant deformation of the magnetic field structure and a shift of the eigenvalue. Both observations can be explained by the downward accumulating brake effect of the azimuthal Lorentz force component.
The occurence of a triple frequency in the magnetic field spectrum gives indications for the action of the non-axisymmetric parts of the Lorentz forces on the flow.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4. MHD-Tage, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 01-02 Oktober 2001

Publ.-Id: 4162 - Permalink

Development and Application of a Fast Running Model for the Description of Coolant Mixing Inside the Pressure Vessel of Pressurized Water Reactors
Kliem, S.; Prasser, H.-M.; Höhne, T.; Rohde, U.;
An efficient semi-analytical model for the description of the coolant mixing during stationary and transient processes inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of pressurised water reactors (PWR) has been developed. Both boron concentration and coolant temperature mixing are described by a dimensionless mixing scalar which is transported with the fluid and is subject of turbulent dispersion, but does not affect the flow field. This model is based on the technique of linear superposition of response functions on Dirac impulse shaped perturbations of the mixing scalar. In the model, the RPV is represented formally by a group of transfer systems (for each combination of inlet nozzle position and fuel element position one) with one input and one output each. These systems have different transfer properties which are determined by the flow field and turbulent mixing being strongly dependent on geometrical details of the flow domain. In this work, one way of obtaining the transfer properties is shown on the example of the German PWR KONVOI. The validation of the model against experimental data from the 1:5 scaled coolant mixing test facility ROCOM is presented.
The semi-analytical model for the description of coolant mixing has been used in combination with the 3D reactor dynamics code DYN3D for the analysis of a hypothetical boron dilution event after start-up of the first main coolant pump (MCP) in a generic four-loop PWR. The model provides realistic time-dependent boron concentration fields at the core inlet. By varying the initial plug volume it was found, that for the given core configuration plugs of less than 20 m3 did not lead to a re-criticality of the shut-off reactor.
Besides the modelling of the coolant mixing inside the RPV, a proper description of the boron transport in the reactor core in the considered case was absolutely necessary to calculate the neutron kinetic behaviour of the core correctly. Otherwise the numerical diffusion distorts the boron front and the reactivity insertion is smoothed artificially. In DYN3D, a particle-in-cell method is used to describe the boron transport without numerical diffusion.
The semi-analytical model is not restricted to one reactor type. The transfer properties used in the model can be explored also by means of computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD). The use of calculated response functions allows to apply the model for the description of coolant mixing in different geometry (i.e. RPV of VVER) and under various conditions without performing additional experiments.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    11. AER Symposium on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Csopak, Hungary, September 24-28, 2001, Proceedings pp. 449-463
  • Contribution to proceedings
    11. AER Symposium on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Csopak, Hungary, September 24-28, 2001, Proceedings pp. 449-463

Publ.-Id: 4161 - Permalink

Information About a New Neutron-Gamma Reactor Experiment
Böhmer, B.; Hansen, W.; Konheiser, J.; Mehner, H.-C.; Noack, K.; Unholzer, S.;
Presently, no experimental benchmark data are available allowing to test calculations of gamma spectra in neutron-gamma reactor environments. As newer findings indicate a possible influence of gamma radiation on reactor pressure vessel embrittlement, a neutron-gamma experiment using NE213 scintillation spectrometry to measure gamma and neutron spectra in iron-water slabs has been started at the training reactors of the Technical University Dresden and the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz. The measured data will be used to test the accuracy of Monte Carlo Calculations of gamma and neutron spectra in environments typical for pressure vessel dosimetry applications. Particularly, the code Monte Carlo code TRAMO will be validated in connection with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI. After a description of the experimental facilities, the schedule of measurements and the applied measurement and calculation methods are described.

Keywords: Gamma fluence spectrum, neutron fluence spectrum, benchmark experiment, NE-213 scintillation spectrometer, nuclear data
  • Lecture (Conference)
    WGRD VVER Meeting, April 23 -25, 2001, Rez, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 4160 - Permalink

Dort-MCNP Discrepancies for a Simple Testing Model - Proposal of a Calculational Neutron-Gamma Benchmark.
Böhmer, B.; Borodkin, G.; Kumpf, H.;
Discrepancies found between DORT and MCNP calculation results for neutron and gamma fluxes in the surveillance and PV regions of a PWR gave the impulse for this work. As nuclear data were suspected to be the reason for these discrepancies a simple 2-zone one-dimensional cylindrical model was defined, allowing to exclude modeling uncertainties and to calculate fluxes in outer zones made of pure materials, as H2O, Fe, Cr, Ni. Compared were the neutron flux integrals over energy regions E<0.414 eV, E >0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 MeV and the gamma flux integrals over energy regions E>0.0, 1.0, 3.0 MeV calculated with DORT-3D-synthesis/BUGLE-96 and MCNP-4B/ENDF/-B-VI at 12-15 radial points in core and outer zones. The reasons of the found discrepancies are not simply to understand. One important difference is the group approximation in DORT/BUGLE and the different treatment of resonance effects. Another is the different treatment of cross sections in the thermal region.
As the used model is supposed to be of general interest for testing codes and data , a detailed specification of the model is given as appendix. It is proposed to be used as benchmark model for coupled neutron-gamma flux calculations, including comparisons with the presented calculation results.

Keywords: Neutron and gamma spectra, coupled neutron-gamma flux calculations, benchmark model, nuclear data
  • Lecture (Conference)
    WGRD VVER Meeting, April 23 -25, 2001, Rez, Czech Republic

Publ.-Id: 4158 - Permalink

Fehlerermittlung mit neuronalen Netzen
Schmitt, W.;
Es werden die Grundlagen der Fehlerermittlung an technischen Anlagen und Prozessen mit Hilfe von neuronalen Netzen vorgestellt. Vor ihrer Anwendung als Fehlerklassifikator müssen neuronale Netze zunächst mit den Messdaten der normalen und gestörten Betriebszustände unter Zuhilfenahme von Expertenwissen trainiert werden, um das Anlagen- und Prozessverhalten bis hin zum Entscheidungsresultat zu implementieren. Nach diesem überwachten Lernprozess kann das trainierte Netz zur Fehlerermittlung genutzt werden.
Da diese Methode ohne die zeit- und kostenintensive analytische Modellierung des Anlagen- und Prozessverhaltens auskommt, können neuronale Netze vor allem bei komplexen, nichtlinearen Prozessen vorteilhaft zur Fehlerermittlung eingesetzt werden. Die Methodik und die Probleme bei der Anwendung in der industriellen Praxis werden am Beispiel dreischichtiger Perceptron-Netze ausführlich beschrieben.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DECHEMA-Kursus "Sicherheitstechnik in der chemischen Industrie", 17.09. - 21.09.2001, Universität Dortmund, in Modul II: Methoden der Schwachstellen- und Risikoanalyse, S. 1-20

Publ.-Id: 4156 - Permalink

Innovationskolleg "Magnetofluiddynamik elektrisch leitfähiger Flüssigkeiten"
Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.; Stefani, F.; Cramer, A.; Weier, T.;
no abstract delivered from author
  • Other report
    Abschlußbericht, Juli 2001 zu den FRZ-Teilprojekten A3,A4,B1,B3,C4,D3

Publ.-Id: 4155 - Permalink

Einfluß von Huminstoffen auf das Wechselwirkungsverhalten von Uran(VI) unter naturnahen Bedingungen
Sachs, S.; Schmeide, K.; Artinger, R.; Heise, K.-H.; Bernhard, G.;
Die zuverlässige Prognose der Langzeitsicherheit von ober- und untertägigen Einrichtungen des ehemaligen Uranerzbergbaus sowie von Endlagern für radioaktiven Abfall erfordert die detaillierte Untersuchung der Ausbreitung von radioaktiven und toxischen Metallionen in der Umwelt. Die Ausbreitung dieser Schadstoffe über den Wasserpfad wird durch eine Vielzahl von Prozessen beeinflußt, wobei die Wechselwirkung mit Huminstoffen dabei eine wesentliche Rolle spielt.
Huminstoffe sind ubiquitär in der Natur vorkommende organische, polyelektrolytische Makromoleküle, die beim Abbau von Biomasse gebildet werden. Aufgrund der Vielzahl an Ausgangsstoffen kann der natürliche Huminstoffbildungsprozess nicht durch einfache chemische und biochemische Reaktionen beschrieben werden. In Abhängigkeit von ihrer Herkunft zeigen Huminstoffe unterschiedliche strukturelle und funktionelle Eigenschaften. Huminstoffe können aufgrund ihrer Löslichkeit bei verschiedenen pH-Werten operationell in drei Fraktionen eingeteilt werden [1]. Humin repräsentiert die Fraktion, die bei allen pH-Werten unlöslich ist, wohingegen Huminsäuren bei pH-Werten > 3.5 und Fulvinsäuren bei allen pH-Werten löslich sind.
Innerhalb natürlicher Wechselwirkungsprozesse können Huminsäuren aufgrund ihrer guten Löslichkeit bei pH-Werten natürlicher Wässer eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Huminsäuren sind in der Lage Metallionen, z.B. Actinidionen, zu komplexieren. Sie beeinflussen somit deren Speziation und auch deren Mobilisierung bzw. Immobilisierung in der Umwelt. Aufgrund der großen strukturellen und funktionellen Heterogenität von Huminsäuren ergeben sich zahlreiche Probleme bei der thermodynamischen Beschreibung ihres Wechselwirkungsverhaltens in natürlichen Systemen.
Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen Überblick zu Untersuchungen, die zur Erlangung detaillierter Kenntnisse zum Wechselwirkungsverhalten von Huminsäuren mit Uran(VI) unter natürlichen Bedingungen durchgeführt wurden [2]. Es werden Ergebnisse zum Komplexbildungsverhalten von Huminsäuren mit Uran(VI) sowie zum Einfluß von Huminstoffen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran vorgestellt.

[1] Choppin, G.R.: The Role of Natural Organics in Radionuclide Migration in Natural Aquifer Systems. Radiochim. Acta 58/59, 113 (1992).
[2] Pompe, S., Bubner, M., Schmeide, K., Heise, K.H., Bernhard, G., Nitsche, H.: Influence of Humic Acids on the Migration Behavior of Radioactive and Non-Radioactive Substances under Conditions Close to Nature. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte, FZR-290, Rossendorf 2000.

Keywords: Huminstoffe, Huminsäuren, Uran, Migration, Sorption
  • Lecture (others)
    1. GK-Kolloquium für Geoumweltforschung, Kontamination aus der Nutzung von Ressourcen: Probleme und Lösungen, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 07.12.2001

Publ.-Id: 4154 - Permalink

Synthese und Charakterisierung Tetradentater Tc-99m Liganden mit hoher Affinität zum 5-HT1A Rezeptor
Heimbold, I.; Drews, A.; Syhre, R.; Kretzschmar, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Johannsen, B.;
In diesem Beitrag werden Tetradentate Tc-99m Liganden mit hoher Affinität zum 5-HT1A Rezeptor vorgestellt. Die Verbindungen weisen sowohl eine moderate Selektivität gegenüber dem alpha1-adrenergen Rezeptor als auch eine verbesserte Hirnaufnahme auf. Sie leiten sich strukturell von den PET-Liganden WAY 100635 und DWAY ab. Als Chelatorensystem für Oxotechnetium(V) wird Bis(aminoethanthiol) (BAT) genutzt welches über Spacer unterschiedlicher Länge mit der Phenylpiperazineinheit verknüpft ist.
Der Beitrag behandelt die Ligandsynthese, die Markierung mit Technetium sowie die biologische Evaluierung der Komplexe (in vitro Rezeptorbindungsstudien, Bioverteilungen und Autoradiographische Untersuchungen).
  • Poster
    Jahrestagung Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Würzburg, 23.-29.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4153 - Permalink

Improvement of Ta-based thin film barriers on copper by ion implantation of nitrogen and oxygen
Wieser, E.; Peikert, M.; Wenzel, C.; Schreiber, J.; Bartha, J. W.; Bendjus, B.; Melov, V. V.; Reuther, H.; Mücklich, A.; Adolphi, B.; Fischer, D.;
Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline Ta and Ta(Si) barriers for copper metallization schemes were modified by nitrogen or oxygen high dose ion implantation to improve their thermo-mechanical stability. The ion bombardment changes the initially polycrystalline microstructure to amorphous-like. In contrast to pure Ta, Ta(Si) layers are already X-ray amorphous after deposition. Here the implantation enhances the recrystallization temperature by about 100 K. In order to demonstrate the improvement in the barrier properties of the implanted Ta films the intermixing of Ta and Cu at the interface of corresponding layer structures was measured by AES depth profiling as a function of the annealing temperature. The thermal stability of Ta and Ta(Si) barriers increases from 6000C/ 1h for the non-implanted layers up to 750° C/1h after implantation of nitrogen or oxygen.
Keywords: Ion implantation, diffusion barrier, tantalum
  • Thin Solid Films 410 (2002) 121-128
  • Thin Solid Films 410 (2002) 121-128

Publ.-Id: 4152 - Permalink

Promoted calcium-phosphate precipitation from solution on titanium for improved biocompatibility by ion implantation
Maitz, M. F.; Pham, M.-T.; Matz, W.; Reuther, H.; Steiner, G.;
Calciumphosphates are the main component of bone and as a coating they promise optimal bone integration of an implant. Titanium as a leading implant material does not support calciumphosphate precipitation on its surface. The aim is to modify the titanium surface for spontaneous deposition of calciumphosphate out of a solution and to demonstrate its biocompatibility. Non treated, Na implanted (3.2 x 1017 Na cm-2), or NaOH (10 mol/L) etched Ti samples were used. Bone forming SAOS-2 cells were seeded out on the surface. After 3, 14, and 28 days samples were investigated for cell count and morphology, biochemical markers and ratio of Ca and P as a hint for the type of calciumphosphate. For a second series calciumphosphate was precipitated by incubation in a simulated body fluid prior to cell culture. On Na implanted Ti without treatments in simulated body fluid, cells grow more oriented in comparison to pure or etched Ti and the cell count was higher, but the cells did not cover the whole surface. Characteristic markers for bone cell metabolism did not differ significantly between the samples. Apatite formation was low but increased in experiments after calciumphosphate precipitation out of solution. The cell morphology improved when the cells were grown on samples after treatment with simulated body fluid. Na implantation can enhance calciumphosphate precipitation on Ti and this way promote the growth of bone forming cells.
Keywords: Biomaterials; Titanium; Hydroxyapatite; cell culture; Simulated Body Fluid
  • Surface and Coatings Technology 158-159C (2002) 151-156
  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Conference on Surface Modification by Ion Beams, Marburg., September 9-14 2001

Publ.-Id: 4151 - Permalink

Kolloidchemische Untersuchungen an Umweltwässern unter anoxischen Bedingungen
Richter, W.; Zänker, H.; Hüttig, G.;
Kolloidchemische Untersuchungen an Umweltwässern unter anoxischen Bedingungen
  • Poster
    DFG Tagung Berlin 13.-14.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4150 - Permalink

Magnetic Characterization of the Hybrid Undulator U27 for the ELBE-Project
Gippner, P.; Grosse, E.; Pflüger, J.; Schamlott, A.; Seidel, W.; Wolf, U.; Wünsch, R.;
At the Dresden Radiation Source ELBE an intense IR beam in 3 - 30 µm range will be produced in the undulator U27. It consists of two 34-pole sections, allowing to insert a magnetic chicane in between. The undulator structure has a period of 27.3 mm and consists of NdFeB permanent magnets and poles of decarborized iron, mounted on two carriages such that the distance between the two sections is adjustable for phase-matching. The gaps of both sections can be varied independently to eventually produce two IR-colours at the same electron energy. For high-gain lasing one can introduce a tapering of the field.
Keywords: Hybrid undulator, hall probe measurement, pulsed wire method, field tapering, phase matching
  • Poster
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. on Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 pp II-55
  • Contribution to external collection
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. on Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 pp II-55

Publ.-Id: 4149 - Permalink

Ion Acoustic Microscope based on IMSA-100 Focused Ion Beam system
Akhmadaliev, C.; Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.; Kazbekov, K.;
An intensity modulated focused ion beam (FIB) which is hitting the surface of a solid, leads to a small temperature variation in the near subsurface region which is sufficient for thermal elastic wave generation. The measurement of these waves can be used for analysis and imaging of surface as well as near subsurface structures in the material. The modified FIB equipment IMSA-100 working with 35 keV Ga+ and Au+ ions and a current of about 3 nA was employed to obtain acoustic images from structures on silicon, aluminum and glass targets. The acoustic signals were detected using a PZT transducer delivering an output voltage of 50 - 100 nV at modulation frequency of 100kHz. The frequency was varied in the range of 60kHz - 2MHz. The obtained lateral resolution of the ion acoustic images at 80 kHz was about 16 µm on silicon and about 7µm on glass and at 2 MHz it decreases to 5 µm and 3 µm, respectively.
Keywords: Focused Ion Beam, Ion Acoustic Microscopy, Piezoelectric Transducer
  • 12th International School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies 17 –21 September, 2001, Varna, Bulgaria / Vacuum 69 (2003) 431 - 435
  • Vacuum 69 (2003) 431 - 435

Publ.-Id: 4148 - Permalink

Subthreshold phi meson production in heavy-ion collisions
Barz, H. W.; Zetenyi, M.; Wolf, G.; Kämpfer, B.;
Within a transport code of BUU type the production of phi mesons in the reactions Ni + Ni at 1.93 AGeV and Ru + Ru at 1.69 AGeV is studied. New elementary reaction channels rho N Delta to phi N and pi N(1520) to phi N are included. In spite of a substantial increase of the phi multiplicities by these channels the results stay below the tentative numbers extracted from experimental data.
Keywords: phi-meson, subthreshold production, heavy-ion collisions
  • Nucl.Phys.A705:223-235,2002 nucl-th/0110013

Publ.-Id: 4145 - Permalink

Spectroellipsometric, AFM and XPS probing of stainless steel surfaces subjected to biological influences
Vinnichenko, M.; Chevolleau, T.; Pham, M.-T.; Poperenko, L.; Maitz, M. F.;
Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel 316L due to incubation in growing cell cultures and cell culture media as control has been studied. The following treatments were applied: mouse fibrosarcoma cells L929 during 3 and 7 days, polymorphonuclear neutrophils 3 and 7 days and human osteosarcoma cells SAOS-2 in during 7 and 14 days. Cells were enzymatically removed in all cases. The modified surfaces were probed in comparison with untreated ones by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS shows the appearance of the peak of bonded nitrogen at 400.5 eV characteristic for adsorbed proteins on the surface for each type of cells and for the cell-free medium. Migration of Ni in the adsorbed layer is observed in all cases for samples after the cell cultures. The protein layer thickness is ellipsometrically determined to be within 2.5-6.0 nm for all treated samples with parameterization of its optical constants in Cauchy approach. The study showed that for such biological treatments of the stainless steel the protein adsorption is the dominating process in the first two weeks, which could play a role in the process of corrosion by complex forming properties with metal ions.
Keywords: stainless steel; biocorrosion; optical constants; spectroscopic ellipsometry; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; atomic force microscopy
  • Applied Surface Science 201 (2002)41-50

Publ.-Id: 4144 - Permalink

Application of Focused Ion Beams in Materials Research
Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.;
With the invention of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) in the sixties the focused ion beam (FIB) technique started an impressive development from the laboratory level to high performance industrial equipments. At present, the FIB is a very useful and versatile tool in microelectronics industry for mask and integrated circuit repair and modification, failure analysis or TEM specimen preparation, as well as in the material science for radiation damage and sputtering investigations, for grain size and distribution analysis in metals and alloys, for the formation of silicides or the fabrication of micro-tools. A modern FIB column which is operated with gallium liquid metal ion souces (LMIS) only reaches a spot size in the range of 10 nm and current densities of more than 10 A/cm2 .

For special purposes in the field of research and development, like writing ion implantation or ion mixing in the µm- or sub-µm range other ion species than Ga are needed. Therefore alloy LMIS are used. The energy distribution of the ions from an alloy LMIS is one of the determining factors for the performance of the source in the FIB equipment, in other words, the obtainable spot size. Different source materials like the alloys Au73Ge27 (Tm = 366°C), Au77Ge14Si9 (Tm = 365°C), Co36Nd64 (Tm = 566°C), Er69Ni31 (Tm = 765°C), and Er70Fe22Ni5Cr3 (Tm = 862°C) were investigated and compared with respect to the energy spread of the different ion species depending on the operation parameters emission current I, ion mass m and temperature T. For single charged ions the predicted dependence of the energy spread according to DE µ I2/3 m1/3 T1/2 found for Ga could be confirmed in reasonable agreement. Due to the ion mass, for doubly charged ions a weaker and for clusters a stronger slope was found. The temperature dependence of the source behaviour is strongly related to the surface tension coefficient of the used alloy.

The alloy LMIS`s discussed above have been used in the Rossendorf FIB system IMSA-100 especially for writing implantation to fabricate sub-µm pattern without any lithographic steps. So a Co-FIB was applied for the ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 micro-structures with a minimum feature size of 60 nm. Additionally, the possibility of varying the current density with the FIB by changing the pixel dwell-time was used for radiation damage investigations in Si and SiC at elevated implantation temperatures. Furthermore, a broad spectrum of ions was employed to study the sputtering process depending on temperature, angle of incidence and ion mass on a couple of target materials using the volume loss method. The effective erosion properties of the FIB were exploided in fabricating micro-tools with dimensions smaller than 40 µm from WC(Co) and HSS steel. The application of the FIB as a scanning ion microscope with high topographic resolution of the sample surface can be used to study the grain size and distribution of metals and alloys as well as micoelectronic structures on the surface and also, after sputtering, in deeper layers. The sputtered holes can also be imaged after polishing with the FIB and tilding as a cross section by SEM. All the examples underline the importance of a FIB in modern research.

Keywords: focused ion beam, alloy liquid metal ion source, materials research, ion milling, writing implantation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Proceedings of the 12th International School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies, 17 - 21 September, 2001, Varna, Bulgaria (invited)

Publ.-Id: 4143 - Permalink

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the OCTN2 transporter at the RBE4 cells, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier
Friedrich, A.; Prasad, P. D.; Freyer, D.; Et, A.;
The transport of L-carnitine (4-N-trimethylamino-3-hydoxybutyric acid), a compound known to be transported by the organic cation transporter / carnitine transporter OCTN2, was studied in immortalized rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4). The cells were found to take up L-carnitine by a sodium-dependent process. This uptake process was saturable with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for L-carnitine of 53.8 ± 9.8 µM and a maximal velocity of 214.5 ± 34.7 pmol/mg protein/h. Besides L-carnitine, the cells also took up acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine in a sodium-dependent manner and TEA in a sodium-independent manner. RT-PCR with primers specific for the rat OCTN2 transporter revealed the existence of OCTN2 mRNA in RBE4 cells. Screening of a cDNA library from RBE4 cells with rat OCTN2 cDNA as a probe identified a positive clone which showed, when expressed in HeLa cells, the functional characteristics of OCTN2. The HeLa cells expressing the RBE4 OCTN2 cDNA showed a six-fold increase in L-carnitine uptake and a four-fold increase in TEA uptake in a sodium-containing buffer. Typical inhibitors for organic cation transporters (e.g., MPP+ or TEA) showed an inhibitory effect on the transport of L-carnitine and TEA into the transfected cells. Similarly, unlabeled L-carnitine inhibited the transport of [3H]-L-carnitine and [14C]TEA in transfected HeLa cells. It is concluded that RBE4 cells, a widely used in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), express the organic cation/carnitine transporter OCTN2.
  • Brain Research 968: 69-79 2003

Publ.-Id: 4142 - Permalink

Ion beam synthesis of semiconductor nanoclusters in SiO2 films for opto- and microelectronic applications
von Borany, J.; Heinig, K.-H.; Klimenkov, M.; Rebohle, L.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Stegemann, K.-H.;
The contribution will review recent results to the fabrication and investigation of semiconductor nanoclusters (Si, Ge, Sn) embedded in SiO2 films. Due to quantum confinement effects or the large surface/volume ratio of such clusters typical dimensions of only few nanometers exhibit remarkable properties which differ to that of the bulk values. Among different fabrication techniques the ion beam synthesis offers specific advantages to realize a large density of tiny (2-4 nm) nanoclusters and to fulfil the requirements of CMOS technology. The results of presented experiments clearly indicate that the size, density and distribution of clusters are strongly influenced by the implantation and annealing conditions. Taking these influences into account it is possible to realize desired nanocluster distributions in the SiO2 layer, e.g. the fabrication of wide regions with homogeneously distributed clusters or d-like nanocluster bands in thin SiO2 films.
The specific features of semiconductor nanoparticles in SiO2 films comprise an enormous potential for future opto- and microelectronics.
In general, group IV nanocluster containing SiO2 films can emit light in a wide wavelength region. The topic of light emission from ion beam synthesized nanoclusters is focused on recent success in extracting intensive violet/blue photo- and electroluminescence (EL) from Si-, Ge- or Sn implanted SiO2 layers which can be attributed to a specific defect formed after the IBS process. A power efficiency up to 0,5 % for EL has been established using MOS structures. Among possible applications the properties of a monolithically integrated optocoupler with ultra low power consumption will be discussed.
Based on a FET structure with semiconductor nanocluster containing gate oxide, a new non-volatile memory cell has been designed which makes use from the charge storage ability of small quantum dots. The advantages of this memory are attributed to the features, that (i) the nanoclusters act as an ensemble of single storage elements, and (ii) the charge transfer during programming occurs preferably by direct tunnelling. Therefore, lower programming voltages and considerably increased endurance (1010 w/e-cycles) in comparison to the present (Flash)- EEPROM technique is expected. Routes towards the fabrication of a shallow band of nanoclusters in the gate oxide of a FET very close, but well separated to the Si/SiO2-interface will be discussed in detail. CV or IV measurements reveal the charge storage effect of cluster containing thin SiO2 films by a remarkable shift of the flatband or threshold voltage of MOS or FET-structures, respectively. Recently, Zentrum Mikroelektronik Dresden has been successfully realized the first 256 nv-SRAM based on ion beam modified gate oxides.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12th International School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies, VEIT'01, September 17-21, 2001, Varna, Bulgaria (Invited Lecture)

Publ.-Id: 4141 - Permalink

A study of liquid metal alloy ion sources for the production of ions of interest in the microelectronics industry
Ganetsos, T.; Mair, G. L. R.; Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.; Kioussis, D.;
This is a comprehensive study of the characteristics of an AuGeSi and CoNd liquid metal alloy ion sources [Focused ion beams from liquid metal ion sources, 1991]. Such characteristics include current-voltage curves and ion beam mass-spectra. A careful investigation has been undertaken where the temperature is one of the main variable experimental parameters. Theoretical models support the experimental results.
Keywords: liquid metal alloy ion sources, mass spectra, temperature
  • Solid State Electronics 45 (2001) 1049 - 1054

Publ.-Id: 4140 - Permalink

Investigating contaminants on thermochemically refined surfaces of CVD diamond films
Weima, J. A.; von Borany, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Fahrner, W. R.;
Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films thermochemically polished on cylindrical steel plates are subjected to Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Diffractive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX). A diamond film polished for 25 hours at 950 °C is etched in chromic acid (K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 + H2O) prior to RBS measurement while two other films also polished at 950 °C for 8 and 25 hours, respectively are analyzed as polished. The RBS spectra of as-polished diamond films contain peaks of iron contaminant while the surface of the etched film is devoid of iron. Moreover, the concentration/magnitude of the contaminant on the film polished for 25 hours is about 2-fold that of the film polished for 8 hours. SEM-EDX spectra taken from dark and bright spots manifest the presence of iron contaminant in as-polished films but its absence in the etched film regardless of the surface topology. Thus, the depth measured by the RBS is assumed to represent the characteristic thickness of the non-diamond carbon layer in which the iron contaminant originating from the polishing plate are embedded. The presence of silicon and oxygen bands in the SEM-EDX spectra of both as-polished and etched diamond films is attributed to their inclusion during film deposition.
Keywords: Diamond, Diamond Polishing, Surface Diagnostics, Ion Beam Analysis
  • Journal of the Electrochemical Society 149(5) (2002) G301-G304

Publ.-Id: 4139 - Permalink

Thermally activated deformation of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel
Böhmert, J.; Müller, G.;
Temperature and strain rate change tensile tests were performed at two VVER 1000-type reactor pressure vessel welds with different content of nickel in unirradiated and irradiated conditions in order to determine the activation parameter of the contribution of the thermally activated deformation. There are no differences in the activation parameters in the unirradiated and the irradiated condition as well as for the two different materials. This shows irradiation hardening preferentially results from a friction hardening mechanism by long-range obstacles.

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 301 (2002) 227-232

Publ.-Id: 4138 - Permalink

Nitrogen transport during ion nitriding of austenitic stainless steel
Parascandola, S.;
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-331 September 2001


Publ.-Id: 4137 - Permalink

A system for measuring the electron beam profile and position inside the undulator for the ELBE FEL
Evtushenko, P.; Michel, P.;
In the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR), an infrared FEL at the radiation source ELBE is under construction. For the measurements of the electron beam position in the undulator, two systems will be used. The first one consists of seven insertable beryllium OTR (Optical Transition Radiation) view screens, which will also be used for the alignment of the FEL optical resonator. The second one will use a single moveable YAG (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet activated by Cerium) screen, which can travel within the undulator vacuum chamber such that the electron beam position can be measured at any place in the undulator.
  • Poster
    23rd International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2001), 20.-24.08. 2001, Darmstadt, Deutschland
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    23rd International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 2001), 20.-24.08.2001, Darmstadt, Deutschland
    Proceedings of FEL 2001, CERN: JaCoW

Publ.-Id: 4134 - Permalink

Infrared Microspectroscopy of Environmental Samples
Seidel, W.; Schamlott, A.; Heise, K.-H.; Nicolai, R.; Ortega, J. M.; Glotin, F.; Prazeres, R.;
  • Poster
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. On Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 (North-Holland, Amsterdam 2002) pp. 11-87/88
  • Contribution to external collection
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. On Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 (North-Holland, Amsterdam 2002) pp. 11-87/88

Publ.-Id: 4133 - Permalink

Institute of Radiochemistry; Annual Report 2000
Fanghaenel, T.; Bernhard, G.; Engelmann, H. J.;
Annual Report 2000
Institute of Radiochemistry
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-318 Mai 2001


Publ.-Id: 4131 - Permalink

Numerical Study of an Optical Klystron FEL for ELBE
Wünsch, R.; Grosse, E.; Lehnert, U.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Keywords: Freie-Elektronenlaser, Undulator, Klystron
  • Poster
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. on Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 pp II-61
  • Contribution to external collection
    Proc. 23th Int. Conf. on Free Electron Lasers, Darmstadt 2001 pp II-61

Publ.-Id: 4130 - Permalink

Unterstützung der ukrainischen Behörden beim Ausbau der verbesserten betrieblichen Überwachung für die KKW Rovno und Saporoshje
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.;
Für den 3. Block vom KKW Rovno - WWER-1000/W-320 - wurde in Analogie zu den 6 typengleichen Blöcken des KKW Saporoshje eine verbesserte betriebliche Überwachung eingerichtet. Dazu werden der Aufsichtsbehörde vor Ort und in Kiew einmal pro Minute 57 aktuelle sicherheitsrelevante Parameter zur Erfassung und Bewertung mittels moderner technischer Mittel on-line zur Verfügung gestellt. Die entwickelte Auswertesoftware gestattet die Darstellung der Bewertungsergebnisse in Form von Tabellen, Grafiken und Schemata, wobei durch einen Archivmodus auch Trendanalysen von allen Parametern möglich sind. Des Weiteren wurde die Leistungsfähigkeit und Zuverlässigkeit des gesamten Fernüberwachungssystem weiter erhöht, so dass derzeit mehr als 60 % der ukrainischen KKW-Kapazität unter einer deutlich verbesserten behördlichen Aufsicht stehen.
Keywords: Fernüberwachung, Ukraine, Kernkraftwerk, WWER-1000, WWER-440, Monitoringsystem
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-332 September 2001


Publ.-Id: 4129 - Permalink

Die Zwei-Photonen-Selbstenergie und andere QED-Strahlungskorrekturen
Zschocke, S.;
Die genaue Messung der Lamb-Verschiebung stark gebundener Elektronen in Zusammenhang mit Tests der Quantenelektrodynamik (QED) in starken Feldern in hochgeladenen Ionen ist eines der Hauptthemen der heutigen Atomphysik. Die gegenwärtig durchgeführten Hochpräzisionsmessungen erfordern eine hohe Genauigkeit in den theoretischen Berechnungen der Lamb-Verschiebung. Diese Genauigkeit impliziert eine Berücksichtigung aller QED-Korrekturen der Ordnung α und α2, aber exakt in allen Ordnungen in Zα. In den zurückliegenden Jahren sind die meisten dieser QED-Korrekturen sowohl in 1. Ordnung als auch in 2. Ordnung Störungstheorie berechnet worden. Der Beitrag der Zwei-Photonen-Selbstenergie konnte jedoch bisher nicht ausgewertet werden und stellte somit die größte Ungenauigkeit in der Vorhersage der Lamb-Verschiebung für wasserstoffartige Systeme dar. In dieser Arbeit wird der Beitrag dieser Prozesse zur Lamb-Verschiebung untersucht. Darüber hinaus werden erstmals renormierte Ausdrücke der Zwei-Photonen-Vakuumpolarisation und der Selbstenergie-Vakuumpolarisation hergeleitet. Bisher konnten diese Beträge nur in Uehling-Näherung ausgewertet werden.
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-326 Juli 2001


Publ.-Id: 4128 - Permalink

New developments at the Rossendorf electrostatic accelerators
Friedrich, M.; Bürger, W.; Turuc, S.; Tyrroff, H.;
The Rossendorf electrostatic accelerator facility, consisting of three accelerators with rated voltages of 2 -5 MV, has been extended by a 100 kV tandem accelerator for tritium depth profiling by AMS and by concentration of two implanters at the same location. Two experimental chambers were installed, which give the possibility of dual beam experiments using the beams from the 3 MV tandetron and from the 500 kV implanter. At the 5 MV tandem the original inclined field acceleration tubes were exchanged by straight field tubes with spiraling magnetic field. First results of the accelerator modernisation and of the beam line extension are presented.
Keywords: Electrostatic accelerators
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the 35th Symposium for Northeastern Accelerator Personnel (SNEAP), Lund/Sweden, 22nd-25th November 2001
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the 35th Symposium of the North Eastern Accelerator Personnel, Lund, Sweden, Oct. 22-26, 2001; Eds. R. Hellborg, M. Faarinen, C.E. Magnusson, P. Persson, G. Skog, K. Stenström, Lund University, Dept. of Physics, 2002, p. 257
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel SNEAP 19, Lund University, Sweden, 22-25 October 2001, Editors: R. Hellborg, M. Faarinen, C.E. Magnusson, P. Persson, G. Skog, K. Stenström, ISBN 91-631-2676-1, Lund University 2002

Publ.-Id: 4127 - Permalink

Investigation of Gamma and Neutron Energy Fluences in Iron-Water Benchmark Configurations for the Verification of Monte Carlo Calculations and their Application in Reactor Material Dosimetry
Böhmer, B.; Grantz, M.; Hansen, W.; Hinke, D.; Konheiser, J.; Mehner, H.-C.; Noack, K.; Schneider, R.; Stephan, I.; Unholzer, S.;
Recent findings indicate that gamma radiation can contribute to the embrittlement of reactor materials. On this background an experimental benchmark programme at two low power reactors was started to measure both, neutron and gamma spectral fluences behind and inside of transmission modules consisting of variable iron and water slabs using a NE213 scintillation spectrometer and partly a HPGe detector. The experimental results are used to validate Monte Carlo calculation methods in reactor dosimetry for coupled neutron/gamma problems. The experiment and results of a first series of measurements and comparisons to MCNP calculations for neutron and gamma energy spectra are presented. The investigations will be continued with an extension and validation of the Monte Carlo transport code TRAMO.
Keywords: reactor dosimetry, neutron spectrometry, gamma spectrometry, reactor pressure vessel, steel embrittlement
  • Poster
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 7-12th Oct. 2001, Tsukuba, Japan, Proceedings in the Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Supplement 2, p. 947-950 (August 2002)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 7-12th Oct. 2001, Tsukuba, Japan, Proceedings in the Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Supplement 2, p. 947-950 (August 2002)

Publ.-Id: 4126 - Permalink

Subthreshold phi meson production in heavy ion collisions
Barz, H.-W.; Zetenyi, M.; Wolf, G.; Kämpfer, B.;
Within a transport code of BUU type the production of Φ mesons in the reactions Ni+Ni at 1.93 A GeV and Ru + Ru at 1.69 A GeV is studied.
New elementary reaction channels ρN(Δ) → ΦN and πN(1520)→ ρN are included.
In spite of a substantial increase of the Φ multiplicities by these channels the results stay below the tentative numbers extracted from experimental data.
Keywords: phi-meson production, heavy-ion collisions
  • Nuclear Physics A705 (2002) 223 - 235

Publ.-Id: 4125 - Permalink

Plasma diagnostic of an RF magnetron Ar/N2 discharge
Fritsche, B.; Chevolleau, T.; Kourtev, J.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.;
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes are nowadays common in synthesis of hard coatings like cubic boron nitride (cBN). Precise knowledge of plasma characteristics (ion flux, ion energy distribution and plasma composition) is crucial for understanding and controlling cBN thin film growth. This work is devoted to the characterization of an unbalanced RF magnetron Ar/N2 discharge using a Langmuir probe and an energy selective mass spectrometer. RF power and total pressure were varied from 50 to 300 W and from 0.1 to 0.5 Pa respectively for different Ar/N2 mixtures. Main ionic species are found to be Ar+ and N2+ with a very low fraction of N+. The ion density increases with RF power, pressure and Ar content. The ion energy distribution consists of one single narrow peak with full width at half maximum of a few eV. The main neutral species are Ar and N2. Atomic nitrogen could not be detected by mass spectrometry, indicating a low fraction of this species in the discharge.
Keywords: unbalanced magnetron discharge, Langmuir probe, energy resolved mass spectrometry
  • Vacuum 69/1-3 (2002) 139-145

Publ.-Id: 4124 - Permalink

Ultraschallverfahren zur Rissfortschrittsmessung für die Ermittlung von Risswiderstandskurven
Bergmann, U.;
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die methodische Entwicklung eines Ultraschall-Einprobenverfahrens zur Erfassung duktilen Rissfortschritts im quasistatischen Dreipunktbiegeversuch auf der Grundlage eines Ultraschallverfahrens vorgestellt. Das Verfahren wird an Werkstoffen unterschiedlichen Zähigkeits-Festigkeitsverhältnisses erprobt.
Das Messverfahren beruht auf der wiederholten Messung der Laufzeit des von einem Sendewandler auf die Rissspitze gerichteten und dort in Richtung Empfangswandler gebeugten Ultraschallimpulses. Als Voraussetzung für die In-situ-Rissfortschrittsmessung auf der Grundlage der Signallaufzeitmessung wurde die Schallwellenausbreitung und Signalbildung mittels Schallfeldsimulationen anhand der Elastodynamischen Finiten Integrationstechnik modelliert und zusätzlich durch stroboskopische Messungen der Schallfeldausbreitung experimentell bestätigt. Zur Kalibrierung des Messverfahrens wurde ein analytischer Zusammenhang entwickelt, der die eindeutige Zuordnung der Signallaufzeit zum gesuchten Rissfortschritt gestattet und den Einfluss der während des Dreipunktbiegeversuches stattfindenden plastischen Verformungen berücksichtigt. Das Ultraschall-Laufzeit-Beugungsverfahren wurde für den Einsatz an bruchmechanischen Kleinproben (ISO-V-Geometrie) spezifiziert. Die in den Prüfvorschriften formulierte Genauigkeitsanforderung an ein Einprobenverfahren kann mit dem ULB-Verfahren erfüllt werden. Die erreichbare Messpunktdichte des Rissfortschritts ermöglicht eine nahezu kontinuierliche Darstellung resultierender J-Risswiderstandskurven.
Keywords: Bruchmechanik, Einproben-Verfahren, Ultraschall, JR-Kurven
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, FZR-330 September 2001


Publ.-Id: 4122 - Permalink

Testing of Neutron Data Libraries in Application to Reactor Pressure Vessel Dosimetry
Böhmer, B.; Borodkin, G.; Konheiser, J.; Manturov, G.;
The fast neutron induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is the main cause limiting the lifetime of many types of nuclear reactors, especially of the VVER type, produc-ing most of the nuclear energy in Russia and seven other countries. Uncertainty estimations show that the largest contribution to the uncertainty of calculated fluences is the uncertainty of the neutron cross section data. In the present work, different aspects of uncertainties of neutron fluence determination connected with the neutron data for transport calculations, data preparation methods and activation dosimetry cross sections have been investigated by com-parison of calculations with data from different libraries and by comparison of calculated and measured activation rates. The main object of these investigations was the VVER-1000 type reactor Balakovo-3. The tested libraries were the ENDF/B-VI based 47n/20g-group library BUGLE-96, the Russian 299n/15g-group library ABBN-93 (v. 99.01) and two modifications of the ABBN library: ABBN/B-VI and ABBN/JEF-2.2. In these modifications the cross sec-tion data of Fe, Cr and Ni are replaced by data based on the evaluated nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2, respectively. This allows to investigate the influence of the data of the elements most critical for the RPV fluence. Although thermal neutrons contribute only negligible to the embrittlement they are a strong source of gamma irradiation, which is proba-bly contributing noticeable to RPV embrittlement, as newer results showed. Therefore, the influence of different treatment of neutron data in the thermal energy region was investigated by calculations with and without upscattering in the region below 5 eV, as well as with and without consideration of core heterogenity effects. The neutron transport calculations were performed by the discrete ordinate code DORT using a 3D synthesis of (r-*)-, (r-z)- and r-calculations. Results obtained with the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and TRAMO with ENDF/B-VI data, were used to validate the DORT-results. The results of calculations at ex-vessel positions were compared with reference data of the Interlaboratory Experiment at Balakovo-3. The best agreement between results of calculations (C) and experiments (E) was obtained for BUGLE-96 and ABBN/B-VI, and 3D TRAMO results for all used reactions: 237Np(n,f), 93Nb(n,n'), 238U(n,f), 58Ni(n,p), 54Fe(n,p), 46Ti(n,p) and 63Cu(n,a). Further, the in-fluence of using different dosimetry cross sections, from IRDF-90v2, JENDL/D-99, RRDF-98 and a new Russian evaluation for 237Np(n,f), was investigated. The systematic calcula-tional underestimation of 237Np(n,f) reaction rates in case of IRDF-90v2, observed also by other investigators, can be removed using JENDL/D-99 or the new Russian evaluation. A similar underestimation for 93Nb(n,n') is reduced largely if JENDL/D-99 data are used. To evaluate the influence of cross sections of individual elements and of water on neutron and gamma fluence calculations, a simple two-zone cylindrical model was defined. The inner zone simulates the reactor core, the outer consists of H2O or Fe or Cr or Ni. In addition to DORT calculations with different libraries MCNP calculations with ENDF/B-VI were per-formed, to test the influence of point-wise data representation. The found discrepancies should be investigated further.
Keywords: neutron data, group approximation, neutron fluence, gamma fluence, transport calculation, neutron dosimetry, activation measurements
  • Poster
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 7-12th Oct. 2001, Tsukuba, Japan, Proceedings in the Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Supplement 2, p. 1006-1009 (August 2002)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 7-12th Oct. 2001, Tsukuba, Japan, Proceedings in the Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Supplement 2, p. 1006-1009 (August 2002)

Publ.-Id: 4119 - Permalink

Control of flow separation using electromagnetic forces
Weier, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Lielausis, O.; Lammers, G.;

If a fluid is electrically conductive, its flow may be controlled using electromagnetic forces. Meanwhile, this technique is a recognized tool even on an industrial scale for handling highly conductive materials like liquid metals.
However, also fluids of low electrical conductivity as considered in the present study, like sea--water and other electrolytes, permit electromagnetic flow control. Experimental results on the prevention of flow separation by means of a streamwise, wall parallel Lorentz force acting on the suction side of inclined flat plates and hydrofoils will be presented.

Force Configuration
The stripwise arrangement of permanent magnets and electrodes of alternating magnetization direction and polarity shown in Fig. 1 was proposed by Gailitis and Lielausis (1961). It generates a wall parallel force with a maximum value directly at the wall, decaying exponentially with the wall distance. Due to the low electrical conductivity, both electric and magnetic fields have to be applied to generate a Lorentz force of adequate strength. The width of the electrodes is equal to that of the magnets and
determines the penetration of the force into the flow. The ratio of electromagnetic to inertial force can be characterized by the interaction parameter. In analogy to the terminology used in separation control by blowing, one may also define an electrohydrodynamic momentum coefficient.

Results and Discussion
A downstream directed force adds momentum to the flow and accelerates the fluid in the vicinity of the wall. This flow acceleration may be used to counteract the energy loss due to friction and adverse pressure gradients. Actually, a streamwise Lorentz force has already been successfully applied to control the flow around a circular cylinder in Weier et al. (1998). The two inserts in Fig. 2 show the flow around an inclined flat plate. In the lower left photograph, the unforced separated flow is visible, whereas the upper subfigure depicts the fully attached flow under the action of a suction side Lorentz force. The graph indicates that the interaction
parameter, necessary to completely suppress separation, decreases with increasing chord length Reynolds number. The effect of a suction side Lorentz force on lift and drag of NACA--0017--like hydrofoils has been quantified by means of force balance measurements. Depending on the inclination angle, two different effects are observed. At small angles of incidence, a moderate lift increase due to additional circulation is observed. Simultaneously, caused by the added momentum, the drag is decreased. At higher angles of attack, where the unforced hydrofoil would normally stall, a more pronounced lift increase occurs.
Fig. 3 shows the lift gained by the suction side Lorentz force at a fixed inclination angle of 17. Here delta CL is the difference of the lift coefficients of the forced and the unforced hydrofoil at the specified chord length Reynolds number. The shape of the curve as well as the total values of the lift gain and the momentum coefficient resemble the behavior found in separation control experiments with steady blowing. In the presentation, a complementary discussion on scaling issues based on experiments with a NACA 0015 hydrofoil will be given.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IUTAM Symposium on Unsteady Separated Flows, April 8-12, 2002, Toulouse, France

Publ.-Id: 4117 - Permalink

Optimization of a partially non magnetic primary radiation shielding for the triple axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high flux reactor FRM-II
Pyka, N. M.; Noack, K.; Rogov, A.;
Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold neutron triple axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B the destiny of the total spectrum of incoming neutron and gamma radiation from the beam tube SR-2 have been determined during the 3-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 µSv/h at its outsides. Specially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding.
Keywords: FRM-II, high flux reactor, PANDA, neutron spectrometer, neutron-gamma shielding, Monte Carlo method, transport calculation, MCNP
  • Poster
    International Conference on Neutron Scattering, München, 9.-13. September 2001; Applied Physics A 74 (Suppl.), S277-S279, 2002
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Neutron Scattering, München, 9.-13. September 2001; Applied Physics A 74 (Suppl.), S277-S279, 2002

Publ.-Id: 4112 - Permalink

Sideward flow in Au+au collisions at 400 AMeV
Ramillien, V. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
We present new experimental data obtained with the FOPI detector at SIS, for the Au+Au heavy-ion collisions at 400 AMeV incident energy. The sideward flow, determined from a method without reaction-plane reconstruction, and the nuclear stopping are studied as a function of the centrality of the collisions. In order to study the nuclear in-medium effects, which act on the NN cross sections and potential and hence on experimental observables like the nuclear-matter flow and stopping, these results are compared with the predictions of two different QMD versions. The first one offers a fully microscopic calculation of the cross sections and potential in the G-matrix formalism and naturally includes the in-medium effects (this version is for the first time confronted with experiment). The second one uses a standard Skyrme potential plus a momentum-dependent term in order to mimic the in-medium effects.
Keywords: nuclear reactions
  • Nucl. Phys. A 587 (1995) 802

Publ.-Id: 4111 - Permalink

Entropy in central Au+Au reactions between 100 and 400 AMeV
Dzelalija, M. E. A.; Bieganski, J.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
The ratio of the total charge bound in fragments with Z between 2 and 15 to the hydrogen yield has been measured, and the neutron-to-proton ratio n/p has been estimated from the data of central Au+Au reactions between 100 and 400 AMeV, measured with the phase I setup of the detector system FOPI at the GSI, Darmstadt, in the polar angle range between 7o and 30o. These two quantities were used to determine the entropy per nucleon S/A by comparing them with the predictions of the FREESCO code. The analysis allows the simultaneous extraction of the values of the baryonic entropy, temperature, and collective flow. The extracted values are in good agreement with the values obtained in earlier FOPI studies and, for the baryonic entropy, with recent hydrodynamic caculations.
Keywords: PACs numbers: 25.75.+r, 25.70.Pq
  • Phys. Rev. C 52 (1995) 346

Publ.-Id: 4110 - Permalink

Evidence for collective expansion in light-particle emission following Au+Au collisions at 100, 150 and 250 AMeV
Poggi, G. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
Light-particle emission from Au+Au collisions has been studied in the bombarding-energy range 100-250 AMeV, using Delta-E-ER telescopes in coincidence with the FOPI detector in its phase I configuration. Center-of-mass energy spectra have been measured for Z=1, 2 isotopes emitted in central colisions at CM polar angles between 60o and 90o. Evidence for a collective expansion is reported, on the basis of the mean kinetic energies of hydrogen isotopes. Comparison is presented with statistical calculations (WIX code). For CM kinetic energy spectra, fair agreement is found between data and a recently developed transport model.
Keywords: nuclear reactions
  • Nucl. Phys. A 586 (1995) 755

Publ.-Id: 4109 - Permalink

The Sorption of Toxic and Radiotoxic Heavy Metals by Inorganic Colloids in Mine Waters
Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Moll, H.; Hüttig, G.;
Inorganic colloids are ubiquitous in mine waters. They are primarily produced by the formation of oxyhydroxides and oxyhydroxy sulfates of iron(III) and aluminum due to the oxidation of Fe2+ and the hydrolysis of Fe3+ and Al3+. Colloidal particles are able to adsorb heavy metals and to influence trace heavy metal transport as for instance the transport of uranium. However, colloid formation and heavy metal adsorption are strongly dependent on pH. From a colloid-chemical point of view it can be differentiated between two principal types of mine waters:

(i) Type "acidic pore water" [1]
These waters can be separated from the rock by centrifugation or can be collected in the mines as acid rock drainage (ARD) samples. The waters possess high salt concentrations and are very acidic (pH 3 to 1). Ultrafine particles of <5 nm in size are the main colloidal component (based on photon correlation spectroscopy and ultrafiltration). The colloid concentration reaches the g/L range. The particles consist mainly of hydronium jarosite and schwertmannite (based on EXAFS). As and Pb show a high tendency to adsorb onto these particles.

(ii) Type "bulk water" [2]
This type of waters mainly refers to the flowing mine waters like adit waters which possess a near-neutral pH. Typical colloid contents of such waters are about 1 mg/L, typical particle sizes are 100 to 300 nm (based on photon correlation spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The particles consist of Fe(III) and Al oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite, alumogel). Their electrostatic stabilization is weak (zeta potential only about -10 mV), i. e. they show a larger tendency to coagulate and aggregate than the colloids found in the type (i) waters. Contaminants such as As, Pb, Cu, Th, U(IV), Po, and in the absence of carbonate complexation also U(VI), are strongly bound onto these particles. Uranium(VI) adsorption is often suppressed due to the formation of dissolved uranyl carbonato complexes in mine waters [2].

Important colloid-chemical processes are observed during the transition of type (i) waters to type (ii) waters which occurs in the course of the flooding of abandoned ore mines (dilution of the type (i) waters). Huge amounts of iron(III) particles with a size of 100 to 300 nm are formed under such conditions due to O2 ingress and pH increase. The adsorption rises drastically when the pH reaches the near-neutral region (cf. [3]). The sorption behavior of U(VI) in flooding waters differs significantly from that of U(VI) in both typical "acidic pore waters" and typical steady-state "bulk waters". Typical pH values of the flooding waters are in the range between 4 and 6 after some flooding time. Uranyl adsorption to the iron(III) particles is neither suppressed by high acidity nor by uranyl carbonate complexation in this pH region and the assumption of an unretarded migration of uranyl is "over-conservative". Scavenging by Fe(III) particles and colloid coagulation plus sedimentation can significantly immobilize the U(VI) in waters of the transition type. This scavenging mechanism refers also to trace elements such as Cu, As, Mo, Sb, Y, and Ce. Also the radiotoxic heavy metals Po, Pb, Th and Ac are colloid-borne above pH 4. Ra is usually truly dissolved.

[1] Zänker, H.; Moll, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Hennig, C.; Reich, T.; Kluge, A.; Hüttig, G. (2001)
The colloid chemistry of acid rock drainage solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-Ag mine. Appl. Geochem. (accepted).

[2] Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Nitsche, H. (2000)
Colloid-borne uranium and other heavy metals in the water of a mine drainage gallery. Radiochim. Acta 88, 619-624.

[3] Hsi, C.-K. D.; Langmuir, D. (1985)
Adsorption of uranyl onto ferric oxyhydroxides: Application of the surface complexation site-binding model. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49, 1931-1941.

Keywords: colloids, mine waters, flooding, iron(III), uranium
  • Lecture (Conference)
    GeoProc2002. Geochemische Prozesse. March 4-7, 2002. Bremen, Germany

Publ.-Id: 4108 - Permalink

Entropy production in the Au+Au reaction between 150 A and 800 A MeV
Kuhn, C. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
The entropy per nucleon (S/A) has been extracted for the Au (150-800 AMeV)+Au reaction by using the phase I setup of the 4pi facility at GSI, Darmstadt. The entropy has been obtained from the comparison of various observables characterizing the dM/dZ fragment multiplicity distribution, extending up to Z=15, with those calculated with the quantum statistical model. It is the first time that S/A values are determined by considering the full ensemble of charged products detected in the reaction. Consistent values of S/A are found from different methods. These entropy values are shown to be fairly independent of the volume of the "participant" region considered. They are somewhat lower than those extracted in earlier works but are in good agreement with hydrodynamic calculations and suggest a low viscosity for the hot and dense nuclear matter.
Keywords: PACs numbers: 25.75.+r, 25.70.Pq
  • Phys. Rev. C 48 (1993) 1232

Publ.-Id: 4107 - Permalink

Midrapidity Source of Intermediate-Mass Fragments in Highly Central Collisions of Au+Au at 150 AMeV
Alard, C. P. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
Charged particles have been observed in collisions of Au+Au at an incident energy of 150 AMeV using a high-granularity detector system covering approximately the forward hemisphere in the center-of-mass system. Highly central collisions have been studied using a double selection criterion which combines large charged-particle multiplicities with small transverse-momentum directivities. In this class of events about one-quarter of the total nuclear charge emerges as intermediate-mass fragments with nuclear chages Z>2. These fragments are centered at midrapidity and are produced with large transverse velocities.
Keywords: PACS numbers: 25.70.Pq
  • Physical Review Letters 69 (1992) 889

Publ.-Id: 4106 - Permalink

A highly-segmented Delta-E-time-of-flight wall as forward detector of the 4pi-system for charged particles at the SIS/ESR accelerator
Gobbi, A. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
At the SIS/ESR accelerator facility at GSI in Darmstadt the 4pi-detector system FOPI is under construction at present. It is designed for the investigation of central collisions of heavy ions in the energy range up to 2 AGeV. As phase I of this detector a forward wall has been built and used in various experiments. It comprizes a total number of 764 scintillators with an additional shell of 188 thin Delta-E-detectors in front of it and covers the full azimuth of the polar angles from 1 to 30 degrees. the velocity and the nuclear charge of the fragments are determined by a combined time-of-flight and Delta-E measurement.
  • Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 324 (1993) 156

Publ.-Id: 4105 - Permalink

Collective Motion in Selected Central collisions of Au+Au at 150 AMeV
Jeong, S. C. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
Using the FOPI facility at GSI Darmstadt, complete data of Au+Au collisions at 150 AMeV were collected for charged products (Z=1-15) at laboratory angles from 1 to 30 degrees. Central collisions were selected by applying various criteria. The kinentic energy spectra of fragments from an isolated midrapidity source are investigated in detail for center-of-mass angles from 25 to 45 degrees. The heavy products (Z>=3) are used to determine the collective energy which is found to be at least 10 AMeV.
Keywords: PACs numbers: 25.70.Pq
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 3468

Publ.-Id: 4104 - Permalink

Cluster Formation during Expansion of Hot and Compressed Nuclear Matter Produced in Central Collisions of Au on Au at 250 AMeV
Petrovici, M. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
Complete distributions of the light and intermediate mass fragments (Z=1-6) produced within the polar angle range of 1 to 30 degrees in highly central collisions of 250 AMeV Au+Au are presented. The results of this measurement and a model analysis are used to study the expansion and clustering of the hot and compressed transient state formed in central collisions of such a heavy system. The influence of the initial conditions on the final observables is discussed.
Keywords: PACS numbers: 25.70.Pq
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 5001

Publ.-Id: 4103 - Permalink

On the transverse momentum distribution of strange hadrons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Ritman, J. E. A.; Bieganski, J.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.;
Particles with strange quark content produced in the system 1.93 AGeV 58Ni on 58Ni have been investigated at GSI Darmstadt with the FOPI detector system. The correlation of these produced particles was analyzed with respect to the reaction plane. Lambda baryons exhibit a very pronounced sideward flow pattern which is qualitatively similar to the proton flow. However, the kaon (K+,Ks0) flow patterns are significantly different from that of protons, and their form may be useful to restrict theoretical models on the form of the kaon potential in the nuclear medium.
  • Z. Phys. A 352 (1995) 355

Publ.-Id: 4102 - Permalink

Abundance of Delta Resonances in 58Ni+58Ni Collisions between 1 and 2 AGeV
Hong, B. E. A.; Kotte, R.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Wohlfarth, D.; Bieganski, J.;
Charged pion spectra measured in 58Ni+58Ni collisions at 1, 06, 1.45 and 1.93 AGeV are interpreted in terms of a thermal model including the decay of Delta resonances. The transverse momentum spectra of pions are well reproduced by adding the pions originating from the Delta-resonance decay to the component of thermal pions, deduced from the high transverse momentum part of the pion spectra. about 10 and 18% of the nucleons are excited to Delta states at freeze-out for beam energies of 1 and 2 AGeV, respectively
Keywords: PACS numbers: 25.75.-q, 25.75.Dw
  • Phys. Lett. B 407 (1997) 115

Publ.-Id: 4101 - Permalink

Determination of the hyperfine parameters of iron silicides by angle dependent conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy on single crystals
Reuther, H.; Behr, G.;
The Mössbauer spectra of single crystals of the iron silicides e-FeSi, ß-FeSi2 and a-FeSi2 are collected by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. Measurements were performed at different angles between the propagation direction of the exciting g-radiation and the crystal axis of the single crystals.
The hyperfine parameters are determined with high accuracy. Moreover, the signs of the quadrupole splittings and the direction of the main axis of the electric field gradient in regard to the crystal orientation was determined for the disilicides. For the monosilicide, this was impossible because of the particular crystal symmetry.

Keywords: Silicides, Mössbauer Spectroscopy
  • Hyperfine Interactions 141/142 (2002) 435-439

Publ.-Id: 4099 - Permalink

Adaption, Validierung und Anwendung fortgeschrittener Störfallanalysecodes mit 3D Neutronenkinetik - WTZ mit Bulgarien
Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Mittag, S.; Rohde, U.; Seidel, A.; Panayotov, D.; Ilieva, B.;
Im Rahmen eines vom BMBF/BMWi geförderten WTZ-Vorhabens wurde dem Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in Sofia der Programmcode DYN3D sowie der gekoppelte Programmkomplex ATHLET-DYN3D verfügbar gemacht. Dabei stellt dieser Programmkomplex eine Anbindung des im FZR entwickelten 3D Kernmodells DYN3D an den thermohydraulischen Systemcode ATHLET der GRS dar.
Zur Validierung dieser Programmcodes wurde eine Messdatensammlung zu einem Inbetriebnahmeexperiment am Block 6 des KKW Kozloduj (WWER-1000/320) erstellt. Die Ergebnisse der durchgeführten Validierungsrechnungen wurden mit den Messwerten aus der Datensammlung verglichen.
In den Programmcode DYN3D wurde von den bulgarischen Experten ein vereinfachtes Modell zur Simulation von Querströmungen zwischen den Brennelementen integriert. Dieses Querströmungsmodell ermöglicht es, Prozesse mit asymmetrischen Randbedingungen realistischer zu betrachten. Eine erste Bewertung des implementierten Strömungsmodells erfolgt durch Vergleichsrechnungen zwischen dem modifizierten DYN3D Code und dem Unterkanalanalyse-Code COBRA-4I sowie auf der Grundlage von verfügbaren Messdaten aus dem KKW Kozloduj.
Keywords: Störfallanalyse, DYN3D, ATHLET, Codevalidierung, WWER-Reaktor, Messdatensammlung, Querströmungsmodell, COBRA-4I
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-328 August 2001


Publ.-Id: 4097 - Permalink

Models for Material Damage with Viscoplasticity
Altstadt, E.;
Two models of material damage occuring with viscoplasticity are presented:
1. accumulation model based on rupture strain
2. constitutive model based on the volume fraction of creep cavities

The creep model for porous material is developed by numerical simulation experiments with a FE model representing the simplified microstructure of a representative volume element.

The damage accumulation model is integrated into ANSYS via the user programmable features.

Keywords: ANSYS, Viscoplasticity, Damage, Finite Element Method, Porous Material
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CADFEM Users Meeting, International Congress on FEM Technology, October 17-19, 2001, Potsdam (Germany)
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CADFEM Users Meeting, International Congress on FEM Technology, October 17-19, 2001, Potsdam (Germany)

Publ.-Id: 4096 - Permalink

Enhanced Thermal Stability of Ta-based Thin Diffusion Barrier by Ion Implantation
Peikert, M.; Wieser, E.; Reuter, H.; Wenzel, C.;
The efficiency as diffusion barrier of RF-Magnetron sputtered Ta-layer modified by ion implantation has been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Two systems were prepared : 50nm-Ta/500nm-Cu/50nm-Ta/ on SiO2 and 200nm-Cu/50nm-Ta/ on SiO2. The samples were annealed at temperatures from 600 to 850°C in a vacuum of 2 x 10-4 Pa. The thermal stability was determined by interdiffusion of Cu into the diffusion barrier. The as-deposited Ta barriers are polycrystalline. After annealing at 600°C for 1 hour interdifusion of Cu is observed for the non-implanted barrier. Ion implantation of nitrogen into the Ta layer leads to a nanocrystalline or amorphous-like structure with an important improvement of the barrier effect. The nitrogen implanted 50 nm Ta-barrier on Cu is stable up to 750°C for 1h. A higher thermal stability reveals the Ta layers between the Cu and SiO2. Cu/Ta/SiO2 system shows beginning of copper diffusion and a strong interaction between Ta and SiO2 after annealing at 800°C without implantation. The implanted Ta-barriers in this system are still effective, after annealing with 850°C for 3h.
Keywords: Diffusion barrier, Tantalum, Ion implantation
  • Vacuum 69 (2002) 91-95

Publ.-Id: 4095 - Permalink

Adsorption of radiotoxic heavy metals by colloid particles - evidence from mine waters of the Königstein mine
Zänker, H.; Jenk, U.;
Acidic pore waters are the waters of most chemical importance in abandoned ore mines before the mines' flooding. These waters possess high concentrations of sulfuric acid and reach pH values of 3 to 1. In particular in the case of the Königstein uranium mine they contain high amounts of sulfuric acid because of the former ore extraction technology (acidic underground leaching with sulfuric acid). Typically, acidic pore waters have iron concentrations of the range of grams per liter. This iron is partly dissolved and partly colloidal (particle size < 5 nm, cf. [1]). Most of the heavy metals, including U(VI), are truly dissolved in acidic pore waters. Only As and Pb have been found in a colloid-borne form [1].

From a chemical point of view, the flooding of a mine is primarily the dilution of the pore waters by groundwaters. The following concomitant phenomena are accompanying this process in the Königstein mine: a decrease in heavy metal concentrations, a decrease in H2SO4 concentration (increase of the pH), an ingress of oxygen and an ingress of carbonate. This gives rise to chemical reactions such as the neutralization of sulfuric acid by carbonate, the degassing of carbonate as CO2, the oxidation of Fe2+ into Fe3+ and the hydrolysis of Fe3+, i.e. the formation of Fe(III) particles. We asked ourselves what the interactions of the radiotoxic heavy metals with these Fe(III) particles are and what the behavior and later fate of the particles (possibly carrying radiotoxic heavy metals) is.

According to the existing knowledge there should not be much interaction between the < 5 nm Fe(III) particles and the radiotoxic heavy metals in the acidic pore waters (exception: 210Pb). With increasing pH, elements such as Th, Po, Ac etc. begin to adsorb strongly onto the particles. Also the uranyl increasingly tends to sorb onto the particles with increasing pH. However, uranyl adsorption to the particles is counteracted by carbonate complexation in the solution the importance of which also increases with increasing pH. Therefore, uranyl is often assumed to be truly dissolved under the conditions of real mine waters, either due to high acidity (low pH region) or due to carbonate complexation (higher pH). It remains to be elucidated if there is a pH region where also the uranyl occurs colloid-borne in a mine.

We investigated flooding waters from the Königstein mine by light scattering, centrifugation, filtration, ultrafiltration, scanning electron microscopy, laser doppler electrophoresis, ICP-MS, AAS, ion chromatography and diverse radiometric methods. The waters had a pH of 5.6 and an Eh of 450 mV, the concentrations of important constituents were CCa 0.9 mM, CFe 0.3 mM, CU 0.05 mM, Csulfate 1.2 mM, Ccarbonate 1,0 mM and CO2 0.11mM. Almost 90 % of the iron was divalent. Because of the Eh value we assume that the uranium was hexavalent. Colloid concentrations in the range of 2 to 3 mg/L were found; they rose rapidly if the access of oxygen was allowed. The particle size was about 100 nm. We measured a zeta potential of only -7.5 mV, i.e. the electrostatic stabilization of the particles was weak. Therefore the particles showed a pronounced tendency to aggregate and sediment. Strongly-sorbing radionuclides such as 210Po and 210Pb, but also significant fractions of the uranyl (up to 100 %) were colloid-borne. The amount of the sorbed uranyl was very sensitive to pH changes of only few tenth of pH units. This senstivity is obviously attributable to the fact that the pH of the water was in the vicinity of the point of inflection of the uranyl - Fe oxyhydroxide "adsorption edge". The uranium and the other radiotoxic heavy metals studied, with the exception of radium, followed the tendency of the iron(III) particles to aggregate and sediment.

We conclude that there is a pH range where the U(VI) occurs colloid-borne in mine waters, even if carbonate is present. This range is pH 4 to 6 (see also [2]). The assumption of an unretarded m...
  • Lecture (Conference)
    The 8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'01). September 30 - October 4, 2001, Bruges (Brugge), Belgium
  • Poster
    8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM ´01). Session 68 (UMREG). Bruges (Belgium), September 30 - October 4, 2001. Proceedings Session 68
  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM ´01). Session 68 (UMREG). Bruges (Belgium), September 30 - October 4, 2001. Proceedings Session 68

Publ.-Id: 4094 - Permalink

Differential Directed Flow in Au+Au Collisions
Andronic, A.; Reisdorf, W.; Alard, J. P.; Barret, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Caplar, R.; Crochet, P.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Finck, C.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Hartmann, O. N.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koczon, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Kress, T.; Kutsche, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; de Schauenburg, B.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K. S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Stockmeier, M. R.; Stoicea, G.; Wagner, P.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A.;
We present experimental data on directed flow in semi-central Au+Au collisions at incident energies from 90 to 400 AMeV. For the first time for this energy domain, the data are presented in a transverse momentum differential way. We study the first order Fourier coefficient v1 for different particle species and establish a gradual change of its pattern as function of incident energy and for different regions in rapidity.
Keywords: PACS: 25.75.Ld
  • Phys. Rev. C 64 (2001) 41604

Publ.-Id: 4093 - Permalink

Synthesis and characterization of mixed-ligand oxorhenium(V) complexes with new [(PNO/S)(S)] donor atom sets
Correia, J. D. G.; Domingos, A.; Santos, I.; Spies, H.;
New oxorhenium complexes with 2(diphenylphosphanyl)-N-(1-thioethyl)benzamide (H2PNS) and 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)bezamide (H2PNO) and various monodentate thiols as co-ligands are reported. These new complexes, 1-6, have been prepared by reacting [nBu4][Re(O)Cl4] or [Re(O)Cl3(PPh3)2] with the tridentate H2PNX (X=O, S) ligands and different monothiols. The characterization of the complexes involved IR. 1H and 31PNMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallographic analysis in the case of 1 and 2. Complexes [Re(O)(kappa3-PNO)(SPh)] (1), and [Re(O)(kappa3-PNS)(SPh)] (2), adopt a distorted square pyramidal geometry (delta=3.0°, 1 and delta=1.3° for 2), with the oxo group in the axial position and the equatorial plane being defined by the phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen (1) or sulfur (2) atoms of the tridentate chelate and by the sulfur atom of the monothiol.
  • J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (2001) 2245-2250

Publ.-Id: 4092 - Permalink

Robuste Gemischtligandkomplexe des Technetiums zur Kopplung des dreiwertigen Metalls an biologisch aktive Moleküle
Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Drews, A.; Syhre, R.; Spies, H.; Tisato, F.; Refosco, F.;
Der Zugang zu diagnostisch relevanten Komplexverbindungen des Tc-99m wird in der Kopplung des Metalls an biologisch aktive Moleküle gesucht. Bisher dominieren Tc(V)-Chelate mit charakteristischem [Tc=O]3+ core. Die hohe Polarität der Metall-Sauerstoff-Bindung sowie die Austauschfähigkeit der Liganden in vivo stimulieren die Suche nach stabilen Systemen auf niederen Oxidationsstufen.
Wir beschreiben hier zwei neue Typen von Tc(III)-Komplexen. Sie erfüllen die Forderung nach niedriger Polarität und hoher in-vivo-Stabilität.
Gekoppelte Substitutions-Reduktionsreaktionen von Tc(V)-Verbindungen 1 mit zwei-zähnigen PS-Liganden führen zu Tc(III)-Komplexen der Struktur 2.
Die Reduktion von Pertechnetat mit tertiären Phosphinen in Gegenwart des tripodalen Liganden Tris(2-mercaptoethyl)amin ergibt Gemischtligandkomplexe 3 mit NS3/P-Koordination. Der monodendate Phosphinligand kann in einfacher Weise durch Isocyanide unter Bildung der Spezies 4 substituiert werden.
Die neuen Tc(III)-Chelate 2 und 4 zeichnen sich durch eine hohe Variabilität hinsichtlich des zu koppelnden Biomoleküls (R) aus. Challenge-Experimente mit Glutathion unter physiologischen Bedingungen belegen die hohe in-vivo-Stabilität der Verbindungen.

Keywords: Tc-99m, Tc(III) mixed-ligand complexes, thiolato ligands, isocyanides, phosphines
  • Lecture (Conference)
    GDCh-Jahrestagung 2001, Würzburg, 23.-29.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4091 - Permalink

Development of technetium-99m-based CNS receptor ligands: have there been any advances?
Johannsen, B.; Pietzsch, H.-J.;
By virtue of its ideal nuclear physical characteristics for routine nuclear medicine diagnostics and its ready availability, technetium-99m (99mTc) is of outstanding interest in the development of novel radiopharmaceuticals. The potential of developing 99mTc-based radioligands also for studying the receptor function in the central nervous system (CNS) is well recognized despite the difficulties to be overcome. A fundamental challenge is the pharmacologically acceptable integration of the transition metal technetium with its peculiar coordination chemistry into the molecular entity of CNS receptor ligands. Conceptually, the ligand molecule can be assembled by three building blocks: a small neutral chelate unit, an organic linker that may also serve as pharmacological modifier and a receptor-binding region derived from selective receptor antagonists. The recent introduction of novel technetium chelate units, particularly mixed-ligand complexes and low-valency organometallic compounds of technetium, provides an impetus for the further development of CNS receptor ligands. Moreover, progress in receptor pharmacology and experience gained with PET radiotracers have facilitated the design of numerous 99mTc-based CNS receptor ligands. The formidable challenge of developing 99mTc probes as SPET imaging agents targeting CNS receptors can be meet with optimism in view of the successful development of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 as a 99mTc complex for imaging dopamine transporters in the brain, although there are a number of receptor-specific imaging agents that have so far resisted all efforts to develop them.
This review presents recent advances and discusses the remaining hurdles in the design of 99mTc-based CNS receptor imaging agents.

Keywords: technetium-99m, CNS receptors, receptor binding, blood-brain barrier, radiotracer design
  • Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 29 (2002) 263-275

Publ.-Id: 4090 - Permalink

A Kinetics Study of Vacancy Cluster Evolution Under VVER-Type Reactor Condition
Gokhmann, A.; Böhmert, J.;
The vacany clusters (VC) evolution in the neutron-irradiated VVER-type reactor pressure vessel steels is investigated, beginning at the nucleation stage and finishing in the coarsening stage. For this, characteristic VVER-type reactor conditions are considered. VC evolution in the nucleation stage is analysed on the basis of the computer simulation data. During the deterministic and the coarsening stage, elastic interaction between iron matrix and VC is accounted, that provides the stability of the peak of the size distribution function under the condition of increasing neutron fluence in correspondence to the experiments.The results are compared with the results of SANS experiments which were carried out on specimens irradiated at surveillance positions of VVER reactors. The presented approach may be used for analyses of the small inhomogeneities (about 1 nm) in the irradiated damage structure of the VVER-type steels.
Keywords: irradiation, microstructure, reactor pressure vessel steel, vacancy cluster
  • Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, July 2003, Vol. 158, No . 7, pp. 499-511

Publ.-Id: 4089 - Permalink

Use of Instrumented Charpy Impact Tests for Master Curve Determination
Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.; Dzugan, J.;
The Master Curve concept (MC) allows to quantify the variation of fracture toughness with the temperature through-out the ductile-to-brittle transition region. Limit curves of fracture toughness for defined failure probabilities and a reference temperatures can be determined using this method. Thus, fracture mechanical values can be supplied for an integrity assessment of structural components.
The paper links MC concept and Charpy-V impact test to determine dynamic fracture mechanical parameters of ASTM A 533 B Cl. 1 nuclear pressure vessel steel. The MC based reference temperature, T0dy, is measured under impact loading using the instrumented impact test. The change in T0dy is determined in dependence on the thickness position of a steel plate and compared with the quasi-static reference temperature, T0st, and the Charpy-V transition temperature (TT). All three parameters increase from the surface to the middle of the steel plate in the same course. However, in the middle section of the plate T0dy is in average approximately 38 K higher than TT and 88 K higher than T0st. The results show that the MC concept is applicable for the fracture mechanical characterisation of material with different microstructure using Charpy size specimens.

Keywords: instrumented impact testing, cleavage failure, fracture toughness, Master Curve, ductile-to brittle transition, reference temperature, reactor pressure vessel steel
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting on Master Curve Testing and Results Application, 17-19 September 2001, Prague, Czech Republic, paper 15
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting on Master Curve Testing and Results Application, 17-19 September 2001, Prague, Czech Republic, paper 15

Publ.-Id: 4088 - Permalink

Quantitative analysis of carbon distribution in steel used for thermochemical polishing of diamond films
Weima, J. A.; von Borany, J.; Kreißig, U.; Fahrner, W. R.;
Cylindrical steel plates used for the thermochemical polishing of CVD diamond films at elevated temperatures are investigated regarding their carbon content using X-ray and ion beam analysis. The surface distribution of carbon is investigated at randomly selected areas on two plates - one virgin and another on which a CVD diamond film is polished for one hour at 950°C. The investigation is carried out with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) operated at an energy of 5 keV. Analysis of the SEM-EDX spectra manifest inhomogeneity in the surface distribution of carbon on both steel samples. Moreover, the absolute concentration of carbon on the steel plate on which diamond is polished for one hour almost triples that of the virgin sample. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) depth profiling is performed on several steel plates used to polish as grown CVD diamond films for periods between 0.5-8 hours at 950°C. ERDA carbon profiles show inhomogeneity for three samples on which polishing is successively done for 8 hours. Raman spectra of post-polished steel plates reveal graphite bands and C-Hn complexes at exactly the wave numbers they appear on the diamond samples. This is a clear manifestation that the steel surfaces do not necessarily contain only atomic carbon after thermochemical polishing.
Keywords: Diamond, Diamond polishing, Ion beam analysis
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society 148 (11) (2001) G607-G610

Publ.-Id: 4087 - Permalink

Entwicklung einer neuen Technologie zur Probenpräparation für die Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM) auf der Basis der Ionenfeinstrahlbearbeitung
Köhler, B.; Bischoff, L.;
Aufgabe des Projektes war die Entwicklung einer neuen Technologie zur Probenpräparation für die Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM) auf der Basis der Ionenfeinstrahlbearbei-tung. Dazu wurden Prozesse der ionenstrahlgestützten Abtragung (Sputtern), der Abschei-dung, des Probenhandling sowie systemeigener Komponenten untersucht. Als Alternative zur Ga- Quelle wurde eine Flüssigmetall-Ionenquelle auf der Basis einer AuGeSi Legierung entwi-ckelt, charakterisiert und in der FIB 4400 eingesetzt.
Um eine automatische Bearbeitung bei der Herstellung von TEM-Lamellen zu ermöglichen, erfolgte eine Modifikation der FIB-4400 Software. Das LabView Programm wurde entsprechend modifi-ziert und zusätzlich um nützliche Komponenten ergänzt.
Abtragsraten auf der Basis der Volumenverlustmethode wurden experimentell bestimmt. Diese Werte dienen als Ausgangspunkt für eine weiter ausbaubare Datensammlung, die die entwi-ckelte Prozessautomatisierung verfeinert.
Für den Tranfer von TEM -Lamellen, die aus dem Volumen präpariert werden, wurde ein spe-zieller lift-off Manipulator entwickelt, gebaut und getestet.
Es wurde ein Angebotskatalog erarbeitet, der anhand von Applikationsbeispielen mit verschie-denen Anforderungen (raue Oberflächen, Hochauflösung, poröse Materialien, Materialien mit verminderter Leitfähigkeit) die Kooperationsmöglichkeiten im Dresdener Raum im Rahmen des Materialforschungsverbundes aufzeigt.

Keywords: Ionenfeinstrahl, Sputtern, Transmissions-Elektronenmikroskopie (TEM), Probenpräparation
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-329 August 2001


Publ.-Id: 4086 - Permalink

Die Sorption des U(VI) und anderer radiotoxischer Schwermetalle an Kolloidpartikeln im Flutungswasser eines stillgelegten Uranbergwerks
Zänker, H.; Richter, W.;
In früheren Kolloquien des Schwerpunktprogramms berichteten wir über den Einfluß von Kolloidpartikeln auf das Spurenmetallverhalten in Acid Rock Drainage (vgl. auch Zänker et al., 2001) sowie in "Bulk-Wasser" (Stollenwasser) aus einem Bergwerk (vgl. Zänker et al., 2000). Flutungswässer sind, chemisch gesehen, zwischen die Zustände "Acid Rock Drainage" und "Bulk-Wasser" einzuordnen. Die Flutung eines Bergwerks stellt eine Verdünnung von Acid-Rock-Drainage-Lösungen dar. Sie ist mit wichtigen kolloidchemischen Vorgängen verbunden.

Wir untersuchten Flutungswasser aus der Urangrube Königstein (Sachsen), wobei in der Hauptsache die Streulichtmessung, die Zentrifugation, die Filtration, die Ultrafiltration, die Rasterelektronenmikroskopie, die Laser-Doppler-Elektrophorese, die ICP-MS, die AAS, die Ionenchromatographie sowie diverse radiometrische Meßmethoden zum Einsatz kamen. Das Wasser besaß einen pH-Wert von 5,6 und einen Eh-Wert von 450 mV; die Konzentrationen wichtiger Wasserinhaltstoffe waren CCa 0,9 mM, CFe 0,3 mM, CU 0,05 mM, CSulfat 1,2 mM, CCarbonat 1,0 mM und CO2 0,11 mM. Nahezu 90% des Eisens waren zweiwertig. Die Kolloidkonzentration lag im Bereich von 2 bis 3 mg/l, die Partikelgröße war ca. 100 nm. Eisen(III)verbindungen stellten den Hauptbestandteil der Kolloidmatrix dar. Mit einem Zetapotential von -7,5 mV wiesen die Partikel eine nur schwache elektrische Ladung auf; sie neigten stark zur Flockulation und Sedimentation. Neben stark adsorbierenden Radionukliden wie 210Po und 210Pb waren auch erhebliche Anteile des Urans kolloidgetragen (auf Grund des Eh-Wertes gehen wir davon aus, daß das Uran sechswertig vorlag).

Der Zutritt von Luftsauerstoff beeinflußte die Proben erheblich. Durch die Oxidation des Fe2+ stieg der Gehalt an Fe(III)-Partikeln (ca. Faktor 10). Trotz der höheren Trägerkolloidkonzentration sank der filtrierbare (kolloidgetragene) Uranylanteil zunächst. Grund war der pH-Abfall (bis auf etwa 4,5), den die Fe-Oxidation verursacht; durch die Fe(III)-Hydrolyse werden Protonen freigesetzt. Mit einiger Verzögerung stieg der pH-Wert wieder, weil die Carbonatkonzentration durch CO2-Entgasung sinkt; der Gehalt an Carbonat/Hydrogencarbonat fiel bis auf <0,05 mM. Dies bewirkte einen Anstieg des filtrierbaren Urananteils auf fast 100%. Das Uran und alle anderen analysierten radiotoxischen Schwermetalle mit Ausnahme des Radiums folgten in dieser Situation der Neigung der Eisen(III)-Partikel zur Aggregation/Sedimentation. Alle hier im Labor beobachteten Vorgänge (O2-Zutritt, pH-Variationen, CO2-Entgasung, Eisen(III)-Sedimentation) spielen auch im Bergwerk eine Rolle.

Die oft getroffene Annahme einer ungehinderten Migration von Uranyl in gelöster Form ist für pH-Werte von 4 bis 6 "überkonservativ". Scavening durch Fe(III)-Partikel und Kolloidkoagulation plus Sedimentation kann in diesem pH-Bereich das U(VI) in erheblichem Maße immobilisieren (Natural Attenuation).

The colloid chemistry of acid rock drainage solution from an abondaned Zn-Pb-Ag mine. Appl. Geochem. (accepted).

ZÄNKER, H.; RICHTER, W.; BRENDLER, V.; NITSCHE, H. (2000): Colloid-borne uranium and other heavy metals in the water of a mine drainage gallery. Radiochim. Acta 88 (2000) 619-624.
  • Lecture (others)
    7. Kolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms "Geochemische Prozesse mit Langzeitfolgen im anthropogen beeinflußten Sickerwasser und Grundwasser". Berlin, 13.-15. September 2001

Publ.-Id: 4083 - Permalink

Upgrade of the Gas Dynamic Trap: Physical Concepts and Numerical Models
Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Noack, K.; Strogalova, S. L.;
The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Novosibirsk develops a project of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (NS) based on a gas dynamic trap (GDT) which is mainly intended for fusion material irradiation. Its actual disadvantage is the lack of data for the parameter range of the projected GDT-NS which does not yet allow a reliable interpolation from the parameters of the existing GDT experimental facility to the neutron source. At present, experimental and computational researches are carried out to complete the required data base.
So far, rather promising results have been achieved concerning the main plasma-physical issues like MHD stability, longitudinal confinement, cross-field transport and the fast ion behaviour [1,2]. For the investigations in the latter field the Integrated Transport Code System (ITCS) has been used [3,4]. These investigations must be extended to a higher level of plasma parameters. To this end a substantial upgrade of the GDT facility is planned. The main subsystems which are to be upgraded are the neutral beam injection (NBI) system and the magnetic field power supply. The higher power and the longer duration of the injection will provide a substantially higher energy content of the fast ions and, consequently, will increase the electron temperature.
During the last years several transport codes have been developed and applied for computational studies in parallel to the experimental research. They have been coupled by appropriate data file transfers to the ITCS. The report is focused on the application of the code system to study possible operation regimes of the upgraded GDT. The results of numerical simulations enable us to conclude that an electron temperature of 250-300 eV can be achieved in the GDT-Upgrade with a NBI of 10 MW and a duration of 3-6 ms. The maximum fast ion density in the region of their turning points is estimated at ~5x1013 cm-3.

Keywords: plasma physics, gas dynamic trap, magnetic mirror, neutron source, fusion materials
  • Poster
    28th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Madeira, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001, Proceedings, Poster P1.026
  • Contribution to proceedings
    28th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Madeira, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001, Proceedings, Poster P1.026

Publ.-Id: 4081 - Permalink

Impact of ambient atmosphere on as-implanted amorphous insulating layers
Schmidt, B.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.;
Low energy ion implantation into SiO2 causes a damaged layer near the surface. The high amount of broken bonds due to displaced Si and O atoms forms a more or less "open glassy network" in which moisture from the ambient can be absorbed. Therefore chemical reactions of the implanted impurities with hydrogen and oxygen must be expected during subsequent annealing. Water absorption in heavy ion damaged SiO2 layers has been studied by hydrogen depth profiling using the Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). SiO2 was implanted with ions of different mass (Si, Ge, Sn) and doses in the range 1013...1016 cm-2. H depth profiles were measured after a certain storage under clean room conditions (40 % rel.hum.) and after additional wet cleaning as well as after certain annealing. At the surface and in the region of the implanted profile the H concentration reaches (5...10) at% after storage and increases during wet chemical cleaning up to 12 at% for implantation doses > 1*1014 cm-2.
Keywords: SiO2, ion implantation, water absorption
  • Poster
    11th International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators, September 03-07, 2001, Lisbon, Portugal
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 191(2002)1-4, 482-486

Publ.-Id: 4080 - Permalink

Distribution of estrone sulfatase in rat brain determined by in vitro autoradiography with 16alpha-[18F]fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate
Rodig, H.; Brust, P.; Römer, J.; Kasch, H.; Bergmann, R.; Füchtner, F.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.;
16alpha-Fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate (FESDS) strongly inhibits estrone sulfatase (ES), an enzyme which is also present in the brain. The enzyme is probably involved in important regulatory functions of neurosteroids which may be disturbed in certain brain diseases. In the present study [18F]FESDS was used to measure the amount of ES in various rat brain regions using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The obtained values vary between 0.29 pmol (mg protein)-1 (pons) and 11.5 pmol (mg protein)-1 (striatum). They are positively correlated with the enzyme activity measured in homogenates of the corresponding regions. Because this radiotracer binds also to carbonic anhydrase in the brain it is only limited use for in vivo imaging studies.
Keywords: autoradiography, brain, disulfamate, estrone sulfatase, 18F, positron emission tomography, steroids
  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 773-780

Publ.-Id: 4079 - Permalink

Azacage compounds as efficient tools for enhancing metal ion and anion extraction
Wichmann, K.; Grotjahn, M.; Gloe, K.; Moder, M.; Dunsch, L.; Stephan, H.; Vögtle, F.;
Azacage compounds have been investigated in order to find typical structure extractability relationships towards selected metal ions [Ag(I), Hg(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(I) and Cu(II)] and anions [I, Cl, SO42-, TcO4-]. The influence of different parameters [concentration, pH, diluent, time, temperature] on the extraction equilibrium will be discussed. The complexation and extraction behaviour observed will be interpreted using ESI mass spectroscopic studies, cyclovoltammetric measurements and molecular modeling calculations.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5. ACHEM ASIA, Peking/China, 8.-12.5.2001
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 73 (2001), 716

Publ.-Id: 4077 - Permalink

Coulomb dissociation of 8B at E(8B) = 254 MeV/nucleon
Baumann, T.; Blank, B.; Boue, F.; Czajkowski, S.; Förster, A.; Gai, M.; Geissel, H.; Grosse, E.; Hammache, F.; Hellström, M.; Iwasa, N.; Kohlmeyer, B.; Koczon, P.; Kulessa, R.; Laue, F.; Marchand, C.; Motobayashi, T.; Oeschler, H.; Pravikoff, M. S.; Schümann, F.; Schwab, E.; Senger, P.; Sümmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Surowka, G.; Wagner, A.; Walus, W.;
The precise knowledge of the solar thermonuclear fusion reaction of 7Be(p, γ)8B is crucial for estimating the 8B solar neutrino flux and the predicted neutrino rates in terrestrial neutrino detectors. The flux of 8B solar neutrinos is particularly important for the results of the Homestake, Super-Kamiokande, and SNO experiments, because they measure high-energy solar neutrinos mainly or solely from the 8B decay.

We have measured the Coulomb dissociation of 8B into 7Be and proton on a 208Pb target at 254 MeV/nucleon using the large acceptance focusing spectrometer KaoS at GSI. Since the dissociation process can be regarded as absorption of a virtual photon, the Coulomb dissociation cross section is converted to the photo-absorption 8B( γ,p)7Be cross section which is directly related to the 7Be(p, γ)8B cross section.

In a first experiment the astrophysical S factor for the 7Be(p,γ)8B reaction is extracted to be S17(0)=20.6 ±1.2(exp) ±1.0(theo) eV-b for 0.25-2.78 MeV (1). This result agrees with the presently adopted zero-energy S17 factor obtained in direct-reaction measurements and with the results of other Coulomb dissociation studies performed at 46.5 and 51.2 A MeV. A second run allowed to also obtain information on the E1/E2 ratio by analysing the angular correlation of 7Be and the proton.
Keywords: solar thermonuclear fusion reaction Be B neutrino flux detector Coulomb dissociation proton spectrometer KaoS GSI virtual photon photo-absorption astrophysical S factor
  • Poster
    Poster presentation at the INPC 2001, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA, July 30 - Augst 3, 2001
  • Contribution to external collection
    Poster presentation at the INPC 2001, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA, July 30 - Augst 3, 2001

Publ.-Id: 4076 - Permalink

Aspects of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA preparation: Precursor synthesis, preparative HPLC purification and determination of radiochemical purity
Füchtner, F.; Angelberger, P.; Kvaternik, H.; Hammerschmidt, F.; Peric Simovc, B.; Steinbach, J.;
A modified method for the synthesis of the intermediate product N-Boc-3,4-di(Boc-O)-6-iodo-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester of the [18F]FDOPA precursor preparation was developed. With the application of bis-(trifluoroacetoxy)-iodobenzene for the iodination step with elemental iodine the yield of the intermediate can be increased from 12% to 50-60%. By replacing silica-gel-based RP HPLC column by a polymer-based column for semi-preparative purification of [18F]FDOPA from the reaction mixture the radiochemical purity of the final product can be increased up to > 99 %. For the determination of the radiochemical impurity [18F]fluoride a HPLC method using a column with polymer-based RP material was introduced.
Keywords: 18F, FDOPA preparation, FDOPA quality control, PET
  • Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 29 (2002) 477-481

Publ.-Id: 4075 - Permalink

The EC-FOREVER-2 experiment: the pre-test analysis and comparisons with the experiment
Willschütz, H.-G.; Sehgal, B. R.;
Scaled coupled melt pool convection and vessel creep failure experiments are being performed in the FOREVER program at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a pressurized reactor vessel under the thermal load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. Due to the multi axial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a highly non-uniform temperature field these experiments offer an excellent opportunity to validate numerical creep models. A Finite Element model is developed and using the Computational Fluid Dynamic module, the melt pool convection is simulated and the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are then performed applying a new creep modelling procedure. Additionally, the material damage is evaluated considering the creep deformation as well as the prompt plasticity.
After post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment, pre-test calculations for the forthcoming experiments are performed. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios.
Keywords: Scaled core meltdown experiments, reactor pressure vesel, multi-axial creep, FE-Simulation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    OECD LOWER HEAD FAILURE, 4th Program Committee Meeting, March 5-7, 2001, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, Proceedings, Paper No. 8.6
  • Contribution to proceedings
    OECD LOWER HEAD FAILURE, 4th Program Committee Meeting, March 5-7, 2001, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, Proceedings, Paper No. 8.6

Publ.-Id: 4074 - Permalink

Coupled Melt Pool Convection and Vessel Creep Failure: The FOREVER Program
Sehgal, B. R.; Theerthan, S. A.; Willschütz, H.-G.; Nourgaliev, R. R.; Karbojian, A.;
The FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) program is concerned with the phenomena of melt-vessel interactions during a postulated severe accident in a light water reactor. The objectives of the FOREVER program are to obtain data and develop validated models on (i) the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure) and (ii) the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside or outside of the lower head.
Integral experiments were performed in a 1/10 scaled carbon steel vessels of 0.4 m diameter, 15 mm thickness and 60 mm height. Up to 20 litres of binary oxide melt (30wt% CaO -70wt% B2O3 ) was poured into the vessel and maintained at about 1300 °C by a specially designed electrical heater operating at about 40 kW. The melt pool undergoes natural con-vection as it would in the prototypic scenario and the vessel wall temperatures vary from ~ 600 to 1000 °C azimuthally. The pressure inside the vessel was maintained at about 2.6 MPa. The main diagnostics were several types of thermocouples and linear position transducers (LPT) which measure the displacement of the vessel due to its creep deformation.
The first three experiments, described here, are focussed on vessel creep and failure.The FOREVER/CI test was performed with the German steel (15Mo3) lower head, at about 25 bars of internal pressure and at the input power level of 22 kW. The maximum essel wall temperature was about 800 °C. A sizable database was obtained for the creep deformation rates over a period of 24 hours and the maximum creep strain obtained was about 5 %. The second test FOREVER/C2 employed a French reactor vessel steel (16MND5) lower head, and a power level of 40 kW. The maximum vessel wall temperature was measured to be about 1000 °C and the maximum creep strain obtained was about 10 %. The test ended without the failure of the lower head as the heater failed due to its unconvering from the melt as the melt level receded due to vessel expansion.
The third test, the EC-FOREVER-I, incorporated higher initial melt level to avoid heater failure. Although, the heater power level was maintained same, at about 40 kW, the internal pressure was increased to 28 bars in order to obtain the lower head failure. The lower head failure was achieved, albeit, at a lower than expected creep strain of only 6%. The failure site was located just above the welding joint between the hemispherical part and the cylindrical part. The cause for this mode of failure is being investigated.
A coupled thermal-structural analysis of these FOREVER tests was performed with the ANSYS Multiphysics code. An improvised creep model was incorporated into this code which avoids the use of a single creep law for the entire lower head. Instead, a three dimensional array was developed where the creep strain is evaluated according to the actual total strain, temperature and equivalent stress for each element. The material damage is evaluated considering the creep and the prompt plastic deformations. The calculated results for the creep strain and vessel failure time are in good agreement with those from the experiments.
Keywords: FOREVER-experiments, reactor pressure vessel, melt pool, creep failure
  • Lecture (Conference)
    CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CSNI/NEA RASPLAV Seminar 2000, 14-15 November 2000, Munich, Germany

Publ.-Id: 4073 - Permalink

Pre-test Calculations for a Core Meltdown Experiment
Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.;
Scaled coupled melt pool convection and vessel creep failure experiments are being performed in the FOREVER program at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a pressurized reactor vessel under the thermal load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. Due to the multi axial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a highly non-uniform temperature field these experiments offer an excellent opportunity to validate numerical creep models. A Finite Element model is developed and using the Computational Fluid Dynamic module, the melt pool convection is simulated and the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are then performed applying a new creep modelling procedure. Additionally, the material damage is evaluated considering the creep deformation as well as the prompt plasticity.
After post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment, pre-test calculations for the forthcoming experiments are performed. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios. After analysing the calculations, it seems to be advantageous to introduce a vessel support which can unburden the vessel from a part of the mechanical load and, therefore, avoid the vessel failure or at least prolong the time to failure. This can be a possible accident mitigation strategy. Additionally, it is possible to install an absolutely passive automatic control device to initiate the flooding of the reactor pit to ensure external vessel cooling in the event of a core melt down.

Keywords: Severe nuclear power plant accident, core melt down, multi-axial creep deformation, ANSYSâ User Programmable Feature
  • Lecture (Conference)
    19. CAD-FEM Users´ Meeting, 17.-19. Oktober 2001, Berlin, Potsdam, Germany, Proceedings Vol. 1, 1.6.9
  • Contribution to proceedings
    19. CAD-FEM Users´ Meeting, 17.-19. Oktober 2001, Berlin, Potsdam, Germany, Proceedings Vol. 1, 1.6.9

Publ.-Id: 4072 - Permalink

Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien in Ostdeutschland
Rindelhardt, U.;
Im Beitrag wird die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung bis Ende 2000 im Einzelnen dargestellt sowie auf die möglichen Perspektiven eingegangen. Die Entwicklung in Ostdeutschland war einerseits durch einige - historisch bedingte - Besonderheiten geprägt, spiegelt aber andererseits auch generelle Tendenzen bei der Nutzung von erneuerbaren Energien zur Stromerzeugung in Deutschland wider.
Im Jahr 2000 wurde aus erneuerbaren Energien in Ostdeutschland eine Strommenge von 3,5 TWh erzeugt, was einem Anteil von 4,8 % am Nettostromverbrauch (abzüglich Netzverluste) entsprach. Mit Abstand dominierende erneuerbare Energie ist mit 70 % die Windenergie, gefolgt von Biomasse und Wasserkraft mit je 15 %. Die Photovoltaik spielt nur eine marginale Rolle. Der Anteil erneuerbarer Energien kann sich in diesem Jahrzehnt verdoppeln.

Keywords: Strom, erneuerbare Energien
  • Elektrizitätswirtschaft 100, Heft 25, S.30-39

Publ.-Id: 4071 - Permalink

Analyses of the OECD - MSLB Benchmark with the Codes DYN3D and DYN3D/ATHLET
Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.;
The code DYN3D coupled with the thermal-hydraulic plant model ATHLET was used for the analysis of the OECD Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark which is based on real plant design and operational data of the TMI-1 PWR. DYN3D is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state and transient analyses of thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel as-semblies. The neutron kinetic model is based on the solution of the three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equation by nodal expansion. Models for the thermal hydraulics of the reactor core and the fuel pins are implemented in the DYN3D. The reactor core is modeled by parallel cooling channels which can describe one or more fuel elements. DYN3D can be used as a stand alone code with given thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions of the core. Besides the standard simulation given by the specification, modifications are introduced for sen-sitivity studies. The results presented here show the influence of a reduced number of thermal-hydraulic channels for the core for the exercise 2 and the influence of coolant mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel exercise 3. Based on the presented investigations, it can be concluded that the maximum values of local parameters as fuel temperatures are not conservative, if a few number of coolant channels is used for the simulation of the reactor core. If coolant mixing in the reactor vessel is modeled, the accident consequences are mitigated.

Keywords: nuclear reactors, transients, computer codes, simulation, benchmarks, best-estimate analysis, three-dimensional models, neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, nodal methods
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, June 2001, Volume 84, page 23 - 25
  • Contribution to external collection
    Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, June 2001, Volume 84, page 23 - 25

Publ.-Id: 4067 - Permalink

Relation between stress in cubic boron nitride films and the in plane TO phonon energy
Fitz, C.; Fukarek, W.; Möller, W.;
The high intrinsic stresses in as-deposited cBN films are relaxed employing thermal treatment and ion implantation. In-situ stress measurement and ex-situ polarized infrared reflection spectroscopy are utilized to study correlations between stress and cBN TO phonon energy. The in plane TO phonon energy of cBN films is found to be not unambiguously dependent upon the film stress in contrast to the dependence of the phonon energy of cBN crystallites upon hydrostatic pressure. Factors affecting the relation between stress and phonon position are discussed.
Keywords: cubic boron nitride, stress, infrared, phonon
  • Diamond and Related Materials 11 (8): 1532-1536 AUG 2002

Publ.-Id: 4066 - Permalink

Sorption of U(VI) on muscovite. Comparing SCM modeling with spectroscopic and microscopic results.
Arnold, T.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Walter, M.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.;
The sorption of uranyl(VI) on muscovite was studied with the diffuse double layer model (DDLM). The required values for the surface site density, the surface acidity constants, the specific surface area, and the experimental sorption data were determined in [1].
The modeling favored the formation of two uranyl surface complexes. Both surfave complexes were simultaneously calculated with FITEQL [2]. The first one is a monodentate mononuclear surface complex:

XOH + UO22+ = (XO-UO22+)+ + H+

The second surface complex is a bidentate mononuclear surface complex:

X(OH)2 + UO22+ = (XO22-UO22+)+ + 2 H+

The results of the SCM (surface complexation model) modeling were compared with results obtained from extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).
An EXAFS sample representing the sorption of U(VI) on muscovite at pH 5.8 with an initial U concentration of 1H10-4 M indicated that U(VI) is bound to the muscovite surface as an outer-sphere complex, as indicated by the missing Si/Al to U distance.
HRTEM investigations, representing the sorption of uranium on muscovite at pH 6.5 using an initial U concentration of 5H10-4 M, showed sorbed uranium particles on the muscovite surface. The particles were 5 to 10 nm in diameter. Diffraction patterns of these nano-sized particles gave indication for schoepite and metallic uranium.
TRLFS studies conducted with a muscovite suspension at pH 6.5 using an initial uranium concentration of 1×10-5 M revealed the presence of an uranium-muscovite surface species with a fluorescence lifetime of 120 ns ± 10 ns.


[1] Arnold, T. et al. (2001) Sorption Behavior of U(VI) on Phyllite: Experiment and Modeling. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 47, 219-231.

[2] Herbelin, A. and Westall, J. (1996) FITEQL A Computer Program for Determination of Chemical Equilibrium Constants from Exp. Data, Version 3.2. Rep. 96-01, Dep. of Chem., Oregon St. Uni., Corvallis, Oregon.
  • European Journal of Mineralogy (2001)13, 17

Publ.-Id: 4065 - Permalink

Nuclear temperatures obtained from light-charged-particle yields in low-energy ternary fission
Andronenko, M.; Andronenko, L.; Neubert, W.; Seliverstov, D.;
Nuclear temperatures were determined from yields of isotopes with 1<Z<14 accompanying the spontaneous and neutron-induced fission of heavy elements. The mean temperature derived from the corresponding temperature distributions amounts to 1.10 +- 0.15 MeV.
Keywords: fission, isotopes, nuclear temperature, fragmentation
  • European Physical Journal A 12 (2001) 185

Publ.-Id: 4064 - Permalink

Construction of the Multipurpose Thermohydraulic Test Facility TOPFLOW using CAD Applications
Schaffrath, A.; Schmeisser, N.; Pietruske, H.; Schubert, S.;
The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e.V. is building the large-scale test facility TOPFLOW for thermal hydraulic single effect tests. The acronym TOPFLOW stands for Transient Two Phase Flow Test Facility. It will mainly be used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena in power- and process industries. Main research activities are the investigation of:
- transient flow regimes in horizontal, vertical and inclined tubes,
- the dynamic behaviour of interphase areas in gas-liquid flows,
- critical mass flows and oscillations during depressurization of chemical reactors,
- natural convection in large pools with local heating,
- natural convection in parallel channels and feed pipes and
- condensation phenomena.

CAE tools were consequently established for planning and construction of the facility. This includes e.g. in the basic/detail engineering phase pipe and process flow diagrams, three dimensional plot plans and isometric projections for construction. The 3D model of the facility was used for generation of cutaway sectional drawings, determination of connecting points of components, collision checking and generation of reports such as data sheets and part lists. At last the plant model will be used for the documentation of the built isometric projection. From this version a VRML-model will be created. It will be used for presentation in an immersive virtual-reality environment which was developed at FZR. Alternatively the model can be inspected by any web browser with a standard VRML viewer like CosmoPlayer.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Proceedings CAD2002 Corporate Engineering Research, 4-5.03.2002, Dresden, Germany, ISBN 3-86005298-5, 289-298.

Publ.-Id: 4063 - Permalink

Radiochemisches Laborgebäude für die Actiniden Forschung -Technik. Strahlenschutz, Methoden-
Bernhard, G.; Friedrich, H.; Nitsche, H.;
In diesem Artikel werden die erforderliche Technik, die Strahlenschutz- und Genehmigungsbedingungen und die methodische Ausrichtung der Labors in diesem radiochemischen Laborgebäude für den Umgang mit Radionukliden, insbesondere Actiniden vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Forschungen beschrieben. Sowohl für Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Radiopharmazie wie auch auf dem Gebiet der Grundlagen der Radiochemie und Radioökologie (z.B. für die Erforschung der Speziation und Migration von Radionukliden/Actiniden in Gebieten des ehemaligen Uranerzbergbaues, in radioaktiv kontaminierten Umgebungen resultierend aus Nuklearunfällen, im Nah- und Fernfeld potentieller nuklearer Endlager) sind radiochemische Laboratorien unabdingbar.
Im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf wurde ein radiochemisches Laborgebäude errichtet, in dem nach Paragr. 3 der Strahlenschutzverordnung mit einer Vielzahl radioaktiver Nuklide (170 Nuklide) in einer maximalen Aktivität für jedes Nuklid von 10E11Bq umgegangen werden kann. Das Laborgebäude hat 24 radiochemische Labors und 10 Service Raume. Die Labors sind mit einer Vielzahl von Abzügen, Laminarboxen und mit 22 Glove Boxen für den Umgang mit Gramm-Mengen von Actiniden ausgerüstet. Das gesamte Gebäude bildet einen Kontrollbereich und bietet Arbeitsplätze für 50 Mitarbeiter/innen. Moderne Analytische und spektroskopische Verfahren sind installiert, z.B. verschiedene Laserspektroskopische Verfahren, ICP-MS, FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, chromatographische und elektrochemische Verfahren und a,ß,y - Spektrometrie.
  • Atw 46(2001), p. 653-658

Publ.-Id: 4062 - Permalink

Strong visible electroluminescence from Ge- and Sn-implanted silicon dioxide layers
Rebohle, L.; Gebel, T.; von Borany, J.; Fröb, H.; Borchert, D.; Skorupa, W.;
Silicon-based light emission is a key feature to make a real step into the world of integrated optical systems, laboratory-on-chip applications and high performance optical communication. One of the most promising approaches is ion implantation into thin SiO2 films. In this paper the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Sn-implanted SiO2 layers are investigated and compared with those of Ge-implanted SiO2 layers. Strong EL in the blue-violet spectral region with a power efficiency of 0.025 % is extracted from Sn-implanted oxide layers. Similar to the case of Ge, the main emission at 3.2 eV is attributed to a radiative T1®S0 transition of a Sn-related oxygen deficiency center, the EL intensity increases linearly over several orders of magnitude and the stability reaches comparable values. In contrast to the case of Ge, a low energy shoulder appears in the EL spectrum of Sn-implanted oxides. Finally, the suitability of Sn-implanted oxides for optoelectronic applications is discussed.
Keywords: Ge-implantation, Sn-implantation into SiO2, electroluminescence, Si based light emission
  • Material Science and Engineering C19 (2001) 373

Publ.-Id: 4059 - Permalink

Aufbau aromatischer Ringe mit Kohlenstoffisotopen
Mäding, P.; Zessin, J.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.;
Strukturbestimmende Bestandteile biologisch aktiver Verbindungen sind häufig meta-bolisch stabile aromatische Fragmente, die für die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) von Interesse sein können. Dementsprechend wurden Markierungstechniken zur Einführung des kurzlebigen Radionuklids 11C (T1/2 = 20 min) in aromatische und hetero-aromatische Grundverbindungen entwickelt.

11C-kernmarkierte Benzolderivate

* Das Syntheseprinzip der synchronen Sechs-Elektronen-Cyclisierung von Hexatrien-Systemen [1] wird zur Darstellung von [11C]-Aromaten genutzt. In Anwesenheit einer Base lassen sich durch Umsetzung von Nitro-[11C]-methan mit Pentamethiniumsalzen 11C-kernmarkierte Nitrobenzole herstellen [2-4]. Diese Nitro-[1-11C]ben-zole können mit Na2S zu den entsprechenden [1-11C]Anilinen reduziert werden. Aus [1-11C]Anilin ist durch Diazotierung und Verkochen des gebildeten Diazoniumsalzes [1-11C]Phenol zu-gänglich [5]. Analoge Umsetzungen mit 13C wurden demonstriert.

* In Übertragung der bekannten Kondensation von Nitro-methan mit Pyryliumsalzen [6] konnten 4-Nitro-[4-11C]anisol sowie zwei 2,4,6-trisubstituierte Nitro-[1-11C]ben-zole syn-thetisiert werden[7]. Das Verfahren wurde methodisch auf Arbeiten mit 13C ausgeweitet.

11C-kernmarkierte N-Heteroaromaten

* Die Synthese von [11C]Pyridin und Cyano-[11C]pyridinen gelang durch Pyrolyse von N-[11C]Methylpyrrolen [8].
Das Indolgerüst wurde durch zwei verschiedene Synthesewege mit 11C markiert:

* [2-11C]Indol ist durch Kondensation von Nitro-[11C]-methan mit o-Nitrobenzaldehyd und nachfolgender Reduktion des gebildeten ß,2-Dinitro-[ß-11C]styrols zugänglich [9].

* Ein neuer11C-Baustein, das Triphenylarsonium-[11C]methylid, das in situ aus [11C]-Methyltriphenylarsoniumiodid unter Baseneinwirkung gebildet wird, lässt sich durch Reaktion mit o-Aminobenzoyl-Verbindungen direkt zu [2-11C]Indolen [10] kondensieren. Diese Umsetzung unterscheidet sich vom normalen Verlauf der Wittig-Reaktion [11].

[1] Ch. Jutz, Angew. Chem. 1972, 84, 299.
[2] J. Steinbach, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1995, 36, 33.
[3] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1997, 39, 585.
[4] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm.1998, 41, 647.
[5] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 2000, 43, 557.
[6] K. Dimroth, Angew. Chem. 1960, 72, 331.
[7] P. Mäding, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 2000, 43, 565.
[8] J. Steinbach, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm. 1995, 37, 613.
[9] J. Zessin, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 1998, 41, 669.
[10] J. Zessin, J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 1999, 42, 725.
[11] P. Bravo, Tetrahedron Lett. 1970, 52, 4535.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft deutscher Chemiker, Würzburg, 23.-29.9.2001

Publ.-Id: 4058 - Permalink

Distribution of 16alpha-[18F]fluoro-estradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate (FESDS) in rats, tumour-bearing mice and piglets
Brust, P.; Rodig, H.; Römer, J.; Kasch, H.; Bergmann, R.; Füchtner, F.; Zips, D.; Baumann, M.; Steinbach, J.; Johannsen, B.;
Based on a high affinity to the enzyme estrone sulfatase (ES) 16alpha-[18F]fluoroestradiol-3,17beta-disulfamate ([18F]FESDS) has been suggested as a potential PET tracer for imaging steroid-dependent breast tumours. The distribution of [18F]FESDS was studied in rats, tumour-bearing nude mice and piglets. In all species evidence for tracer binding to a second target, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), was obtained. ES and CA inhibitors significantly reduced the radiotracer uptake in various organs but not in tumours. It is concluded that [18F]FESDS binds to ES and CA in vivo but this binding is not strong enough to allow tumour imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)..
Keywords: estradiol, disulfamate, estrone sulfatase, carbonic anhydrase, positron emission tomography, tumour
  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes 57 (2002) 687-695

Publ.-Id: 4057 - Permalink

Depth Distribution and Intrinsic Stress in a-Si-:H Films Prepared from Hydrogen-Diluted Silane
Danesh, P.; Pantchev, B.; Grambole, D.; Schmidt, B.;
The thickness dependencies and depth distributions of hydrogen and intrinsic mechanical stress are studied for a-Si:H films prepared with 10% silane in hydrogen. Nuclear reaction analysis has been used to establish the total concentration of the incorporated hydrogen. It has been shown that the hydrogen distribution in the films is uniform and does not depend on the film thickness. On contrary, the intrinsic stress depends on the film thickness and has a nonuniform depth distribution, as the stress increase linearly in the direction from the substrate/film interface to the film surface. The obtained results are discussed in view of the hydrogen-related processes and structural improvement of the silicon network during the film growth.
Keywords: a-Si:H layers, H depth profiling, intrinsic stress
  • Journal of Applied Physics 90 (2001) 3065-3068

Publ.-Id: 4052 - Permalink

Efficient blue light emission from silicon: The first integrated Si-based optocoupler
Rebohle, L.; von Borany, J.; Borchert, D.; Fröb, H.; Gebel, T.; Helm, M.; Möller, W.; Skorupa, W.;
We present the first all-silicon integrated optocoupler, whose fabrication, using ion implantation into SiO2, is completely compatible with standard Si technology. It is based on Ge-implanted SiO2 layers as light emitter exhibiting bright blue-violet electroluminescence light with a record wall-plug efficiency of 0.5%. The electroluminescence is explained with a model in which electrons enter the SiO2 layer via tunnel injection and excite the luminescence centers by impact excitation or field ionization. A radiative T1-S0 transition of these luminescence centers is then causing the observed electroluminescence. Finally we show, that these optocoupling devices hold great promise for integrated optoelectronic applications, especially in the field of sensor and biotechnology.
Keywords: Si based optocoupler, Ge implanted SiO2, electroluminescence
  • Electrochem. and Solid State Letters, 4( 7) G57-G60 (2001)

Publ.-Id: 4051 - Permalink

The beneficial role of flash lamp annealing on the epitaxial growth of the 3C-SiC on Si
Panknin, D.; Stoemenos, J.; Eickhoff, M.; Heera, V.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.;
For the realization of good quality 3C-SiC films epitaxially grown on Si the perfection of the film during the early stage of growth is substantial. In this paper the beneficial role of Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) for the elimination of the defects in the SiC film and the strain reduction at the SiC/Si interface is discussed. FLA is a highly transient process, having a flash duration of a few milliseconds. When the energy density is sufficient high, it melts the silicon at the SiC/Si interface increasing the temperature there well above the melting point of the silicon. The melted Si dissolves the 3C-SiC near the interface. Additionally, the uppermost part of the 3C-SiC film is annealed due to the heat dissipation during the flash duration and the solidification of the molten region. During the solidification of the C-rich Si melt SiC grows by liquid phase epitaxy at the annealed uppermost 3C-SiC film which act as a seed. This process results in a substantial improvement of the SiC film, eliminating also the cavities and the stress at the interface.
Keywords: 3C-SiC interface, Flash lamp annealing, TEM
  • Applied Surface Science 184 (2001) 377-382

Publ.-Id: 4050 - Permalink

Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics; Annual Report 2000
Dönau, F.; Enghardt, W.; Grosse, E.; Kämpfer, B.; Schlett, M.; Schneidereit, C.; (Editors)
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-319 April 2001


Publ.-Id: 4049 - Permalink

Charge State Distributions of Heavy Ions after Scattering at Surface atoms
Klein, C.; Grötzschel, R.; Mäder, M.; Möller, W.;
The charge-state distributions of Li, C, and F ions after a single collision with Au atoms deposited at a sub-monolayer coverage on Si were measured at energies below 500 keV/amu and compared to the equilibrium charge-state distributions. The influence of the surface on the charge state of the outgoing ions is demonstrated for Li ions at 3 MeV. It is found that the charge state distribution does not generally reach equilibrium after a single collision.
Keywords: Ion-atom collisions; Charge exchange; Charge State Distribution; High resolution RBS
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Cairns, Australia, 15-20 July 2001, published as a special volume of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis, Cairns, Australia, 15-20 July 2001, published as a special volume of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B

Publ.-Id: 4048 - Permalink

TOPFLOW - eine neue Mehrzweckthermohydraulikversuchsanlage zur Untersuchung transienter Zweiphasenströmungen
Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Weiß, F.-P.; Hicken, E. F.;
In dem Vortrag wird der Stand der Arbeiten zur Errichtung der Versuchsanlage TOPFLOW (Transient Two Phase Flow Test Facility) präsentiert. Hierbei werden u.a. das Design der Anlage, die geplanten Experimente, die Dokumentation, das Internetprotal sowie der Zeitplan im Detail vorgestellt.
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar des Lehrstuhls für Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 03.07.2001

Publ.-Id: 4047 - Permalink

Untersuchung von Zweiphasenströmungen in vertikalen Rohren
Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Prasser, H.-M.; Lucas, D.;
Im Rahmen des Seminars des Lehrstuhls Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme der Ruhr-Universität Bochum wurden ausgewählte experimentelle Untersuchungen von aufwaertsgerichteten Luft-Wasser Strömungen in vertikalen Rohren vorgestellt. Ein besonderes Kennzeichen dieser Untersuchungen ist der Einsatz von fortschrittlicher Zweiphasenmesstechnik, die am Institut für Sicherheitsforschung entwicklet wird.
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar des Lehrstuhls Nukleare und Neue Energiesysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum 03.07.2001

Publ.-Id: 4046 - Permalink

OECD/CSNI ISP NR. 43 Rapid Boron Dilution Transient Tests For Code Verification Post Test Calculation With CFX-4
Gavrilas, M.; Höhne, T.;
The need of the experimental support for validation of the computational tools to be applied to analyze the mixing of diluted slugs has been recognized in various countries. The test series for the International Standard Problem ISP-43 provides a platform for experiences to be applied to the simulation of a well-defined test series. Test A and B of the UM2x4 loop test facility were calculated with the CFD Code CFX-4.3. Sensitivity studies were made to analyze the used turbulence model and numerical errors. The results show good agreement with the experimental data for both tests.
Keywords: Boron Dilution, PWR, Coolant Mixing
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-325 Juli 2001


Publ.-Id: 4045 - Permalink

Application of CFX for modelling of natural convection and of subcooled boiling
Krepper, E.;
The paper comprises a short overview about the work in the Institute of Safety Research on CFD-modelling of natural convection and on subcooled boiling
  • CFX-Update No.22, Autumn 2002, p. 27

Publ.-Id: 4044 - Permalink

Pages: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120] [121] [122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] [163] [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] [173] [174] [175] [176] [177] [178] [179] [180] [181] [182] [183] [184] [185] [186] [187] [188] [189] [190] [191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] [206] [207] [208] [209] [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216] [217] [218] [219] [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] [225] [226] [227] [228] [229] [230] [231] [232] [233] [234] [235] [236] [237] [238] [239] [240] [241] [242] [243] [244] [245] [246] [247] [248] [249] [250] [251] [252] [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [261] [262] [263]