Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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34121 Publications

Hochauflösende Gittersensoren für Gas-Flüssig-Strömungen

Prasser, H.-M.; Böttger, A.; Zschau, J.

Der beschriebene Gittersensor wurde für eine schnelle Visualisierung von transienten Gasgehaltsverteilungen in einer Zweiphasenströmung entwickelt. Er basiert auf der Messung der momentanen örtlichen elektrischen Leitfähigkeit des Zweiphasengemischs. Der Sensor besteht aus zwei dicht hintereinander angeordneten Elektrodengittern mit jeweils 16 Elektroden. Die Messung erfolgt an den Kreuzungspunkten der Elektroden, d.h. an 16 x 16 Messpunkten, die gleichmäßig über die Querschnittsfläche des Strömungskanals verteilt sind. Die Zeitauflösung des Gerätes beträgt 1024 Messungen in der Sekunde.

Keywords: two-phase flow; conductivity; gas fraction; void fraction; sensor; high-speed visualisation; high-speed measurement

  • MSR Magazin (1998)H. 1-2, S. 12-15

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3310
Publ.-Id: 3310


Energieertrag von netzgekoppelten Photovoltaikanlagen

Rindelhardt, U.; Teichmann, G.

Zur Bewertung des Energieertrages einer PV-Anlage ist das Performance Ratio der entscheidende Parameter. Die Einführung des Generatorfaktors als Verhältnis der Generator-Nennleistung und der nominalen Generatorleistung ermöglicht eine einfache Interpretation des Performance Ratio und zugleich die einfache Bestimmung der Generator-Nennleistung aus gemessenen PR-Werten.

  • Erneuerbare Energien Heft 5(Mai)2000, S.50-52

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3309
Publ.-Id: 3309


Creep Modelling for Complex Geometries with Highly Non-uniform Temperature Fields

Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.

Considering the hypothetical accident scenario of a core melt down for a Light Water Reactor the behaviour of the Reactor Pressure Vessel has to be investigated. Therefore the FOREVER-experiments (Failure Of Reactor VEssel Retention) are currently underway. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel under the load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. The geometrical scale of the experiments is 1:10 compared to a common Light Water Reactor.
Due to the multiaxial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a non-uniform temperature field these experiments are an excellent possibility to validate numerical creep models which are developed on the basis of uniaxial creep tests.
Therefore a Finite Element model is developed on the basis of the comercial multi-purpose code ANSYS/Multiphysics®. Using the
Computational Fluid Dynamic module the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical
calculations are performed applying a creep model which is able to take into account great temperature, stress and strain variations within the model domain. The new numerical approach avoids the use of a single creep law with constants evaluated for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a discrete creep data base is developed where pairs of strain and strain rate are stored for each temperature-stress combination. The creep strain increment is evaluated by linear or non-linear interpolation. Performing calculations for the FOREVER experiments gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    26. MPA-Seminar "Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit in der Energietechnik", Staatliche Materialprüfanstalt Stuttgart, Proc. S. 9.1-9.13, 5.-6.10.2000, Stuttgart
  • Contribution to proceedings
    26. MPA-Seminar "Sicherheit und Verfügbarkeit in der Energietechnik", Staatliche Materialprüfanstalt Stuttgart, Proc. S. 9.1-9.13, 5.-6.10.2000, Stuttgart

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3307
Publ.-Id: 3307


Study of the Foaming Behaviour of a Bubble Column

Kern, T.; Prasser, H.-M.

The effect of different alcohols on gas hold-up and bubble size in a semi-batch bub-ble column has been investigated. Even little amounts of alcohols added to the liquid preserve the homogeneous bubble flow up to higher gas velocities and gas hold-ups (up to 50 %). For a detailed description it is necessary to divide the flow into two flow regimes - bubble flow and foam. This work presents results from comparative meas-urements with three different methods: needle probes, gamma-densitometry and high speed video observation. The obtained information was used to check the qual-ity of existing foam models. It was found that the vertical gas hold-up profiles in wet unstable alcoholic foams deviate from the theoretical predictions closely above the bubble flow region and again at the top of the foam layer. The first is caused by the effect of inertia hindering the drainage additionally to the viscosity effects, the sec-ond is a consequence of the progressing coalescence. There is a need to improve the existing models for the application in wet unstable foams.

Keywords: bubble flow; foam; gas hold-up; bubble size; coalescence; model

  • Poster
    5th German-Japanese Symposium "Bubble Columns", 28-30 May 2000, Dresden, Germany, proceedings pp. 162-167.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th German-Japanese Symposium "Bubble Columns", 28-30 May 2000, Dresden, Germany, proceedings pp. 162-167.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3306
Publ.-Id: 3306


RADIOLABELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS: SYNTHESIS OF [14C]PCB CONGENERS 11 AND 77

Bubner, M.; Meyer, M.; Heise, K.-H.; Jander, R.; Matucha, M.; Vlaskova, V.; Fuksova, K.; Nitsche, H.

The synthesis is described of uniformly 14C-labelled PCB-congeners starting with [14C]benzene (1) via [14C]nitrobenzene (2), [14C]hydrazobenzene (3), [14C]benzidine dihydrochloride (4), N,N'-diacetyl-[14C]benzidine (5), 3,3'-dichloro-N,N'-diacetyl-[14C]benzidine (6), and 3,3'-dichloro-[14C]benzidine dihydrochloride (7). Elimination of the amino groups from 7 leads to [14C]PCB No. 11 (8), and their substitution by chlorine alternatively to [14C]PCB No.77 (9) /1/. Yields obtained for 8 and 9 are 20 % and 30 %, respectively. The specific activity of the products was 1.2 GBq/mmol. This approach, avoiding the isolation of free [14C]benzidine, may allow the synthesis of PCBs with higher specific activity. The described methods are also applicable to 13C-labelling. From the results of capillary GC-MS analysis /2/ of the unrefined PCBs, conclusions may be drawn about the course of chlorinating the 5: 87 % in 3,3'-position, 6 % in 3,3',5-position, 5 % in 3-position and only 2 % in 2,3'-position.
Because only negligible amounts of position isomers are produced by this method of preparation, the reaction products can be purified much easier with HPLC-techniques than the products obtained from other syntheses.




  • Poster 7 th Int. Symposium on Synth. and Appl. 18.-22.6.2000; und Journal of Labelled Compds. Radiopharm.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3305
Publ.-Id: 3305


Institute of Radiochemistry Annual Report 1999

Bernhard, G.; Engelmann, H.-J.

FZR-Report

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-285 März 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3304
Publ.-Id: 3304


Measurement of Bubble Size Distributions with Wire-Mesh Sensors

Prasser, H.-M.; Zippe, C.

The presented wire-mesh sensor produces sequences of instantaneous gas fraction distributions in a cross section with a time resolution of 1200 frames per second and a spatial resolution of about 2-3 mm. At moderate flow velocities (up to 1-2 m/s), bubble size distributions can be obtained, since each individual bubble is mapped in several successive distributions. The method was used to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution in a vertical two-phase flow. In order to assess the accuracy of the described method, a transparent flow channel with an integrated wire-mesh sensor was built. The interaction of gas bubbles with the electrode wires was visually observed. A high-speed video camera was used to record the contact of bubbles with the sensor. The video sequences are compared with the synchronously recorded sensor data. Conclusions are drawn concerning the distortion of the flow by the sensor and the accuracy of the measured gas fractions and bubble size distributions.

Keywords: two-phase flow; measuring technique; wire-mesh sensor; transient flow; bubble size distribution; high-speed

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th German/Japanese Symposium "Bubble Columns", Dresden, May 28 - 30, 2000
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th German/Japanese Symposium "Bubble Columns", Dresden, May 28 - 30, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3303
Publ.-Id: 3303


Crystal-GRID: What can we learn about interatomic solid state potentials?

Hauschild, T.; Jentschel, M.; Börner, H. G.; Heinig, K.-H.; Möller, W.

Crystal-GRID is a new and complementary method for studying interatomic solid state potentials in the energy range 1 eV to 1 keV. Due to a neutron capture induced photon emission an atom of the crystal starts moving with an energy of some hundreds of eV. Information on the movement of this nuclear probe can be read out by measuring the Doppler shift of a second in-flight emitted photon. The amount of information depends strongly on the nuclear level lifetime in between the two photon emissions and on the interatomic interaction. Systematic theoretical investigations will be presented showing under which requirements, e.g. for count rates or lifetimes, interatomic potentials can be investigated. Experimental results for ZnS and TiO2 will be presented. In these cases it was possible to simultaneously extract the nuclear level lifetime and the screening length of the screened Coulomb potential.

  • Poster
    DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 27.-31.03.2000, Regensburg

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3301
Publ.-Id: 3301


Beamline-Instrumentierung und Experimentautomatisierung fuer ROBL an der ESRF/Grenoble (F)

Oehme, W.; Dienel, S.; Proehl, D.; Matz, W.; Reich, T.; Schell, N.; Bernhard, G.; Krug, H.; Reichel, P.; Strauch, U.; Prokert, F.; Claussner, J.; Funke, H.; Neumann, W.; Brendler, V.; Hennig, C.; Berberich, F.

Durch das Forschungszentrum Rossendorf wurde in den Jahren 1996-1998 ein eigenes Strahlrohr fuer Experimente mit Synchrotronstrahlung an der ESRF (European Synchrotron Radioation Facility) in Grenoble/Frankreich aufgebaut. Das Strahlrohr verfuegt ueber zwei alternativ nutzbare Messplaetze fuer die Untersuchung von radioaktiven Proben mittels Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie und fuer Materialstrukturuntersuchungen mit Roentgendiffraktion.
Der Bericht konzentriert sich auf die Arbeiten, die fuer die Steuerung der Optik und die Nutzung der Messplaetze hinsichtlich der Elektronik, Rechentechnik und Software erforderlich waren. Nach einer Beschreibung der Randbedingungen und einer Kurzcharakteristik der geraetetechnischen Basis werden wichtige Hardwarekomponenten fuer die Instrumentierung der Systeme vorgestellt. Die rechentechnische Basis wird anschliessend beschrieben. Die angewendeten Software-Grundprinzipien werden erlaeutert und diskutiert sowie an einigen Applikationen beispielhaft verdeutlicht. Abschliessend werden spezifische Probleme bei der Programmierung von Applikationen mit grafischer Bedienoberflaeche in Verbindung mit Geraetezugriffen behandelt. Tabellen, in denen die benutzten Hardware-Module und die Softwarekomponenten zusammengestellt sind, ermoeglichen einen Ueberblick ueber das Gesamtsystem. Das Literaturverzeichnis dient als Leitfaden fuer die Detaildokumentationen.

Keywords: Strahlrohr; Beamline ROBL; Interlock-System; Beamline-Instrumentierung; Experimentautomatisierung; Monochromator; Spiegel; Strahllagemonitor; Blende; Strahlschwächer; Handschuhbox; Goniometer; VME-System; OS-9; Solaris; OSF/Motif; spec Device-Server

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-291 März 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3300
Publ.-Id: 3300


The transformation of ß-FeSi2 under Ar ion bombardment studied by XPS, AES and Mössbauer spectroscopy

Reiche, R.; Oswald, S.; Wetzig, K.; Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.; Walterfang, M.

Irradiation effects on iron disilicide layers were induced by 3.5 keV argon ion bombardment and studied by XPS, AES and the Mössbauer spectroscopy. The use of these electron spectroscopies enables the investigation of different regions of the altered layer.

Keywords: Iron disilicides; ion bombardment; AES; XPS; Mossbauer spectroscopy

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 160 (2000) 397 - 407

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3299
Publ.-Id: 3299


Influence of Phenolic OH Groups on Humic Acid Complexation with Uranium(VI)

Pompe, S.; Schmeide, K.; Bubner, M.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K. H.; Choppin, G. R.; Bernhard, G.

The study of the interaction processes between humic acids (HAs) and actinide ions is important for a reliable long-term risk assessment with regard to the behavior of actinides in the environment. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of HAs the description of their complex formation with metal ions is difficult and not completely understood up to now.
To further improve the understanding of the HA-metal ion-interaction we studied the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of HAs with uranium(VI) using chemically modified HAs with blocked phenolic OH groups (synthetic HA type M1 and natural HAs Aldrich and Kranichsee). These modified HAs were synthesized by permethylation of the original HAs with diazomethane, and subsequent alkaline saponification of the permethylated HAs. The modified and unmodified HAs were characterized regarding their functional group content. Extensive comparative 13C-CP/MAS-NMR measurements were performed to verify the modification process and to detect whether or not significant structural changes of the HAs had occurred during their modification. The complexation behavior of the modified HAs with UO22+ at pH 4 was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and compared with the results of the UO22+ complexation of the original, unmodified HAs.
The NMR spectra of chemically modified 13C-labeled synthetic HAs type M1 as well as of the modified HAs with carbon-13 at natural abundance level have shown that the permethylation of the HAs with diazomethane and the subsequent alkaline saponification causes the intended structural changes on carboxyl and acidic OH groups. No significant structural changes of the HAs occur during modification.
For all HAs we determined comparable complexation constants by TRLFS. However, significant lower loading capacities with UO22+ were determined for the modified HAs type M1 and Aldrich (10.5 ± 0.9 % and 9.7 ± 1.6 %, respectively) than for the corresponding original, unmodified HAs (18.0 ± 2.0 % and 17.5 ± 1.6 %, respectively). That indicates a lower amount of maximal available complexing sites of the modified HAs compared to the unmodified HAs. Hence, it can be concluded that the modification of phenolic OH groups changes the complexation behavior of HAs with UO22+. Already at pH 4, phenolic OH groups contribute to the interaction between HA and UO22+ ions.

Keywords: Huminsäuren; Komplexierung; Uran; phenolische OH Gruppen; Modifizierung; NMR-Spektroskopie

  • Poster
    30ièmes Journées des Actinides, Dresden, Germany, 04.-06.05.2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3297
Publ.-Id: 3297


Temperature dependence of the electric characteristics of liquid metal alloy ion sources

Bischoff, L.; Teichert, J.; Ganetsos, T.; Mair, G. L. R.

In spite of the fact that a great deal of research has been carried out on liquid metal ion sources, surprisingly few results exist on the temperature dependence of their electric characteristics. In this article we study two liquid metal alloy ion sources (LMAISs), namely Co36Nd64 and Au77Ge14 Si9. While the results of the former alloy were as expected, the latter displayed an entirely different dependence of its electric characteristics on temperature. The unusual results of the Au77Ge14Si9 LMAIS are explained in terms of the abnormal behaviour of its surface tension coefficient with temperature.

Keywords: liquid metal alloy ion source; temperature dependence; surface tension

  • J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 33 (2000) 692 - 695

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3296
Publ.-Id: 3296


Uranium(VI) and Humic Acid Sorption onto Phyllite and Ferrihydrite

Schmeide, K.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K. H.; Bernhard, G.

We studied the sorption of uranium and humic acid onto phyllite and ferrihydrite both by steady-state experiments in the pH range 3.5 to 9.5 and by kinetic experiments at pH 6.5. Furthermore, the sorption of uranium onto ferrihydrite in the presence of humic acid was studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS).
Phyllite was used as site-specific rock material because it is closely associated with uranium deposits of the former uranium mining areas in East Germany. Ferrihydrite is known to be formed as secondary mineral phase due to weathering of phyllite. Its sorption behavior was therefore studied and compared to that of phyllite. As humic acid, we applied both a natural humic acid (Kranichsee HA) and a 14C-labeled synthetic humic acid (14C-M1).
The steady-state experiments have shown that humic acid is strongly taken up by both solids over the entire pH range. The uranium sorption is affected both by the pH and by the presence of organic material.
The kinetic experiments have shown that sorption of uranium and humic acid onto phyllite and ferrihydrite is rapid. The initial uranium sorption rates depend on the sequence of addition of uranium and humic acid. For ferrihydrite the initial uranium sorption rate decreases with increasing amounts of uranyl humate complexes in solution. For phyllite the dependence of the uranium sorption rate on the sequence of addition of uranium and humic acid does not exhibit a clear pattern which is attributed to the complex nature of the phyllite rock. The results have shown that the amount of uranium sorbed on solids in equilibrium is determined by the total number of surface sites and by their affinity and accessibility to solutes.
The results of the steady-state and the kinetic experiments show that the sorption behavior of phyllite for uranium and humic acid is dominated by small amounts of ferrihydrite. We conclude that the uranium mobility in an environment with phyllite as a major constituent is controlled by its sorption onto amorphous iron minerals.

  • Poster
    30ièmes Journées des Actinides, Dresden, Germany, 04.-06.05.2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3295
Publ.-Id: 3295


RoSiB - a 4 PI silicon ball for charged-particle detection in EUROBALL

Pausch, G.; Prade, H.; Sobiella, M.; Schnare, H.; Schwengner, R.; Käubler, L.; Borcan, C.; Ortlepp, H.-G.; Oehmichen, U.; Grawe, H.; Schubart, R.; Gerl, J.; Cederkäll, J.; Johnson, A.; Kerek, A.; Klamra, W.; Moszyski, M.; Wolski, D.; Kapusta, M.; Axelsson, A.; Weiszflog, M.; Härtlein, T.; Pansegrau, D.; de Angelis, G.; Ashrafi, S.; Likar, A.; Lipoglavsek, M.

A 4 PI silicon ball for detection and identification of light charged particles in large multidetector -arrays as
EUROBALL is presented. The design is based on a N=42 ball with 12 pentagons and 30 hexagons as used in the
GASP array. The absorptive material for -rays is minimized to the detector thickness of 300 or 500µm and a
0.63 mm ceramic backing. The geometrical coverage is designed for about 90% of 4. A pulse shape
discrimination method with totally depleted detectors working in the reverse mount allows identifying protons
and -particles above an energy threshold of about 2MeV. The performances of the ball were tested at the
tandem - booster accelerator combination of the MPI Heidelberg in two experiments using the high-recoil
reaction of 228MeV 58Ni+46Ti and the low-recoil reaction of 95MeV 16O+58Ni. The two-dimensional spectra of
zero-crossing (ZC) versus energy confirmed an excellent discrimination of protons and -particles in all the
detectors at different angles. The energy spectra of protons and -particles measured in the experiments are
presented, too. The -spectra measured in coincidence with various combinations of emitted particles showed a
high selectivity of the ball. The reduced total efficiency for protons of 59% and 55% and -particles of 44% and
32% measured in a nuclear spectroscopy application is analyzed in a Monte-Carlo simulation (GEANT). It is
due to a combined influence of a thick target needed to stop the recoiling residual nuclei and thick absorbers
needed to protect the Si-detectors from scattered beam. The results along with the GEANT extrapolation to
optimum experimental conditions confirm that RoSiB is a highly efficient and selective device for identification
of rare reaction channels with heavy ions.

Keywords: EUROBALL Si-ball; Charged particle; detection; Pulse shape discrimination with Si-detectors

  • Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research Section A, Vol. 443 (2-3) (2000) pp. 304-318

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3294
Publ.-Id: 3294


3D-Kernberechnungen bei Borverdünnung nach kleinen Lecks

Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.; Tietsch, W.

Im Rahmen einer umfassenden Untersuchung zur inhärenten Borverdünnung nach kleinen Primärkühlmittelsystemlecks für die Anlage Mülheim-Kärlich wurde als konservatives Störfallszenario mit dem größten Kondensatanfall das 20 cm2-Leck in der kalten Hauptkühlmittelleitung hinter der Hauptkühlmittelpumpe ermittelt. Der Borverdünnungsprozeß und die Verlagerung des deborierten Kondensatvolumens zum Kern durch Naturumlauf wurde in thermohydraulischen Systemanalysen detailliert berechnet. Die Mischung des Kondensats nach dem Eindringen in den Reaktordruckbehälter mit der Hochdruckeinspeisung wurde durch Experimente an einer skalierten Versuchsanlage ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse dieser Versuche wurden für eine 3-dimensionale neutronenkinetische dynamische Kernanalyse benutzt. Diese Analyse zeigte, daß der Kern bei dem konservativen Störfallszenario wieder kritisch wird und kurzzeitig Leistung erzeugt, aber eine sehr große Marge zu einzuhaltenden Schutzziel besteht. Weder die Integrität der Brennstofftabletten noch die Integrität der Hüllrohre ist zu irgendeinem Zeitpunkt gefährdet, wie eine abschließende Heißkanalanalyse zeigt, die ein minimales DNB-Verhältnis von 1,53 ausweist.

Keywords: Kernreaktor; Borverdünnung; thermohydraulische Systemanalyse; kleines Leck; Primärkreislauf; Naturumlauf; Vermischung; Vermischungsexperiment; 3-dimensionales Kernmodell; Heißkanalanalyse; DNB-Verhältnis

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Tagungsband der Fachtagung der KTG: "Wechselwirkungen Neutronenphysik und Thermofluiddynamik", pp. 5-26 bis 5-38, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 31. Januar - 1. Februar 2000
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Tagungsband der Fachtagung der KTG: "Wechselwirkungen Neutronenphysik und Thermofluiddynamik", pp. 5-26 bis 5-38, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 31. Januar - 1. Februar 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3293
Publ.-Id: 3293


Synchrotron radiation studies of thin films and implanted layers with the Materials Research Endstation of ROBL

Schell, N.; Matz, W.; Prokert, F.; Eichhorn, F.; Berberich, F.

An overview of the beamline design is given. The basic experimental equipment of the materials research hutch (MRH), i.e. the special six-circle diffractometer for heavy duty, a beam-deflector for investigations of liquids with free surfaces, special sample environments (high-temperature chambers) and the various detector systems (scintillator, photo-diode, 2-dim. CCD camera) will be described.

As represantative results so far obtained at ROBL-MRH the following scientific topics of the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf are presented in more detail:

 Stress relaxation and precipitation of SiC in Si implanted with C;
 X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering on Co/Cu-multilayers near the absorption edges;
 Phase transformations studied in-situ during annealing of Ti4Al6V implanted with nitrogen.

Keywords: synchrotron radiation; X-ray diffraction; X-ray reflectometry

  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 328 (2001) 105-111

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3292
Publ.-Id: 3292


PET zur in-situ Dosislokalisation bei der Schwerionen-Tumortherapie

Hinz, R.; Enghardt, W.; Hasch, B. G.; Lauckner, K.; Pawelke, J.; Pönisch, F.; Sobiella, M.


Ziel:
Bei der Präzisionstherapie von Schädelbasis-Tumoren mit Strahlen beschleunigter Kohlenstoffionen wird bei jeder Therapiefraktion eine Kontrolle der Dosisdeposition unter Ausnutzung der bei der Bestrahlung erzeugten Positronenemitter vorgenommen.
Methodik:
Durch nukleare Fragmentierungsreaktionen zwischen einem Teil der stabilen 12C-Ionen des Therapiestrahles und Atomen des Körpergewebes wird eine charakteristische räumliche und zeitliche Positronenemitterverteilung im Körper des Patienten erzeugt. Eine aus zwei Detektorköpfen bestehende Positronenkamera, die direkt am Bestrahlungsplatz installiert wurde, detektiert während und wenige Minuten nach der etwa zehnnminütigen Bestrahlung eines Feldes mit einer Dosis von ungefähr 0,5 Gray einige zehntausend Koinzidenzereignsse. Da die Verteilungen von Dosis und vom stabilen Strahl erzeugter Aktivität voneinander abweichen, ist eine Berechnung der erwarteten Aktivitätsverteilung für den Vergleich mit der Messung erforderlich. Wegen der sehr geringen Zahl von Ereignissen und des im eingeschränkten Winkelbereich arbeitenden Tomographen erfolgt die Bildrekonstruktion iterativ nach der Maximum-Likelihood-Methode.
Ergebnisse:
Beim deutschen Schwerionentherapie-Pilotprojekt wurden bisher ca. 50 Patienten bei der Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt behandelt. Dabei erwies sich die in-situ Kontrolle mittels PET als ein wertvolles Werkzeug für die Verifikation der Bestrahlungspläne. Darüber hinaus wurden Beiträge zu einer Verbesserung der Kalibrierung zwischen CT-Hounsfield-Einheiten und dem Schwerionen-Bremsvermögen geliefert, die Grundlage für die Bestrahlungsplanung ist.
Schlussfolgerungen:
Um dem Anspruch nach höchstmöglicher Präzision bei der Schwerionentherapie gerecht zu werden, ist ein in-situ Monitoring jeder einzelnen Therapiefraktion mit PET unverzichtbar. Bei der gegenwärtigen Planung der klinischen Einrichtung zur Krebsbehandlung mit Ionenstrahlen wird der PET zur Therapiekontrolle ein wichtiger Stellenwert zugemessen.

Keywords: PET; Kohlenstoffionen; Therapiekontrolle

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nuklearmedizin 2000 - Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der Deutschen, Österreichischen und Schweizerischen Gesellschaften für Nuklearmedizin, München 29.03. - 01.04.2000
    Nuklearmedizin, Vol. 39(2000)A45
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Nuklearmedizin 2000 - Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der Deutschen, Österreichischen und Schweizerischen Gesellschaften für Nuklearmedizin, München 29.03. - 01.04.2000
    Nuklearmedizin, Vol. 39(2000)A45

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3291
Publ.-Id: 3291


Modeling of Condensation in Horizontal Tubes

Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Fjodorow, A.; Gocht, U.; Lischke, W.

The condensation in horizontal tubes plays an important role e.g. for the determination of the operation mode of horizontal steam generators of VVER reactors or passive safety systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Two different approaches (HOTKON and KONWAR) for modeling this process have been undertaken by Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz (HTWS) and implemented into the 1D-thermohydraulic code ATHLET, which is developed by the Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH for the analysis of anticipated and abnormal transients in light water reactors.
Although the improvements of the condensation models are developed for different applications (VVER steam generators - emergency condenser of the SWR1000) with strongly different operation conditions (e.g. the temperature difference over the tube wall in HORUS is up to 30 K and in NOKO up to 250 K, the heat flux density in HORUS is up to 40 kW/m² and in NOKO up to 1 GW/m²) both models are now compared and assessed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf FZR e.V. Therefore post test calculations of four selected HORUS experiments were performed with ATHLET/KONWAR. It can be seen that the calculations with the extension KONWAR as well as HOTKON improve significantly the agreement between computational and experimental data.

Keywords: VVER Steam Generators; Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes; ATHLET

  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 204 Issue 1-3 (2001) 251-265

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3290
Publ.-Id: 3290


Auswirkungen unterschiedlicher Rekonstruktionsparameter auf die Bildqualität bei der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET)

Kutzner, H.; Linemann, H.; Will, E.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.


Einleitung:
Bei Patienten mit onkologischer Fragestellung wurde die Abhängigkeit der Bildqualität von Rekonstruktionsparametern und Filtereinstellungen bei der iterativen Bildrekonstruktion (OSEM) und gefilterten Rückprojektion (FBP) an der PET-Kamera ECAT EXACT HR+ und der Software ECAT V7.1 (CTI/Siemens) untersucht. Für Patienten mit unterschiedlichem Körpergewicht bestimmten wir den Einfluß der Glättung durch verschiedene Gaußfilterbreiten auf die visuelle Bildqualität.

Durchführung:
Ausgehend von der Standardkonfiguration für die Einstellung der Rekonstruktions- und Filterparameter wurden bei einem Patienten mit 18F-FDG speichernden kleinen Metastasen die Anzahl der Iterationen und Subsets variiert. Bei der FBP wurde der Einfluß der Cut-Off-Frequenzen des HANNING-Filter untersucht. Die Wirkung der Gaußfilterbreite (Ganzkörper-Protokoll) auf die visuelle Bildqualität wurde bei einem Patienten mit abgegrenzter Metastase, bei Ganzkörperaufnahmen und bei Patienten mit unterschiedlichen Körpergewichten untersucht.

Ergebnisse:
Standardmäßig erfolgt die Rekonstruktion (OSEM) bei einer Iteration und 24 Subsets. Eine Erhöhung der Anzahl von Iterationen bei einer Verringerung der Subsetzahl brachte keine Verbesserung der Bildqualität (Untergrundrauschen, Detailerkennbarkeit), nur ein Verlängerung der Rechenzeit. Eine Variation der Subsetzahl bei einer Iteration zeigte ein Optimum bei 1:24. Die optimale Breite des Gaussfilters bei der abgegrenzten Metastase und bei Patienten mit 50 kg Körpergewicht lag etwa bei 5mm, bei 60-70 kg etwa 7mm, bei 130 kg 9 mm. Die mit veränderten Cut-Off-Frequenzen FBP rekonstruierten Bilder zeigten bei Frequenzen unter 0,3 eine verminderte Detailerkennbarkeit.

Schlussfolgerung:
Eine gute Darstellung wird bereits bei einer Iteration mit 24 Subsets erreicht. Die Gaußfilterbreite sollte in Abhängigkeit vom Patientengewicht und Umfang zwischen 4 und 9 mm eingestellt werden. Die Optimierung der Rekonstruktionsparameter reduziert den Arbeitsaufwand bei bestmöglichster Bildqualität.

Keywords: PET; Rekonstruktionsparameter; Bildqualität

  • Poster
    Nuklearmedizin 2000,Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, München, 29.3-1.4.2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3289
Publ.-Id: 3289


Neue Instrumente der Kommunikation: Internet

Schaffrath, A.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.

Die Kerntechnische Gesellschaft hat die Notwendigkeit zu grundlegenden Reformen erkannt. In der Strategiediskussion "KTG nach 2000" sind hierzu wichtige Ziele sowie die zu Ihrer Umsetzung notwendigen Maßnahmen formuliert. In dem Strategiepapier fehlt jedoch eine klare Konzeption für die organisatorische Umsetzung. Der Vorstand der KTG unterschätzt bzw. verkennt hierbei die Möglichkeiten und Potentiale des Internets. Dies wiegt umso schwerer, da sich in den letzten Jahren der Umgang der Gesellschaft bei der Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung von Informationen dramatisch verändert hat. Um auch zukünftig in der Gesellschaft präsent und anerkannt zu sein, nach innen sowie außen wirken zu können und speziell Interessenten und Nachwuchs für die KTG anzusprechen und zu gewinnen, ist eine angemessene Internetpräsenz überlebensnotwendig.
Das Internet könnte bereits jetzt Briefe, Rundschreiben, Aushänge, Ankündigungen in der atw und Telephonate gänzlich ersetzen. Auch heute würde ein Verzicht auf diese Kommunikationsmittel die Arbeit der FG bzw. OS nur minimal beeinträchtigen. Denn die Erfahrung zeigt, das engagierte KTG-Mitglieder von sich aus den Kontakt zur FG bzw. OS suchen und pflegen.
Erste Experimente mit Webseiten einzelner Fachgruppen - wie z.B. am Forschungszentrum Rossendorf - zeigen eine äußerst positive Resonanz. Die Seiten werden von den Mitgliedern angenommen und finden selbst bei Nicht-KTG-Mitgliedern eine Resonanz. Die KTG im Internet sollte wesentlich mehr sein als eine nette bunte Webseite, der man Hinweise zu Tagungen und Veranstaltungen entnehmen bzw. über die man mit der Geschäftsstelle, den Vorständen oder Ausschüssen kommunizieren kann. Durch den Aufbau eines effektiven Intranets ließen sich viele der in dem Strategiepapier angesprochenen Maßnahmen umsetzen und Ressourcen einsparen. Zahlreiche Anregungen und Beispiele hierzu finden sich in dem vorliegenden Beitrag. Auch für die KTG gilt derzeit leider noch der aus der Werbung bekannte Satz "Wir haben ja schon immer gewußt, daß wir das Internet brauchen, nur nicht wie dringend".

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2000 - Fachsitzung "Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit - Communication with the Public"; Juni 2000, INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft, Bonn, S. 59-69
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2000 - Fachsitzung "Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit - Communication with the Public"; Juni 2000, INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft, Bonn, S. 59-69

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3288
Publ.-Id: 3288


Oxidation of innovative carbon based materials for future energy systems

Hinssen, H.-K.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Moormann, R.; Wu, C.-H.

Due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties C-based materials are used in High Temperature (HTR) and Fusion Reactor concepts for basic components: Fuel elements and reflectors of HTRs are made from graphite and in Fusion Reactors parts of the plasma facing components within the vacuum vessel consist of C-based materials. Because of their limited oxidation resistance at high temperatures accidents, leading to contact of oxidising gases (air or steam) with these carbon components, have to be considered in safety analyses. In addition, strength loss of carbon materials due to oxidation by impurities in cooling gas is an important aspect for HTR normal operation; accordingly, selection of carbon materials has to take into account their oxidation resistance.
This paper gives an overview on theoretical work and measurements in Jülich concerning oxidation kinetics of selected innovative C-based materials (graphite, CFC) with and without doping in oxygen (523 - 1223 K) and steam (1100 - 1523 K). Also data and theoretical models on depth of penetration of the oxidation process are presented. Data on oxidation induced release of hydrogen isotopes from redeposited a-C:H layers on first walls in fusion reactors are outlined, too.
Futheron, fields of insufficient knowledge are identified: These include data for an improved oxidation model considering both in-pore diffusion and chemical reaction and data/models on catalytic oxidation. Also, a lack of data on the Boudouard reaction, which has to be considered in course of air ingress accidents, was identified.

Keywords: carbon based materials; oxidation kinetic

  • Poster
    in: High Temperature Materials Chemistry, ed. by K. Hilpert, F.W. Froben, L. Singheiser, Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Series Energy Technology, (2000), Volume 10, ISBN 3-89336-259-2
  • Contribution to external collection
    in: High Temperature Materials Chemistry, ed. by K. Hilpert, F.W. Froben, L. Singheiser, Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich, Series Energy Technology, (2000), Volume 10, ISBN 3-89336-259-2

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3287
Publ.-Id: 3287


Measurement and Simulation of the Turbulent Dispersion of a Radioactive Tracer in a Two-Phase Flow System

Rohde, U.; Hensel, F.

Studies of the turbulent dispersion of a radiotracer in an experimental setup with natural convection liquid­gaseous flow were carried out. In a series of experiments, a liquid­gaseous bubbly flow was generated in a narrow tank by injection of pressurized air into water, or by catalytic disintegration of H2O2. A small amount of a positron emitting radiotracer liquid was injected instantaneously at a certain point of the tank. The Positron Emission Tomogaphy (PET) technique was used to observe the spreading of this tracer liquid in the bubbly flow. For that case a double head gamma detector array was used for measuring the positron annihilation rate which is proportional to the tracer concentration. From the experimental data the dispersion coefficient D for the tracer liquid was calculated, assuming an isotropic spreading of the concentration profile after separation of the linear displacement of the maximum concentration point.
Calculations for this two­phase flow with spreading tracer were carried out for selected experiments with air injection into water using the computational fluid dynamics code CFX­4.3. Here, the Euler­Euler continuum approach using a homogeneous low Reynolds number K,epsilon­model was applied. The evolution of the bubble size distribution (coalescence and break-up of the bubbles) was taken into consideration. A reasonable agreement was achieved between calculated and measured values of the turbulent dispersion coefficient D. A nearly linear correlation between the gas superficial velocity vgas and D was found in agreement with other authors.

Keywords: radioactive tracer; positron emmission tomography; two-phase flow; turbulent dispersion; CFD simulation

  • Poster
    5th German-japanese Symposium on Bubble Columns, May 28 - 30, 2000, Dresden Proc. pp. 235-240
  • Contribution to proceedings
    5th German-japanese Symposium on Bubble Columns, May 28 - 30, 2000, Dresden Proc. pp. 235-240

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3286
Publ.-Id: 3286


Shape of collective flow in highly central Au(150 A MeV)+Au collisions

Roy, C.; Kuhn, C.; Coffin, J. P.; Crochet, P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Maazouzi, C.; Rami, F.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, V.; Sodan, U.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; Konopka, J.; Stöcker, H.

Using the FOPI facility at GSI, charged particles (1\leqZ\leq6) produced in the Au(150 A MeV)+Au reaction have been measured at laboratory angles 1.20these central collisions, have been extracted: the intensity ratio deduced for a transverse to longitudinal emission is found to be R=1.4+0.2-0.4. Model comparisons using QMD are presented. The value of R appears to depend sensitively on the nucleon-nucleon cross section, nn. Within this model, a value of nn=25±5 mb is derived.

Keywords: PACS: 25.70.-z

  • Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei Table of Contents Abstract Volume 358 Issue 1 (1997) pp 73-80

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3285
Publ.-Id: 3285


Charged pion productionin Au on Au collisions at 1 AGeV

Pelte, D.; Häfele, E.; Best, D.; Goebels, G.; Herrmann, N.; Pinkenburg, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Trzaska, M.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Erö, E.; Eskef, M.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Gobbi, A.; Guillaume, G.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Lambrecht, D.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Merlitz, H.; Mösner, J.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Petrovici, M.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Sodan, U.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wang, G. S.; Wienold, T.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.

Charged pions are measured with the 4 pi detector FOPI at GSI using the Au on Au reaction at 1.06 AGeV bombarding energy. The pion multiplicities n(pi) increase with the number of participants A(part). The average pion multiplicities per participant are / = 0.0308 and / = 0.0182. These values are only half as large as extrapolated from the low-mass systems studied by Harris et al. The ratio n(pi-)/n(pi+) increases with A(part) and decreases with the pion kinetic energies. The pion kinetic energy spectra have concave shapes, their parametrization in terms of thermal Boltzmann distributions yields a low (T-l,T- pi) and high (T-h,T- pi) temperature which change with the cm emission angle Theta of the pions. In the angular range 45 degrees < Theta < 135 degrees the low temperature is larger than , the high temperatures , are, within experimental uncertainties, the same. The inclusive polar angular distributions of pions are anisotropic, d sigma/d Omega increases for forward and backward angles. The forward - backward enhancements are independent of the pion kinetic energies or the number of participants. In addition to the preferred forward - backward emission, also the enhanced emission into the transverse direction Theta = 90 degrees is observed for pions with high energies or for pions from near-central collisions. These observations and the shape of the rapidity spectra suggest that pions, emitted from the central rapidity region, are partly rescattered by spectator matter. The strength of the rescattering process depends only weakly on the number of participants. The experimental data are compared to the results of IQMD/GEANT calculations using momentum dependent NN interactions and a hard equation of state. The calculated pion multiplicities are approximately 50% larger than experimentally determined; the existence of secondary pion sources is reproduced by the calculation, but their predicted strengths are larger than experimentally observed.

Keywords: HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS; NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS; QUANTUM MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS; TRANSVERSE-MOMENTUM; AU+AU COLLISIONS; COLLECTIVE EXPANSION; FRAGMENT FORMATION; PARTICLE-EMISSION; ENERGY; MODEL

  • Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and Nuclei Abstract Volume 357 Issue 2 (1997) pp 215-234

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3284
Publ.-Id: 3284


K+ production in the reaction 58Ni+58Ni at incident energies from 1 to 2 A GeV

Best, D.; Herrmann, N.; Hong, B.; Kirejczyk, M.; Ritman, J.; Wisniewski, K.; Zhilin, A.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Leifels, Y.; Pinkenburg, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schüll, D.; Sodan, U.; Wang, G. S.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Berek, G.; Biegansky, J.; Cherbatchev, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fodor, Z.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Goebels, G.; Guillaume, G.; Häfele, E.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Maazouzi, C.; Manko, V.; Mösner, J.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pras, P.; Rami, F.; Roy, C.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Somov, A.; Tizniti, L.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wohlfarth, D.

Semi-inclusive triple differential multiplicity distributions of positively charged kaons have been measured over a wide range in rapidity and transverse mass for central collisions of 58Ni with 58Ni nuclei. The transverse mass (mt) spectra have been studied as a function of rapidity at a beam energy 1.93 A GeV. The mt distributions of K+ mesons are well described by a single Boltzmann-type function. The spectral slopes are similar to that of the protons indicating that rescattering plays a significant role in the propagation of the kaon. Multiplicity densities have been obtained as a function of rapidity by extrapolating the Boltzmann-type fits to the measured distributions over the remaining phase space. The total K+ meson yield has been determined at beam energies of1.06, 1.45, and 1.93 A GeV, and is presented in comparison to existing data. The low total yield indicates that the K+ meson can not be explained within a hadro-chemical equilibrium scenario, therefore indicating that the yield does remain sensitive to effects related to its production processes such as the equation of state of nuclear matter and/or modifications to the K+ dispersion relation.

Keywords: Kaon; Thermal model; Radial flow

  • Nuclear Physics A 625(1-2) (1997) 307-324

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3283
Publ.-Id: 3283


Out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions between 100 and 800 A MeV

Bastid, N.; Buta, A.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Blaich, T.; Caplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Dona, R.; Dzelalija, M.; Erö, E.; Fan, Z. G.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Gobbi, A.; Guillaume, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Jundt, F.; Keczkemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Krämer, M.; Kuhn, C.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Leifels, Y.; Maazouzi, C.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Roy, C.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Tizniti, L.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wagner, P.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.

We present new experimental results concerning the azimuthal distributions of proton-likes, light and intermediate mass fragments at midrapidity for Au(100-800 A MeV)+Au collisions measured with the FOPI phase-I detector at GSI in Darmstadt. The azimuthal distributions are investigated as a function of the collision centrality, the incident energy, the fragment charge and transverse momentum. The azimuthal anisotropy is maximum for impact parameters around 7 fm. Intermediate mass fragments present a stronger out-of-plane emission signal than light fragments and a saturation is reached for Z 4. The azimuthal anisotropy increases with the fragment transverse momentum and decreases as the incident energy increases. The azimuthal anisotropy of Z = 2 particles investigated as a function of the scaled fragment transverse momentum follows an universal curve for bombarding energies between 250-800 A MeV. A signature for a transition from in-plane to
out-of-plane emission is evidenced at the lowest beam energies.

Keywords: NUCLEAR REACTIONS Au (Au,X), E = 100-800 MeV/nucleon; measured fragment azimuthal anisotropy vs collision centrality, fragment charge, transverse momentum, incident energy; deduced in-plane to out-of-plane emission transition signature

  • Nuclear Physics A 622(4) (1997) 573-592

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3282
Publ.-Id: 3282


Central collisions of Au on Au at 150, 250 and 400 A·MeV

Reisdorf, W.; Best, D.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Leifels, Y.; Pinkenburg, C.; Ritman, J. L.; Schüll, D.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Berger, L.; Biegansky, J.; Bini, M.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Erö, J.; Eskef, M.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Goebels, G.; Guillaume, G.; Grigorian, Y.; Häfele, E.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Joriot, M.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Lambrecht, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, A.; Legrand, I.; Maazouzi, C.; Manko, V.; Matulewicz, T.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Merlitz, H.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Poggi, G.; Pras, P.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Roy, C.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Taccetti, N.; Tezkratt, R.; Tizniti, L.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.

Collisions of Au on Au at incident energies of 150, 250 and 400 A·MeV were studied with the FOPI-facility at GSI Darmstadt. Nuclear charge (Z15) and velocity of the products were detected with full azimuthal acceptance at laboratory angles 1lab30. Isotope separated light charged particles were measured with movable multiple telescopes in an angular range of 6-90. Central collisions representing about 1% of the reaction cross section were selected by requiring high total transverse energy, but vanishing side flow. The velocity space distributions and yields of the emitted fragments are reported. The data are analysed in terms of a thermal model including radial flow. A comparison with predictions of the quantum molecular model is presented.

Keywords: NUCLEAR REACTIONS Au(Au,X), E=150, 250, 400 MeV/nucleon; selected central collisions; measured fragment velocity vectors, charges and yields; deduced radial flow, chemical composition; comparison to statistical multifragmentation models, quantum molecular dynamics model

  • Nuclear Physics A 612(3-4) (1997) 493-556

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3281
Publ.-Id: 3281


Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Donà, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Delalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.



Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for
the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100A MeV
to 800A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and
squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward
lower beam energies for charged products with Z>= 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance
energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central
collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The
relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear
forces.

Keywords: Heavy ion collisions; Nuclear matter expansion; Sideward-flow; Squeeze-out; Radial flow; Balance energy; Transition energy

  • Nuclear Physics A 624(4) (1997) 755-772

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3280
Publ.-Id: 3280


Raman spectroscopic study Ag-, W- and Pd-Ions implanted polyimide films

Watanabe, H.; Takahashi, K.; Iwaki, M.

  • Contribution to external collection
    Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 354, p. 369-373, 1995 Materials Research Society

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3279
Publ.-Id: 3279


THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOXOURANIUM(VI) INVESTIGATED USING EXAFS AND 17O-NMR

Moll, H.; Reich, T.; Szabó, Z.

The hydrolysis of uranium(VI) has been the subject of extensive studies since 50 years and is relatively well-known under acidic and near-neutral conditions. A comprehensive discussion and review of the thermodynamic data is published in [1]. At total uranium(VI) concentrations above 10-4 M and in a slightly acidic (pH: 2 to 5) aqueous media, polymeric cations [e.g., (UO2)2(OH)22+, (UO2)3(OH)5+] are the major species. Structure investigations of such hydrolysis products of uranyl in solutions at environmental relevant uranium concentrations are rare [2].
We investigated the structure of dioxouranium(VI) as a function of pH at different (CH3)4N-OH concentrations with the aid of U LIII EXAFS. Polynuclear hydroxo species were identified by an U-U interaction at 3.808 Å at pH = 4.1.
The speciation of uranium(VI) in the neutral and slightly alkaline pH region is dominated by the precipitation of schoepite. The EXAFS measurements performed at the precipitate formed at pH = 7 showed a schoepite like structure.
The investigation of uranyl hydroxide complexes in alkaline solutions is challenging due to the formation of highly insoluble alkali metal mono- and polyuranate salts. Mononuclear species, UO2(OH)3- and UO2(OH)42-, have been identified mainly by solubility experiments [3] to be the major uranium(VI) complexes at pH > 12. Several attempts have been made to characterize the structure of uranyl complexes under highly alkaline conditions using potentiometric titrations, EXAFS, NMR techniques and quantum chemical methods [4-6]. In solution at high pH [0.5M (CH3)4N-OH], our EXAFS data are consistent with the formation of a monomeric four coordinated uranium(VI) hydroxide complex UO2(OH)42- of octahedral geometry. The first shell contains two O atoms with a U=O distance of 1.830 Å, and four O atoms were identified at a U-Oeq distance of 2.266 Å.
We have extended a previous study [6] by determining the structure of uranium(VI) at (CH3)4N-OH concentration below 1 M over a broad pH-range. The objective was to decide if binary polynuclear hydroxo species also occur in (CH3)4N-OH media. Additional information is provided by comparing the EXAFS results with new 17O-NMR measurements. In strong alkaline solutions [> 1 M (CH3)4N)-OH], 17O-NMR spectra indicate the presence of two species, presumably UO2(OH)42- and UO2(OH)53-, which are in rapid equilibrium with one another at 268 K in aqueous solution. New EXAFS and 17O-NMR data will be presented.

References
1. Grenthe, I., Fuger, J., Konings, R.J.M., Lemire, R.J., Muller, A.B., Nguyen-Trung C., Wanner, H., in: Wanner, H. and Forrest, I. (eds.): Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, NEA OECD, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, p. 241ff (1992).
2. Dent, A.J., Ramsay, J.D.F., Swanton, S.W.: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 150, 45-60 (1992).
3. Yamamura, T., Kitamura, A., Fukui, A., Nishikawa, S., Yamamoto, T., Moriyama, H.: Radiochim. Acta 83, 139-146 (1998).
4. Palmer, D.A., Nguyen-Trung, C.: J. Solution Chem. 24, 1281-1291 (1995).
5. Clark, D.L., Conradson, S.D., Donohoe, R.J., Keogh, D.W., Morris, D.E., Palmer, P.D., Rogers, R.D., Tait, C.D.: Inorg. Chem. 38, 1456-1466 (1999).
6. Wahlgren, U., Moll, H., Grenthe, I., Schimmelpfennig, B., Maron, L., Vallet, V., Gropen, O.: J. Phys. Chem. A103, 8257-8264 (1999).

Keywords: EXAFS; Uranyl; Hydrolysis; Structure; NMR

  • Poster
    30ièmes Journées des Actinides - 2000, Conference

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3277
Publ.-Id: 3277


Development of an Integral Finite Element Model for the Simulation of Scaled Core-Meltdown-Experiments

Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.

To get an improved understanding and knowledge of the processes and phenomena during the late phase of a core melt down accident the FOREVER-experiments (Failure of Reactor Vessel Retention) are currently underway. These experiments are simulating the lower head of a reactor pressure vessel under the load of a melt pool with internal heat sources. The geometrical scale of the experiments is 1:10 compared to a common Light Water Reactor. During the first series of experiments the Creep behaviour of the vessel is investigated.
Due to the multi-axial creep deformation of the three-dimensional vessel with a non-uniform temperature field these experiments are on the one hand an excellent possibility to validate numerical creep models which are developed on the basis of uniaxial creep tests. On the other hand the results of pre-test calculations can be used for an optimized experimental procedure.
Therefore a Finite Element model is developed on the basis of the multi-purpose commercial code ANSYS/Multiphysics®. Using the Computational Fluid Dynamic module the temperature field within the vessel wall is evaluated. The transient structural mechanical calculations are performed applying a creep model which is able to take into account great temperature, stress and strain variations within the model domain. The new numerical approach avoids the use of a single creep law with constants evaluated for a limited stress and temperature range. Instead of this a three-dimensional array is developed where the creep strain rate is evaluated according to the actual total strain, temperature and equivalent stress for each element.
Performing post-test calculations for the FOREVER-C2 experiment it was found that the assessment of the experimental data and of the numerical results has to be done very carefully. A slight temperature increase during the creep deformation stage of the experiment for example could explain the creep behaviour which appears to be tertiary because of the accelerating creep strain rate. Taking into account both - experimental and numerical results - gives a good opportunity to improve the simulation and understanding of real accident scenarios.

Keywords: Finite Element Calculations; FOREVER-Experiment; Coupling of Thermo-Fluid dynamic and Structural Mechanical Model; Advanced Creep Modelling

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-292 April 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3276
Publ.-Id: 3276


Common German/Russian Irradiation Experiment at Rheinsberg NPP - Results of the Mechanical Testing

Viehrig, H.-W.; Richter, H.; Böhmert, J.

A joint German/Russian irradiation programme was performed at the prototype pressurized water reactor VVER-2 of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant (Germany). The experiment comprises about 800 Charpy V-notch, SENB and CT specimens made from 24 different heats of Russian VVER type reactor pressure vessel base and weld metals. The testing of these specimens were performed at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), MPA Stuttgart and the KFA Jülich. This paper presents the results of Charpy V tests performed by FZR. On the base of these results the neutron embrittlement sensitivity and the annealing behaviour are evaluated.

Keywords: reactor pressure vessel steel; neutron embrittlement; Charpy V parameter; predicting formulas; transition temperature

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting held in Madrid, Spain 26-29 Aprill 1999, IAEA Working Document IWG-LMNPP-99/2, Vienna, Austria, pp. 271-282
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting held in Madrid, Spain 26-29 Aprill 1999, IAEA Working Document IWG-LMNPP-99/2, Vienna, Austria, pp. 271-282

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3275
Publ.-Id: 3275


Verfahren zur Implantation von Ionen in leitende bzw. halbleitende Werkstücke mittels PIII und Implantationskammer zur Durchführung des Verfahrens

Brutscher, J.; Günzel, R.

Der Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Implantation von Ionen gasförmiger Elemente in leitende bzw. halbleitende Werkstücke mittels Plasmaimmersionsimplantation ( PIII ) das ohne aufwendige Hochspannungspulser zu guten Implantationsergebnissen führt.
Das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren besteht darin, daß an die zu implantierenden Werkstücke eine DC-Hochspannung (Gleichspannung > 5kV ) angelegt und das Plasma gepulst wird.
Zur Erzeugung des Plasmas wird vorteilhaft eine Anordnung mit geheizten Filamenten oder eine ECR-Quelle eingesetzt. Das Plasma wird gepulst, indem die Bogenspannung an den Filamenten gepulst wird, oder aber der Mikrowellengenerator der ECR-Quelle im Pulsbetrieb betrieben wird.
Um zu verhindern, daß das das vom auf Hochspannung liegenden Werkstück ausgehende elektrische Feld bis auf die Ionenquelle durchgreift, dort den Austritt von Elektronen unterdrückt und die Zündung des Plasmas erschwert, wird die Plasmaquelle geometrisch so angeordnet bzw. gegenüber der Hochspannung abgeschirmt, daß der Durchgriff der Hochspannung auf die Plasmaquelle minimal ist. Konkret kann dies z.B. dadurch erfolgen, daß die Plasmaquelle an die Implantationskammer mit einem genügend tiefen Hals angeflanscht wird, oder daß zwischen Plasmaquelle und Werkstück in Abständen von einigen cm dünne geerdete Drähte gespannt werden.

  • Patent
    Deutsche Patentanmeldung DE 195 38 903 A1
  • Patent
    EP 0 786 792 A1

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3274
Publ.-Id: 3274


Double SIMOX Structures Formed by Sequential High Energy Oxygen Implantation into Silicon

Hatzopoulos, N.; Skorupa, W.; Siapkas, D. I.

  • Journal of the Electrochemical Society Vol. 147, No. 1,(2000), pp. 354

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3273
Publ.-Id: 3273


Workshop on X-rays from electron beams

Prade, H.

Workshop on X-rays from electron beams with special emphasis on possible developments at ELBE

Keywords: Radiation physics; radiobiology

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-287 Februar 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3272
Publ.-Id: 3272


Synthesis and binding affinities of novel Re-containing 7alpha-substituted estradiol complexes: Models for breast cancer imaging agents

Skaddan, M. B.; Wüst, F. R.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.

The diagnosis and staging of breast cancer could be improved by the development of imaging radiopharmaceuticals that provide a noninvasive determination of the estrogen receptor status in the tumor cells. Toward this goal, we have synthesized a number of novel Re-containing 7alpha-substituted estradiol complexes. The introduction of the 7alpha side chain involves the alkylation of tetrahydropyranyloxy-protected 6-keto estradiol. The methods used to introduce the rhenium metal involve "3+1" and "4+1" mixed ligand complexes (2a-c and 5, respectively), tricarbonyl dithioether complexes (3), and the cyclopentadienyltricarbonylmetal organometallic system (4ab, 6, 7). These complexes showed binding affinities for the estrogen receptor (as high as 45% for the "3+1" complex 2c) when compared to the native ligand estradiol. The polarity of some complexes (4ab) was modified to improve biodistribution properties by introducing (poly)ether linkages into the 7alpha side chain (6, 7). These complexes provide a further refinement of our understanding of ligand structure-binding affinity correlations for the estrogen receptor, and they furnish the synthetic groundwork for the synthesis of the analogous Tc-99m complexes for evaluation as breast tumor imaging agents.

  • J. Org. Chem. 64 (1999) Nr. 22, pp. 8108-8121

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3269
Publ.-Id: 3269


13C-CP/MAS-NMR Spectroscopy of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Synthetic and Natural Humic Acids

Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K. H.; Choppin, G. R.; Bernhard, G.

In a former study we investigated the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids (HAs) with uranium(VI) using chemically modified synthetic HA (type M1) as well as modified natural HAs (Aldrich and Kranichsee) with blocked phenolic OH groups. These modified HAs were synthesized by permethylation of the original HAs with diazomethane, which converts carboxyl groups to methyl esters and acidic (phenolic) OH groups to methyl ethers and subsequent alkaline saponification of the permethylated HAs. This results in the hydrolysis of ester groups, whereas phenolic OH groups remain blocked.
In continuation, we performed in the present study comparative 13C-CP/MAS-NMR measurements of the modified and unmodified HAs type M1, Aldrich and Kranichsee to verify that there are no significant structural changes of the HAs during their modification. We also studied NMR spectra of alkaline treated HAs type M1, Aldrich and Kranichsee to determine potential structural changes of the HAs which may occur during the alkaline treatment of the permethylated HAs. In addition to the modified and unmodified HAs with carbon-13 at natural abundance we investigated 13C-labeled modified HAs type M1 (permethylated, phenolic OH groups blocked, partly methylated) that were synthesized using [13C]diazomethane as methylation reagent. These studies were performed to verify the modification process and to determine which functional groups of the HAs show the highest affinity for methylation with diazomethane.
From our studies we conclude that only carboxyl and acidic (phenolic) OH groups are methylated with diazomethane, whereby carboxyl groups show the highest affinity for methylation. The alkaline hydrolysis of diazomethylated HAs results in HAs with blocked phenolic OH groups. No significant changes of the overall HA structure occur. This method offers the possibility to synthesize selective modified HAs that can be used to study the influence of various functional groups on the complexation behavior of HAs with metal ions.

Keywords: Huminsäuren; NMR-Spektroskopie; Modifizierung; Phenolische OH-Gruppen; Diazomethan; 13C-Markierung

  • Poster
    Symposium on Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment-ROSE II, 01.-03.08.2000, Universität Karlsruhe

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3268
Publ.-Id: 3268


Sorption Kinetics in the System Uranium / Sulfate / Humic acid / Ferrihydrite

Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K. H.; Bernhard, G.

We studied the influence of sulfate on the kinetics of uranium(VI) sorption onto ferrihydrite both in the absence and presence of humic acid at pH 6.5 under aerobic conditions since seepage waters from uranium mine tailing piles in Saxony and Thuringia (Germany) contain up to 3·10-2 M sulfate. The sequence in which sulfate, uranium and humic acid were added to the ferrihydrite suspensions was varied in order to obtain more detailed information on the sorption mechanisms. The uranium(VI) and humic acid concentration was 1·10-6 M and 5 mg/L, respectively. As humic acid, we applied the 14C-labeled synthetic humic acid 14C-M1. Two different sulfate concentrations were applied (0.005 and 0.02 M Na2SO4). The ionic strength was always 0.1 M.
The influence of sulfate, present at naturally relevant concentrations (0.005 or 0.02 M), on uranium sorption was found to be different in the absence and presence of humic material.
In the absence of humic acid, both the uranium sorption rate and the total uranium sorption in equilibrium decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. The reason is that the number of strong ferrihydrite sorption sites, accessible for uranium, is reduced upon sulfate adsorption. This leads to an increased availability of uranium.
In the presence of humic acid, and especially in the presence of higher amounts of uranyl humate complexes in solution, the influence of sulfate on uranium sorption is smaller. The reducing effect of sulfate on the total uranium sorption is almost counterbalanced by humic acid.

  • Poster
    ROSE II: Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment, Karlsruhe, Germany, 01.-03.08.2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3267
Publ.-Id: 3267


Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research; Annual Report 1999

von Borany, J.; Jäger, H.-U.; Möller, W.; Wieser, E.

Summary of the Scientific Activities of the Institute in 1999: Highlight Reports / Short Contributions / Statistics

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-289 März 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3266
Publ.-Id: 3266


Novel Features of the Fragment Mass Variance in Fission of Hot Nuclei

Wagner, W.; Gontchar, I. I.; Gettinger, A.; Litnevsky, L. A.; Ortlepp, H.-G.; Kamanin, D. V.

Basing on data obtained by the incomplete fusion reactions 7Li (43 AMeV) + 232Th and 14N (34 AMeV) + 197Au, the energy dependence of the variance of the fragment mass in fission of highly heated nuclei has been investigated for total excitation energies ranging from 50 up to 350 MeV. This dependence shows some unexpected features when the total excitation energy exceeds a value of about 70 MeV. After this value the steady increase of the variance expected from its temperature dependence changes to some kind of plateau between 100 and 200 MeV. Further on, at energies in excess of about 250 MeV, the variance is found to increase again sharply. In order to analyze this behaviour quantitatively, a dynamical stochastic model has been developed. The model employs the one-body dissipation mechanism and describes the decay of highly excited and rotating nuclei by fission and light particle evaporation. It satisfactory explains the measured prior-to-scission neutron multiplicities and the experimental mass variances up to an energy of about 250 MeV, but the stochastic treatment does not reveal any increase at higher excitation energies in contradiction with the data.

Keywords: NUCLEAR REACTIONS 7Li (43 AMeV) + 232Th, 14N (34 AMeV) + 197Au, mass distribution of fission fragments; statistical model, stochastic equation, nuclear friction, dissipation mechanism

  • Jadernaja Physika 2002, Vol. 65, Nr. 8, pp 1-8

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3265
Publ.-Id: 3265


Strong photoluminescence of Sn-implanted thermally grown SiO2 layers

Rebohle, L.; von Borany, J.; Skorupa, W.; Fröb, H.; Niedermeier, S.

The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) properties of Sn-implanted SiO2 layers thermally grown on crystalline Si has been investigated and compared with those from Ge- and Si-implanted SiO2 layers. In detail, the violet PL of Sn-implanted SiO2 layers is approximately 2 and 20 times higher than those of Ge- and Si-implanted SiO2 layers, respectively. Based on PL, PLE and decay time measurements the violet PL is interpreted as due to a triplet-singlet transition of the neutral oxygen vacancy (NOV) typical for Si-rich SiO2 and similar Ge- and Sn-related defects in Ge- and Sn-implanted SiO2 films. The enhancement of the blue-violet PL within the isoelectronic row of Si, Ge and Sn will be explained by means of the heavy atom effect.

Keywords: photoluminescence

  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, No. 7, 14 August 2000, 969-971

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3263
Publ.-Id: 3263


Blue photo- and electroluminescence of silicon dioxide layers ion-implanted with group IV elements

Rebohle, L.; von Borany, J.; Fröb, H.; Skorupa, W.

The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Si-, Ge- and Sn-implanted silicon dioxide layers were investigated. It was found, that these layers exhibit strong Photoluminescence (PL) around 2.7 eV (Si) and between 3 and 3.2 eV (Ge, Sn) at room temperature (RT), which is accompanied by an UV emission around 4.3 eV. This PL is compared with that of Ar-implanted silicon dioxide and that of Si- and Ge-rich oxide made by rf magnetron sputtering. Based on PL and PL excitation (PLE) spectra we tentatively interpret the blue-violet PL as due to a T1®S0 transition of the neutral oxygen vacancy typical for Si-rich SiO2 and similar Ge- or Sn-related defects in Ge- and Sn-implanted silicon dioxide. The differences between Si, Ge and Sn will be explained by means of the heavy atom effect. For Ge-implanted silicon dioxide layers a strong electroluminescence (EL) well visible with the naked eye and with a power efficiency up to 5·10-4 was achieved. The EL spectrum correlates very well with the PL one. Whereas the EL intensity shows a linear dependence on the injection current over three orders of magnitude, the shape of the EL spectrum remains unchanged. The I-V dependence exhibiting the typical behavior of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling shows an increase of the breakdown voltage and the tunnel current in comparison to the unimplanted material. Finally, the suitability of Ge-implanted silicon dioxide layers for optoelectronic applications is briefly discussed.

Keywords: Electroluminescence

  • Applied Physics B 71, 131-151 (2000)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3262
Publ.-Id: 3262


Common German/Russian Irradiation Experiment at Rheinsberg NPP - Results of the Mechanical Testing

Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.; Richter, H.

A joint German/Russian irradiation programme was performed at the prototype pressurized water reactor VVER-2 of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant (Germany). The experiment comprises about 800 Charpy V-notch, SENB and CT specimens made of 24 different heats of Russian VVER type reactor pressure vessel base and weld metals. The testing of these specimens was performed at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), MPA Stuttgart and the KFA Jülich. This paper presents the results of Charpy V and fracture toughness tests performed by FZR. On the base of these results the neutron embrittlement sensitivity and the annealing behaviour are evaluated.

Keywords: reactor pressure vessel steel; irradiation; neutron embrittlement; annealing; Charpy test; fracture toughness

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop on VVER-RPV Integrity Assessment - methods and Applications February 23 - 25, 2000 at GSR in Cologne (Germany)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3261
Publ.-Id: 3261


New 18F-labelled neurotensin(8-13) analogs for positron emission tomography (PET): Pharamcological and biochemical charakterisation

Bergmann, R.; Scheunemann, M.; Mäding, P.; Rodig, H.; Kretzschmar, M.; Chavatte, K.; Tourwé, D.; Zips, D.; Brust, P.; Johannsen, B.

The potential of radiolabelled neurotensin ana-logues for in vivo imaging of neurotensin (NT) receptor overexpressing tumours by PET was studied.
Methods: Three newly synthesised 18F-radiolabelled NT(8-13) agonists, characterised by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR were used for in vitro binding and internalisation stud-ies with HT-29 or WiDr cells. Ca2+ mobilisation was investigated using FLIPR measurements. Biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing HT-29 or WiDr tumours without and with blocking of the NT receptors. Biokinetic studies were done in Wistar rats using PET. The specificity of the peptide binding to the tu-mour cells was studied in receptor blocking ex-periments.
Results: The KD's of the NT analogues were in the nanomolar range. The Ca2+ mobilisation ef-fect of the compounds were between 99% and 129% compared to NT with EC50 between 17nM and 120nM. The tumour uptake of the peptides was moderate and was highest for the double stabi-lised peptide {4-[18F]fluoro-benzoyl-Arg-Psi-(CH2-NH)-Arg-Pro-Phe11-T-Leu12-Leu-OH (FB-P3)} (3.5% ID/g tissue 10 min p.i.). It was specifically accumulated in vitro and also in vivo in the tumours (70% inhibition by NT(8-13)). In nude mice the tumour was clearly visible with PET if the location was distant from the excre-tory organs.
Conclusion: The 18F-labeled stabilised NT analogues are NT agonists and potential radiotrac-ers for imaging of neurotensin receptor ex-pressing tumours. However, structural optimisa-tion is still needed.
(supported by the EC, Contract No. BMH4-CT98-3198)

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Peptide Radiopharmaceuticals in Diagnosis and Therapy, Rome, 25.-28.05.2000
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 21 No. 6 (2000) 565-566

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3260
Publ.-Id: 3260


Signature inversion caused by triaxiality and unpaired band crossings in 72Br

Plettner, C.; Ragnarsson, I.; Schnare, H.; Schwengner, R.; Kauebler, L.; Doenau, F.; Algora, A.; Deangelis, G.; Napoli, D.; Gadea, A.; Eberth, J.; Steinhardt, T.; Thelen, O.; Hausmann, M.; Mueller, A.; Jungclaus, A.; Lieb, K. P.; Jenkins, D.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A.

High-spin states in 72Br were studied with the EUROBALL III spectrometer . The negative-parity band
observed in this experiment displays a signature inversion around spin I = 16. The interpretation within cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky approach shows that this signature pattern is a signal of a substantial triaxial shape change with increasing spin where the nucleus evolves from a triaxial shape with rotation around the intermediate axis at low spin
through an axially symmetric prolate one to a triaxial shape
but with rotation around the shortest principal axis at high spin.
This is the first case in which signature inversion was clearly related to varying gamma deformation.

Keywords: high-spin bands; signature inversion; gamma deformation; cranked calculations

  • Physical Review Letters Vol. 85 No. 12 18. September 2000 pp. 2454-2457

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3259
Publ.-Id: 3259


Dipole excitations in the semi-magic nucleus 51V studied with the (gamma,gamma') reaction

Kaiser, H.; von Brentano, P.; Caurier, E.; Eberth, J.; Enders, J.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Käubler, L.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Poves, A.; Prade, H.; Richter, A.; Schnare, H.; Schwengner, R.; Skoda, S.; Thomas, H. G.; Tiesler, H.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiedenhöver, I.

We report on a nuclear resonance fluorescence experiment on the semi-magic odd-mass fp-shell nucleus 51V. The
detected dipole strength distribution is discussed on the basis of modern shell-model calculations employing a
model space allowing for excitations of protons and neutrons from the 1f7/2 to the (2p1/2,2p3/2,1f5/2) shells. The
calculations indicate that the main body of transitions is of magnetic dipole type, and they are capable of
reproducing the observed distribution well. Possible electric dipole and quadrupole contributions are also
discussed.

  • Nuclear Physics A 660 (1999) 41-53

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3258
Publ.-Id: 3258


Comparison of the scintillation properties of LSO:Ce and YSO:Ce as the detectors for high resolution PET.

Kapusta, M.; Moszynski, M.; Balcerzyk, M.; Pawelke, J.

We investigate the application of LSO and YSO scintillating crystals for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Properties such as light output, energy resolution, detection efficiency for various energy threshold, and timing resolution are presented. These data allow us to evaluate the usage of finger-like LSO:Ce and YSO:Ce crystals coupled to photomultiplier tube, and to establish optimal operating conditions for high-resolution PET. Both crystals have advantages over BGO currently used in PET and LSO is considered as a possible replacement for BGO based systems.

Keywords: inorganic scintillator; LSO; YSO; PET detector

  • Acta Physica Polonica B, Vol. 31, No. 1 (2000) 101-106

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3257
Publ.-Id: 3257


Ion-beam synthesis of epitaxial silicon carbide in nitrogen-implanted diamond

Heera, V.; Fontaine, F.; Skorupa, W.; Pécz, B.; Barna, A.

Natural IIa diamond was implanted at 90 keV to 1 1015 N+/cm2 and subsequently at 150 keV to 3 1017 Si+/cm2 at a temperature of 900°C. The structure of the implanted diamond region was investigated by high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, Raman- and infrared absorption spectrometry. A buried layer with crystalline 3C-SiC domains in perfect epitaxial relation to the diamond substrate was detected. Amorphization and graphitization was completely prevented by the elevated temperature during the implantation. Resistance measurements demonstrated low electrical resistivity in the implanted regions.

Keywords: ion beam synthesis; silicon carbide; SiC; diamond; high temperature implantation; high dose implantation

  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, No. 2, 10 July 2000, 226-228

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3256
Publ.-Id: 3256


Prediction of radial gas profiles in vertical pipe flow on basis of the bubble size distribution

Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

A method for the prediction of the radial gas profile for a given bubble size distribution is presented. It is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. These forces strongly depend on the bubble size. For the simulation of transient flow regime effects, the modelling of several bubble classes in an 1D model and consideration of their radial profiles seems to be more promising than a detailed 3D modelling.
The radial profile of the liquid velocity is calculated by the model of Sato. On the basis of this velocity profile, radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes according to the given bubble size distribution. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. It is used in an iteration process to calculate a new velocity profile. There is a strong interaction between the profiles of liquid velocity and gas volume fraction. The model is the basis of a fast running one-dimensional steady state computer code. The results are compared with experimental data obtained for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to centre peaking gas fraction distribution is well predicted.

Keywords: Two-Phase Flow; Flow Pattern; Vertical Pipe Flow; Bubble Size Distribution

  • International Journal of Thermal Sciences 40 (2001) 217-225

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3255
Publ.-Id: 3255


TEM Study of Ti Doped ZSM-5 Zeolite

Klimenkov, M.; Nepijko, S. A.; Bao, X.; Matz, W.

The hydrothermal treatment of zeolite powder leads to the strong changes in the morphology of zeolite particles. In the particles characterised by homogeneous structure before thermal treatment the formation of holes after thermal treatment was observed. These changes lead to the enrichment of zeolite with titanium that enhance its catalytic activity. The titanium surplus precipitates as small TiO2 anatase particles within the holes

Keywords: Zeolite; TEM

  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th EUROPEAN CONGRESS ON ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Brno, Czech Republic, July 9 - 14, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3254
Publ.-Id: 3254


Very high rotational frequencies and band termination in 73Br

Plettner, C.; Schnare, H.; Schwengner, R.; Kaeubler, L.; Doenau, F.; Ragnarsson, I.; Afanasjev, A.; Algora, A.; Deangelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.; Eberth, J.; Steinhardt, T.; Thelen, O.; Hausmann, M.; Mueller, A.; Jungclaus, A.; Lieb, K.-P.; Jenkins, D.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A.; Frauendorf, S.

Rotational bands in 73Br have been investigated
up to spins of 65/2 using the EUROBALL
III spectrometer. One of the
negative-parity bands displays the highest rotational
frequency 1.85 MeV reported to date in nuclei heavier than 25.
At high frequencies, the experimental dynamic moment of inertia for all bands decrease to very low values, indicating
a lose of collectivity. The bands are described in the configuration-dependent cranked
Nilsson-Strutinsky model. The calculations indicate that
one of the negative-parity bands is observed up to its terminating single-particle state at spin 63/2.
This result establishes the first band termination in the
A =70 mass region.

Keywords: rotational bands; band termination; cranking calculations

  • Physical Review C, Vol. 62, 014313

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3252
Publ.-Id: 3252


Reactivity of 99mTc(V) "3+1" mixed-ligand complexes towards glutathione

Gupta, A.; Seifert, S.; Syhre, R.; Scheunemann, M.; Brust, P.; Johannsen, B.

The stability and reactivity of mixed-ligand 99mTc complexes of the general formula [99mTcOL1L2, where L1H2 is either an N-substituted bis-(2-mercaptoethyl]amine [SNMeS] or 3-thiapentane-1,5-dithiol [SSS] and L2H is a monodentate thiol [RS], were investigated. The complexes undergo transchelation reactions with glutathione and other SH-group containing blood constituents. The reactions are reversible and can be inhibited by addition of diethylmaleate. Challenge experiments were performed with a broad set of 99mTc mixed-ligand complexes to investigate the influence of both tridentate ligand and the monodentate ligand on the stability of this type of complex. The occurence of ligand exchange reactions with glutathione depends on the donor set of the tridentate ligands as well as the structure of the monodentate ligands.Especially the stability of complexes containing a monodentate ligand with an amine nitrogen in the side chain can be increased by lengthening the carbon chain between the sulfhydryl group and the nitrogen. Thus, it might be possible to improve their in vivo performance.

Keywords: 99mTc complexes; stability; challenge experiments; glutathione

  • Radiochimica Acta 89 (2001) 43-49

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3251
Publ.-Id: 3251


Application of TEM energy filtered measurements to the study of Ge redistribution in ion-implanted thin SiO2 films

Klimenkov, M.; von Borany, J.; Matz, W.; Schulze, S.

Energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) has been applied to study ion beam syn-thesized Ge nanoclusters in 30nm SiO2 thin film thermally grown on Si(100). After thermal annealing the implanted Ge, as show the RBC measurements, was redistributed in to two spatial well separated layers - around the center of SiO2 film and near the SiO2/Si interface. The Ge in the middle of SiO2 film build the well detectable with a bright field TEM the cluster band. But the conventional TEM methods (bright, dark field and EDX line scans) are not able to determine exact Ge location related to the interface the closed cluster band. The energy filtered TEM investigations show that the interface Ge completely located in the Si substrate. The study enable conclusions about influence of the protection layer on Ge distribution in SiO2/Si.

Keywords: TEM; nanocluster

  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th EUROPEAN CONGRESS ON ELECTRON MICROSCOPY July 9-14, 2000 Brno, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3249
Publ.-Id: 3249


Contribution to the Determination of Microstructural Parameters from Small Angle Scattering Experiments at Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

Gokhman, A.; Böhmert, J.; Ulbricht, A.

Usually, the microstructure cannot be absolutely surely reconstructed from the small angle scattering pattern produced by it. The small angle neutron scattering curves measured at four C-poor ternary iron alloys were used to demonstrate the effect of the analysis method and the applied assumption on the microstructure analysis. Apart from the mean size of the scatterer, the size distribution as well as the shape of the scatterer affect the results. As a consequence, even well-proved methods as the indirect transformation method developed by Glatter can fail. The application of additional evaluation procedures or the use of information obtained by non-small angle scattering methods increases the chance to derive plausible structure models. In the paper a fit two-parameter method, the ratio between nuclear and magnetic scattering cross section and results from atom probe field ion microscopy are used for that. In this way it is shown that one of the four alloys exhibits another type of irradiation defects. Furthermore, modelling of the mechanical behaviours can also be helpful.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, FZR-288 Februar 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3248
Publ.-Id: 3248


Preparation of granular Co/Cu by ion-beam mixing of laser-deposited multilayers

Noetzel, J.; Rössler, U. K.; Tselev, A.; Prokert, F.; Eckert, D.; Müller, K.-H.; Wieser, E.; Möller, W.

Co/Cu multilayers were prepared by crossed-beam pulsed laser deposition and
characterized by high-angle X-ray diffraction as well as specular and non-specular reflection. The as-deposited structure has
a higher rms roughness than magnetron sputtered Co/Cu multilayer. In
general the roughness of the interface is described by a very large lateral correlation length and a high jaggedness.
Ion-beam mixing of the multilayers with 150 keV Cu ions and a fluence of
up to 5e15 Cu/cm^2 leads to the formation of a granular system of superparamagnetic Co clusters in Cu, as it is shown by magnetic
measurements.

Keywords: Co/Cu; granular System; multilayers; ion-beam mixing

  • Applied Physics A 71, 105-107 (2000)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3247
Publ.-Id: 3247


Experimental and numerical investigation of one and two phase natural convection in large pools

Krepper, E.; Aszodi, A.

Natural circulation is a basic physical principle for a lot of industrial applications. The paper describes two examples of investigations of natural circulation phenomena. The first example is drawn from the task of the safety assessment of the danger of storage tanks of hazardous fluids under the influence of an external heat source. Experiments were performed to investigate heating up processes of fluids in storage tanks under the influence of an external. As a consequence of an external fire, the heat-up of the inventory may lead to the evaporation of the liquid and to release of significant quantities of dangerous gases into the environment. Several tests were performed both with heating from the bottom and with heating from the side walls. The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of single and two phase heating up processes of tanks with side wall heating. The measurement of the temperature and of the void fraction makes interesting phenomena evident, which could be explained by an own 2D model.
The second example concerns with investigations of the investigation of passive heat removal systems in advanced designs of nuclear power plants. The heating up processes on the large pool on the secondary side of a test facility NOKO were analysed using the CFD code CFX.

Keywords: Process safety; single and two phase natural/mixed convection; boiling; measurement techniques; heating up experiments; CFD calculations

  • Poster
    3rd European Thermal Science Conference, Heidelberg, September 2000, Proceedings edited by E.W.P. Hahne, W. Heidemann and K. Spindler, 2000 ETS Pisa, Vol. II, pp. 1075-1080, ISBN 88-467-0305-7
  • Contribution to proceedings
    3rd European Thermal Science Conference, Heidelberg, September 2000, Proceedings edited by E.W.P. Hahne, W. Heidemann and K. Spindler, 2000 ETS Pisa, Vol. II, pp. 1075-1080, ISBN 88-467-0305-7

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3245
Publ.-Id: 3245


Experimental and numerical investigation of one and two phase natural convection in storage tanks

Aszodi, A.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

Experiments were performed to investigate heating up processes of fluids in storage tanks under the influence of an external heat source. As a consequence of an external fire, the heat-up of the inventory may lead to the evaporation of the liquid and to release of significant quantities of dangerous gases into the environment. Several tests were performed both with heating from the bottom and with heating from the side walls. In recent tests in addition to thermocouples, the tank was equipped with needle probes for measuring of the local void fraction.
The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of single and two phase heating up processes of tanks with side wall heating. The measurement of the temperature and of the void fraction makes interesting phenomena evident, which could be explained by an own 2D model. The gained experimental results may be used for the validation of boiling models in 3D CFD codes.

Keywords: storage tank; pool boiling; temperature stratification; void fraction measurement; CFD calculations

  • Heat and Mass Transfer 36 (2000) 6, 497-504

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3244
Publ.-Id: 3244


Amorphization of Fe/Al: Bulk and thin-film effects

Noetzel, J.; Meyer, D. C.; Tselev, A.; Mücklich, A.; Prokert, F.; Wieser, E.; Möller, W.; Paufler, P.

The amorphous non-equilibrium state of the system Fe/Al is studied in bulk and thin-film systems. For bulk samples prepared by ion-beam mixing of laser-deposited multilayers, a bcc solid solution is found
for alloys with up to 70 at.% Al. Around 75 at.% Al a Fe2Al5-like crystalline phase is found. An amorphous state with Fe2Al5-like short-range order is found for 80 at.% Al. In thin films, e.g. the amorphous Al-rich transition layer of a laser-deposited Fe/Al multilayer, the amorphous state can exist for
up to 30 at.% Fe due to the high interfacial energy. By ion-beam mixing at low temperatures (about 140 K) an oversaturation of 40 at.% Fe could be achieved.

Keywords: Laser-deposition; Fe/Al multilayers; amorphous phase; transition layers

  • Applied Physics A 71, 47-54 (2000)

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3243
Publ.-Id: 3243


Lateral ordering in semiconductor heterolayers studied by high resolution diffraction and specular reflectivity

Sass, J.; Mazur, K.; Eichhorn, F.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th Autumn School on "X-ray scattering from surfaces and thin layers" Smolenice, Slovakia Sept. 22 - 25, 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3241
Publ.-Id: 3241


Reciprocal space mapping and reflectivity investigations of epi-ready InP substrate

Sass, J.; Mazur, K.; Turos, A.; Eichhorn, F.

  • Physica Status Solidi (a) 171 (1999) 395 - 401

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3240
Publ.-Id: 3240


Structural analysis of Si/Fe and Mo/Fe ion-beam mixed layers

Jagielski, J.; Kopcewicz, M.; Turos, A.; Eichhorn, F.

Keywords: Ion-beam mixing; Metals and alloys; Amorphous materials

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B , Vol. 148, 1999, pp.886-890

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3239
Publ.-Id: 3239


Influence of Sulfate on the Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Sorption onto Ferrihydrite/Humic Acid Systems

Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K. H.; Bernhard, G.

Since seepage and flood waters of abandoned uranium mines in Saxony and Thuringia (Germany) contain relatively high amounts of sulfate, we studied the influence of sulfate on the kinetics of uranium(VI) adsorption onto ferrihydrite both in the absence and presence of humic acid at pH 6.5 under aerobic conditions. The sequence in which sulfate, uranium and humic acid were added to the ferrihydrite containing solutions was varied in order to obtain indications to sorption mechanisms. Two different sulfate concentrations were applied (0.005 and 0.02 M Na2SO4). The ionic strength was held constant at 0.1 M as sum of NaClO4 and Na2SO4. The uranium(VI) concentration was 1·10-6 M and the humic acid concentration was 5 mg/L.
In the absence of humic acid, the uranium sorption rate and the total uranium sorption in equilibrium decreased with increasing sulfate concentration due to blocking of strong ferrihydrite surface sites by sorbed sulfate. This leads to an increased availability of uranium. Variations of the order of addition of uranium and sulfate primarily affected the initial uranium sorption rate but not its sorption capacity. Direct competition of uranium and sulfate for strong ferrihydrite surface sites predominates electrostatic effects due to changes in net surface charge of ferrihydrite upon sulfate sorption.
In experiments with humic acid, the competitive effect of sulfate on humic acid sorption at pH 6.5 is small. This is attributed to a higher sorption affinity of humic acid for ferrihydrite surface sites compared to that of sulfate. The initial humic acid sorption rate was not affected by sulfate, only the total humic acid sorption was somewhat reduced by sorbed sulfate. Since the total number of potential binding sites for uranyl ions is increased by sorbed humic acid, more uranium is sorbed in the presence than in absence of humic acid. Thus, the influence of sulfate on uranium sorption is smaller when humic acid is present in solution. This effect becomes even more pronounced with increasing amounts of uranyl humate complexes in solution.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6524, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 2000, pp. 171-188.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3238
Publ.-Id: 3238


Kinetic Studies of the Uranium(VI) and Humic Acid Sorption onto Phyllite, Ferrihydrite and Muscovite

Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K. H.; Bernhard, G.

We studied the kinetics of uranium(VI) and humic acid adsorption by the rock material phyllite and by the minerals ferrihydrite and muscovite at pH 6.5 under aerobic conditions. The sequence in which uranium and humic acid were added to the solid containing solutions was varied in order to obtain more detailed information on the sorption mechanisms. The results showed that sorption of uranium and humic acid onto phyllite and ferrihydrite is rapid, that onto muscovite is slower. The initial uranium sorption rates were found to depend on the sequence of addition of uranium and humic acid. For ferrihydrite the initial uranium sorption rate decreased with increasing amounts of uranyl humate complexes in solution. In contrast, addition of humic acid to muscovite resulted in a faster uranium sorption, since the amount of easily accessible surface sites for uranyl ions is enhanced largely by sorbed humic acid. Phyllite showed an overlapping of different processes which is attributed to the complex nature of the phyllite rock. The total uranium uptake decreased in the following order: ferrihydrite > phyllite > muscovite. The results have shown that the amount of uranium sorbed on minerals in equilibrium is determined by the total number of surface sites as well as their affinity and accessibility to solutes. For ferrihydrite indications to mineral dissolution in the presence of humic acid were found. The results of the kinetic experiments confirm that the sorption behavior of phyllite to uranium and humic acid is dominated by minor amounts of ferrihydrite, that is formed as secondary mineral phase due to weathering of phyllite. The contribution of minerals, naturally present in the rock material phyllite, to the total sorption behavior of phyllite could also be shown.
Furthermore, we compared the sorption behavior of two different humic acids, a natural humic acid Kranichsee HA and a 14C-labeled synthetic humic acid type M1, onto phyllite in the pH range 3.5 to 9.5 by batch experiments. Their influence on uranium(VI) sorption onto phyllite was also studied and compared to uranium sorption in the absence of humic acid. Results revealed that sorption of humic acids and their effect on uranium sorption is influenced by the total content of humic acid functional groups and its fractions that are actually involved in sorption reactions or are available for binding of uranyl ions, together with the molecular size and the amount of aromatic structural elements of humic acids. The results also confirmed that the synthetic humic acid 14C-M1 is suitable for experiments studying the kinetics and reversibility of uranium and humic acid sorption onto minerals in the pH range 3.5 to 7.5 since its sorption behavior and its influence on uranium sorption is comparable to that of natural humic acids.

  • Contribution to external collection
    FZKA 6524, Wissenschaftliche Berichte Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (G. Buckau, ed.). Karlsruhe 2000, pp. 149-169.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3237
Publ.-Id: 3237


Kolloidpartikel in fließenden Grubenwässern und in Acid Rock Drainage (Lettenwasser)

Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Kluge, A.; Hüttig, G.



Bei der Charakterisierung der Kolloidpartikel in Bergwerkswässern stehen sowohl die Partikelgröße als auch die chemische Zusammensetzung der Partikel im Zentrum des Interesses. Die Kolloidunter-suchungen an Bergwerkswässern, die den "Bulk" der fließenden Wässer darstellen (Stollenwässer, Flutungswässer), wurden fortgesetzt. Die bevorzugte Partikelgröße von 100 bis 300 nm bestätigte sich für die "Bulk"-Wässer. Bezüglich der chemischen Aspekte stand, neben dem Verhalten des As, Pb und Cu, besonders das Verhalten des U im Blickpunkt. Es tritt sehr oft "nichtkolloidal" auf, im pH-Bereich zwischen 5 und 6 kann es jedoch auch an Eisenoxyhydroxidpartikel gebunden sein und sich dann zu erheblichen Anteilen "kolloidal" verhalten.

Mit der Untersuchung von Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), deutsch "Lettenwasser", wurden die kol-loidchemischen Arbeiten auf ein andersartiges Bergwerkswasser ausgedehnt. Lettenwässer spielen eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Wassermineralisierung in Altbergwerken. Frage war, ob ein Lettenwasser aus der Himmelfahrt Fundgrube Freiberg (pH 2,7; Sulfatkonzentration 39,5 g/l) Kolloidteilchen des unteren Nanometerbereichs enthält, oder ob es nach gängiger Filtration über ein 0,45-µm-Filter parti-kelfrei ist. Wir fanden eine kleine Menge (weniger als 30 mg/l) an leichtnachweisbaren Kolloidpartikeln von 70 bis 250 nm Größe. Wichtiger war jedoch eine zweite kolloidale Komponente, welche schwerer zu detektieren ist: eine Population von ultrafeinen Partikeln einer Größe von weniger als 5 nm. Die Konzentration dieser Komponente ist ca. 1 g/l. Die ultrafeinen Partikel konnten mit Hilfe der Photonenkorrelationsspektroskopie (PCS) nach "Demaskierung" durch Filtration über Nuclepore-Filter nachgewiesen werden (die Detektion von extrem kleinen Partikeln mittels PCS wird bei Anwesenheit größerer Submicron-Partikel durch optische Maskierung verhindert, denn die Streulichtintensität hängt im Partikelgrößenbereich der Rayleigh-Streuung von der sechsten Potenz des Partikelradius ab). Die feinen Partikel wurden gründlicher mittels Ultrafiltration untersucht. Dabei ergab sich, daß mindestens 15 % des Eisens, 50 % des Arsens und 80 % des Bleis im Letten-wasser kolloidales Verhalten zeigen.

Um die röntgenamorphen, schwer untersuchbaren ultrafeinen Partikel der ARD-Lösung näher zu cha-rakterisieren, versuchten wir, mit thermodynamischen Rechnungen (EQ3/6) die übersättigten Minera-lien festzustellen (dies sind die potentiellen Kolloidbildner). Folgende Substanzen/Systeme kommen als Kolloidbildner in Frage. Für Fe: Ferrihydrit, Schwertmannit, Jarosit oder Hydroniumjarosit. Für Pb: Anglesit (PbSO4) oder Plumbojarosit. Für As: Skorodit oder adsorptive Arsenatbindung durch Oberflä-chenkomplexierung (Inner-Sphere-Komplexe). Eine weitergehende Eingrenzung der chemischen Ver-hältnisse in den Partikeln ist mit EQ3/6-Rechnungen nicht möglich.

Die Aufklärung von Bindungszuständen in den Kolloidpartikeln unterschiedlicher Bergwerkswässer (Lettenwässer, "Bulk"-Wässer) ist das Ziel von XAFS-Messungen an der Rossendorfer Beamline (ROBL) am Synchrotron der ESRF in Grenoble die im Februar 2000 angelaufen sind. Das Problem der Unterscheidung zwischen Partikeln und Mutterlösung wollen wir bei diesen in-situ-Messungen durch Vergleich der EXAFS-Spektren von Lösungen unterschiedlichen Filtrationsgrades zu lösen ver-suchen: a) unfiltrierte Lösungen, b) stark angereichertes Kolloid (Retentate der Ultrafiltration) und c) stark abgereichertes Kolloid (Fitrate der Ultrafiltration). Aussagen über die Bindungszustände in den Partikeln möchten wir dann durch Vergleich mit Spektren von definierten Referenzsystemen gewin-nen. Folgende Referenzsysteme wurden vorbereitet: Schwertmannit, Jarosit, Goethit, Skorodit, Bukowskyit, Arsenat sorbiert an Goethit und Bleisulfat.

Keywords: Colloids; Mining Waters; Acid Rock Drainage; Photon Correlation Spectroscopy; Ultrafiltration; Iron; Aluminum; Arsenic; Lead; Jarosit; Schwertmannit; Ferrihydrit; Skorodit

  • Lecture (others)
    6. Kolloquium zum DFG-Schwerpunktprogramm "Geochemische Prozesse mit Langzeitfolgen im anthropogen beeinflußten Sickerwasser und Grundwasser". Berlin 2.-3. März 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3236
Publ.-Id: 3236


Ausscheidung von Sekundärmineralen aus Lettenwasser der Himmelfahrt Fundgrube Freiberg

Moll, H.; Zänker, H.; Richter, W.; Brendler, V.; Kluge, A.; Hüttig, G.

Im Laufe von 10 Monaten schied sich aus dem untersuchten Lettenwasser eine makros-kopische Sekundärmineralphase aus. Es handelt sich im wesentlichen um das sulfatreiche Mineral H-Jarosit. Kleine Mengen an schlecht kristallinen Phasen, wie Schwertmannit, können nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Der H-Jarosit bindet signifikante Mengen an As und Blei. Die XRD ergab aber keine Hinweise auf Skorodit oder Bleiminerale.
Die ultrafeinen Partikel (<5nm) in ARD Lösungen könnten ein Zwischenprodukt im Bildungsprozeß des H-Jarosits sein. Dann könnte die Charakterisierung des Niederschlags im gealterten Lettenwasser Hinweise auf die Zusammensetzung der ultrafeinen Partikel im frischen Lettenwasser geben. EXAFS-Messungen zur Aufklärung der chemischen Bindungsverhältnisse in Kolloidpartikeln (<5nm) sind in Arbeit.

  • Poster
    6. Kolloquium im SPP "Geochemische Prozesse mit Langzeitfolgen im anthropogen beeinflussten Sickerwasser und Grundwasser", 2. und 3. März, Berlin

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3235
Publ.-Id: 3235


Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Report July - December 1999

Johannsen, B.; Seifert, S.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-283 Dezember 1999
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3234
Publ.-Id: 3234


In situ diagnostic during growth of BN films

Fukarek, W.

Real time ellipsometry in conjunction with real time stress and evaporation rate measurement is applied to ion beam assisted deposition of boron nitride films. Information on the reactivity of boron with water vapor is obtained from in situ ellipsometry data and conclusions concerning the stability of BN films are drawn. Damage formation in the Si substrate in the beginning of the deposition process is revealed. Real time stress measurement in combination with ellipsometry shows, that stress buildup occurs in the end-of-range region of the plating ions and not in the whole collision cascade or thermal spike region. Information on dynamic densification of tBN, derived from real time ellipsometry and evaporation rate measurement, is reported for the first time. A new model for cBN growth is proposed: instead of compressive stress, a certain level of tBN densification is required for cBN to nucleate. It is shown that tBN density and compressive stress are not necessarily correlated parameters.

Keywords: BN; IBAD; ellipsometry; stress; film growth model

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of TATF'2000 (8th International Symposium on Trends and Applications in Thin Films) March 27-30 (2000) Nancy, France.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3233
Publ.-Id: 3233


Application of a DC glow discharge source with controlled plasma potential in plasma immersion ion implantation

Ueda, M.; Berni, L. A.; Gomes, G. F.; Beloto, A. F.; Abramof, E.; Reuther, H.

A DC glow discharge source with controlled plasma potential was developed for application in plasma immersion ion implantation processing of materials.

Keywords: Ion implantation; Auger electron spectroscopy

  • Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999) 4821 - 4824

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3231
Publ.-Id: 3231


Phase analysis in a-Fe after high-dose Si ion implantation by depth-selective conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (DCEMS)

Walterfang, M.; Kruijer, S.; Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.; Keune, W.

Iron was implanted with 50 keV Si ions. The depth distribution of the formed Fe-Si phases was investigated by depth selective conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy.

Keywords: Ion implantation; iron silicides; Mossbauer spectroscopy

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. Applications Mössbauer Effect, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 29.8.-3.9.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3230
Publ.-Id: 3230


XPS und Faktorenanalyse zur Untersuchung von Eisensilizidproben

Reiche, R.; Oswald, S.; Wetzig, K.; Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.

Durch Ionenstrahlverfahren hergestellte Eisensilizidproben wurden mittels XPS und AES untersucht.

Keywords: XPS; Ion Implantation; Eisensilizide

  • Lecture (Conference)
    10. Tagung Festkörperanalytik, Wien, 5.-7.7.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3229
Publ.-Id: 3229


Investigation of coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors at the Rossendorf mixing test facility ROCOM

Grunwald, G.; Höhne, T.; Prasser, H.-M.

In Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) the parameters of the coolant may differ from one loop to another and change in time during transients. In case of an undesired decrease of the boron acid concentration we speak about boron dilution transients. In other cases also the coolant temperature may be affected, e.g. by overcooling of a loop if a main steam line break happens. Both kinds of transient lead to a positive reactivity insertion, which may cause a dangerous power excursion. For the analysis of the core behaviour during boron dilution transients and main steam line breaks, coupled neutron kinetic / thermal hydraulic codes are necessary. These codes must contain models of the coolant mixing on its way from the inlet nozzles to the core entrance, because the reactivity insertion strongly depends on the distribution of these parameters at the core inlet. The coolant mixing mainly happens in the three-dimensional flow field inside the complex geometry of the downcomer and lower plenum. It depends signifi-cantly on the construction of the reactor vessel. The modelling of coolant mixing was carried out by detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations with the code CFX 4.2. For the validation of the computational results, the ROCOM test facility was built, a fluid dy-namic model of the reactor in the scale of 1:5. The reactor vessel is made of Plexiglas for flow visualisation and LDA measurements. The four loops dispose of separately controllable main coolant pumps. Plugs of coolant with low boron acid concentration are modelled by salt water injection. The use of a system of wire-mesh sensors allows to measure salt concentra-tions at over 1000 locations with a maximum time resolution of 200 Hz. Measuring locations are at the reactor inlet, at the core inlet as well as in the upper part and at the lower end of the downcomer. The experiments as well as the calculations have shown, that the mixing is in-complete. In case of stationary coolant flow in all loops a disturbance of boron concentration or temperature is transferred to a sector of the core inlet plane, which corresponds to the loca-tion of the inlet nozzle. In the steady state, the concentration respectively temperature in the centre of the sector almost reaches the amplitude of the disturbance at the inlet nozzle. A short plug of boron diluted water experiences a better mixing: due to the vortices in the downcomer different portions of the disturbance are transported with different velocities. This causes a dispersion of the front and the end of the plug (axial mixing). If the plug is short enough, the maximum concentration decreases. Further, experiments and calculations are going on to be performed for the investigation of mixing under transient conditions (start of circulation). Response functions will be calculated for the development of a fast running mixing model.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE8), Baltimore, USA, April 2-6,2000, CD-ROM
  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE8), Baltimore, USA, April 2-6,2000, CD-ROM

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3228
Publ.-Id: 3228


Plasma immersion ion implantation using a glow discharge source with controlled plasma potential

Ueda, M.; Gomes, G. F.; Berni, L. A.; Rossi, J. O.; Barroso, J. J.; Beloto, A. F.; Beloto, A. F.; Abramof, A. F.; Reuther, H.

A DC glow charge plasma source was used to implant various types of materials (Al, SS 304, Si) with nitrogen.

Keywords: plasma immersion ion implantation; Si; Al; stainless steel

  • Poster
    IBA-14 / ECAART-6, Dresden, 26.-30.7.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3227
Publ.-Id: 3227


Analysis of X-ray rocking curves in (001) silicon crystals implanted with nitrogen by plasma immersion ion implantation

Abramof, E.; Beloto, A. F.; Ueda, M.; Gomes, G. F.; Berni, L. A.; Reuther, H.

High-resolution x-ray diffraction methods have been used to characterize nitrogen-doped silicon obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation.

Keywords: plasma immersion ion implantation; silicon; Auger electron spectroscopy

  • Poster
    IBA-14 / ECAART-6, Dresden, 26.-30.7.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3226
Publ.-Id: 3226


Ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization of iron disilicides studied by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy

Dobler, M.; Reuther, H.; Muecklich, A.

The formation of iron disilicides by ion implantation at room temperature and the subsequent ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization process was studied by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Implantation with 195 keV Fe ions with doses from 7 x 1015cm-2 to 2 x 1017cm-2 at room temperature leads to an amorphized top layer of about 300 nm thickness. The concentration profiles determined by Auger electron sputter depth profiling have maximum iron concentrations from 0.7 at.% for the lowest dose up to 21.1 at.% for the highest dose at about 100 nm depth. The Mössbauer spectra show similar broad quadrupole doublets for each dose which could not be attributed to any known amorphous or crystalline iron silicide phase. The subsequent irradiation with 1 x 1016cm-2 500 keV Si ions at 350°C induces the formation of iron disilicide phases and the crystallization of the Si substrates. For the samples containing the lowest iron content of 0.7, 2 and 5 x 1016cm-2 the metastable g-FeSi2 is produced whereas for doses of 1 x 1017cm-2 and higher the formation of a phase mixture of a- and b-FeSi2 is found.

Keywords: Ion implantation; Mossbauer spectroscopy; iron silicides

  • Poster
    Int. Conf. Applications Mössbauer Effect, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 29.8.-3.9.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3225
Publ.-Id: 3225


Annealing behaviour of magnesium and aluminum implanted with iron ions

Reuther, H.; Betzl, M.

Magnesium and aluminum were alloyed by implantation with iron ions. The implantation energy was 200 keV while the ion doses ranged over several decades up to 9x1017 cm-2. In this way it was possible to obtain highly disordered alloyed layers with up to 90 at.% iron [1]. To study possible ordering and redistribution processes samples were annealed in vacuum at subsequently increasing temperatures up to 600 °C for aluminium and up to 400 °C for magnesium. The annealing process was observed by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, Auger electron depth profiling, and x-ray diffraction. In the case of the Fe-Al system iron aluminides are formed. In the case of the Fe-Mg system (insoluble with each other), a-iron is precipited in small clusters.
[1] H. Reuther, M. Betzl, W. Matz, E. Richter, Hyperfine Interactions 113 (1998) 391

Keywords: Ion implantation; Mossbauer spectroscopy; Auger electron spectroscopy; Al; Mg; Fe

  • Poster
    Int. Conf. Applications Mössbauer Effect, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 29.8.-3.9.1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3224
Publ.-Id: 3224


Isospin-tracing:A probe of non-equilibrium in central heavy-ion collisions

Rami, F.; Leifels, Y.; de Schauenburg, B.; Gobbi, A.; Hong, B.; Alard, J. P.; Andronic, A.; Averbeck, R.; Barret, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Crochet, P.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Finck, C.; Fodor, Z.; Folger, H.; Fraysse, L.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Grigorian, Y.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Koczon, P.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Kutsche, R.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, K. S.; Manko, V.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Nianine, A.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K. S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Somov, A.; Stockmeier, M. R.; Stoicea, G.; Vasiliev, M.; Wagner, P.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yang, J. T.; Yushmanow, I.; Zhilin, A.

Four different combinations of 9644Ru and 9640Zr nuclei, both as projectile and target, were investigated at the same bombarding energy of 400 AMeV using a 4pi detector. The degree of isospin mixing between projectile and target nucleons is mapped across a large portion of the phase space using two different isospin-tracer observables, the number of measured protons and the t/3He yield ratio. The experimental results show that the global equilibrium is not reached even in the most central collisions. Quantitative measures of stopping and mixing are extracted from the data. They are found to exhibit a quite strong sensitivity to the in-medium (n,n) cross section used in microscopic transport calculations.

Keywords: PACS numbers: 25.75.-q; 25.75.Dw; 25.75.Ld

  • Physical Review Letters 84 (2000) 1120

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3223
Publ.-Id: 3223


A novel approach to robust Tc(III) Mixed-ligand chelates as tools for conjugating biologically active molecules

Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Drews, A.; Tisato, F.; Refosco, F.; Gupta, A.; Syhre, R.; Spies, H.

To date most Tc compounds suitable for coupling to biologically active molecules, e.g. CNS receptor targeted agents, are square-pyramidal complexes of the oxo ion [Tc=O]3+. However, the properties and thus the in vivo behaviour of such complexes are strongly influenced by the quite polar Tc=O unit offering a free position trans to the oxo ligand for further reaction in vivo. The stricter the requirements for specific agents, the more important is the question whether such a polarity is beneficial or not. Alternatives are oxo-free lower oxidation states. Here we report on prototypic trigonal-bipyramidal mixed-ligand complexes 1, 2 and 3 which are neutral, non-polar and robust since they contain sterically well shielded oxo-free Tc(III). We describe the syntheses and structural analyses of 99Tc complexes with simple co-ligands serving as models for functionalized derivatives, the no-carrier-added preparation of the analogous 99mTc-complexes as well as their stability in aqueous solution and in plasma, and their biodistribution in rats.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    34. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry, Edinburgh, Juli 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3222
Publ.-Id: 3222


Stand der Forschungen zum Projekt einer Neutronenquelle für die Fusionsmaterialforschung auf der Grundlage einer gasdynamischen Falle

Noack, K.

Auf dem Wege zu einer ökonomischen und sicheren Energietechnologie muß die Fusionsforschung Materialien entwickeln, die möglichst hohen Strahlenbelastungen standhalten und ein Minimum an langlebiger Aktivierung produzieren. Dazu ist eine geeignete Neutronenquelle als Bestrahlungsgerät unerläßlich. Neben dem Projekt IFMIF bleibt der Vorschlag des Budker-Instituts Novosibirsk für eine Neutronenquelle auf der Grundlage einer gasdynamischen Falle aktuell. Prinzipiellen Vorteilen dieses Quelltyps steht der Nachteil gegenüber, dass seine Funktionsfähigkeit durch die bisher verfügbare Datenbasis noch nicht ausreichend belegt werden kann. Der Vortrag gibt eine Einführung in das Konzept dieser Neutronenquelle und legt die Forschungsergebnisse dar, die in den letzten Jahren, teilweise in Kollaboration mit dem Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, erzielt wurden.

Keywords: Fusion; Materialien; 14 MeV-Neutronenquelle; gasdynamische Falle; Experimente; Monte-Carlo-Methode

  • Lecture (others)
    eigeladener Vortrag zum Institutskolloquium des IPP Garching, München, 3. Dezember 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3221
Publ.-Id: 3221


Investigation of Fast Ion Confinement in the Gas Dynamic Trap

Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Korepanov, S. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Smirnov, A. Y.; Noack, K.; Otto, G.

The confinement of the fast, anisotropic ions is one of the basic objectives of the GDT experimental research program. The approach consists in comparing the measured ion parameters with those predicted by computer simulations based on the theory of Coulomb collisions. A broad set of diagnostics for measurements of fast ion parameters has been developed. In particular, it includes the measurement of the local energy distribution function. In parallel the Monte Carlo transport code FIT, which simulates fast ion histories in the frame of the lassical theory has been developed. The comparison of the measured and computed parameters clearly shows that the energy confinement time of the fast ions is governed by Coulomb collisions only and significant anomalous ion losses were not yet observed in GDT experiments up to the present plasma parameters.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; fast ion confinement; plasma; Coulomb collisions; diagnostic; Monte Carlo method; code FIT

  • Other report
    Report Budker INP 99-9, Novosibirsk, 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3220
Publ.-Id: 3220


Stability analysis of the flow inside an electromagnetically levitated drop

Shatrov, V.; Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.

Electromagnetic levitation is a well-known technique for containerless processing of metallic samples. If the sample is melted the electromagnetic forces cause a melt motion inside the droplet. This motion is of interest since it influences shape oscillations or heat transfer within the droplet, or may even effect the stability behaviour of the droplet at all. First, the axisymmetric case is considered allowing no variations of quantities around the vertical axis which is the pronounced axis due to the symmetry of the levitating or heating magnetic fields. Typical mean flow strucures are calculated depending on the skin-depth parameter and the magnetic field interaction parameter for the two cases of a uniform or linear magnetic field. The stability of this axisymmetric flow is analyzed showing that those flow fields become unstable only at high numbers of the magnetic field interaction parameter N. This is in contrast to a few experimental observations indicating that oscillatory motions take place already at much lower values of N.
Therefore, the three-dimensional stability of the flow is investigated. This stability analysis is performed using spectral methods. As expected the first instability is characterized by an azimuthal wave number of one. But it is found that the most dangerous three-dimensional instability occures at relatively small interaction parameters being by orders of magnitude lower than the critical values of the axisymmetric case.



  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3219
Publ.-Id: 3219


Control of floating-zone crystal growth in high-frequency magnetic field

Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.; Hermann, R.; Behr, G.; Schultz, L.

This work presents a numerical and experimental study of the growth of single intermetallic-compound crystals by the floating-zone method using a radio frequency (RF) heating magnetic field. The quality of the grown crystals depends strongly on the growth conditions, particularly on the shape of solidification front. To obtain single crystals of complex composition, a convex to the melt growth interface is desirable. The shape of the solid-liquid interface can be strongly influenced by the convective heat transport in the melt. There is a number of mechanisms driving the melt convection: differential rotation of the crystal and the seed, buoyancy, thermocapillarity and electromagnetic forces due to the RF heating. The aim of this work is to find out the growth parameters ensuring a desired shape of the crystalization front. The numerical study consists of two major parts - finding of the electromagnetic field induced by the RF-heater coil and the solution of the coupled heat and hydrodynamic problems. For the solution of the electromagnetic problem a novel boundary-integral method is developed. This method involving integration only along the surfaces is easily applicable to complex geometries at arbitrary skin depth. The heat and hydrodynamic problems are solved by a numerical code based on the control volume technique using a triangular finite-element-like mesh adapting to the solid-liquid interfaces. For small-diameter crystals considered here, only the thermocapillary and electromagnetically-driven convections turn out to be significant for the heat transport. Pure heat diffusion is found to result in the interfaces which are slightly convex over most of the diameter except close to the crystal surface where the interface is always concave to the solid phase. Such a form of the interface is determined by the Ohmic dissipation in the skin-layer and the heat radiation from the surface. A part of the produced heat is emitted directly from the liquid zone that makes the surface colder than the underlaying melt. Therefore the interface is concave in the vicinity of the surface. The rest of the heat released in the skinlayer is conducted radially inwards into the melt from where it enters the crystal to be emitted further away from the liquid zone. This inward heat flux is responsible for the central convex part of the interface. The numerical results give evidence that at the minimal length of the liquid zone, electromagnetically-driven convection may be so weak that it has no significant effect on the heat transfer. Strength of the forced convection rapidly increases with the heating power resulting in a concave interface over the whole diameter. Thermocapillary convection is found to be significant at smaller crystal diameters where it can substantially counterbalance the electromagnetically-driven convection in the bulk of the melt. Numerically found interface shapes are compared with experimental results obtained on a model system of Ni crystals.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3218
Publ.-Id: 3218


Effect of AC magnetic field on the damping of shape oscillationsof liquid metal droplets

Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.

Shape oscillations of electromagnetically-levitated metal droplets can be used to measure the surface tension and viscosity of liquid metals. The first determines the frequency while the second accounts for the attenuation rate of the oscillations. Until now the effect of the magnetic field on the frequency spectrum has been considered only in the perfect-conductor approximation where the action of the magnetic field reduces to the magnetic pressure on the liquid surface. In this approximation, magnetic field influences droplet oscillations in two ways. First, it causes a static deformation of the droplet. So the oscillations in the magnetic field occur about an aspheric basic shape. Second, the coupling between the shape variation and the magnetic field gives rise to a new oscillation mode called hydromagnetic surface wave. For small droplets magnetic field causes a slight perturbation of oscillations with both aforementioned effects resulting in the same order small corrections to the frequency spectrum of an inviscid spherical droplet. Magnetic field yields the same order relative correction also for the damping rate of oscillations of a viscous droplet. But there is no direct influence of the magnetic field on the damping rate of oscillations that is a serious drawback of the perfect-conductor approximation. Since for low-viscosity metal droplets the damping rate itself is small, even a weak direct effect of the magnetic field might be significant.
This work is dealt with the effect a high-frequency alternating magnetic field on the damping of the shape oscillations of viscous metal droplet. Conversely to the viscosity, high-frequency magnetic field is found to reduce the damping of the oscillations. We find the leading order solution of the damping rate by assuming the viscosity to be small but the frequency of the magnetic field to be high. The magnetic pressure is considered to be small with respect to the capillary pressure so that the static deformation of the droplet may be neglected. Besides, we assume the Reynolds number of the fluid flow driven by the magnetic field at finite skin depth in the droplet to be small so that the coupling between the base flow and shape oscillations may be neglected. Under these assumptions we formulate a theory for the case when both the magnetic field and oscillations are axisymmetric. The theory is applied to calculate the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the damping of the axisymmetric fundamental mode.



  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3217
Publ.-Id: 3217


Rotating magnetic field driven flow: Multiple steady solutions and stability

Grants, I.; Gerbeth, G.

An axially symmetric isothermal liquid metal flow induced by a low frequency low induction rotating magnetic field in a cylindrical cavity is considered. This problem has already been addressed by several investigations but the existing results are still contradicting. We consider the problem numerically employing highly accurate spectral methods. We seek for the steady solution in vorticity-stream function formulation in space of base functions build up from Chebyshev polynomials to satisfy appropriate boundary conditions. The dynamical system is obtained and the spectrum of the linearized problem is found gradually increasing the forcing parameter. We evaluate the critical magnetic Taylor number for the basic solution in 0.1% accuracy as 166300 (for a diameter to height ratio 1). The oscillatory instability is found to be of another type than the expected Taylor-Goertler vortices. Several additional monotonically unstable steady solutions are detected in the range where the basic solution is stable. These additional solutions are marked by an additional couple of secondary vortices counter-rotating in the meridional plane near the side wall at the mid-height. Some of the additional steady solutions are particularly close to the basic steady state and therefore take high spatial resolution to be distinguished. We consider also the time dependent solution that allows much higher spatial resolution. The linear stability results were verified comparing to the dynamical parameters of the time evolution in the near-critical regime. This comparison shows 0.1% agreement. The unstable additional steady solutions close to the basic steady state indicate instability to small finite size perturbations. The closest one gives an estimate from above for the minimum energy of the unstable finite perturbation. This estimate is improved considerably by series of numerical time-dependent solutions developing from additional steady states. The basic state is found to be unstable with respect to a finite size Taylor-Goertler type perturbation of less than 3.0E-8 size (in relative energy terms). Such a small perturbation excites long-lasting non-linear oscillations already at 3/4 of the critical forcing. This excited regime in turn is found to be unstable to another instability that finally reestablishes the basic state. These results predict the possibility of an unpredictably oscillating flow already in the linearly stable regime. The results indicate that an experimental observation of the linear instability is hardly possible. The obtained results also explain the big differences in previous numerical results concerning the stability of the rotating magnetic field driven flow.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3216
Publ.-Id: 3216


Boundary layer control by means of wall parallel Lorentz forces

Weier, T.; Fey, U.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Lielausis, O.; Platacis, E.

Lorentz forces can be used to control the near wall flow of low conducting liquids like sea-water. To achieve force densities strong enough to influence the flow, both magnetic and electric fields have to be applied to the fluid. Here the wall parallel Lorentz force in streamwise direction was generated by means of periodically arranged electrodes and permanent magnet strips of alternating polarity and magnetization direction, respectively. In a first approximation the resulting force is independent of the spanwise coordinate and decays exponentially with the wall distance. Such a force distribution acts as a source of momentum to the flow. It gives the possibility to compensate for viscous losses and to counteract adverse pressure gradients, thereby stabilizing the boundary layer and preventing separation.
Experimental results on the control of a flat plate boundary layer in a sodium chloride solution up to Re=9·105 will be given. LDA measurements show the effect of the Lorentz force on the boundary layer profile. At moderate force strength the mean velocity profiles are characterized by momentum thicknesses smaller than in the unforced case, at high enough Hartmann numbers a wall jet develops. Additionally, a turbulent, but practically non growing boundary layer has been observed for a special combination of Reynolds and Hartmann number. The fluctuating streamwise velocity component is slightly damped due to the accelerating action of the Lorentz force. Force balance measurements on the controlled flat plate show a reduction of the total drag by up to 80% compared to the uncontrolled case. The sole reason for this dramatic drag reduction is the momentum gain caused by the Lorentz force. From the velocity profiles one can conclude on a skin friction increase in the forced cases. However, the momentum gain overcomes the skin friction increase.
The effect of a suction-side, streamwise Lorentz force on a NACA-0017-like hydrofoil is quantified by means of force balance measurements for chord-length Reynolds numbers of 3 to 8·104. Depending on the angle of attack, two different effects are observed. (1) At small angles of incidence, a moderate increase in lift due to additional circulation is observed. Simultaneously, a decrease in the drag of the hydrofoil is caused by the added momentum. (2) At higher angles of attack, where the unforced hydrofoil would normally stall, a more pronounced lift increase (90% at Re=3·104) and a corresponding drag reduction are observed due to separation prevention.
Direct numerical simulations at low Reynolds numbers confirm the physical tendencies of the experiments.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3215
Publ.-Id: 3215


Crystal growth melt flow control by means of magnetic fields

Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.

A contactless control of melt convection is important for many crystal growth technologies. Typically steady magnetic fields are used to damp such flows and, in particular, turbulent fluctuations. Surprisingly, active flow driving forces due to alternating magnetic fields can be of stabilizing character, too. We present numerical results for the combined action of steady and alternating magnetic fields taking into account rotating, pulsating and travelling magnetic fields. Results will be given for the silicon Czochralski and the vertical Bridgman crystal growth process. For given thermal conditions of the process a typical buoyancy convection takes place. In case of the Czochralski process the convection is additionally determined by crystal and crucible rotations and the thermocapillary driven flow at the free melt surface. We study the influence of different magnetic field combinations on these melt convections. Results will be presented in which way different combinations of fields change the mean flow structure and influence the level of turbulent fluctuations. In order to limit the computational effort, we apply first a zero equation turbulence model based on the Prandtl mixing length hypothesis and afterwards a standard two equations turbulence model (k-omega).



  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3214
Publ.-Id: 3214


On some inverse problems in MHD

Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

Usually, MHD is understood as the forward problem of determiningvelocity and magnetic fields in the sense of solving the coupled system of Navier-Stokes equations and induction equation if some boundary conditions or types of forcing are given. For most laboratory and technical applications with small magnetic Reynolds number Rm the magnetic field is disturbed only slightly by the flow whereas it can modify the latter significantly via Lorentz forces. For higher Rm, however, the fluid flow can change the magnetic field drastically or can even lead to self-excitation of a magnetic field via the dynamo effect.

In the inverse problems approach one strives to get information about the distribution of certain material parameters or temperature and velocity fields inside the fluid from measurements of appropriate quantities at the fluid boundary and/or outside the fluid. We restrict our interest on the spatial reconstruction of the velocity field (or of related mean-field quantities) purely from magnetic fields and electric potentials which can be measured outside the fluid body and at its boundary, respectively.

For the case of small Rm, which is most interesting for a number of technological applications like metal casting and crystal growth, it is necessary to apply external magnetic fields and to measure the flow induced magnetic fields and electric potentials. Analytical results concerning the uniqueness problem of velocity reconstruction /1/ as well as numerical illustrations /2/ are presented. The need of regularization of the inverse problem is discussed.

Some aspects of generalizing the method to high Rm, i.e. to an inverse dynamo theory, are also discussed. In particaluar, considering a modified Krause-Steenbeck dynamo model with radially varying alpha we show how this radial dependence can be inferred from the growth rates of several magnetic field modes. The connection of this problem with similar problems in quantum mechanics, like isospectral potential deformations, is worked out.





  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Conference "MHD at dawn of 3rd Millennium", Presqu'ile de Giens, France, September 18-22, 2000

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3213
Publ.-Id: 3213


Wall Conditioning and Neutral Gas Transport at the GDT Facility

Murakhtin, S. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Bender, E. D.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Noack, K.; Krahl, S.; Collatz, S.

A set of electric arc evaporators has been installed inside the gas dynamic trap experimental facility of the Budker Institute Novosibirsk. It is used for fast Ti-coating of the inner chamber surface. In this way the vacuum conditions could be substantially improved. Under the new conditions special experiments were carried out to measure the temporal and spatial variation of the neutral gas density during typical shots. The results of these measurements are presented and compared with those of numerical simulations by means of the Monte Carlo code TUBE.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; vacuum conditions; Ti-coating; electric arc evaporation; neutral gas; Monte Carlo calculation

  • Poster
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 370
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 370

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3212
Publ.-Id: 3212


Energy Confinement of the High ß Two-Component Plasma in the Gas Dynamic Trap

Karpushov, A. N.; Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Korepanov, S. A.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Noack, K.; Saunichev, K. N.

The paper reports on the investigations of the confinement of neutral beam heated, high-ß and two-component plasmas in the Gas Dynamic Trap. The set of diagnostic methods which have been developed enabled the characterization of different energy loss channels. To analyze the plasma heating the energy balance models were applied. The measurements of the local energy and angular distributions of the fast ion minority are described and their results are presented. These measurements were done by injecting a focused, diagnostic neutral beam to produce a local charge-exchange target for the fast ions. The resulting charge-exchange atoms were registered by an electrostatic analyzer. The energy distribution function obtained was compared with the results of Monte Carlo and Fokker-Planck simulations.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; plasma confinement; plasma heating; high-ß; energy distribution; Monte Carlo calculation; Fokker-Planck calculation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 190
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 190

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3211
Publ.-Id: 3211


Recent Results of Experiments on the Gas Dynamic Trap

Bagryansky, P. A.; Anikeev, A. V.; Collatz, S.; Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Korepanov, S. A.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Noack, K.; Otto, G.; Saunichev, K. N.; Shichovtsev, I. V.; Shukaev, A. N.; Stupishin, N. V.

This report summarizes the results of experimental investigations obtained during the last five years at the Gas Dynamic Trap experimental facility of the Budker Institute Novosibirsk. Due to an essential upgrade of the main components performed in this period, the following plasma parameters have been achieved: electron temperature - 90-110 eV, fast ion density - up to 0.8*10^13 cm^-3, mean energy of fast ions - 5-8 keV, plasma-ß - 15-20%. The paper describes the following investigations: effect of wall conditioning on neutral gas dynamics, longitudinal electron heat flux, confinement of the high-ß two-component plasma, fast ion parameters under high-ß conditions, fueling of the target plasma by gas puffing. It presents results of measurements and of calculations.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; plasma parameters; wall conditioning; neutral gas; electron heat flux; high-ß plasma; gas puffing

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 79
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference "Open Systems '98", July 27-31, 1998, Novosibirsk, Russia, Transactions of Fusion Technology, 35 (1999) 79

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3210
Publ.-Id: 3210


Experimental Studies of Plasma Confinement and Heating in the Gas Dynamic Trap

Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Shichovtsev, I. V.; Stupishin, N. V.; Tsidulko, Y. A.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Noack, K.; Otto, G.

By upgrading the high-energetic neutral beam injection system of the gas dynamic trap (GDT) experimental facility of the Budker Institute Novosibirsk the plasma heating could be substantially improved. Now an electron temperature up to 120 eV is attainable compared to 70 eV before. Under the new conditions various heating scenarios and the plasma confinement were studied.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; plasma heating; plasma confinement; electron temperature

  • Poster
    IAEA Technical Committee Meeting "Innovative Approaches to Fusion Energy", Pleasanton, California, USA, 1997, Proceedings pp. 120-123
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IAEA Technical Committee Meeting "Innovative Approaches to Fusion Energy", Pleasanton, California, USA, 1997, Proceedings pp. 120-123

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3209
Publ.-Id: 3209


Röntgenreflektometrie an Dünnschichtsystemen

Prokert, F.

Übersicht über die Methoden und Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Röntgenreflektometrie (XRR). Diskussion der Anwendungen der XRR bei Herstellung und Charakterisierung dünner Schichten und von Vielschichtsystemen. Als Beispiele wurden u.a. Ergebnisse eigener Messungen an der Rossendorfer Beamline (ROBL/ESRF)in Grenoble herangezogen.

Keywords: Röntgenreflektometrie; Oberflächenrauhigkeit; Dünnschichtsysteme

  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag im Graduiertenkolleg der TU Chemnitz: "Dünne Schichten und nichtkristalline Materialien" Chemnitz , 8. Juni 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3208
Publ.-Id: 3208


TEM study of Ge-nanoclusters in thin SiO2 layers

Klimenkov, M.; von Borany, J.; Matz, W.; Heinig, K.-H.

Semiconductor nanoclusters embedded in a dielectric matrix are of great interest for future optical and electrical applications in microelectronic circuits. The contribution is focused on the study of Ge-nanoclu-sters generated by ion beam synthesis (IBS) in thermally grown thin SiO2 layers (20-50 nm). TEM and RBS analysis show, that the cluster formation and the elemental Ge distribution is strongly influenced by the annealing condi-tions, which is described in detail for furnace and rapid thermal processing (800°C-1100°C). TEM investigation revealed that in dependence on specific implantation and annealing conditions a broad nanocluster band in the centre of SiO2-layer or a d-like one in the distance of 5-7 nm from the SiO2/Si interface can be generated. HRTEM characterisation of samples emerge that the Ge clusters in the thin SiO2 films are amorphous opposite to earlier results were crystalline Ge nano-cluster were created in 500 nm SiO2 layers [1]. Long-term stability of grown clusters is an important feature for their further use in microelectronics. We identified the preparation conditions where the Ge nanocluster have a high stability and do not change with time and where the cluster are unstable and disappear completely after 2 month storage without any thermal treatment. Experiments with strong electron irradiation performed in a TEM with a FEG show the possibility of in-situ crystallisation of existing cluster as well as crystalline cluster formation in the samples where clusters before irradiation were not observed.
[1] J. v. Borany, R. Grötzschel, K.H. Heinig, A. Markwitz, W. Matz, B. Schmidt and W. Skorupa "Multimodal impurity redistribution and nanocluster formation in Ge implanted silicon dioxide films", Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (22) 3215 (1997)

  • Poster
    Optik, International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Supplement 8(Vol.110) 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3207
Publ.-Id: 3207


Local melting of the NiAl-substrate under deposited Pd-clusters during electron irradiation in a transmission electron microscope

Nepijko, S. A.; Klimenkov, M.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Freund, H.-J.

We have shown that holes with diameters in the nanometer range may be created in the Al2O3/NiAl(110) substrate if metal clusters deposited on it are irradiated by the intense convergent electron beam in TEM. The localisation and size of holes can be controlled to some extend. The formation of holes can be interrupted by lowering the beam intensity below a critical value. It can be continued by increasing the intensity above the threshold value. We have also disclosed the necessity of clusters' presence on the surface for the start of holes' formation.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Third International Conference 99 Sumy, Ukraine

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3206
Publ.-Id: 3206


Fast Ion Relaxation and Confinement in the Gas Dynamic Trap

Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Karpushov, A. N.; Korepanov, S. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Smirnov, A. Y.; Noack, K.; Otto, G.

Studies of the relaxation and confinement of hot anisotropic ions are considered to be the key elements of the gas dynamic trap (GDT) experimental research programme. The method of confinement study described consists essentially in the comparison of measured ion parameters with those predicted by computer simulations. To realize this approach a set of diagnostics for the measurements of local and global parameters of the fast ions has been developed. In particular, this set includes diagnostics to measure the local energy and the angular distribution functions. For numerical studies of the fast ion dynamics a Monte Carlo code based on the theory of two body Coulomb collisions has been elaborated. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of the simulation clearly demonstrates that the fast ion characteristic relaxation times in the warm target plasma are close to those determined by binary Coulomb collisions. Significant anomalous energy losses or scattering of fast ions have not been observed as yet. The measurements provide a maximum density of the fast ions with mean energy of about 8 keV up to 10E+13/cm^3, in good agreement with computer simulations. The increase of the neutral beam power and improved vacuum conditions of GDT made possible the access to plasma ß of as high as 30%.

Keywords: gas dynamic trap; plasma; energetic ions; relaxation; confinement; diagnostics; Coulomb collisions; plasma ß; Monte Carlo simulations

  • Nuclear Fusion 40 (2000) 753-765

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3205
Publ.-Id: 3205


Ion beam mixing of the ZrO2/Fe system

Turos, A.; Gawlik, G.; Jagielski, J.; Stonert, A.; Matz, W.; Grötzschel, R.

ZrO2 layers stabilized with 9mol% Y2O3 of 35-100 nmthickness were deposited by sputtering on 200 nm thick Fe layers on Si/SiO2. Ion beam mixing induced by 300 keV Kr ions and 1.5 MeV Br ions bombardement was studied at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 K. Samples were analysed by means of RBS, GXRD, and SEM techniques. RBS analysis revealed important atomic transport across the ZrO2/Fe interface. The amount of intermixed atoms increases with increasing ion dose. Ion beam mixing was observed at low temperaturesw. Upon 300 keV Kr-ion bombardment the tetragonal structure of as-deposited ZrO2(Y2O3) layers was transformed into the cubic one. High energy ion bombardment produces only transformations of the crystalline structure without any visible atomic transport and the formation of the rare FeO-wuestite phase. Kr blistering was observed from samples implanted with 300 keV Kr ions to fluences exceeding 1e16 at/cm2 at 100 K and 5e16 at/cm2 at RT.

Keywords: ion beam mixing; ceramic-metalsystem; RBS; GXRD

  • Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 148 (1999) 778-782

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3203
Publ.-Id: 3203


Atomic Transport Effects in Kr-ion Bombarded ZrO2/Fe Ternary Systems

Turos, A.; Gawlik, G.; Jagielski, J.; Stonert, A.; Madi, N.; Matz, W.; Mücklich, A.; Grötzschel, R.

Interface mixing between ZrO2 and Fe by Kr ion irradiation was studies in order to understand atomic effects of adhesion of ceramics on metals. No formation of new phases was observed. The main effect is connected with the redistribution of oxygen near the interface. It was followed with RBS and TEM.

Keywords: ion irradiation; RBS; TEM; metal-ceramics systems

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Int. Conf. Radiation Effects in Insulators, Jena, July 19-23, 1999
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 166-167 (2000) 128-132

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3201
Publ.-Id: 3201


Annual Report 1999 Institute of Safety Research

Weiß, F.-P.; Rindelhardt, U.; (Editors)

The report gives an overview on the activities of the Institute of Safety Research in 1999.

  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-284 Februar 2000
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3200
Publ.-Id: 3200


Modification of the Alloy Ti-6Al-4V by Ion Implantation of Ca and/or Phosphorus

Tsyganov, I.; Wieser, E.; Matz, W.; Reuther, H.; Richter, E.

Ion implantation of Ca and/or P into Ti or Ti alloys is of interest in order to enhance mechanical properties and biocompatibility for medical applications . With this motivation the microstructural changes of the implanted surface layer were studied. Surface near implantation of high doses of calcium results in an oxidation of the modified layer and the formation of CaO. For deeper calcium implantations, precipitation of the metastable hexagonal modification of calcium has been observed instead of the cubic equilibrium phase. Beside these new phases partial amporphization is observed. High dose implantation of phosphorus leads mainly to amorphization of the implanted layer. This hinders the reaction with oxygen during implantation and room temperature aging. High dose double implantation with P followed by Ca also leads to partial amorphization. No indication for new phases containing Ca and P is found.

Keywords: Titanium alloys; ion implantation; phase formation

  • Poster
    12th International Conference on Surface Modification of Materials by Ion Beams, Marburg, Germany, September 9-14, 2001
  • Surface and Coatings Technology 158-159 (2002) 318-323

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3199
Publ.-Id: 3199


The Materials Research End-station at ROBL _ Possibilities for Synchrotron Radiation studies

Matz, W.

Overview about the Materials Research Hutch and its instrumentation. Representation of results gained in the first year of operation: powder diffraction on HTSC; formation of SiC in Si; reflectometry on multilayers using anomalous scattering; H in Nd thin films; in-situ study of structural changes in TiAlV;

  • Lecture (others)
    Colloquium Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; Nov. 12, 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3198
Publ.-Id: 3198


ROBL - Synchrotronstrahlung für Ökologie und Materialforschung

Matz, W.

Populärwissenschaftliche Darstellung von ROBL. Beispiele zu Experimente im Bereich der Ökoradiochemie (Abwässer des Uranbergbaus) und der Materialforschung.

  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag zum Tag der Offenen Tür des FZR , 11. September 1999

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-3197
Publ.-Id: 3197


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