Jose Godinho
Department of Analytics

Phone: +49 351 260 - 4475


3D X-ray Computed Tomography (3D X-ray CT)

Technical Specifications

  • CoreTOM from XRE
  • Down to 5 micron voxel size
  • Fast in situ scans (<1 min.)
  • Energy range of the source: tungsten (40-180) keV
  • Power: up to 300 W
  • Normal detector size: 2880 x 2880
  • Prototype of a energy selective detector that allows resolving the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-rays (energy range: 23-155 KeV over 120 energy bins, resolution ~ 1.1 keV)


  • Visualization of mineral distribution in a rock
  • Quantification and statistical analysis of the components inside a sample
  • 3D Rendering of materials to feed into numerical models
  • Analysis of time-lapse processes inside materials
  • 3D element / mineral identification by coupling the normal detector with the spectral detector

Sample Requirements

  • Samples up to 1 m height and 30 cm diameter
3D image of a REE (red) bearing carbonate rock ©Copyright: da Assuncao Godinho, Jose Ricardo

3D image of a REE (red) bearing carbonate rock (~15 cm diameter) 

Foto: J.R.A. Godinho

3D image of a crushed REE (red) bearing carbonate rock ©Copyright: da Assuncao Godinho, Jose Ricardo

Particles (<1 mm) from the same rock (left), after comminution

Foto: J.R.A. Godinho

EXCITE Project

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The project brings together on a European scale key national and regional electron and X-ray microscopy facilities to European researchers, from both academia and industry, ensuring their optimal use and joint development.

To meet these aims, the project combines:

  • Networking activities, to foster a culture of co-operation between research infrastructures that aim to standardize procedures for multiscale imaging between different X-ray and electron beam techniques.
  • Trans-national access to key research infrastructures between the partners; Spectral-CT scanner will be the main instrument provided by HIF.
  • Standardize analysis and automation of data linkage between different techniques. Includes developing artificial intelegence methods.

Selected Publications ►

  •  Godinho, Jose R. A.; Westaway-Heaven, G.; Boone, M. A.; Renno, A. D. Spectral Tomography for 3D Element Detection and Mineral Analysis, Minerals, 11, 2021  DOI: 10.3390/min11060598
  • Godinho, J. R. A.; Kern, M.; Renno, A. D.; Gutzmer, J.
    “Volume quantification in interphase voxels of ore minerals using 3D imaging”, Minerals Engineering (2019)
    DOI-Link: j.mineng.2019.106016

How does it work? ►

The materials inside a sample are imaged based on the principle that each material attenuates X-rays differently, depending on its electron density. Radiographs are acquired while rotating the sample (360 degrees). The samples are then computationally reconstructed into a 3D image of the sample. Normal detectors measure the total amount of X-rays (of all energies), while our special energy sensitive detector allows to resolve the energy spectrum. This helps to identify elements with a k-edge > 23 keV (heavier than Ru).  

Important to plan a scan: The resolution is inversely proportional to the field of view. Samples < 2 cm diameter are necessary to achieve the highest resolution (~4 um). Cylindrical samples are ideal but other geometries can be measured without any special treatment. The method is non-destructive.