Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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41709 Publications

Uranium species formed by monocellular algae - EXAFS investigations at 30 K -

Günther, A.; Roßberg, A.

Abstract

Bestimmung von U-P Koordinationen in U(VI) - Algen Komplexen bei pH 5 und pH 6

  • Lecture (others)
    ROBL - Radiochemie Workshop, 19.12.2006, Rossendorf, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10649


Structural and mechanical characterization of BCxNy thin films deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering

Krause, M.; Bedel, L.; Taupeau, A.; Kreissig, U.; Munnik, F.; Abrasonis, G.; Kolitsch, A.; Radnoczi, G.; Zsolt, C.; Vanhulsel, A.

Abstract

BCxNy thin films deposited at 250°C by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering of a B4C target in an Ar/N2 plasma were studied by elastic recoil detection analysis, FTIR, Raman, and photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. In the concentration range of 6 % to 100 % N2 in the sputter plasma the segregation into nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous sp2 carbon is the dominant process during the film growth. The stoichiometric ratio and structural details of the major phases depend on the N2 concentration in the plasma and have significant influence on the Young’s modulus and the elastic recovery of the BCxNy thin films.

Keywords: BCxNy; thin films; magnetron sputtering; spectroscopy; structural properties; mechanical properties

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10647


Comparison of in-beam and off-beam PET experiments at hard photons

Möckel, D.; Kluge, T.; Pawelke, J.; Enghardt, W.

Abstract

In-beam positron emission tomography (in-beam PET) is a valuable in situ method for quality assurance in radiation therapy. It is well investigated for therapy with carbon ions and has been successfully clinically implemented at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany. The extension of this efficient technique to other radiation treatment modalities may be worthwhile. For protons and 3-He the feasibility has already been investigated. Furthermore, it seems possible for the case of radiotherapy with high-energy photons, since positron emitters are generated by photons with energies above ~20 MeV due to (gamma, n) reactions (predominantly 11-C and 15-O in tissue).
In this regard, promising conclusions have been obtained by Geant4 simulations as well as by off-beam PET experiments using a conventional PET scanner. However, in the case of off-beam PET the time delay between irradiation and measurement causes a decrease of the number of positron emitters resulting in reduced counting statistics. At worst short-lived isotopes cannot be detected. Thus, a small double head PET camera consisting of two BGO block detectors was built up at the irradiation site to measure the generated beta+ activity distribution simultaneously to the irradiation. The relation between deposited dose and beta+ activity density was quantified. The obtained results are presented and compared to that of off-beam PET experiments. Higher activities as well as an improved contrast between materials of different stoichiometry is achieved by measuring in-beam showing the advantage of in-beam PET over off-beam PET. Thus, the application of in-beam PET at radiation therapy with high-energy photons can be useful for quality assurance, comprising monitoring of dose delivery, patient positioning and tumour response.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2007 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 27.10.-03.11.2007, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2007 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 27.10.-03.11.2007, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 1-4244-0923-3

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10646


Immobilization of selenium on Fe3O4 and Fe/FeC3 ultrasmall particles

López De Arroyabe Loyo, R.; Nikitenko, S.; Scheinost, A.; Simonoff, M.

Abstract

Magnetic nanoparticles, NPs, have a number of features that make them ideally suited for the removal of toxic elements from liquid waste: high surface-area-to-volume ratio, high reactivity, easy dispersability, and simple recovery of the particles from solution using an external magnetic field. In this paper we studied the sorption of selenite ions onto Fe3O4 and Fe/Fe3C NPs in the aqueous solutions under anoxic conditions. The results show that Se(IV) sorption is extremely rapid : the equilibrium is reached in approximately 10 and 30 min for Fe3O4 and Fe/Fe3C NPs respectively at pH= 4.9÷5.1 in the solutions of 0.1M NaCl. The distribution coefficients are also very high for both kinds of NPs (Kd> 3000). Increasing pH to 10.3 or adsorption of organic ligands, like L-Lysine or dodecanoate, cause the decrease in Kd values. However, even in these cases Kd values exceed 150. Magnetic NPs loaded with selenium can be easily and completely removed from solution with 0.4T permanent magnet. XAS study revealed the absence of Se(IV) reduction during the sorption onto Fe3O4 NPs in the pH range of 4.8-8.0. By contrast, the removal of selenite ions with Fe/Fe3C NPs in anaerobic conditions occurs via Se(IV) reduction to Se(-II) followed by formation of iron selenide at the particles surface. Thus, the Fe/Fe3C NPs are superior to Fe3O4 NPs due to their ability to immobilize rapidly selenium via reductive mechanism. Presumably these particles could be also effective for the removal of other contaminants such as hexavalent chromium, actinides, technetium, and toxic organic compounds.

  • Environmental Science & Technology 42(2008)7, 2451-2456

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10645


Numerical and experimental study of a two-phase cylindrical stirrer

Pedchenko, A.; Bojarevics, A.; Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.; Hermann, R.

Abstract

A two-phase inductive stirrer represents a modification of a standard induction heater with the goal to change the flow structure in the melt qualitatively. It consists of a secondary induction coil without a direct connection to a power supply, but an own electrical circuit in order to create a phase shift to the primary current. The electric current in this secondary circuit is solely induced by the current in the primary circuit. This kind of magnetic field tailoring allows to arrange the flow in the molten zone as desired. For instance, the usual double vortex structure of an induction heater can easily be changed to a single torus. The resulting flow direction at the zone surface is from the primary to the secondary coil.
We present results of numerical simulations for the flow and the temperature distribution in the molten zone. In addition, model experiments using the GaInSn melt have been performed with direct measurements of the melt velocity and corresponding comparison to numerics.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Sino-German Workshop on Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, 15.-19.10.2007, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10644


An alternating magnetic field driven flow in a spinning cylindrical container

Shatrov, V.; Gerbeth, G.; Hermann, R.

Abstract

The paper presents a numerical analysis of the free surface liquid metal flow driven by an alternating (ac) magnetic field in a spinning cylindrical container. The axisymmetric flow structure is analyzed for various values of the magnetohydrodynamic interaction parameter and Ekman numbers. The governing hydrodynamic equations are solved by a spectral collocation method, and the alternating magnetic field distribution is found by a boundary-integral method. The electromagnetic and hydrodynamic fields are fully coupled via the shape of the liquid free surface. It is found that the container rotation may reduce the meridional flow significantly.

  • Journal of Fluids Engineering - Transactions of the ASME 130(2008), 071201

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10643


Measurement of 25Mg(p,gamma)26Al resonance strengths via gamma spectrometry

Formicola, A.; Best, A.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Confortola, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, G.; Gustavino, C.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.

Abstract

The COMPTEL instrument performed the first mapping of the 1.809 MeV photons in the Galaxy, triggering considerable interest in determing the sources of interstellar 26Al. The predicted 26Al is too low compared to the observation, for a better understanding more accurate rates for the 25Mg(p,gamma)26Al reaction are required. The 25Mg(p,gamma)26Al reaction has been investigated at the resonances at Er= 745; 418; 374; 304 keV at Ruhr-Universität Bochum using a Tandem accelerator and a 4pi NaI detector. In addition the resonance at Er = 189 keV has been measured deep underground laboratory at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, exploiting the strong suppression of cosmic background. This low resonance has been studied with the 400 kV LUNA accelerator and a HPGe detector. The preliminary results of the resonance strengths will be reported.

Keywords: Nuclear Astrophysics; Experiment; LUNA; Resonance strengths

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10642


Solitary excitations in quantum sine-Gordon spin chains

Zvyagin, S.

Abstract

The sine-Gordon equation is one of the most famous “soliton” equations, relevant to an extremely broad class of physical phenomena. On the quantum level the sine-Gordon model is one of the paradigms of the quantum field theory. One of the most prominent examples of the sine-Gordon quantum systems is a S=1/2 antiferromagnetic chain perturbated by an alternating g-tensor and/or the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Interestingly, in the presence of such interactions, application of a uniform external field H, in addition to incommensurate soft modes, induces opening of an energy gap, Δ ~ H2/3. Most importantly, the sine-Gordon equation is exactly solvable. The spectrum of the quantum sine-Gordon spin chain has been predicted to consist of a soliton, antisoliton and their bound sates, called “breathers”.
Here, we report a detailed study of the magnetic excitation spectrum in copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM), which has been recently identified as an S=1/2 antiferromagnetic chain with a field-induced spin gap, and is probably the best realization of the quantum sine-Gordon spin chain model known to date. By employing high-field high-resolution tunable-frequency submillimeter wave electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, the field-induced gap has been observed directly; ten excitation modes were resolved in the low-temperature spectrum, and their frequency-field diagram was systematically studied in magnetic fields up to 25 T. Signatures of three breather branches and a soliton, as well as those of several multi-particle excitation modes were identified. In addition, we report temperature and field measurements of the ESR spectrum, allowing us to test a new theoretical concept proposed recently by Oshikawa and Affleck [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5136 (1999)]. Their theory, based on bosonization and the self-energy formalism, can be applied for precise calculation of ESR parameters of spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chains in the perturbative spinon regime. Excellent quantitative agreement between the theoretical predictions and experiment in both cases is obtained.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Universität Kobe, 15.01.2007, Kobe, Japan

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10641


Micro-crystalline inclusions analysis by PIXE/RBS

Strivay, D.; Ramboz, C.; Gallien, J.-P.; Grambole, D.; Sauvage, T.

Abstract

A characteristic feature of the nuclear microprobe using a 3 MeV proton beam is the long range of particles (around 70 micrometers in light matrices). The PIXE method, with EDS analysis and using the multilayer approach for treating the X-ray spectrum allows the chemistry of an intracrystalline inclusion to be measured, provided the inclusion roof and thickness at the impact point of the beam (Z and e, respectively) are known (the depth of the inclusion floor is Z+e). The parameter Z of an inclusion in a mineral can be measured with a precision of around 1 micrometer using a motorized microscope. However, this value may significantly depart from Z if the analyzed inclusion has a complex shape. The parameter e can hardly be measured optically. By using combined RBS and PIXE measurements, it is possible to obtain the geometrical information needed for quantitative elemental analysis. This paper will present measurements on synthetic samples to investigate the advantages of the technique, and also on natural solid and fluid inclusions in quartz. The influence of the geometrical parameters will be discussed with regard to the concentration determination by PIXE. In particular, accuracy of monazite micro-inclusion dating by coupled PIXE-RBS will be presented.

  • Poster
    9th European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, 03.-07.09.2007, Florence, Italy
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266(2008), 2375-2378
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2008.03.068
    Cited 2 times in Scopus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10640


Crystallographically oriented Co and Ni nanocrystals inside ZnO formed by ion implantation and post-annealing

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; von Borany, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.

Abstract

In the last decade, transition metal doped ZnO has been intensively investigated as a route to room temperature diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). However the origin for the reported ferromagnetism in ZnO based DMS remains questionable. Possible options are diluted magnetic semiconductors, spinodal decomposition or secondary phases. In order to clarify this question, we have performed a thorough characterization of the structural and magnetic properties of Co and Ni implanted ZnO single crystals. Our measurements reveal that Co or Ni nanocrystals (NCs) are the major contribution of the measured ferromagnetism. Already in the as-implanted samples, Co or Ni NCs have formed, and they exhibit superparamagnetic properties. The Co or Ni NCs are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their magnetic properties, e.g. the anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature can be tuned by annealing.
We discuss the magnetic anisotropy of Ni NCs embedded in ZnO concerning the strain anisotropy.

Keywords: ZnO; Ion implantation; Magnetic nanocrystals

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10639


Fe implanted ZnO: magnetic precipitates versus dilution

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; Reuther, H.; von Borany, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Volbers, N.; Lorenz, M.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.

Abstract

Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors argue that the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates or spinodal decomposition rather than from carrier mediated magnetic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In the present paper we answer this question for Fe-implanted ZnO single crystals comprehensively. Different implantation fluences, temperatures and post-implantation annealing temperatures have been chosen in order to evaluate the structural and magnetic properties over a wide range of parameters. Three different regimes with respect to Fe concentration and process temperature are found: 1) Disperse Fe^{2+} and Fe^{3+} at low Fe concentrations and low processing temperatures, 2) FeZn_2O_4 at very high processing temperatures and 3) an intermediate regime with a co-existence of metallic Fe (Fe^0) and ionic Fe (Fe^{2+} and Fe^{3+}). Ferromagnetism is only observed in the latter two cases, where inverted spinel ZnFe_2O_4 and \alpha-Fe nanocrystals are the origin of the observed ferromagnetic behavior, respectively. The ionic Fe in the last case could contribute to a carrier mediated coupling. However, the separation between Fe ions is too large to couple ferromagnetically due to the lack of p-type carrier. For comparison investigations of Fe-implanted epitaxial ZnO thin films are presented.

Keywords: ZnO; Fe; Implantation; Magnetism

  • Journal of Applied Physics 103(2008)2, 023902

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10638


Using X-ray diffraction to identify precipitates in transition metal doped semiconductors

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; von Borany, J.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.

Abstract

In the past decade, room temperature ferromagnetism was often observed in transition metal doped semiconductors, which were claimed as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Nowadays intensive activities are devoted to clarify weather the observed ferromagnetism stems from carrier mediated magnetic impurities, ferromagnetic precipitates or spinodal decomposition. In this paper, we have correlated the structural and magnetic properties of transition metal doped ZnO, TiO2 and Si, prepared by ion implantation. Crystalline precipitates, i.e. transition metal (Co, Ni) and Mn-silicide nanocrystals, are responsible for the magnetism. Additionally due to their orientation nature with respect to the host, these nanocrystals in some cases are not detectable by conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD). This nature results in the pitfall of using XRD to exclude magnetic precipitates in DMS materials.

Keywords: X-ray diffraction; Nanocrystals; Magnetic semiconductors

  • Journal of Applied Physics 103(2008), 07D530
    DOI: 10.1063/1.2828710
    Cited 40 times in Scopus
  • Lecture (Conference)
    52nd Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials and Intermag Conference, 05.-09.11.2007, Tampa, United States
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Spring Meeting 2008, 24.-29.02.2008, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10637


Ab-initio calculation of Exchange Interactions in YMnO3

Novak, P.; Chaplygin, I.; Seifert, G.; Gemming, S.; Laskowski, R.

Abstract

Hexagonal manganites with the composition RMnO3 undergo several magnetic phase transitions due to frustration effects between the manganese centres, which are located on a triangular lattice. Additional local magnetic moments of the metal R give rise to a rich variety of different magnetic phases, especially in the low-temperature region. In the parent compound YMnO3 only the manganese centres can be magnetic, thus it allows the investigation of the Mn-Mn coupling strength. All-electron density-functional calculations are carried out for several relative spin arrangements of nearest and next nearest neighbouring Mn sites; the standard spin-polarised LSDA and an extension to non-collinear magnetism are employed. In order to extract the coupling constants a Heisenberg model is fitted to the total energy differences between the investigated structures.

Keywords: manganites; multiferroics; magnetism; density functional theory; non-collinear; spin spiral

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICMAT07, 01.-06.07.2007, Singapore, Singapore

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10636


Finite-element simulation and performance of pulsed magnets

Skourski, Y.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Sytcheva, A.; Wosnitza, J.; Wustmann, B.; Zherlitsyn, S.

  • Poster
    MT-20 - 20th Biennial Conference on Magnet Technology, 27.-31.08.2007, Philadelphia, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10635


Evidence for an FFLO state in the organic superconductor k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2

Wosnitza, J.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ISCOM 2007 - 7th International Symposium on Crystalline Organic Metals, Superconductors and Ferromagnets, 24.-29.09.2007, Peniscola, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10634


Measurement techniques for liquid metal flows

Cramer, A.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

Commerical Measuring Techniques for Liquid Metal Flows (MTLMF) are hardly available. The reason for this deficiency has to be sought in the properties of the metallic melts (opaqueness, heat capacity), high temperatures, chemical reactivity, interfacial effects, and sensitivity to electromagnetic noise. Therefore, embodyments of MTLMF are primarily to be found on a laboratory scale.

Velocity measuring techniques may be distinguished using the influence they exert on the flow as a criterion. The local probes, e.g. electric potential probes and mechano-optical sensors, are invasive. Ultrasonic methods, the most prominent member of which is Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV), may on the one hand not be termed invasive - but on the other hand still need contact. Examples of contact-less techniques are the inductive methods (inductive flowmeters, Contact-less Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT)) and X-ray radiography.

Leaving aside local probes and X-ray techniques, the present lecture reports on the state of the art of UDV and CIFT. Exemplary investigations in our lab are discussed, showing limitations and future challenges of both these non-invasive MTLMFs.

  • Lecture (others)
    AMPERE meeting, 10.-11.07.2007, Paris, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10633


Tollmien-Schlichting wave damping by a streamwise oscillating Lorentz force

Albrecht, T.; Metzkes, H.; Grundmann, R.; Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

We present 2-D and 3-D Direct numerical Simulations of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave superposition in a flat plate boundary layer, where the initial TS wave is intended to be canceled out by a second wave of opposite phase.

  • Magnetohydrodynamics 44(2008)3, 205-222

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10632


European research on thermal hydraulics for heavy liquid metal ADS applications

Roelofs, F.; Class, A.; Jeanmart, H.; Ciampichetti, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Fazio, C.

Abstract

The objective of the European 6th framework project EUROTRANS, sponsored by the European Commission, is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation of high level nuclear waste using Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). Within this objective the design of a European experimental ADS (XT-ADS) should demonstrate the technical feasibilities to transmute a sizeable amount of waste and to operate an ADS safely. The XT-ADS will be a subcritical reactor system having liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as coolant. This liquid LBE is also intended to serve as target material for the spallation reaction which forms a crucial part to the subcritical reactor core. Since LBE is used as core coolant and spallation material, knowledge of the thermal hydraulic behaviour of LBE is essential.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ENC 2007 - European Nuclear Conference, 16.-19.09.2007, Brussels, Belgium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10631


Effect of electromagnetic stirring on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of peritectic Ti-Al alloy

Biswas, K.; Hermann, R.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.

Abstract

The effects of strong melt convection on microstructure evolution and resulting mechanical properties of Ti45Al55 peritectic alloys has been investigated. The samples are subjected to both conventional induction melting as well as enhanced melt stirring by applying an external magnetic field using a specially designed floating zone arrangement. The stirred samples show a significant improvement of the plastic deformability compared to the conventionally melted samples. Additionally, the fracture surface of the stirred samples exhibits more deformation. A strong change in the morphology of properitectic phase from dendritic to spherical together with an increase in the properitectic phase fraction was observed in the stirred samples. The possible reason of the change in morphology is explained as a result of spherical growth under forced convection. Compositional line-scan shows that the Al-depletion layer near the interface of (a2+g) colonies and g matrix reduces in the stirred samples due to the enhanced mass transfer under the effect of strong stirring.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Decennial International Conference on Solidification Processing - SP07, 23.-25.07.2007, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10630


Absolute versus convective helical magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow

Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

We analyze numerically the magnetorotational instability (MRI) of a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow with a helical external magnetic field in the inductionless approximation defined by a zero magnetic Prandtl number (Pm=0). The Chebyshev collocation method is used to calculate the eigenvalue spectrum for small amplitude perturbations.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHD Laboratory Experiments for Geophysics and Astrophysics, 01.-03.10.2007, Catania, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10629


Microsegregation in liquid Pb-based eutectics

Plevachuk, Y.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Yakymovych, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.

Abstract

The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and viscosity of Pb-based eutectic and near eutectic systems were studied. An anomalous behavior of the physical properties in the liquid binary Pb-Sn, Pb-Bi, Pb-Mg and ternary Pb-Bi-Sn melts has been revealed well above the liquidus. The temperature range of the anomalies reaches hundreds degrees and depends on the sample composition. The results obtained are interpreted in the context of the assumption that microsegregation areas formed by micro and nanoclusters exist in the eutectic and near eutectic systems.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10628


Melting-solidification process in Pb-Bi melts

Sklyarchuk, V.; Plevachuk, Y.; Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.

Abstract

Electrical conductivity, s(T), and thermoelectric power, S(T), of liquid Pb-Bi alloys of eutectic and near eutectic compositions were investigated in the “melting-solidification” temperature region. The revealed discrepancies between the heating and cooling s(T) and S(T) curves as well as a hysteresis observed in course of heating-cooling cycles suggest a metastable microheterogeneous structure of the Pb-Bi melts. A solidification mechanism is proposed.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    XIII International Seminar on Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 10.-13.06.2007, Ustron, Poland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10627


Atomic layer deposition of Iridium Oxide thin films from Ir(acac)3 and Ozone

Hämäläinen, J.; Kemell, M.; Munnik, F.; Kreissig, U.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.

Abstract

Iridium oxide thin films were grown with atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Ir(acac)3 and ozone between 165 and 200 °C. The films were successfully deposited on soda lime glass, silicon substrate with native oxide and Al2O3 adhesion layer. Saturation of the growth rate with respect to both precursors was verified and the film thickness depended linearly on the number of deposition cycles applied. The iridium oxide films had low impurity contents and good adhesion to all tested surfaces. IrO2 film deposited at 185 °C had homogeneous depth profile and contained 3.5 at. % hydrogen and less than 0.5 at. % carbon impurities. Resistivities of about 40 nm thick IrO2 films varied between 170 and 200 μΩcm. The films deposited above 200 °C were metallic iridium. All the films deposited were crystalline according to X-ray diffraction patterns.

Keywords: atomic layer deposition; ALD; iridium oxide; IrO2; conductive oxide; thin film

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10626


The new facilities and research at HLD

Wosnitza, J.

Abstract

Abstrakt hat nicht vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    EuroMagNET, 22.-23.10.2007, Nijmegen, Niederlande

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10625


Positron annihilation study of hydrogen trapping at open-volume defects: comparison of nanocrystalline and epitaxial Nb thin films

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Danis, S.; Melikhova, O.; Vlach, M.; Zaludova, N.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Mücklich, A.; Gemma, R.; Nikitin, E.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

Abstract

H interaction with defects in thin Nb films was investigated in this work. Thin Nb films were prepared by the cold cathode beam sputtering. First, microstructure of the as deposited films was characterized. The films sputtered at room temperature exhibit nanocrystalline grains, while those sputtered at high temperature (T = 850 ◦C) are epitaxial. Subsequently, the films were step-by-step electrochemically charged with H. Development of microstructure and evolution of defect structure with increasing H concentration was investigated by slow positron implantation spectroscopy combined with X-ray diffraction. It was found that H is trapped at open-volume defects in the thin films of both kinds. The nanocrystalline films exhibit significantly extended H solubility in the alpha-phase. Formation of the hydride-phase (Nb-H) at higher H concentrations leads to introduction of new defects. These are most probably dislocation loops that are emitted by growing hydride-phase particles.

  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds 446-447(2007), 484-488

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10624


Hydrogen-induced defects in niobium

Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Danis, S.; Cieslar, M.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

Abstract

The introduction of new defects due to H-loading of Nb, their population as a function of the H concentration, and the mechanism of their formation are investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are applied. Furthermore, the results obtained by the experimental techniques are compared with theoretical calculations of energetic stability and positron characteristics of various defect-H configurations. It is found that vacancies surrounded by H atoms are introduced into the specimens by H-loading. The density of these vacancy-H complexes increases with increasing concentration of H in the specimens. The H-induced vacancies are formed even in the alpha-phase field, when the metal–H system is a single phase solid solution. The stability of the H-induced defects and the
mechanism of their formation are discussed.

  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds 446-447(2007), 479-483

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10623


Pressure dependence of the electronic properties of the quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor beta"-(ET)2SF5CH2CF2SO3

Hagel, J.; Ignatchik, O.; Wosnitza, J.; Pfleiderer, C.; Schlueter, J. A.; Davis, H.; Winter, R.; Gard, G. L.

Abstract

We report on pressure-dependent superconducting and transport properties of the quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor b"-(ET)2SF5CH2CF2SO3. With increasing pressure both the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, as well as the effective mass, mc, decrease monotonously. By assuming a direct relationship between mc and the superconducting coupling parameter λ, the pressure dependence of Tc can be well described by the modified McMillan equation. For all pressures in the metallic state the resistance follows q = q0 + AT2 at low temperatures. The coefficient A, however, is found to be not proportional to m2 c as expected for a purely electronic origin of the T2 behavior.

  • Physica C 460-462(2007), 639-640

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10622


Effect of the Ru content on the phase equilibria in the RuSr2GdCu2O8 synthesis

Casini, E.; Papageorgiou, T. P.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Wosnitza, J.; Braun, H. F.

Abstract

In this study we report the synthesis and characterization of four samples prepared with a nominal RuSr2GdCu2O8 starting composition following a two-step procedure, involving the Sr2GdRuO6 compound as precursor, in a controlled atmosphere. A chemicalvapour-transport process in an open system is used to control the Ru content in these samples during the annealing cycle. We observe that high Ru-oxides mass transport results in a change of the phases in equilibrium at the RuSr2GdCu2O8 composition and a multiphase product is obtained. Rietveld refinement analysis and SEM-EDX studies are carried out in order to estimate the Ru content in the asprepared RuGd1212.

  • Physica C 460-462(2007), 401-402

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10621


Capacitance sheds light on complex flows

Swarup, B.

Abstract

Engineers could soon have a much better idea of what is going on inside pipelines and industrial reactors thanks to a new flow sensor developed by scientists in Germany. The device is able to distinguish between different substances in a flowing mixture and it could help solve tricky flow problems such as how to move unruly mixtures of oil, gas and water from deep undersea wells to the surface.

Keywords: capacitance wire mesh sensor; multiphase flow measurement

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10620


Physikalische Modellierung von Strömungen für Kristallzüchtungen

Gerbeth, G.; Grants, I.; Galindo, V.

Abstract

Physikalische Modellierung von Strömungen für Kristallzüchtungen

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Magnetfelder in der Kristallzüchtung - offenes Statusseminar des Projektes KristMAG, 18.-20.06.2007, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10619


Qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected liquid flow texture scenario in trickle bed reactors using high resolution gamma ray tomography

Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Hessel, G.; Lange, R.; Zippe, C.

Abstract

Trickle bed reactor performance and safety may suffer from radial and axial liquid maldistribution and thus from non-uniform utilization of the catalyst packing. Therefore, experimental analysis and fluid dynamic simulation of liquid-gas flow in trickle bed reactors is an important topic in chemical engineering. In the presented study for the first time a truly high-resolution gamma ray tomography technique was applied to the quantitative analysis of the liquid flow texture in a laboratory cold flow trickle bed reactor of 90 mm diameter. The objective of this study was the comparative analysis of the liquid flow dynamics for two different initial liquid distributions and two different types of reactor configurations. Thus, the hydrodynamic behavior of a glass bead packing was compared to a porous Al2O3 catalyst particle packing using inlet flow from a commercial spray nozzle (uniform initial liquid distribution) and inlet flow from a central point source (strongly non-uniform initial liquid distribution), respectively. The column was operated in downflow mode at a gas flow rate of 180 L/h and at liquid flow rates of 15 L/h and 25 L/h.

Keywords: Gamma ray tomography; Multiphase flow; Trickle bed; Liquid saturation; Liquid distribution; Liquid spreading

  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th International Conferences on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactor Engineering (GLS8), 16.-19.12.2007, Delhi, India
  • Poster
    8th International Conferences on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactor Engineering (GLS8), 16.-19.12.2007, Delhi, India

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10618


On magnetohydrodynamic drag reduction and flow control behind a body

Gerbeth, G.; Shatrov, V.

Abstract

In the first part we present results of direct numerical simulations on turbulent channel flow drag reduction using electromagnetic forces. The Lorentz force is created by the interaction of a permanent magnetic field and an electric current from electrodes placed on the bottom wall surface. We consider the two cases of a spanwise oscillating force and a streamwise steady force. In the second part the flow behind an electromagnetically self-moved sphere is considered for which a drag reduction is found. Results on the linear and nonlinear flow stability will be provided.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic drag reduction; efficiency

  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Congress on Andustrial and Applied Mathematics (ICIAM 07), 16.-20.07.2007, Zurich, Switzerland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10617


Liquid flow texture analysis in trickle bed reactors using high resolution gamma ray tomography

Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Hessel, G.; Lange, R.; Zippe, C.

Abstract

Trickle bed reactor performance and safety may suffer from radial and axial liquid maldistribution and thus from non-uniform utilization of the catalyst packing. Therefore, experimental analysis and fluid dynamic simulation of liquid-gas flow in trickle bed reactors is an important topic in chemical engineering. In the presented study for the first time a truly high-resolution gamma ray tomography technique was applied to the quantitative analysis of the liquid flow texture in a laboratory cold flow trickle bed reactor of 90 mm diameter. The objective of this study was the comparative analysis of the liquid flow dynamics for two different initial liquid distributions and two different types of reactor configurations. Thus, the hydrodynamic behavior of a glass bead packing was compared to a porous Al2O3 catalyst particle packing using inlet flow from a commercial spray nozzle (uniform initial liquid distribution) and inlet flow from a central point source (strongly non-uniform initial liquid distribution), respectively. The column was operated in downflow mode at a gas flow rate of 180 L/h and at liquid flow rates of 15 L/h and 25 L/h.

Keywords: Gamma ray tomography; Multiphase flow; Trickle bed; Liquid saturation; Liquid distribution; Liquid spreading

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10616


MFZ Intermetallischer Verbindungen

Behr, G.; Hermann, R.; Löser, W.; Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Magnetfelder in der Kristallzüchtung - Offenes Statusseminar des Projektes KRISTMAG, 18.-20.06.2007, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10615


VGF-Kristallzüchtung mit externen Magnetfeldern

Lantzsch, R.; Galindo, V.; Grants, I.; Pätzold, O.; Gerbeth, G.; Stelter, M.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Magnetfelder in der Kristallzüchtung - Offenes Statusseminar des Projektes KRISTMAG, 18.-20.06.2007, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10614


Competition between damage buildup and dynamic annealing in ion implantation into Ge

Posselt, M.; Bischoff, L.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

Abstract

In order to investigate the effect of ion flux and irradiation temperature on defect evolution in germanium during the process of ion implantation, a focused ion beam system is used. Channeling implantation of Ga ions is performed at two very different ion fluxes (1012 and 1019 cm-2 s-1), at two temperatures (room temperature and 250 0C), and at five different fluences, ranging from 5x1012 to 5x1014 cm-2. The depth distributions of Ga and the implantation damage are determined by SIMS and micro-RBS/C, respectively. The fluence dependence of the measured range profiles and of the implantation damage is strongly influenced by the ion flux and the implantation temperature. These results are explained by the competition between damage buildup and dynamic annealing during the ion bombardment. For the two implantation temperatures considered, the time scale for intracascade defect relaxation can be estimated. At 250 °C, the maximum lifetime of the defects is less than 10 s. On the other hand, at room temperature no significant annealing is found within the first 10 s after ion impact. The measured Ga depth profiles can be reproduced by atomistic computer simulations using a phenomenological model to describe the probability that an implanted ion collides with a target atom of a damaged region. This probability depends on the total nuclear energy deposition per target atom and on two empirical parameters [1].
[1] M. Posselt, L. Bischoff, D. Grambole, F. Herrmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 151918

Keywords: germanium; ion implantation; damage; dynamic annealing

  • Poster
    GADEST 2007 - 12th International Autumn Meeting Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology, 14.-19.10.2007, Erice, Sicily, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10613


Dependence of the correlation factor for self-diffusion by vacancies and self-interstitials on the migration mechanism: an atomistic study

Posselt, M.

Abstract

Self-diffusion in Si is determined by the concentration and the mobility of both vacancies and self-interstitials. The self-diffusion coefficient is usually given by Dsd = fV CV DV + fI CI DI, where CV and CI are the relative concentrations of vacancies and self-interstitials, respectively; DV and DI denote the diffusivities. The quantities fV and fI describe the correlation between the migration of Si atoms and the migration of vacancies and self-interstitials; fV and fI are therefore called correlation factors. The statistical theory of diffusion [1,2] allows the determination of these factors if certain atomic mechanisms for vacancy and self-interstitial migration are assumed. On the other hand, the self-diffusion coefficient per point defect as well as the point defect diffusivity can be calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The ratio of both quantities yields the correlation factors fV and fI. In this manner, they can be determined without any assumption about the atomic migration mechanisms.
In the present work, point defect migration and the related atomic mobility are investigated by MD simulations using the interatomic potentials of Stillinger-Weber and Tersoff. It is shown that the value of fV = 0.5 obtained by MD simulations is identical with that determined by the statistical diffusion theory, since the simple atomic mechanism assumed in this theory is also found by the simulations. The mechanisms of self-interstitial migration are more complex. The detailed study, including a visual analysis and investigations with the nudged elastic band method, reveals a variety of transformations between different self-interstitial configurations. MD simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential show, that the self-interstitial migration is dominated by the dumbbell mechanism, whereas in the case of the Tersoff potential the interstitialcy mechanism prevails. The corresponding values of the correlation factor fI are different, namely 0.56 and 0.73 for the dumbbell and the interstitialcy mechanism, respectively. The latter value corresponds to that obtained by the statistical theory [2] which assumes an interstitialcy mechanism. However, results of recent investigations on intrinsic point defects in silicon using a unified view from crystal growth, wafer processing and metal diffusion [3], and on dopant and defect diffusion [4] demonstrate, that in the framework of state-of-the-art modeling a reasonable interpretation of experimental data can be only given by assuming fI = 0.5…0.6. The comparison with results of the present atomistic study leads to the conclusion that self-interstitial migration in Si should mainly occur via the dumbbell mechanism.
References:
[1] K. Compaan, Y. Haven, Trans. Faraday Soc. 52 (1956) 786
[2] K. Compaan, Y. Haven, Trans. Faraday Soc. 54 (1958) 1498
[4] V.V. Voronkov, R. J. Falster, Solid State Phenomena 108-109 (2005) 1
[3] H.Bracht, Physica B 376-377 (2006) 11

Keywords: silicon; diffusion; point defects; atomistic simulation

  • Poster
    GADEST 2007 - 12th International Autumn Meeting Gettering and Defect Engineering in Semiconductor Technology, 14.-19.10.2007, Erice, Sicily, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10612


Direct numerical computation of the lift force acting on single bubbles

Bothe, D.; Schmidtke, M.; Warnecke, H.-J.

Abstract

Bubbles in shear flows experience a lift force, causing them to migrate sideward while they are rising. This lateral migration is also observed in numerical simulations, which are carried out with an extended version of the highly parallelized code FS3D, employing an advanced Volume-of-Fluid method. The movement of single bubbles in linear shear flows is simulated to obtain the magnitude of the lift force – expressed by the lift force coefficient CL – for various bubble diameters and material data. Simulation results are in good agreement with experiments for medium liquid phase viscosities. The pressure and the velocity fields near the interface are investigated and the contribution of dynamic pressure and the circulation of the lift force are discussed.

Keywords: rise of bubbles; lift coefficient; Volume of Fluid method; shear flow

  • Contribution to proceedings
    6th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10611


Radiopharmaceutical Tools for Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Tumors

Juran, S.

  • Lecture (others)
    Institutskolloquium, Monash-University, School of Chemistry, 26.10.2007, Melbourne, Australia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10610


Erweiterung des ATHLET – Datensatzes des KKK um das 4 – Quadranten – Modell des Rückströmraumes und Ergebnisse der Simulation der Transiente vom 28.06.2007

Laczkó, G.; Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.

Abstract

Die in diesem Bericht dokumentierten Ergebnisse sind vertraulich.

  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2007
    FZD/FWS/2007/10
    40 Seiten
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10609


Vertical gradient freeze growth with external magnetic fields

Lantzsch, R.; Grants, I.; Pätzold, O.; Stelter, M.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

The Vertical Gradient Freeze (VGF) method is an important technique for the growth of bulk semiconductors from the melt. The structural and electrical properties of the crystals depend on the melt flow which can be influenced by external magnetic fields. By applying an AC field, the flow can be tailored to improve the quality of the crystals and the yield of the growth process. The induced melt flow, however, tends to be time-dependent which might be avoided by combining the AC field with a DC field.

Keywords: Vertical Gradient Freeze crystal growth with external magnetic fields

  • Lecture (Conference)
    The 15th International Conference on Crystal Growth, 11.-17.08.2007, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
  • Journal of Crystal Growth 310(2008)7-9, 1518-1522

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10608


Tailored magnetic fields in the melt extraction of metallic filaments

Cramer, A.; Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.; Bojareviecs, A.; Gelfgat, Y.; Andersen, O.; Kostmann, C.; Stephani, G.

Abstract

Melt extraction is a near-net-shape casting process in which a swiftly rotating disc draws filaments out of a melt. The melt solidifies at the V-shaped circumferential edge upon first contact, and the layer grows while the disc moves further through the liquid pool. A disc may be equipped with several edges to increase the performance. Further, the perimeter may be notched to produce fibres having a certain length. During rapid cooling, the filament shrinks and is finally flung away by centrifugal force. Two different methods were developed in the seventies and established on industrial scale. Nonetheless, both still show their specific inadequacy. The extraction out of a crucible is characterised by a relatively large surface allowing multi-edge and thus efficient operation. Usually, the melt contained in a refractory is lifted slowly toward the disc. Induction heating and shear stress supplied by the disc lead to turbulent melt motion, which limits the process with respect to extraction velocity and, in turn, to relatively thick fibres. It is possible to extract ultra-fine filaments from a pending drop. That needs melting of a rod at its tip, which is usually accomplished by an oxygen-acetylene torch. Though the confined volume and capillary forces due to a small radius of curvature permit high extraction velocity, the productivity suffers from the fact that only one edge can be used.
Damping of velocity fluctuations may be realised by a static magnetic field. Concerning the crucible extraction, extended series measurements showed that globally applying such a magnetic brake has two effects:
(i) it is possible to achieve higher extraction speed, but
(ii) the fibre diameter is barely affected. High speed video recordings revealed that extraction takes place only during duty cycles. Instead of producing thinner fibres, as has to be expected from higher circumferential speed in case of continuous extraction due to conservation of mass, the damping also reduces the mean velocity, and in turn the mass transport onto the disc; the globally applied magnetic brake influences the length of the duty cycle. Here, the tailored magnetic solution is a concentration of magnetic flux density to the small meniscus region of the extraction zone by means of ferromagnetic parts. This local stabilisation significantly reduces the fibre diameter. Poor efficiency of the pending drop technique can be overcome with extraction from a molten edge. The problem to be solved is melting the sheet directly at its edge. Owing to geometric restrictions, electromagnetic heating with a long inductor having two opposing branches would either release most of the heat at a certain distance from the edge, or in the disc. Passing the current in the same direction through the branches in combination with optimisation with respect to the skin effect allows moving the area of heat impingement almost entirely outside the inductor toward the edge of the jutting through sheet. In two experiments, a platinum sheet was molten directly at its edge and very thin tin fibres were produced.

  • Poster
    LMPC 2007 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 02.-05.09.2007, Nancy, France
  • Contribution to proceedings
    LMPC 2007 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 02.-05.09.2007, Nancy, France
    Tailored magnetic fields in the melt extraction of metallic filaments, 305-311
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 40(2009), 337-344

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10607


Ion beam synthesis and charge storage behavior of Au nanocrystals in thin SiO2 layers

Beyer, V.; Eichhorn, F.; von Borany, J.; Mücklich, A.; Müller, T.

Abstract

Au nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized in a thin SiO2 layer by ion implantation and annealing in a tight distribution close to the Si/SiO2 interface. Between the NCs and the Si substrate a thin tunneling oxide forms self-organized during annealing totally depleted from Au NCs. Memory behavior is demonstrated by electron charging and discharging on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Lenticular liquid Au:Si droplets nucleate at the Si/SiO2 interface from silicon regions supersaturated by Au close to the oxide. Au NCs embedded in SiO2 above these droplets are stabilized during annealing due to a modified detailed balance of Au atom detachment and attachment. Capacitance-voltage and spreading resistance measurements reveal the impact of the Au contamination in the Si substrate. Structure and distribution of Au droplets and NCs are characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy .

Keywords: ion beam synthesis; nanocrystals; memory; Au

  • Journal of Applied Physics 104(2008), 024512

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10606


Multicenter standardized FDG-PET diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

Mosconi, L.; Tsui, W. H.; Herholz, K.; Pupi, A.; Drzezga, A.; Lucignani, G.; Reimann, E. M.; Holthoff, V.; Kalbe, E.; Sorbi, S.; Diehl-Schmid, J.; Perneczky, R.; Clerici, F.; Caselli, R.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Kurz, A.; Minoshima, S.; de Leon, M. J.

Abstract

This multicenter study examined F-18-FDG PET measures in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from normal aging and from each other and the relation of disease-specific patterns to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We examined the F-18-FDG PET scans of 548 subjects, including 110 healthy elderly individuals ("normals" or NLs), 114 MCI, 199 AD, 98 FTD, and 27 DLB patients, collected at 7 participating centers. Individual PET scans were Z scored using automated voxel-based comparison with generation of disease-specific patterns of cortical and hippocampal F-18-FDG uptake that were then applied to characterize MCI. Results: Standardized disease-specific PET patterns were developed that correctly classified 95% AD, 92% DLB, 94% FTD, and 94% NIL. MCI patients showed primarily posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal hypometabolism (81%), whereas neocortical abnormalities varied accordi!
ng to neuropsychological profiles. An AD PET pattern was observed in 79% MCI with deficits in multiple cognitive domains and 31% amnesic MCI. F-18-FDG PET heterogeneity in MCI with non-memory deficits ranged from absent hypometabolism to FTD and DLB PET patterns. Conclusion: Standardized automated analysis of F-18-FDG PET scans may provide an objective and sensitive support to the clinical diagnosis in early dementia. Key Words: F-18-FDG PET; Alzheimer's disease; frontotemporal dementia; Lewy body dementia; mild cognitive impairment; normal aging; hippocampus.

  • Journal of Nuclear Medicine 49(2008)3, 390-398

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10605


Low-lying dipole strength and nuclear deformation

Frauendorf, S.

Abstract

Low-lying dipole strength and nuclear deformation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ECT* Trento Workshop On Exotic Modes Of Excitation: From Nuclear Structure to Astrophysics, 07.-11.10.2007, Trento, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10604


Tidal Waves and Boson Condensation in Transitional Nuclei

Frauendorf, S.

Abstract

Tidal Waves and Boson Condensation in Transitional Nuclei

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Seminar INFN Legnaro, 07.10.2007, Legnaro, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10603


Evolution of vortex structures in an electromagnetically excited separated flow

Cierpka, C.; Weier, T.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

For the present study time periodic wall parallel Lorentz forces have been used to excite the separated flow on the suction side of an inclined flat plate. Experiments for a Reynolds number of 10^4 and an angle of attack of a = 13° are reported. The controlled flow is characterised by a small number of relatively large scale vortices, which are related to the control mechanism. The influence of the main parameters, i.e. the excitation frequency, amplitude and wave form on the suction side flow structures was investigated by analysing time resolved particle image velocimetry (TR–PIV) measurements using continuous wavelet analysis for vortex detection and characterisation. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures of the flow was performed on a large amount of data samples.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10602


GeV-scale electron acceleration in a gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide

Karsch, S.; Osterhoff, J.; Popp, A.; Rowlands-Rees, T. P.; Major, Z.; Fuchs, M.; Marx, B.; Hörlein, R.; Schmid, K.; Veisz, L.; Becker, S.; Schramm, U.; Hidding, B.; Pretzler, G.; Habs, D.; Grüner, F.; Hooker, S. M.; Krausz, F.

Abstract

We report experimental results on laser-driven electron acceleration with low divergence. The electron beam was generated by focussing 750-mJ, 42-fs laser pulses into a gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide at electron densities in the range between 1018 cm−3 and 1019 cm−3. Quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches with energies as high as 500 MeV have been detected, with features reaching up to 1 GeV, albeit with large shot-to-shot fluctuations. A more stable regime with higher bunch charge (20-45 pC) and less energy (200-300 MeV) could also be observed. The beam divergence and the pointing stability are around or below 1 mrad and 8 mrad, respectively. These findings are consistent with self-injection of electrons into a breaking plasma wave.

Keywords: PACS: 41.75.Jv; 42.65.Jx; 52.38.Kd

Downloads

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10601


Underground facilities for nuclear astrophysics

Bemmerer, D.

Abstract

Recent progress in astronomy, in many cases by satellite-based observatories, has led to much more precise astronomical data. Nuclear data with matching precision are necessary for a proper understanding of astronomical scenarios such as the big bang, stable and explosive stellar burning. In the case of nuclear reaction cross sections, precision data require measurements directly at Gamow peak energies, where the absolute value of the cross section is very low. In the present lecture, underground facilities for nuclear astrophysics are reviewed with a focus on providing cross section data. For activation studies, shallow and deep underground laboratories have been employed. Exemplary results from the Felsenkeller Dresden/Germany shallow underground laboratory and the Gran Sasso/Italy deep underground facility are shown and discussed. For in-beam gamma-spectroscopy studies, so far only the LUNA facility at Gran Sasso is available. The salient features of LUNA and some recent results are shown. The lecture ends with an outlook on currently proposed new underground accelerators in Italy, the United States, the United Kingdom and Romania.

Keywords: nuclear astrophysics; underground accelerator; activation; in-beam gamma-spectroscopy; LUNA; nucleosynthesis

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Fourth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics, 26.09.-03.10.2007, Santa Tecla, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10600


From conventional to unconventional superconductivity

Wosnitza, J.

Abstract

hat nicht vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International School "Magnetic Fields for Science", 27.08.-08.09.2007, Cargèse, France
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Summer School: Symmetries and Phase Transitions - from Crystals and Superconductors to the Higgs particle and the Cosmos, 29.08.-02.09.2016, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10599


de Haas-van Alphen investigations on the nonmagnetic superconductors LuNi2B2C and YNi2B2C

Bergk, B.; Ignatchik, O.; Bartkowiak, M.; Petzold, V.; Rosner, H.; Canfield, P. C.; Behr, G.; Sheikin, I.; Perenboom, J.; Wosnitza, J.

Abstract

We present de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) investigations on the nonmagnetic borocarbide
superconductors LuNi2B2C and YNi2B2C. The measurements were carried out by use of a cantilevertorque method on a rotator set up in high magnetic fields up to 32 T and at low temperatures down to 50 mK. From the normal-state oscillations we determine the electronic band structure of the material. From comparison with full-potential local-orbital calculations we assigned the measured dHvA frequencies to the different bands identified the expected spherical, cubic and ‘cushion’-like closed Fermi surfaces. Additionally, we found frequencies that probably belong to a complicated multipleconnected Fermi-surface sheet. Further, we performed temperature-dependent measurements that allowed the extraction of the effective band masses of the different Fermi-surface sheets. We find mass enhancements in comparison to the calculated values that are due to electron-phonon coupling.
Finally, we are able to determine the angular dependences of the electron-phonon coupling for the different Fermi-surface sheets.
Below the upper critical field, Bc2, an additional damping of the oscillation amplitude appears. This decrease might be related to the increase of the superconducting gap parameter which could be calculated from quantitative measurements of this effect. However, the analysis is hampered by additional influences originating form changes in the flux-line lattice that appear close to the superconducting phase transition. Therefore, we compare two differently grown crystals. The one grown by a zone-melting method shows a rather abrupt vanishing of the oscillation amplitude in the superconducting state. In contrast, for the flux-grown crystals we observe a smooth damping
combined with a broad phase transition.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International School "Magnetic Fields for Science", 27.08.-08.09.2007, Cargèse, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10598


Simulating the stopping dynamics of highly charged ions in an ultra-cold, strongly coupled plasma

Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.

Abstract

We introduce a method for stopping highly charged ions (HCIs) in a laser-cooled one-component plasma (OCP) of 24Mg+ ions and present results on stopping times derived from realistic molecular dynamics simulations of the complete stopping process. This stopping scheme can provide ultra-cold highly charged ions for future in-trap precision mass measurements. The choice of an ultra-cold ion plasma as a stopping medium is governed by the almost negligible charge exchange of the HCI with the laser-cooled ions and the very low temperatures which can be reached. In our analysis we focus on the stability and fast recooling of the plasma – two features essential for the experimental realization of this stopping scheme.

Keywords: 02.70.Ns; 34.50.Bw; 32.80.Pj; 21.10.Dr; 52.27.Gr; 52.27.Jt; Stopping; Highly charged ions; Laser cooling; Plasma; Strong coupling; Molecular dynamics simulation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10597


High-magnetic-field studies of the new spin-1 Haldane-chain material NENB

Ozerov, M.; Cizmar, E.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.

Abstract

Antiferromagnetic quantum spin-1 chains have been the subject of intensive theoretical and
experimental studies, fostered especially by the Haldane conjecture (F.D.M. Haldane, Phys. Lett. 93A
(1983) 464). In this work we report results of high-magnetic-field studies of the new spin-1 chain
material NiC2H8N2. The magnetic susceptibility, low-temperature magnetization
and high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies unambiguously indicate that NENB is a Haldanechain
material. Two critical fields were revealed by high-field (up to 15 T) magnetization
measurements indicating a field-induced collapse of the spin-singlet ground state and a finite
anisotropy of the g-factor in fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the chain direction. The spin
gap has been measured directly by means of the high-field ESR, revealing Δ = 17.4 K.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International School "Magnetic Fields for Science", 27.08.-08.09.2007, Cargèse, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10596


Investigations to the synthesis of n.c.a. [18F]FClO3 as electrophilic fluorinating agent

Hiller, A.; Fischer, C.; Jordanova, A.; Patt, J. T.; Steinbach, J.

Abstract

An approach to synthesize the electrophilic fluorinating agent no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [18F]perchloryl fluoride ([18F]FClO3) in superacidic media in the presence of KClO4 or anhydrous perchloric acid starting from [18F]fluoride was demonstrated in this study. However, the radiochemical yields were low (1–6%) and poorly reproducible. Fluorosulphonic acid proved to be an essential intermediate as revealed by non-radioactive experiments. A key problem in the preparation of [18F]FClO3 is the assumed kinetic inhibition due to the unfavourable stoichiometric ratio of the ClO4 moiety to [18F]HSO3F.

Keywords: Fluorine-18; Perchloryl fluoride; Electrophilic fluorination; No carrier added

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10595


Preparing a laser cooled plasma for stopping highly charged ions

Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.

Abstract

We present a new cooling scheme for the preparation of highly charged ions for future in-trap precision experiments. A plasma of laser cooled 24Mg+ ions trapped in a 3D harmonic confinement potential is used as a stopping medium for the highly charged ions. We focus on the dynamic evolution of the plasma, determining suitable cooling conditions for fast recooling of the 24Mg+ ions. The results of a realistic parallel simulation of the complete stopping process presented here indicate that a small, constant detuning of the laser frequency is sufficient for subsequent recooling of the plasma, thus maintaining the stability of the plasma.

Keywords: 02.70.Ns Molecular dynamics and particle methods; 32.80.Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping; 34.50.Bw Energy loss and stopping power; 52.27.Gr Strongly-coupled plasmas

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10594


Tracerkinetische Grundlagen von Perfusionsmessungen mit diffusiblen Tracern in der PET

van den Hoff, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Dresdner Expertengespraeche im OncoRay: Durchblutung in Tumoren, 04.10.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10593


Correlations between MRS alterations and cerebral ammonia and glucose metabolism in citthotic patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy

Weissenborn, K.; Ahl, B.; Fischer-Wasels, D.; van den Hoff, J.; Hecker, H.; Burchert, W.; Köstler, H.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is considered to be mainly due to increased ammonia metabolism of the brain. If this hypothesis is true, cerebral glucose utilisation, which is considered to represent brain function, should be closely related to cerebral ammonia metabolism. The aim of the present study was to analyse if cerebral ammonia and glucose metabolism in cirrhotic patients with early grades of HE are as closely related as could be expected from current hypotheses on HE.

METHODS:

13N-ammonia- and 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG) - PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were performed in 21 cirrhotic patients with grade 0 -1 HE. Quantitative values of cerebral ammonia uptake and retention rate and glucose utilisation were derived for several regions of interest and were correlated to the MRS data of the basal ganglia, the white matter and the frontal cortex.

RESULTS:

A significant correlation between plasma ammonia levels and cerebral ammonia metabolism, respectively, and MRS alterations could be shown only for the white matter. In contrast, the MRS alterations in all three regions studied were significantly correlated with the glucose utilisation of several brain regions. Cerebral ammonia and glucose metabolism were not correlated.

CONCLUSION:

Increase of cerebral ammonia metabolism is an important but not the exclusive causal factor for the development of hepatic encephalopathy.

  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 56(2007)12, 1736-1742
    ISSN: 1468-3288

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10591


Determination of the superconducting gap of LuNi2B2C

Bergk, B.; Ignatchik, O.; Bianchi, A. D.; Jäckel, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Perenboom, J.; Canfield, P. C.

Abstract

We present de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) measurements of the nonmagnetic borocarbide LuNi2B2C. In the superconducting state below the upper critical field, Bc2, the dHvA signal shows an additional damping. For some field orientations we observe a very strong damping close to Bc2 and only a very weak effect at lower fields in the superconducting state. We discuss the origin of the different dampings and their relation to the superconducting gap.

  • Physica C 460-462(2007), 630-631

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10590


Structural phase transition in two-dimensional tetramer-cuprate Na5RbCu4(AsO4)(4)Cl-2

Gnezdilov, V.; Bedarev, V.; Gnatchenko, S.; Pashchenko, M.; Pashkevich, Y.; Lemmens, P.; Zvyagin, S.; Mo, X.; Queen, W.; Hwu, S.

Abstract

Raman scattering and optical birefringence are used in to investigate a low-temperature phase transition in a single crystal of the two-dimensional Na5RbCu4(AsO4)(4)Cl-2. Phonon anomalies point to a first-order nature of the transition. The observed transition is most probably related to an order-disorder transition of the Rb ion positions along the z axis within the ionic framework of mixed alkali metal chloride lattices.

  • Low Temperature Physics 33(2007), 684-687

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10589


Adhesion of PBO fiber in epoxy composites

Mäder, E.; Melcher, S.; Liu, J. W.; Gao, S. L.; Bianchi, A. D.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.

Abstract

A composite of poly p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO) fiber and epoxy resin has excellent electrical insulation properties. However, it is a challenging issue to improve its mechanical properties because of poor adhesion between PBO fiber and matrix. The relatively smooth and chemically inactive surface of PBO fiber prevent efficient chemical bonding in the composite interface. Here, we report the surface modification of PBO fibers by UV irradiation, O-2 and NH3 plasma, as well as acidic treatments. We found that the surface free energy and roughness are increased for both sized and extracted fibers after plasma treatments together with maleic anhydride grafting. The sized fiber shows marginal improvement in adhesion strength and no change in fiber tensile strength because of the barrier effect of the finish. For the extracted fiber, however, the tensile strength of the fiber is sensitive to surface treatment conditions and considerable strength reduction occurred, parti! cularly for cases of acidic treatments and UV irradiation. This is because that the treatments increase the surface roughness and introduce more surface flaws. The extracted fiber surface has no adequate wetting and functional groups, which in turn results in coarse interface structures and causes reduction or no apparent variation of the adhesion strength. The fracture surfaces after single fiber pull-out tests exhibit adhesive interfacial failure along the fiber surface, which is further confirmed by similar adhesion strength and interlaminar shear strength values when the fiber was embedded in various epoxy resins with different temperature behavior.

  • Journal of Materials Science 42(2007), 8047-8052

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10588


Endotaxial growth of InSb nanocrystals on the bonding interface of silicon-oninsulator structure

Tyschenko, I. E.; Voelskow, M.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

Abstract

Endotoxial growth of InSb nanocrystals

Keywords: nanocrystals; InSb; SOI

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Third International Conference "Micro&Nano2007" on Micro- Nanoelectronics, Nanotechnology and MEMs, 18.-21.11.2007, Athen, Greece

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10587


The properties of the nanometer thick Si/Ge films-on-insulator produced by Ge+ ion implantation and subsequent hydrogen transfer

Tyschenko, I. E.; Voelskow, M.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

Abstract

RBS investigations on Ge+ implanted silicon films on insulators

Keywords: Si/Ge films; implantation; RBS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd International Conference "Micro&Nano2007" on Micro- Nanoelectronics, Nanotechnology and MEMs, 18.-21.11.2007, Athen, Greece

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10586


Measurements of non-Gaussian noise in quantum wells

Ben Simon, A.; Paltiel, Y.; Jung, G.; Berger, V.; Schneider, H.

Abstract

Gaussian generation-recombination is known to be a dominant mechanism of current noise in quantum well systems biased by electric field normal to the layers. We have found pronouncedly non-Gaussian excess current noise in n-type and p-type multiple quantum wells. The non-Gaussian noise has been attributed to metastable spatial configurations of electric field. The metastability is likely originating from negative differential conductance caused by intervalley scattering in n-type wells and heavy and light holes tunneling in p-type wells. At a constant bias the quantum well system randomly switches between a high resistivity state with low current flow and low resistive state with high current flow. The non-Gaussianity of the noise is more pronounced in p-type wells where the time traces of current fluctuations resemble closely two-level random telegraph signal which has not been straightforwardly observed in n-type wells. The non-Gaussian character of the noise in n-type systems has been revealed by measurements of nonzero skewness of the amplitude distributions. The difference between noise properties of n- and p-type systems has been attributed to small capture probability of electrons in n-type wells, as opposed to very high capture probability of holes in p-type wells. As a consequence the noise of any p-type multi-well system is dominated by fluctuations of a single while in the n-type the noise appears as a superposition of many fluctuators associated with individual wells.

Keywords: generation-recombination noise; random telegraph noise; skewness; GaAs/AlGaAs; quantum well

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10585


The influence of the implantation sequence on the (SiC)1-x (AlN)x formation

Pezoldt, J.; Rybin, P. V.; Kulikov, D. V.; Trushin, Y. V.; Yankov, R. A.; Voelskow, M.; Kreissig, U.

Abstract

The influence of the implantation sequence on the defect and implant distribution during (SiC)1-x (AlN)x formation was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/ion channelling (RBS/C) and elastic recoil detection. It is shown that the implantation sequence aluminum followed by nitrogen lead to an improved crystallinity compared to the reverse implantation sequence for implantation temperatures above 400o C. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the defects distributions calculated by using a developed model which includes the effect of stress self-consistently.

Keywords: Ion implantation; RBS; ERD; defect distribution

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 166/167(2000)1-4, 758-763

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10584


Verfahren zur Kontrolle von Bestrahlungen an Bestrahlungseinrichtungen mit in-beam Positronenemissionstomographen

Crespo, P.; Heidel, K.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.

Abstract

Aufgabe der Erfindung ist es, eine wirkliche Echtzeit-Beobachtung der laufenden Bestrahlung weitgehend verzerrungsfrei zu ermöglichen. Außerdem soll mit dem Verfahren eine Korrektur der physiologischen Prozesse möglich werden.
Die Erfindung beinhaltet, dass die Flugzeitdifferenz der Annihilationsquanten gemessen wird und deren Korrelation mit der Mikro- und/oder Makrostruktur des Strahls und den Ortskoordinaten kombiniert und in ein Echtzeitdatenerfassungssystem eingespeist wird und dass in Echtzeit eine bildliche Darstellung der ß+-Aktivität, die im Patienten erzeugt wird, sowie eine off-line-Korrektur der Abbildungsfehler auf Grund physiologischer Prozesse erfolgt.

  • Patent
    WO 2007 / 087790 A1
  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 004 687 A1

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10583


P0605 - Anordnung zur zweidimensionalen Messung von verschiedenen Komponenten im Querschnitt einer Mehrphasenströmung

Da Silva, M. J.; Hampel, U.; Schleicher, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

Abstract

Aufgabe der vorliegenden Erfindung ist es, eine Anordnung zur schnellen Messung der Phasen- oder der Komponentenverteilung in einem Strömungsquerschnitt für Stoffgemische auch nichtleitender Art auf Basis einer Messung der komplexen elektrischen Admittanz anzugeben.
Die Erfindung beinhaltet im Wesentlichen, dass

  • den Sendeelektroden (3a) der Anregungsebene mindestens ein Sinusgenerator (5) vorgeschaltet ist, der die Sendeelektroden (3a) mit einer Wechselspannung beaufschlagt,
  • den Empfängerelektroden (3b) Strom-Spannungswandler (7) nachgeschaltet sind, die den von mindestens einer Anregungselektrode (3a) durch das Medium zu den Empfängerelektroden (3b) fließenden Wechselstrom verstärken und in ein Spannungssignal umwandeln,
  • den Strom-Spannungswandler (7) Filtergruppen (10, 11, 16) und Vektorvoltmeter (8) nachgeschaltet sind, mit denen das komplexe Signalverhältnis Ua/Ue messtechnisch erfasst wird.
  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 019 178 A1
  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 019 178 B4 - 02 Apr 2009
  • Patent
    US 7940038 B2 - 10.05.2011

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10582


P0604 - Verfahren und Anordnung zur kontaktlosen Messung des Durchflusses elektrisch leitfähiger Medien

Pride, J.; Gerbeth, G.; Buchenau, D.; Eckert, S.

Abstract

Die Aufgabe der vorliegenden Erfindung besteht darin, eine Durchflussmessung zu ermöglichen, die ohne mechanischen oder elektrischen Kontakt zum fließenden Medium auskommt, keine Vielzahl von Magnetfeldmessstellen erfordert, eine Durchflussmessung hoher zeitlicher Auflösung liefert, gegenüber äußeren Einflüssen möglichst unempfindlich ist und nicht die lageempfindlichen Amplituden in Empfängerspulen bei Wechselstromerregung benutzt.
Die Erfindung geht aus von einem magnetischen Wechselfeld außerhalb des elektrisch leitfähigen Mediums und beinhaltet, dass der Einfluss des strömenden Mediums auf das angelegte Magnetfeld zu einer Phasenverschiebung in den Magnetfeldsignalen an zwei verschiedenen Messorten führt, die als direktes Maß für die mittlere Durchflussgeschwindigkeit des Mediums verwendet wird. Die Phasenverschiebung kann auch mittels zweier Empfängerspulen entlang des Strömungskanals gemessen werden.

  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 018 623 A1
  • Patent
    EP 1847813 A1
  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 018 623 B4 - 15.05.2008

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10581


P0603-Verfahren und Anordnung zur kontrollierten Formfüllung beim Gießen metallischer Werkstoffe

Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Willers, B.; Galindo, V.; Ziemann, M.; Katz, H.-W.; Hewelt, U.

Abstract

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, die Geschwindigkeit einer in eine Form einströmenden, flüssigen Metallschmelze beim steigenden Gießen unter Schwerkrafteinfluss durch externe Magnetfelder so zu beeinflussen, dass eine beruhigte Formfüllung unter ausreichender Vermeidung von starken Verwirbelungen der Schmelze und des Auftretens von Instabilitäten der Oberflächenschicht und der einströmenden Schmelzefront erreicht wird.
Die technische Lösung beinhaltet, dass die magnetische Induktion B0 des angelegten Magnetfeldes anfangs mindestens zwei Werte übersteigt.
Gemäß der Anordnung wird ein Magnet am unteren Ende des vertikalen Eingusskanals vor der Umlenkung in den horizontalen Gießlauf angeordnet und mit einer Einrichtung zur Regelung der magnetischen Induktion verbunden.

  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 008 432 B4 - 30.08.2007

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10580


P0602 - Vorrichtung und Verfahren zur Herstellung metallischer Fasern durch Schmelzextraktion

Priede, J.; Cramer, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Galindo, V.; Andersen, O.; Kostmann, C.; Stephani, G.

Abstract

Die Erfindung betrifft eine Vorrichtung und ein Verfahren zur Herstellung metallischer Fasern durch Schmelzextraktion. Es können unterschiedliche Metalle oder deren Legierungen zu Fasern mit vorgebbaren Faserdurchmessern und Faserlängen hergestellt werden. Dabei ist es Aufgabe der Erfindung die Effektivität der Faserherstellung zu erhöhen und die Nachteile der Schmelzextraktion aus einer in einem Tiegel vorgehaltenen Schmelze zu vermeiden. Erfindungsgemäß wird mindestens eine radial äußere Kante einer rotierenden durch linienförmig ausgebildete Schmelze an einem Substrat geführt. Die lienienförmige Schmelze wird an einem stirnseitigen Rand eines metallischen Subtrates, das nachführbar ist, induktiv ausgebildet.

  • Patent
    DE 10 2006 005 510 A1
  • Patent
    DE 102006005510B4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10579


Growth regimes and metal enhanced 6-fold ring clustering of carbon in carbon-nickel composite thin films

Abrasonis, G.; Krause, M.; Mücklich, A.; Sedlackova, K.; Radnoczi, G.; Kreissig, U.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

Abstract

Growth regimes of C:Ni (~ 30 at.%) composite thin films grown by ion beam co-sputtering in the temperature range of RT-500◦C are investigated. the combination of elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy employing two excitation wavelengths was used to characterize the coexisting carbon and nickel constituents of the composite structure. Three growth regimes are identified characterized by different Ni nanoparticle shape (granular, columnar) and crystal structure (Ni3C or fcc Ni). The comparison of the Raman spectroscopy results from a carbon reference and C:Ni (~30 at.%) thin films shows that the presence of Ni enhances significantly the 6-fold ring clustering process at temperatures as low as RT, while at higher temperatures it favors ordering within the 6-fold ring clusters. The enhancement occurs independently on Ni nanoparticle size, shape or phase and is related to processes taking place on the surface of the growing film growth rather than in the bulk.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10578


Microstructure of expanded austenite in ion-nitrided AISI 316L single crystals

Riviere, J. P.; Templier, C.; Declémy, A.; Redjdal, O.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Abrasonis, G.

Abstract

Single crystalline AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) samples of different orientations (001), (110), (310) were implanted at 400 °C with 1.2 keV nitrogen ions using a high current density of 0.5 mA˙cm− 2. Quantitative nitrogen distribution profiles were determined using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), while the structure of the nitrided layer was analyzed using X-ray diffraction mapping of the reciprocal space. For identical nitriding conditions it is observed that surface N concentration does not depend on the orientation (not, vert, similar23-24 at%), on contrary to the N penetration depth which is larger for the (001) and (310) orientations than for the (110) one. In each single crystal, lattice expansion in the nitrided layer is similar for all the studied crystallographic planes but it increases with the thickness of the nitrided layer. In addition, it is shown that during nitriding a simultaneous lattice rotation of a few degrees (< 5°) of the nitrided layer accompanies the lattice expansion with an increased mosaïcity.

Keywords: Stainless steel; Ion nitriding; AISI 316L single crystal; Nitrogen profile; Expanded austenite; Lattice rotation

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10577


The use of cold liquid metal modeling exemplified at the magnetic field control of the aluminum investment casting

Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.; Galindo, V.; Willers, B.

Abstract

The mould filling process of aluminium investment casting consists basically of the flow in a U-bend showing a high pouring velocity at the beginning and decreasing velocity values during the course of the process. The high velocities during the starting phase are supposed to cause distinct problems like bubble or inclusion entrapment.
We present results on the design and application of a DC magnetic field to control the pouring velocity. Special attention is given on model experiments using the low melting point eutectic melt GaInSn. Ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry was applied to carry out detailed velocity measurements in the model. In addition, high-speed video camera observation of the incoming melt front was performed revealing the key importance of the initial flow structure for the final casting product quality.
Based on this modelling knowledge, a DC magnetic field has been developed in order to control the mould filling process. This DC field has been tested under industrial conditions. The primary action of the magnetic field, i.e. the reduction of the velocity peaks at the beginning of the process, was clearly demonstrated. The amplitude of the DC field was tuned during the process as the braking action is only needed during the first part of the process. In this way, a clear reduction of the peak velocities is obtained without a significant prolongation of the overall filling time. Eventually, a remarkable diminishment of defects in the casting products was achieved. A multitude of investment casting units have been produced showing a significant improvement of the casting properties due to the magnetic field control of the filling process.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Sino-German Workshop 2007, 15.-19.10.2007, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10576


Magnetic properties of Pd-films on piezoelectric substrates

Pankoke, V.; Gemming, S.

Abstract

We use ab-initio methods to optimizes the structure of a thin
Pd-film on the surface of different piezoelectric oxides and
calculate electronic and magnetic properties.
It is known from bulk Pd, that the valence electrons order
ferromagnetic at a critical expansion of the lattice constant.
With piezoelectric oxides it might be possible to control the
magnetization of the Pd-film by varying the structural parameters

Keywords: thin films; palladium; magnetic switch; piezo-electric oxide

  • Lecture (Conference)
    EUROMAT 2007, 11.-13.09.2007, Nürnberg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10575


Gas/liquid flow in large risers

Omebere-Iyari, N. K.; Azzopardi, B. J.; Lucas, D.; Beyer, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

Abstract

Although, most of the work reported on two-phase flows are limited to small pipe diameters, two-phase flow in large risers are increasingly being encountered in the petroleum and nuclear industries. In the present work, a wire mesh sensor was employed to obtain void fraction and bubble size distribution data and visualizations of steam/water flow in a large vertical pipe (194mm in diameter) at 46bar. For comparison purposes, measurements were made at similar phase velocities and physical properties to the data of Omebere-Iyari et al. (2007), which is for nitrogen/naphtha flow in a similar-sized riser. There exist significant differences between both sets of data. Churn-turbulent flow is observed in the present work instead of slug flow, and this differs from the intermittent and semi-annular flow patterns reported by Omebere-Iyari et al. (2007). The mean void fraction of the nitrogen/naphtha data is higher than that of the present steam/water data due to the differences in composition in the liquid phases. Furthermore, core peak distributions are observed for the present work in contrast to the flatter profiles predicted for the data of Omebere-Iyari et al. (2007) using a power law relationship.

Keywords: two phase flow; large diameter; vertical pipe; high pressure; wire-mesh sensor; void fraction

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10574


Electromagnetic processing of materials

Ren, Z.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

A brief description is given of the subject of EPM and, in particular, the Chinese-German cooperation program in this field.

  • Steel Research International 78(2007), 371-372

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10573


Abteilung Magnetohydrodynamik des Forschungszentrums Dresden-Rossendorf

Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

Die Arbeiten und Methoden der in der Abteilung durchgeführten Forschungen zur MHD werden vorgestellt.

  • Elektrowärme International (2007)3, 187-189

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10572


Melting-Solidification process InN Pb-Bi melts

Sklyarchuk, V.; Plevachuk, Y.; Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.

Abstract

Electrical conductivity, s(T), and thermoelectric power, S(T), of liquid Pb-Bi alloys of eutectic and near eutectic compositions were investigated in the “melting-solidification” temperature region. The revealed discrepancies between the heating and cooling s(T) and S(T) curves as well as a hysteresis observed in course of heating-cooling cycles suggest a metastable microheterogeneous structure of the Pb-Bi melts. A solidification mechanism is proposed.

  • Open Access Logo Journal of Physics: Conference Series 79(2007), 012019

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10571


Investigation of the behaviour of mineral wool in the reactor sump

Weiss, F.-P.; Alt, S.; Cartland-Glover, G.; Grahn, A.; Hampel, R.; Kästner, W.; Krepper, E.; Seeliger, A.

Abstract

The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation becomes more important with regard to reactor safety research for PWR and BWR, when considering the long-term behavior of emergency core coolant systems during all types of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). The insulation debris released near the break during a LOCA incident consists of a mixture of disparate particle population that varies with size, shape, consistency and other properties. Some fractions of the released insulation debris can be transported into the reactor sump, where it may perturb/impinge on the emergency core cooling systems.
Open questions of generic interest are for example the particle load on strainers and corresponding pressure drop, the sedimentation of the insulation debris in a water pool, its possible re-suspension and transport in the sump water flow. A joint research project on such questions is being performed in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz. The project deals with the experimental investigation and the development of CFD models for the description of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow. While the experiments are performed at the University in Zittau, the theoretical work is concentrated at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Quadripartite Meeting on Sump Screen Blockage, 17.-18.10.2007, Erlangen, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10568


Practical calculation of bubble column flow with CFX-11

Frank, T.; Lifante, C.; Krepper, E.

Abstract

The lesson 6 of the "Short Course on Multiphase Flow Modelling" describes the practical simulation of the flow in a bubble column. The necessiy of the correct simulation of the momentum exchange between the phases is shown comparing different results with experiments.

Keywords: CFD; two fluid model; dispersed gaseous phase; drag bubble forces; non drag bubble forces; bubble column

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    5th Joint FZD & ANSYS Workshop & Short Course on Multiphase Flows: Simulation, Experiment & Application, 25.-27.04.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10566


Interfacial heat and mass tansfer models

Krepper, E.; Scheuerer, G.

Abstract

The lesson 4 of the "Short Course on Multiphase Flow Modelling" deals with the simulation of mass and energy exchange between the phases based on the two fluid model approach. After the basic principles the lesson describes the simulation of subcooled boiling and the simulation of cavitation processes.

Keywords: CFD; Two fluid model; heat transfer; mass transfer; boiling; cavitation

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    5th Joint FZD & ANSYS Workshop & Short Course on Multiphase Flows: Simulation, Experiment & Application, 25.04.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10565


CFD simulation of the two-phase flow around an obstacle applying an inhomogeneous multiple bubble size class approach

Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.; Beyer, M.; Frank, T.

Abstract

In recent years in close cooperation with ANSYS/CFX a population balance model was developed to simulate multiphase flow with higher gas volume fraction. Several dispersed gaseous phases are modeled having a distinct velocity field. Bubble fragmentation and coalescence is simulated by decades of gaseous sub-size mass fractions, which are assigned to the few dispersed gaseous phases. This approach was called “inhomogeneous MUSIG model” and enables the simulation of bubble size dependent bubble forces.
The presentation reports the basic principles and the application of the model approach to simulate a TOPFLOW experiment, in which a complex three dimensional flow field was measured. A half moon shaped obstacle was arranged in the DN200 test section and the two phase flow field was analysed by a wire mesh sensor.
Applying this approach a more deep understanding of the flow structure is possible. To improve the quantitative accuracy further developments particularly of the models describing bubble fragmentation and coalescence are necessary.

Keywords: CFD; multi-fluid model; poly-disperse phase; population balance; gas-liquid; model validation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Joint FZD & ANSYS Workshop & Short Course on Multiphase Flows: Simulation, Experiment & Application, 25.-27.04.2007, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10564


Formation of superconducting regions of MgB2 by implantation of magnesium ions into boron substrate followed by intense pulsed plasma treatment

Piekoszewski, J.; Kempinski, W.; Andrzejewski, B.; Trybula, Z.; Kaszynski, J.; Stankowski, J.; Stanislawski, J.; Barlak, M.; Jagielski, J.; Werner, Z.; Grotzschel, R.; Richter, E.

Abstract

Mg ion implantation into boron substrates followed by pulsed Ar plasma treatment was used to form MgB2 compound. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis of the best samples revealed that the ratio of atomic concentration of Mg to B atoms could be close to the stoichiometry of MgB2 in the range of about 100 nm beneath the surface. Results of magnetically modulated microwave absorption (MMMA), magnetic moment and electrical conductivity measurements indicate the presence of superconductive grains with critical temperature T-c=25 K. A gradual onset of microscopic percolation is inferred starting from 15 K although no full percolation has been reached.

  • Surface & Coatings Technology 201(2007)19-20, 8175-8179

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10562


Superconducting and electrical properties of Mg-B structures formed by implantation of magnesium Ions into the bulk boron followed by pulse plasma treatment

Piekoszewski, J.; Kempinski, W.; Barlak, M.; Kaszynski, J.; Stanislawski, J.; Anduejewski, B.; Werner, Z.; Plekara-Sady, L.; Richter, E.; Stankowskic, J.; Grotzschel, R.; Lo, S.

Abstract

Superconducting regions of magnesium diboride (MgB2) on magnesium substrate were formed by the combined methods of ion implantation and transient annealing using three different ion fluences and three different energy density of Ar plasma pulses. The samples were characterized by Rutherford back scattering (RBS) and superconductivity detection techniques. The results of these characterizations are presented and discussed. The highest critical temperature observed T-C = 33.8 K.

  • Vacuum 81(2007)10, 1398-1402

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10561


Two-Phase flow pattern in the mixing chamber of an effervescent atomizer

Otáhal, J.; Sühnel, T.; Beyer, M.; Jícha, M.

Abstract

This paper deals with an experimental study of the two-phase flow in the mixing chamber of an effervescent atomizer. Not only do operational conditions and media properties affect the process of effervescent atomization but also the pattern (quality) of the two-phase flow. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the phenomena associated with the mixing process. Two-phase flow structure was investigated in a mixing chamber with an inner diameter of 8 mm. During the experiment, the effervescent nozzle was operated in the air pressure range of 1 to 0.5 MPa and mass GLR (Gas-to-liquid- ratio) was between 1 and 25%. Mass flow rates of water ranged from 5 up to 50 g•s-1. Since optical measurement techniques fail to provide sufficient quantitative information on the flow structure at higher GLR we applied the conductivity wire-mesh sensor technology to this problem. Therefore, a new miniature wire-mesh sensor for small-diameter tubes was developed. The measuring principle of this sensor is based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in the crossing points of a wire mesh. Due this principle we used a conductive liquid (deionized water). The two-phase flow in the chamber is highly unstable and the wire-mesh sensor provides also data for an evaluation of two-phase flow pulsation.

Keywords: wire-mesh sensor; effervescent atomization; two-phase flow; mixing process

  • Poster
    Experimental fluid mechanics 2007, 28.-30.11.2007, Liberec, Czech Republik

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10560


Two-photon photocurrent spectroscopy of electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing in quantum wells

Schneider, H.; Maier, T.; Walther, M.; Liu, H. C.

Abstract

Resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption between conduction subbands in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells induces a two-photon photocurrent under femtosecond excitation, which is exploited to determine electron intersubband relaxation and dephasing times. The approach allows us to study systematically the dependence of these time constants on structural parameters, including carrier density and modulation/well doping, and to discriminate between different scattering processes.

Keywords: two-photon transition; intersubband absorption; semiconductor quantum well; InGaAs/AlGaAs; femtosecond infrared spectroscopy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10559


Intelligente Radiometallkomplexe für Diagnostik und Therapie

Stephan, H.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Knauer Jubiläumstreffen zur Chromatographie, 01.10.2007, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10558


Ion Beam Synthesis of Nanoclusters and Nanowires by FIB

Bischoff, L.

Abstract

During the last decades, the focused ion beam (FIB) became a very useful and versatile tool in microelectronics industry, as well as in the field of basic and applied research and derived an exceedingly importance with the development of the nano-technology. For special purposes like writing ion implantation for doping or ion beam synthesis (IBS) in the µm- as well as in the nm-range without any lithographic steps ion species other than gallium become more and more relevant. Therefore mass separated FIB systems equipped with alloy liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) play an increasing role.
A Co-FIB obtained from a Co36Nd64 alloy LMIS was applied for the IBS at elevated sample temperatures and subsequent annealing for the fabrication CoSi2 nano-structures down to 20 nm on Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. The combination of FIB implantation (top-down approach) and self organization processes during IBS (bottom-up approach) can provide a spatial reduction of the FIB implanted structures. A second investigated process is the defect induced formation of CoSi2 nanoparticles and nanowires using other ions than cobalt in the FIB, focused down to a spot diameter less than 30 nm at room temperature. The source for Co atoms for the NW growth was a 10 nm thin Co film evaporated onto the rear side of the wafer. The FIB irradiation of Nd, Ga, Si and Au ions and doses of 1015-1017 cm-2 creates a broad spectrum of defects in the substrate. Subsequent annealing leads amongst others to the formation of rod-like extended {311}-defects, which act as a prime source of transient enhanced diffusion of impurities in silicon. Also these defects can dissolve and form other rod-like defects always aligned to the (110) direction with a diameter of 10 – 20 nm and a length of some hundred nm. The heat treatment (1000°C, 30 min, N2) leads to a gettering of cobalt atoms in these defects followed by a CoSi2 formation through Ostwald ripening which stabilizes the origin of the defect rods. The obtained crystalline CoSi2 nanowires showed a diameter of 10 – 30 nm and a length up to some ten micrometer always aligned along the (110) orientations independent of the FIB writing direction with respect to the wafer orientation. These structures were studied by SEM/EDX and AFM analysis as well as by electrical characterization after contacting with W-pads, fabricated by FIB MO-CVD [1].
Furthermore, the high resolution mass separated Rossendorf FIB system, equipped with a CANION 31Mplus column (Orsay Physics) and a Ga liquid metal ion source (LMIS) as well as with different alloy LMIS (CoNd, AuSi, etc.) was used to fabricate other nanostructures.

[1] C. Akhmadaliev, B. Schmidt and L. Bischoff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 223129

Keywords: Focused Ion Beam; nanostructures; nanowires; CoSi2

  • Lecture (others)
    Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 01.10.2007, Kolkatta, India

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10557


Three-dimensional analysis of macroporosity distributions in polyolefin particles using X-ray microtomography

Boden, S.; Hampel, U.; Bieberle, M.; Weickert, G.

Abstract

We applied X-ray microtomography (XMT) to determine the macroporosity distribution in polypropylene macroparticles extracted from a gas phase polymerisation process. Different specimens were scanned with a laboratory XMT setup comprising a microfocus X-ray source and an X-ray image intensifier. The XMT technique provides comprehensive three dimensional data volumes representing the local X-ray attenuation in voxels of 5.3 μm x 5.3 μm x 5.3 μm size. After 3D image reconstruction with the Feldkamp algorithm the resulting volume data were processed with histogram based binarisation, connectivity check and volume rendering algorithms. From the resulting 3D images void size distributions in different radial regions of the particles were computed. This enables characterisation of the particles regarding their morphology and elucidation of the effect of given process conditions on morphogenesis.

Keywords: polyolefin macroparticles; X-ray microtomography

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10556


The two-step gamma cascade method as a tool for studying photon strength functions of intermediate-weight and heavy nuclei

Becvar, F.; Honzatko, J.; Krticka, M.; Pasic, S.; Rusev, G.; Tomandl, I.

Abstract

The method of two-step c cascades following the thermal neutron capture is described. An example of two-step cascade data from measurements with 162Dy target is given together with interpretation of these data in terms of scissors-mode resonances built on excited levels in 163Dy. With the aim of verifying the correctness of the method results of benchmark testing measurements with a 56Fe target are compared with the outcome of the GEANT3 simulations.

Keywords: Photon strenght functions; Scissors mode; Two-step gamma cascades; Nuclear levels

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10555


Ripple structures at top surfaces and underlying crystalline layers induced by ion beam erosion in silicon

Grenzer, J.; Mücklich, A.; Grigorian, S.; Biermanns, A.; Chini, T. K.; Sanyal, M. K.; Pietsch, U.

Abstract

Ion beam implantation is one of the major technologies in the semiconductor industry. Although there have been a lot of technological applications there is relatively little known about the structural changes of semiconductors after ion beam implantation. Of particular interest is the creation of lateral nanostructures using different methods of ion beam implantation. One method is to exploit the phenomenon of self-organization during the Ar+ implantation using an oblique ion beam bombarding the sample surface. This results in the growth of the periodic wavelike or ripple like morphology which is produced as a result of the interplay between a roughening process caused by the ion beam erosion (sputtering) of surface and a smoothening process caused by thermal or ion-beam-induced surface diffusion. At least the developing surface structures can be well described in terms of the Bradley-Harper model and respective extensions. Lot of investigations is going on to understand the formation of such nano-structures but mostly looking on the top surface. However, the ion energy dissipation takes place below the surface. Thus the investigation of the interface between the almost amorphous top layer and the underlying crystalline material is important for the understanding of pattern formation.
Detailed studies on the ion induced ripple formation on Si have revealed that they appear only in a limited range of incident angles. The ripple wavelength appears to be linearly dependent on the ion energy and varies in between several nm and hundreds of nm when the ion energy changes from 0.5 to 100 keV. If the ion beam energy was increased up to the 100keV range one-dimensional ripple structures on Si (100) surfaces with wave lengths up to the micro meter range have been observed.Recent investigations using TEM and depth resolved X-ray diffraction methods discovered that the ripples at the surface are followed by a nearly sinusoidal shaped buried interface between the strongly damaged, not completely amorphous near-surface region and the crystalline material. Depending on the chosen energy and the irradiation dose the “amorphous” layer could be reach a thickness of 100nm and corresponds fairly well to the end of range distance of implanted ions.

Keywords: ion beam induced ripples; semiconductor; X-ray diffraction

  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Conference on Defects-Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP), 09.-13.09.2007, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10554


Radioaktiv markierte Humanserumalbumin-Mikrosphären zur nuklearmedizinischen Tumortherapie

Schiller, E.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, J.; Noll, B.; Sterger, A.; Johannsen, B.; Wunderlich, G.; Pietzsch, H.-J.

Abstract

Ziel/Aim:

Gegenstand der Arbeiten war die In-vitro- und In-vivo-Charakterisierung von radioaktiv beladenen Humanserumalbumin-Mikrosphären (HSAM). Ziel war dabei die Bewertung der Partikel hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung zur radiotherapeutischen Behandlung von Krebserkrankungen der Leber.

Methodik/Method:

An vorgefertigte HSAM (3 Chargen mit unterschiedlicher Oberflächenrauigkeit; mittlerer Durchmesser 25 µm) wurden oberflächlich DOTA-Chelatoren kovalent gebunden. Anschließend erfolgte die Markierung mit Y-86, indem die DOTA-HSAM in einer Lösung des Radionuklides suspendiert wurden. Die In-Vitro-Charakterisierung der markierten Partikel erfolgte durch Inkubation in Humanplasma und Challenge mit DTPA. Die In-vivo-Stabilität der Y-86-DOTA-HSAM wurde bestimmt durch Bioverteilungsstudien in gesunden Wistarratten. Nach intravenöser Applikation der Y-86 markierten Partikel kommt es zum vollständigen Trapping der Mikrosphären in der Lunge, die in useren Untersuchungen als Zielorgan diente. Aus dem Verschwinden der Radioaktivität aus der Lunge können Rückschlüsse auf die Stabilität der Markierung und damit verbunden auf die Stabilität der HSA-Partikel gezogen werden.

Ergebnisse/Results:

DOTA konnte in Form eines Isothiocyanat-Derviates an Oberflächenaminogruppen der HSAM gebunden werden. Unter optimierten Bedingungen enthielten 1 mg Mikrosphären 2 x 10-7 mol DOTA. Die Markierung der Partikel mit Y-86 gelang in hohen reproduzierbaren Ausbeuten (96 ± 1 %, n = 7) nach 15minütigem Schütteln der suspendierten DOTA-HSAM in Acetatpuffer (pH = 6,5). Die markierten Mikrosphären zeigten hohe Stabilität in Humanplasma und in Anwesenheit von DTPA. Bei den Bioverteilungsstudien fanden wir große Unterschiede zwischen den einzelnen Mikrosphärenchargen mit unterschiedlicher Oberflächenrauigkeit. Partikel mit glatter Oberfläche zeigten die höchste Stabilität. Hier war das Aktivitätsniveau in der Lunge über 48 Stunden annähernd konstant.

Schlussfolgerungen/Consequences:

Die Kopplung von Chelatoren an die Oberfläche von HSAM stellt eine einfache Strategie zu deren Beladung mit Radionukliden dar. Aufgrund ihrer höheren In-Vivo-Stabilität sind Partikel mit glatter Oberfläche besser für radiotherapeutische Anwendungen geeignet als raue Mikrosphären.

  • Lecture (others)
    15. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 27.-29.09.2007, Morschach, Switzerland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10553


PET/CT demonstrates increased myocardial FDG uptake following irradiation therapy

Zöphel, K.; Hölzel, C.; Dawel, M.; Hölscher, T.; Evers, C.; Kotzerke, J.

Abstract

Late myocardial damage induced by radiotherapy has become an important issue in radio-oncology since several studies have demonstrated increased incidence of cardiovascular disease following radiotherapy.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10552


Prospective profit by using modulated magnetic fields during unidirectional solidification of metal alloys

Eckert, S.; Nikrityuk, P. A.; Willers, B.; Räbiger, D.; Eckert, K.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

AC magnetic fields are used in industrial practice for melt stirring. The requirements are manifold for miscellaneous metallurgical operations or casting technologies, mainly the magnetic field application should provide an efficient mixing of the melt in order to achieve homogeneous distributions of solute and/or temperature. Applications of different magnetic fields (rotating, traveling, pulsating and combinations thereof) are connected with the occurrence of a more or less symptomatic flow pattern. Various forms of electromagnetic stirring have been studied in our laboratory. Here we consider exclusively the use of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), which has already become widespread in industrial practice. For instance, the rotary stirring during solidification has been proved to be a striking method in order to achieve a purposeful alteration of the microstructure of casting ingots, such as a distinct grain refining or the promotion of a transition from a columnar to an equiaxed dendritic growth (CET). However, the imposition of an RMF on a metal column also causes problems like the occurrence of typical segregation pattern or a deflection of the upper free surface leading to surface defects or the entrainment of gas. The RMF application provides a permanent radial inward flow along the solidification front. Such flow is responsible for the transport of solute to the axis of the ingot resulting in typical freckle segregation pattern in form of vertical channels filled with alloy of eutectic composition. In this paper we present a new innovative method of electromagnetic stirring using a modulated RMF which offers a considerable potential for a well-aimed modification of casting properties
Solidification experiments as well as numerical simulations were carried out considering the directional solidification of Pb Sn alloys from a water-cooled copper chill. A modulated rotating magnetic field (RMF) was applied for melt agitation. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature field during solidification. The velocity field in the liquid phase was determined by means of Ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV). Our numerical model is based on the classical mixture formulation. To calculate the viscosity in the mushy region the model proposed by Roplekar and Dantzig (2001) was implemented into the code. The comparison between numerical simulations and solidification experiments delivered a good agreement. Our results demonstrate the modulation magnetic field enables an effective control of the flow field and the structure of the solidified samples. Modifications of the grain structure and macrosegregation effects are discussed with respect to the details of the flow field.

Keywords: solidification; convection; electromagnetic stirring; macrosegregation

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Sino-German Workshop 2007, 16.-19.10.2007, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10551


Effect of various magnetic fields on a liquid metal bubble plume

Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

Abstract

Bubble driven flows have found wide applications in industrial technologies. In metallurgical processes gas bubbles are injected into a bulk liquid metal to drive the liquid into motion, to homogenize the physical and chemical properties of the melt or to refine the melt. For such gas-liquid metal two-phase flows, external magnetic fields provide a possibility to control the bubble motion in a contact-less way.
Compared to the numerous experimental studies on the movement of bubbles in transparent liquids, especially in water, the number of publications dealing with gas bubbles rising in liquid metals is comparatively small. The shortage of suitable measuring techniques can be considered as one reason for the slow progress in the investigations of gas-liquid metal flows. We applied the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) for measurements of the velocity structure in liquid metal bubbly flows. Because of the ability to work non-invasively in opaque fluids and to deliver complete velocity profiles in real time it is very attractive for liquid metal applications.
In our experiments we investigated the consequence of an application of a DC magnetic field on both the bubble and the liquid velocity. The motion of single argon bubbles rising in GaInSn were analyzed in terms of the terminal velocity, the drag coefficient, the oscillation frequency of the bubble velocity and the Strouhal number. Because the gas bubble is electrically non-conducting, it does not experience the effect of the electromagnetic force directly. However, the bubble behaviour is influenced by the magnetically induced modifications in the liquid flow structure around the bubble. The measurements reveal a distinct effect of the magnetic field on the bubble velocity as well as the bubble wake. The magnetic field application leads to a mitigation of the horizontal components of the bubble velocity resulting in a more rectilinear bubble path. A restructuring of the entire flow field can be observed if a bubble plume is exposed to a DC magnetic field. As a result of the interaction between magnetic field and liquid flow electric currents were induced inside the liquid causing a damping of the flow by Joule dissipation. However, a characteristic feature of the electromagnetic dissipation is the anisotropy. Thus, the application of a transverse field leads not only to a general damping of the flow, but also favours the occurrence of vortices aligned parallel to the magnetic field direction.
Our investigations focus on the use of AC magnetic fields, too. Velocity measurements in a liquid metal bubble plume demonstrated that the application of a travelling magnetic field (TMF) can lead to completely new flow structures in the liquid phase. This fact offers new perspectives regarding the control of the heat and mass transfer in liquid metal bubble plumes. For instance, reversals of the mean flow direction can be organised. Moreover, the formation of dead flow regions at the bottom of the fluid vessel was prevented. Therefore, the use of AC magnetic fields could be an efficient tool to considerably reduce the mixing time of refining operations.

Keywords: single bubble; bubble plume; magnetic fields; MHD tturbulence

  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Sino-German Workshop 2007, 16.-19.10.2007, Shanghai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10550


FIB Anwendungen mit Legierungs-Flüssigmetall-Ionenquellen

Bischoff, L.

Abstract

Die Erweiterung eines Fokussierten Ionenstrahles (FIB) mit einem Massenseparator (ExB Filter) wird vorgestellt, wodurch Legierungs-Flüssigmetallionenquellen eingesetzt werden können, die eine ganze Reihe von anderen Ionnarten als Gallium bereitstellen können. Die Herstellung solcher Quellen wird gezeigt und anhand ausgewählter Beispiele näher erläutert. Die Massenspektren sowie die Besonderheiten der Handhabung der Ionenoptik werden diskutiert. Anwendungsbeispiele, wie effektives Ionenzerstäuben (sputtern) durch schwere Ionen wie Gold, die Implantation von verschiedenen Spezies zur lokalen Änderung magnetischer oder elektrischer Eigenschaften sowie die Ionenstrahlsynthese von CoSi2 – Nanostrukturen unterstützen das wachsende Interesse an massenseparierten FIB Anlagen in Forschung und Industrie.

Keywords: alloy liquid metal ion sources; FIB; ExB filter; applications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Crossbeam Workshop, 24.-25.10.2007, Halle/Saale, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10549


Nanostrukturen

Bischoff, L.

Abstract

Der Begriff “Nanostrukturen” wird definiert und anhand von Beispielen erläutert. Speziell eingegangen wird auf Methoden der Herstellung von Nanostrukturen wie Nanodrähten und Nanocluster mit dem Fokussierten Ionenstrahl (FIB), die im Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf praktiziert werden. Die Ionenstrahlsynthese von CoSi2 Nanostrukturen wird präsentiert und erläutert. Weiterin wird die 3D Nanostrukturherstellung mittels FIB Implantation und anschließender anisotroper naßchemischer Ätzung gezeigt und an Beispielen demonstriert.

Keywords: nanostructures; focused ion beam nanowires; nanocluster; anisotropic wet chemical etching

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    VDE YoungNet Convention 2007, 15.10.07, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10548


Metal contamination detection in nickel induced crystallized silicon by spectroscopic ellipsometry

Pereira, L.; Aguas, H.; Beckers, M.; Martins, R. M. S.; Fortunato, E.

Abstract

The metal (Ni) contamination on crystallized silicon obtained by metal induced crystallizaion (MIC) was estimated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) using a new simulation approach. The method employs the addition of Ni as reference for a Bruggeman Effektive Medium Approximation (BEMA) to simulate the optical response of the crystallized silicon.
Samples with different initial metal/silicon ratios were annealed and crystallized. Besides determining thickness, surface roughness and crystalline fraction, this new approach using SE has shown to be sensible to changes on the initial metal thickness used on the crystallization process being able of determining in a quick and non destructive way the Ni concentration inside MIC poly-Si films.
The effectiveness of the obtained results was confirmed by RBS. An accurate determination of the initial Ni thickness that is deposited onto the amorphous silicon prior to crystallization is not possible using a quartz oscillator due to the very low quantity of evaporated materials. A better relation between defferent metal amounts present inside the crystallized films can be obtained by integratingthe Ni distribution in the RBS spectra. The obtained values are proportional to the Ni volume fraction determined by SE ellipsometry proves to be sensible to a metal volume fraction as low as 0.24%, corresponding to an initial Ni average thickness of 0.05 nm.

  • Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 354(2008)19-25, 2319-2323

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10546


Reconstruction of the 3D velocity field of the two-phase bubbly flow around a half moon obstacle using wire-mesh sensor data

Al Issa, S.; Beyer, M.; Prasser, H.-M.; Frank, T.

Abstract

The TOPFLOW facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) is used to investigate two-phase upward flows in 50 mm diameter and 200 mm dia meter pipes. The facility enables conducting Experiments with air-water and steam-water flows for temperature range of 35-280 °C and pressure range of 1-70 bar. The test pipes are equipped with a wire -mesh sensor, which is a conductivity-based void fraction sensor developed by FZD. It provides void fraction measurements in a matrix of 64×64 points and a measuring frequency of 2.5 kHz. CFD models have to demonstrate their validity in geometries, where phenomena like flow separation, recirculation regions, stagnation points, free jet formation and similar are present. In the experiment described in this paper the flow around an asymmetric, half-moon shaped obstacle put into the large vertical test section of TOPFLOW is studied. In order to obtain information in three dimensions, the obstacle was traversed along the pipe axis. In this way, it was possible to record 2D void fraction distributions at different distances upstream and downstream of the obstacle using a stationary wire-mesh sensor. The fact that the high resolution data supplied by the sensor contains information on all individual bubbles that cross the measuring plane gives the opportunity to extract more detailed information on the flow structure. In particular, from the transit time of bubbles through the sensor plane approximate axial profiles of the liquid velocity were obtained. The lateral movement of the 2D image of bubbles in the measuring plane during their passage was evaluated to reconstruct 2D velocity fields in the environment of the obstacle. In this way, a full three-dimensional vector field of the velocity was provided for code validation. The paper presents the methods of data evaluation, an assessment of the obtained accuracy of the velocity estimation, experimental results and a comp arison to the results of CFD calculations.

Keywords: 3D velocity field; two-phase flows; obstacle; CFD

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    paper:S6_Thu_D_60

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10545


Synthese und biologische Evaluierung eines 11C-markierten Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Inhibitors

Knieß, T.; Wüst, F.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, J.

Abstract

Ziel/Aim:

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) ist ein Enzym das hauptsächlich bei Entzündungen freigesetzt wird, jedoch ist eine Überexpression von COX-2 auch im Zusammenhang mit verschiedenen Tumorerkrankungen beobachtet worden [1]. Obwohl in der Literatur die Markierung von COX-2 Inhibitoren mit PET-Radioisotopen mehrfach beschrieben worden ist [2-5], existieren bis heute wenig Untersuchungen über das Potential dieser Substanzen zur Tumordarstellung mittels PET. Wir berichten über die Radiosynthese sowie erste Ergebnisse der radiopharmakologischen und biologischen Evaluierung von 1-(4-[11C]Methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfonyl)-1-cyclopenten als 11C-markierter COX-2 Inhibitor.

Methodik/Method:

Die Radiomarkierung wurde als eine 11C-Methylierungsreaktion des entsprechenden Desmethyl-Präkursors mit [11C]CH3I in DMF in einem TRACERLab FXC Synthesizer® durchgeführt. Studien zur Bioverteilung wurden an der Wistar-Ratte und Kleintier-PET Untersuchungen an HT-29 tumortragenden Mäusen mittels eines micro-PET®P4 Scanners durchgeführt.

Ergebnisse/Results:

Die Radiomarkierung des Präkursors 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfonyl)-1-cyclopenten mit [11C]CH3I erfolgte 3 Minuten bei 60°C in DMF/wässriger NaOH (siehe Abb.). Nach semi-preparativer HPLC Reinigung und Festphasenextraktion wurde der 11C-markierte COX-2 Inhibitor in 12-14% zerfallskorrigierter radiochemischer Ausbeute mit einer spezifischen Aktivität von 30-40 GBq/µmol (EOS) in radiochem. Reinheit >97% isoliert. Bioverteilungsexperimente zeigten eine Anreicherung des [11C]-COX-2 Inhibitors in der Leber, den Nebennieren und braunem Fettgewebe von 0.6 - 0.8+/-0.1 %ID/g. In Kleintier-PET Untersuchungen an HT-29 tumortragenden Mäusen wurde ein Tumor/Muskel Verhältnis von 1.7+/-0.2 1h p.i.. bestimmt.

Schlussfolgerungen/Consequences:

Erste radiopharmakologische Untersuchungen zeigen eine Anreicherung des 11C-markierten COX-2 Inhibitors am HT-29 Tumor. Aufgrund der hohen Lipophilie der Verbindung (logP=4.2) erfolgt ebenfalls eine Akkumulation in fettreichem Gewebe mit dem Ergebnis einer hohen unspezifischer Bindung. Weitere Experimente an verstärkt COX-2 exprimierenden Zellen sowie blocking/non-blocking Studien sind geplant.

Referenzen/References:

[1] E. F.J. De Vries, Current Pharmaceutical Design 12 (2006) 3847-3856.
[2] E.F.J. De Vries et.al., J. Nucl. Med. 44 (2003) 1700-1706.
[3] T.J. Mc Carthy et.al., J. Nucl. Med. 43 (2002) 117-124.
[4] V.J. Majo et.al., Bioorg. Chem. Lett. 15 (2005) 4268-4271.
[5] T. Toyokuni et.al., Bioorg. Chem. Lett. 15 (2005) 4499-4702.

  • Lecture (others)
    15. Arbeitstreffen der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 27.-29.09.2007, Morschach, Switzerland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10544


Superconducting RF Gun cavities for large bunch charges

Volkov, V.; Floettmann, K.; Janssen, D.

Abstract

The first electron beam of an RF gun with a 3.5 cell superconducting cavity is expected in July 2007 in FZD. This cavity has been designed for small bunch charges. In this paper we present the design of a similar cavity and of 1.5 cell gun cavities for large bunch charges. For a charge of 2.5 nC, which is the design value of the BESSY-FEL, and a bunch length of 21 ps a projected transverse emittance less then 1 πμ has been obtained (without thermal emittance).

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Particle Accelerator Conference 07 (22nd PAC Conference), 25.-29.06.2007, Albuquerque, New Mexico
    Proceedings of PAC 2007, 1-4244-0917-9/07, 4150-4152

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-10542


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